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RD191

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Learning Russian from English

Level 22 · 19644 XP

Crowns: 241

Skills: 79

Lessons: 350

Lexemes: 2279

Strength: 29%

Created: 2015-01-27
Last Streak: 23 · lost 61 days ago
Last Goal: 2021-08-19
Daily Goal: 50 XP
Timezone: UTC-4

Last update: 2021-09-24 01:20:30 GMT+3


72475084

Russian Skills by StrengthCrownsNameOriginal Order

  • 05 Conjunctions82 @ 100% 0 •••
    а · зато · как · но · пока · потому · хотя · что
    8 words

    а vs. и

    In Russian, и is used to show similarity. Otherwise you should use а, which shows contrast. To be more specific, here are the typical patterns:

    • Я мальчик, а ты девочка. = I am a boy and you are a girl.
    • Я работаю в кафе, а ты в школе. = I work in a cafe, and you (work) in a school.
    • Я люблю спать, а ты нет. = I like sleeping, and you don't.
    • А ты? = And you? → often used to indicate a question.

    зато (negative, зато positive)

    A conjunction used for "compensating" for something unpleasant with something that, you imply, is good:

    • У нас нет молока, зато есть хлеб = We don't have milk but we do have bread.
    • Мальчик ещё не умеет писать, зато хорошо читает. = The boy cannot write yet but he reads well.

    Not exactly the best thing to translate into English ("on the other hand"? "but at least"? "thankfully?"), so it is not often used in this course.

    хотя ('though')

    Much like the English though/even though/although. It is often combined with "и" before the predicate (which is sometimes directly after «хотя»):

    • Он здесь, хотя (он) и не знает ничего.= Он здесь, хотя (он) ничего и не знает. = He is here, even though he doesn't know anything.

    как

    This conjunction has a rather interesting use, to show when someone perceives someone else's action:

    • Я ви́жу, как она́ танцу́ет. = I see her dancing.
    • Они́ слу́шают, как музыка́нт игра́ет. = They listen to the musician playing.

    For а, there is also "narrative" contrast pattern, largely absent from this course (but not from real-life Russian):

    • На столе чашка, а в чашке чай. = There is a cup on the table, and the cup has tea in it.
    • Он здесь, а это значит — воды нет. = He is here, and that means there's no water.
    • Такси — это машина, а машины не всегда хорошо работают. = A taxi is a car, and cars do not always work well. (here, you are making your point by introducing a new thought "unexpected" by a listener)
  • 05 The Infinitive, Likes and Dislikes72 @ 100% 0 •••
    готовить · есть · жить · завтракать · знать · любит · любишь · люблю · любят · можно · нельзя · нравится · очень · писать · пить · прыгать · работать · спать · умеет · умеешь · умею · читать
    22 words

    I like/I love ?

    In Russian, you can express liking things and activities pretty much the same way as in English, with similar verbs. The usage differs a bit, though.

    A a rule of thumb, «Я люблю́» means "I love" only when directed at a single person (or animal). Otherwise, it's just "I like".

    • "LOVE" люби́ть means a stable, lasting feeling (note the phonetic change for the 1st person singular: "люблю"). A normal, transitive verb, i.e. used with the Accusative. Use it for loving an individual or liking some things/people/activity in general (verbs take infinitive). Very much preferred in negations of such activities (i.e. "don't like to wait")
    • "LIKE" нра́виться means moderate "liking" something or someone, often something specific. Not transitive! The thing liked is the subject, acting indirectly on a person: «Мне нра́вится стол» = I like the table.

    • note that «Мне нра́вится стол» works in a similar way to the English verb "to appeal": "This table appeals to me". The sentence is built as though the table "transmits" the feeling towards you. While rare in English, in Russian, this is pretty typical for feelings and experience to be expressed that way («Мне хорошо́»).

    The two forms «нра́виться» (infinitive) and «нра́вится» (3rd person singular) are pronounced exactly the same. They are spelled differently for the sake of consistency (most infinitives end in «-ть», so -ть + ся = -ться)

    When you refer to generic things and activities, both verbs can be used but «люби́ть» is mildly more useful.

    May I?

    Possibility and/or permission are often expressed with words мо́жно and нельзя́.

    • Здесь мо́жно жить. = One may live here.
    • Здесь нельзя́ есть. = One cannot/should not eat here.

    The English translation may vary. You can specify the person for whom the permission or recommendation applies, in the Dative (but you do not have to):

    • Мне нельзя́ спать. = I should not sleep.
    • Нам нельзя́ мно́го есть. = We should not eat a lot.

    P.S. the -ся at the end of "нра́вится" is a reflexive particle and comes after the ending (in verbs, use -сь after a vowel, -ся after a consonant) . Technically, a reflexive verb is one where the subject of the verb acts on itself. As you can see, the meaning does not always reflect this. «Нра́виться» is among the verbs that are reflexive "just because".

    Don't worry about it too much for now. We'll be tackling reflexives in more detail further down the tree.

  • 05 Possessives and Gender53 @ 100% 0 •••
    ваш · ваша · ваше · ваши · вещи · вещь · их · какао · книга · кот · машиной · меню · наша · неделя · прошлая · прошлый · твой · твоя · твоё · читатели · читатель
    21 words

    Russian possessives

    There isn't much to say about words like "my" or "your" in Russian.

    • his/her/their do not change: его́, её, их (and they don't get an initial Н after prepositions!)
    • my/your/our roughly follow an adjectival pattern, i.e. they copy the gender and the case of the noun they describe. Just like этот:
      • мой/твой/наш папа
      • моя́/твоя́/на́ша ма́ма

    Unlike English, no distinction is made between my and mine, her and hers etc.

    Pronunciation: in «его», as well as in adjective endings and "сегодня" the letter Г is pronounced В. It is a historical spelling.

    Grammatical gender

    Nouns in Russian belong to one of three genders: feminine, masculine or neuter. If a noun means a person of a certain gender, use that one. For all other nouns look at the end of the word:

    ending in Nom.sg. gender examples
    -а/-я feminine ма́ма, земля́, Росси́я, маши́на
    consonant masculine сок, ма́льчик, чай, интерне́т, апельси́н
    -о/-е neuter окно́, яйцо́, мо́ре
    feminine or masculine; consult a dictionary ло́шадь, ночь, мать, любо́вь / день, конь, медве́дь, учи́тель
    If there's a soft sign, it isn't possible to predict the gender, at least, not accurately. However, about 65-70% of the most used nouns that end in are feminine. Also, you can learn the common suffixes ending in a soft sign that produce a word of a predictable gender. They are:
    • -ость/-есть, -знь → feminine
    • -тель, -арь, -ырь → masculine

    All nouns with -чь, щь, -шь, -жь at the end are feminine. The convention is to spell feminine nouns with a soft sign and masculine ones without one: нож, луч, муж, душ. It doesn't affect pronunciation, anyway.
  • 05 Where is it?43 @ 100% 0 •••
    америке · в · германии · германия · городе · далеко · двери · двери · дверь · дереве · дерево · дома · живёт · камень · камня · кровать · месте · место · москва · москве · на · парке · работе · россии · сейчас · столе · тарелке · тоже · туалет · туалете · эта · этом
    32 words

    Russian words take different forms depending on their role in the sentence. These forms are called cases. A few forms may look the same (cf. "frequent rains" vs. "It rains often").

    These forms have names (mostly calques from Latin) that describe some "prototypal" use of such case: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Prepositional, Dative and Instrumental. For you, these are just tags: the use is what defines a case.

    As of now, you know the NOMINATIVE case: the dictionary form of a word. This form acts as the grammatical subject of the sentence, the "doer". It is also used for both nouns in "A is B" structure:

    • Мой па́па ест.
    • Том — мой брат.

    You also know a few Genitive forms (у меня) but that's it. For now, we will tackle something easier.

    Prepositional case

    When we talk about things being somewhere, we typically use в (in) or на (on) with the Prepositional form of the noun. It doesn't work when you mean motion to that place!

    The Prepositional case (a.k.a. Locative) is the only case that is never used on its own without a preposition, even though only four or five prepositions ever use it:

    • Я на конце́рте. = I am at a concert.
    • Я в шко́ле. = I am at (in) school.
    • ви́део о шко́ле = a video about school

    Unlike English (“at/in school”), in Russian each "place" is associated with just one preposition. The rough overall rule is: use “в” (in, at) when talking about buildings and places with certain boundaries and use “на” (on, at) when talking about open spaces or events:

    • в до́ме (in the house), в шко́ле (at school), в ко́мнате (in the room), в теа́тре (in the theater), в кино́ (at the cinema), в университе́те (at the university)
    • на у́лице (in the street, outdoors), на пло́щади (at the square), на конце́рте (at the concert), на уро́ке (at the lesson), на корабле́ (on a ship)

    When you mean physically being inside/on top of some object, there is little ambiguity. "Places", unfortunately, require memorization.

    Prepositional endings

    Here is the rule that covers most nouns:

    • feminine nouns ending in ь take
    • nouns ending in -ия, -ий or -ие also take (so that they end in -ии instead)
    • all other nouns take

    What about me and my friends?

    Use “у + Genitive” when talking about being at some person’s place: Да, я у дру́га = Yeah, I am at my friend’s place.

    ▲▼WC

    The room with a toilet is туале́т. In this course, we stick to the North American "bathroom", even though a room with a bath is, technically ва́нная (it has ва́нна, "a bath"). Still, in Russian you would not ask for a "bath-room" unless you really mean it.

    And what if I gotta go away?

    We’ll deal with that later. But the pattern is consistent. When you are somewhere, going to that place and going away from that place, use the following triplets:

    AT TO FROM
    в + Prep в + Acc из + Gen
    на + Prep на + Acc с + Gen
    у + Gen к + Dat от + Gen

    For example, if the place is used with на, the correct prepositions for the three uses are на–на–с.

  • 05 Basics 231 @ 100% 0 •••
    брат · вода · дети · есть · кошка · лошадь · меня · мои · молоко · моё · мы · нас · наш · него · неё · них · офис · план · пьёт · пьёшь · ребёнок · сестра · стол · тарелка · тебя · телефон · у · что · это · яблоки · яйцо
    31 words

    I have a cat

    English prefers to express ownership and “possession” with the verb “have”. In Russian “existence” is almost universally used instead (in the official/academic style «иметь» to have is OK to use).

    Use it like that:

    • У A есть X ~ by A there is an X → A has an X

    The owner is in the Genitive case (more on that later) while X is formally the subject. For now we will only study the Genitive form for some pronouns.

    You have wonderful eyes!

    Omit ”есть” if the existence of the object is obvious or not the point — very typical for describing traits or a number of objects (“Tom has a beautiful smile/large eyes”, “She has a very fat cat”). This also applies to expressing temporary states and illnesses (“She has a migraine”).

    I eat/ She eats

    In English, the only way a verb changes in the present tense is that you add -s for the 3rd person singular. In Russian, all 6 forms are different and fit two regular patterns.

    However, eat «есть» and want «хоте́ть» are two of the four verbs that are irregular (that is, do not strictly follow either of the 2 patterns).

    Note that the "present" tense is formed from one stem and the "past" and infinitive from the second one. In general, these two are slightly different. For now, don't worry about the infinitive stem.

    Hard and soft

    Russian consonants are split into two groups of 15, which are pronounced in two different ways, palatalized (aka "soft") and non-palatalized (aka "hard"). We'll stick to the shorter "soft" and "hard" (sorry).

    When a consonant is "soft" it means that you pronounce it with your tongue raised high; for "non-palatalized" consonants it stays low. Russian orthography has its history but, long story short, you can tell the "softness" of a consonant from a vowel letter spelled afterwards:

    • А, Ы, У, Э, О follow "hard" consonants
    • Я, И, Ю, Е, Ё follow palatalized ones

    If there is nothing after a consonant, the soft sign Ь is used to show the softness. In consonant clusters palatalization is predictable from the softness of the last consonant. We aren't teaching it here. These days the trend is to only "soften" the last consonant in most clusters, while a hundred years ago some clusters were palatalized even without any obvious reason.

    To show you how it works, here is an example, using an ad-hoc transcription:

    • же́нщина = [жэнʲщиᵉна]
    • стена́ = [стʲиᵉна] or [сʲтʲиᵉна]

    There are dictionaries («орфоэпический словарь») that show the recommended pronunciation of words and contain general pronunciation rules, too.

    Voicing

    Some consonants let your voice come out immediately (voiced) while others wait for the release of the consonant and only then let your voice escape (unvoiced). In Russian there are 6 pairs of such consonants: Б/П, В/Ф, Г/К, Д/Т, Ж/Ш, З/С.

    • whenever one of these consonants (except В) follows another, the second overrides or reverses the voicing of the first: сд = [зд], вс= [фс]
    • the end of the phrase is unvoiced: этот клуб [клуп]
    • rules apply between the word boundaries, too
    • Х, Ч, Ц, Щ also play this game, even though Russian lacks letters for their voiced partners ([ɣ], [дж'], [дз], [ж'ж']). They will devoice the preceding consonant or become voiced themselves.

    Unlike Ukrainian, Russian only uses [ɣ], [дж'] and [дз] as voiced variants of х, ч, ц. Ukrainian has them as full-fledged consonants—the ones that are an intrinsic part of a word and can appear anywhere.

  • 05 Basics 121 @ 100% 0 •••
    америка · вы · город · девочка · ест · женщина · женщины · здесь · и · или · канада · кофе · мальчик · мужчина · наше · не · он · она · они · парк · россия · украина · хлеб · человек · этот · яблоко
    26 words

    Welcome to our course!

    Now you are ready to proceed to the main part of the tree!

    We are happy that you have chosen our Russian course. Just to make it clear, we are using American English in this course—but don't worry, we will accept all versions of English where appropriate. Just be careful around expressions like "bathroom" or "1st floor", because these may mean different things than what you are used to.

    As for Russian, we teach the standard language, which is based on the variation spoken around Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and we stick to the usage typical of these cities. Do not worry, though: for more than one reason Russian is rather uniform over the territory of Russia (still, there is some variation in pronunciation and a few items of everyday vocabulary). We try to stay neutral in style, with occasional trips into formal and informal language.

    Cases and word order

    Russian is an inflected language, so the forms of nouns and modifying adjectives correspond to their role in the sentence.

    These forms are called cases. Russian has 6 cases: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Prepositional, Dative and Instrumental. The Nominative is the dictionary form; as for the others, we are going to cover them gradually, one by one.

    This allows for a more loose word order. But not random! A typical word order is subject—verb—object. “Old” information (the things you tell about) is normally closer to the beginning of the sentence which is probably why pronouns are often found closer to the beginning of a sentence than a noun would be :

    • I know him. → Я его́ зна́ю.
    • I know Maria. → Я зна́ю Мари́ю.

    That includes words like “here”, “in this way”, “then” and so on.

    Unlike English, adverbs are NOT universally grouped at the end. So pay attention to the typical positions for the expressions of time, place and manner. Eg. “very much” is typically in the end-position in English, but in Russian it is just before the thing that is "very" or “very much”:

    • She likes to read very much = Она́ о́чень лю́бит чита́ть

    Good luck!

    Vowel reduction

    Like in English, vowel letters aren't all pronounced just like in the alphabet. In Russian, unstressed syllables have vowels reduced:

    • А and О become the same uh-sound
    • И and Е (Э) become the same sound similar to "i" in "hit"
    • Я actually becomes an i-like sound, not an uh-like (except in a few words). This also affects "а" after ч, ш, щ, ж or ц in many words (sadly, not all).

    So, when a vowel is not stressed, it becomes weaker, somewhat shorter, and also some vowels become indistinguishable.

    The unstressed syllable is strongest just before the stress. In all other places it is even weaker than that (though, some long words, especially compounds, may acquire a secondary stress). This makes the system different from the English one, where stronger and weaker syllables tend to alternate.

    More on the case system

    For now, we only study simple sentences that either use the dictionary form, the Nominative case, or use the Accusative (direct object of an action), which has the same form for many classes of nouns.

    The case is defined by its use. Nevertheless, these forms have names, usually calques from Latin that reflect some typical use (but not the only one):

    • Nominative (subject)
    • Accusative (direct object)
    • Genitive ("of" something)
    • Prepositional (place or topic)
    • Dative (recipient, "indirect" object)
    • Instrumental (means of action)

    As you can see, these names are of little use until you know what sentence, verb or preposition requires that you use that particular form.

    • some nouns of foreign origin are indeclinable, i.e. all their forms are the same. This includes words like метро, Дженни or кафе.
  • 05 Alphabet 112 @ 100% 0 •••
    а · актёр · анна · багаж · борщ · в · велосипед · вот · где · гитара · да · дженни · дима · дом · ем · кафе · мама · медик · метро · мой · мотор · моя · не · нет · папа · пицца · пюре · радио · рюкзак · свитер · суши · такси · там · тим · том · ты · цирк · это · я
    39 words

    We'll start with some simple sentences right away. Russian does not have articles, nor does it normally use the verb “to be” in the Present tense.

    An em-dash is used instead of "the verb “to be” between the two nouns: «Мокка — кофе» ("A mocha is coffee").

    Russian uses a version of the Cyrillic Alphabet. Many letters look similar to their Latin counterparts. As Cyrillic typography was remodeled around 300 years ago, both alphabets have a similar style.

    For information on how to install a Russian keyboard layout, please click here.

    To switch Duolingo from Latin transliterations to Cyrillic, click the little Aa-Яя switch near the top of the screen during a lesson.

    Letters and Sounds

    К, О, М, Т, А sound similar to their Latin counterparts (to be more precise, "о" is the sound in "more"). However, in handwriting and typed italics, the letter Т can look rather like a lower case 'm' in the Latin alphabet. E.g. in the verb просить (to ask for, to request), т = t.

    Е actually sounds more like "ye", as in "yell", not as in "Hear ye, hear ye!" (this will work for now; it's more complicated after a consonant).

    В sounds like 'v', Б sounds like 'b'. Н is "n" and И is "i" ('eeh'). The remaining letters are included in the table below:

    Ёё⁰ (your) Вв (vase) Бб (bed)
    Ээ (red) Нн¹ (nap) Дд¹ (dab)
    Уу (soon) Хх² (Bach) Гг (gap)
    Ии (meet) Йй (yes) Лл¹ (nil)
    Юю (you) Рр (trilled R) Пп (poor)
    Ыы³ (hit) Сс (Sam) Зз (zebra)
    Яя (yard) Фф (photon) Цц (cats)
    Жж⁴ (seizure) Шш⁴ (shun) Щщ⁴
    Чч (cheer) Ъ and Ь⁵
    • Ёё The umlaut-like double dots are optional in writing. Syllables containing this letter are always stressed.
    • ¹ т, д, н, л are pronounced near your teeth
    • ² х('kh') is somewhat similar to the H in "hue". It is like making the "sh" sound, only it is pronounced where you make the "K" sound.
    • ³ ы has no equivalent in English. It is an "eeh"-like sound, but less distinct, sounds closer to "e" in "lover", and has your tongue deeper that in "heat" or "hit".
    • ⁴ for ш and ж your tongue is lower than in English and slightly bent back. Щ has all your tongue raised—it is a longer and more hissy sound. Ч corresponds to щ (i.e. a bit different than "ch")
    • ъ and ь are separators and have no sound.

    Л can have a flat top, like П, or a pointy top like А (it comes from the Greek Λ). Д and Л have a similar top in many fonts, though it's up to the designer. Handwritten Д looks like D, and д like a g or a д (the last two affect the italic shapes).

    An Italic Г in lower case usually looks this: г.

    (a picture with a table of Russian letters)

    That's it with the introduction! We will discuss reading words in more detail in later skills.

    P.S. In our notes, we use an accute accent to show you the stress (e.g., ра́дио). It is a standard practice in Russian textbooks for little children or foreign learners—and, generally, the most common way of marking the position of the stress.

  • 14 Sport123 @ 100% 0 •••
    баскетболист · баскетболиста · баскетболисты · бегу · бегут · бежим · бежит · бросает · бросать · бросаю · выиграл · выиграла · выиграли · игра · игру · игры · команда · команде · матч · матча · надевает · надеваешь · надеваю · называется · проиграл · проиграли · просто · прыгает · прыгают · спорт · стадион · стадиона · стадионе · тренируемся · тренируетесь · тренируется · тренируюсь · форма · форму · формы · футболист · футболисты · футбольной · футбольный · хоккей
    45 words

    win/lose

    Here you encounter two perfective verbs; these two very obviously refer to a specific result:

    • Ты проигра́л! = You lost!
    • Нам надо вы́играть. = We need to win.

    Note the formation of the past. If you remember был, была́—all Russian past forms are essentially formed the same way. The endings correspond to gender and number:

    masc fem neut pl

    We'll be practising many more past forms in the skill in the next row.

    Reflexive

    As a reminder, if a verb has -ся at the end, you stick it after the usual ending («-сь» is used after a vowel):

    • ката́ться на лы́жах = to ski
    • Я ката́юсь на лы́жах = I ski.

    «бежа́ть», to run

    In this skill, we introduce the one-way verb "to run". You may not remember but it has one of the four irregular stems:

    SING. PLUR.
    Я бегу́ Мы бежи́м
    Ты бежи́шь Вы бежи́те
    Он бежи́т Они бегу́т
  • 14 Weather and Nature122 @ 100% 0 •••
    весна · весне · весной · весны · ветер · градуса · градусов · грязно · дождь · дождя · запад · западе · звезда · звезду · звёзды · зима · зимой · идёт · лето · минус · море · моря · небе · небо · осень · осенью · плюс · прекрасное · прекрасные · прекрасный · сад · саду · север · сильный · снег · снега · снегу · солнце · солнце · температура · тепло · тихо · тогда · туман · тумана · туча · холодно · цветы · шумно · юг · юге
    51 words

    It's raining

    "To go" is the verb used for precipitation in Russian:

    • Идёт дождь = It is raining.
    • Идёт снег. = It is snowing.
    • Идёт град. = it is hailing (we don't have it in the course).

    in summer/winter

    Russian has adverbs for "in spring", "in summer" etc. They are formed as the Instrumental case of a corresponding noun.

    We'll cover the Instrumental in detail later. Right now just get used to the words themselves:

    • Весно́й мо́кро. = It's wet in spring
    • Зимо́й хорошо́ = It's good/nice in winter.
    • О́сенью гря́зно. = It's muddy in the fall.
    • Ле́том со́лнечно. = It is sunny in summer.
    Russians usually assign each season 3 months, i.e. winter is December through February and spring is March through May (even if you have snow well into April).

    Category of State

    It is easier than it sounds. When expressing a "state", some modality, or one's opinion on the situation, Russian often uses these impersonal words, saying that such and such state is observed:

    • Мне хо́лодно. = I'm (feeling) cold.
    • На у́лице тепло́. = It is warm outside.
    • Хорошо́, что вы тут. = It is good you are here.
    • Тру́дно сказа́ть. = It is hard to say.

    Many are homonymous with adverbs and short-form adjectives. So we'll study them later with adjectives. For now, we only have a handful of such words useful when discussing the weather.

    Needless to say, these do not use any grammatical subject and are quite useful with verbs like "to be" and "to become" ("It's getting warmer").

    The concept of "category of state" is not even taught to native speakers. However, it does have a distinctive pattern of use. Makes it easier to learn when you know why you say «мне хо́лодно».
  • 23 Predicates and States(+Adverbs)171 @ 100% 0 •••
    болен · больна · быть · велика · велики · великие · великий · велико · готов · готова · готово · должен · должна · должны · жарко · занят · занята · заняты · здоров · здорова · здоровы · известно · интересно · как раз · кофточка · кофточке · мала · мало · надела · надеть · неизвестно · немного · непонятно · неправильно · ничего · плохо · понятно · похожа · похоже · похожи · поэтому · правильно · прохладно · рад · рада · рады · согласен · согласна · согласны · страшно · стыдно · туфель · туфли · уверен · уверена · уверены · шапка · шапку · ясно
    59 words

    Practical Short Adjectives

    Adjectives in Russian have a long form and a short one. A long one is used before nouns and as a part of a predicate. A short "predicative" form can ONLY be used as a predicate (with a "to be" verb). Usually it looks the same as an adverb.

    To be more exact, that typically refers to adjectives that mean qualities that exist on a sliding scale (good, short, soft etc.) rather than yes/no characteristics (wooden, American).

    Their usage depends on the meaning and style and isn't all that easy. It is especially frustrating for a learner when a short and a long form are interchangeable but modify the overall tone.

    Now, from a practical point of view, a number of adjectives are used in a short form very often (or always) and/or have a distinct meaning when used in this form. It is safe to say that most adjectives in Russian aren't much used in the short form, so better learn those that are.

    That's what we are going to do. And you get adverbs for free.

    Other predicative adjectives/adverbs uses

    • feeling/state: It is cold/I feel cold: «Мне холодно. Тут холодно. Дома всегда хорошо». Is not even considered an adjective in most descriptions. Usually linguists define them as a "category of state"
    • general judgement of the form "You are wrong"/"It is perfect/bad" → Это просто отлично. Ты неправ.
    • «Превосходно!» — short sentences like "Good!" or "Magnificent!". Actually, that's where a huge variety of adjectives with a meaning of "terrific"/"awful" are used in the short form, even if hardly anywhere else.
    • when an adjective like "glad" or "similar" has details on what you are glad about or similar to, it is normally short.
  • 23 Adjectives 2162 @ 100% 0 •••
    азии · азии · белые · белым · белых · будущая · будущий · быстрая · быстрее · быстрый · весёлая · весёлым · взрослый · взрослых · волосы · высокая · высокий · высокое · выше · глупая · глупые · глупый · грустная · грустную · грустный · диван · диване · диваны · длиннее · дороже · единственную · единственный · женский · женскую · задача · здоровую · здоровые · здоровый · интереснее · книжный · красного · красную · красные · лучшая · лучший · медленная · медленнее · медленные · молодая · молодой · молодой · мужская · мужской · мужской · мягкая · мягкие · мягкий · настоящая · настоящего · настоящие · настоящий · нормальная · нормальные · нормальный · огромная · огромный · песню · песня · результат · род · рода · родная · родной · роман · романы · рыжая · рыжие · рыжий · самая · самый · светлые · светлый · свитере · свитером · свободная · свободного · свободное · свободный · сильная · сильнее · сильней · сильные · слабая · слабые · трудное · трудный · трудных · тёмная · тёмные · тёмный · тёплая · тёплую · тёплые · тёплый · футболка · футболки · футболку
    107 words

    In this skill, we focus a bit more on adjectives and their case forms

    задача vs. задание

    As a "problem" in a Math class, «задача» is more frequent. Other than that, «задача» may be a problem, a task, an objective—while «задание» is a task assigned by someone else (again, unless it's an exercise you randomly encountered in your textbook).

    Superlative

    When you want to express "the most" strong degree of some quality, Russian will almost always use an analytical form. Just add the adjective «самый» in front:

    • Это самая длинная книга.
    • Ты самый плохой папа.

    There are one-word forms for many adjectives, though few of them are popular. Here are the synthetic forms, to give you an idea:

    • лучший, худший, быстрейший, теплейший
    • интереснейший, длиннейший, кратчайший
    • наилучший, наидлиннейший, наисложнейший

    наи-prefixed versions should be used with extreme care since they will almost always sound too fancy for spoken language and too emotional for academic writing. Still, a few of most popular may be just the right thing in written style (eg. наилучший, наихудший, наисложнейший).

  • 23 Family112 @ 100% 0 •••
    братья · дочь · матери · мать · отец · отца · отце · родителей · своих · свою · сын · сыновья · твои
    13 words

    Not much to say here, except that Russian does not have a special word for siblings or grandparents.

    Unlike English, Russians rarely say "my mother", "my grandfather"; usually they omit "my".

    свой ~ one's own

    ...And when they don't, it is more natural to use reflexive "свой" (one's own). English does not have anything quite like that. Essentially, it is a substitute for my, your, his, her etc. that you use when it refers to the person (or thing) that is the subject of the sentence or, at least, the clause you are in. A few typical examples:

    • Кошка ест из своей миски = The cat is eating out of its bowl.
    • Мы у (своих) родителей = We are at our parents' place. (here you can omit "своих")
    • Я думаю, он у своих родителей = I think he's at his parents' place.

    Forms of «свой» follow the same mostly-adjectival pattern that «мой»,«твой», «ваш», «наш» and «этот» use: свой, своя, своё, свои → своего, свою, своих...

    Since «свой» describes something belonging to the subject of the sentence, it cannot be used with the subject of the sentence itself. The exception is made when you are making generalisations, e.g. "One's (own) reputation is always more important"~«Своя репутация всегда важнее».

    Pay attention to what the grammatical subject is. Sentences like «Мне нравится у своей сестры» are sort-of-OK sometimes, but you are really treading on thin ice here. This one sounds almost normal, while some others would immediately look unnatural.

    Mister!

    In spoken Russian «дядя»(uncle) and «тётя»(aunt) are often used to refer to some adult "guy" or "woman". A special case is children's use, since they often use it even as a form of address ("тётя Маша!").

    This course doesn't cover this. But it's still useful to know.

  • 32 Imperative and Adverbs192 @ 100% 0 •••
    возьми · возьмите · говори · говорите · иди · идите · медленно · надень · наденьте · налево · направо · пиши · пишите · положи · положите · прямо · свари · смотри · смотрите
    19 words

    Two types of imperative

    Not hard at all.

    First, look at the 3rd person plural: читают, пишут, любят and so on. Remove the ending.

    • if you are left with a vowel at the end, add Й
    • if you are left with a consonant, add И after a consonant cluster or "л" (otherwise, just ь).

    Done! Читай, пиши, люби. To make it plural or polite, just add -те: читайте.

    This lesson deals with the И-pattern plus some irregular forms. However, the pattern described above works for the vast majority of the verbs. The irregular stems give you ешь, дай, беги.

    Aspect is imperative

    Which aspect to use? Well, if you focus on the process ("Please, slice evenly") or encourage engaging in some activity, use imperfective. Otherwise, especially If you want to get a result or a single specific action, use perfective.

    When forbidding something, use the imperfective.

    You may notice that sometimes when Russians want a specific action (let's call that "simple request"), they still use imperfective. Why? Here is the prototypal meaning of such usage:

    • the initial phase of the action is accented (overriden for some verbs)
    • it is a contextually obvious action ("Please, do come in!", "Now, turn in your tests") → or else it sounds quite assertive — may be a desired result
    • a simple action is expected to be performed immediately

    By the way, that "obvious" point is why imperfectives are not, as a rule, used for detailed "simple requests", especially with "please". It is OK for some typical guest-receiving situations ("please, come in", "please sit down"). But IMP. is out of question with clearly non-obvious detailed requests like "Take my cat from the sofa, please" — how can such thing be obvious, and if so, why would you ask in such detail? These two contradict each other: appealing to the listener's common sense ('You should obviously do that') while at the same time using 'please' and giving the details.

  • 32 Time expressions 2191 @ 100% 0 •••
    воскресенью · воскресеньям · вставать · встаю · встаёт · вторник · выходные · выходным · гораздо · делаете · делаешь · делал · делать · делаю · дней · дня · завтракаете · завтракал · завтракаю · зиме · зиму · зимы · лета · ложится · ложиться · ложусь · назад · осени · позавчера · поздно · полгода · понедельникам · понедельнику · послезавтра · пятница · пятницам · пятницу · рано · следующей · следующем · следующие · среда · средам · среду · теперь · холодное · холодный · через · четверг · четверга · четвергам
    51 words

    More popular time expressions

    • тепе́рь is the word for "now" when you mean that there is a change from how it was before ("Now I live in Rome", "What do we do now!?", "Now you know Russian"). We are pretty lenient on the distinction in the course, though.
    • use «че́рез» + Accusative to express an amount of time that should pass before the event comes («через неделю» = in a week, a week later).
    • use Accusative + «наза́д» to express "X time ago"(«сто лет назад» = 100 years ago). «Тому́ наза́д» means the same thing but this use has been quickly losing its popularity since WWII and isn't taught here (it is mostly characteristic of people born before 1950).
    • по + Dative pl. expresses "on Mondays" etc.

    рисова́ть, плани́ровать...

    Verbs with suffixes -ова/-ева replace it with уй sound in their present tense stem. The actual endings will be -ую, -уешь, -ует and so on:

    • Я рису́ю, плани́рую, анализи́рую, ра́дуюсь
    • Она рису́ет, анализи́рует ...

    There is also a non-productive class of verbs with -дава́ть, -става́ть, -знава́ть that exhibits similar behavior (вай):

    • Я даю́, встаю́,
    • Ты даёшь, узнаёшь.

    It's small, but it has some popular imperfective verbs like «встава́ть» (get up), «дава́ть» (give), «устава́ть» (get tired) and «узнава́ть» (to learn some piece of information).

  • 05 People 2121 @ 75% 25 •••
    автор · автора · авторе · бизнесмен · бизнесмена · бизнесменам · будут · вашего · вашей · врач · врача · группа · группе · директора · друзья · имени · имени · имя · компании · компания · моего · моей · молодец · молодцы · начальник · начальника · нашего · нашей · опыт · опыта · работа · работу · работы · сосед · соседа · соседе · соседи · старик · старика · старики · студент · студента · студентка · студентов · твоего · твоей · университет · университета · университете · ученица · ученицы · ученицы · учится · учусь · фамилии · фамилию · фамилия · человек · человека · человеке
    60 words

    A student

    Russian has different words for a school student (aka a pupil, BrE) and a college-level student, which both have masculine and feminine versions:

    • учени́к / учени́ца – a school student or a student/apprentice in general, especially in spiritual sense
    • студе́нт / студе́нтка – a college or university-level student (attends a corresponding institution)

    Молоде́ц is a word you use when someone "did a good job". It comes with a patronizing shade, so ideally you use it towards your friends or actual students/ subordinates (but not towards people whose work you are in no position to judge).

    5 men

    When you are counting people, use "челове́к" for numbers that end in «пять» (5) or more. Anywhere else use the normal Genitive plural "люде́й" (with много and мало both are possible, but I'd stick to люде́й).

    Learning and studying

    OK, Russian has a number of ways to express learning, but in this course we have учи́ться, учи́ть, and занима́ться. The 1st verb, учи́ться, is introduced in this skill. Here is a bit more:
    meaning examples
    учи́ться to study (e.g. to attend classes or to do self-study) Днём я учу́сь.
    учи́ться в(на) + Prep. to study somewhere; to be in nth grade/nth year Де́вочка у́чится в шко́ле, в 3-м кла́ссе.
    учи́ть + Acc.subject to learn, to memorize something («наизу́сть» ="by heart") Я учу́ слова́. Я учу́ ру́сский язы́к.
    учи́ть + Acc + Dat to teach somebody something Я учу́ студе́нтов ру́сскому.

    Doctor

    The usual word for a (medical) doctor is «врач». Then you have «до́ктор», which is also OK but informal. However, a "doctor" as a person with this level of post-graduate qualification is «до́ктор» with no alternatives.
  • 05 People 192 @ 75% 25 •••

    0 words

    Vocabulary

    • директор is usually the main boss, akin to CEO in English. Also the Principal or Head Teacher of a school.
    • ученик is a school student or a "follower" or "disciple" of some "teacher" in a more spiritual sense. AmE speakers may confuse it with "студент", which is strictly a college-level student.
    • коллега is your first word of common gender, i.e. its gender depends on who you are referring to.
  • 05 Verbs Present 2103 @ 75% 25 •••
    баскетбол · быстро · вместе · возможность · вспоминает · газету · гитаре · дают · даёт · деньги · днём · журнал · за · забываю · записываете · играть · играю · иногда · курите · моет · мою · никогда · опаздываю · отвечаю · отдыхает · отдыхаю · открываю · переводим · перевожу · пианино · пишешь · помню · помогаешь · поют · поёт · просишь · растёт · редко · сидеть · сидим · скрипке · смотрю · снова · спите · спишь · сплю · спрашивает · спрашивают · статьи · танцует · теннис · теряю · туда · футбол · ходим · ходит · ходите · хожу · часто
    59 words

    → and ⇆

    There are two options for verbs of going: a specific 1-directional verb and also a repeated motion, multi-directional verb. For now, stick to this rule for идти́ / ходи́ть:

    ENG RUS
    right now I am going. Я иду́.→
    habitual I often go there. Я ча́сто туда́ хожу́.
    generic ↝↶↺ The baby already walks. I am walking (around). Ребёнок уже́ хо́дит. Я хожу́.

    Asking

    • проси́ть → to ask for/beg for/request something
    • спра́шивать → to ask a question (i.e. ask for information)

    In other words, when using про́сит, one wants to be given something (or for something to be done). He who спра́шивает wants an answer.

    By the way, "to ask a question" is, actually, «зада́ть/задава́ть вопро́с». Those who speak German may recall eine Frage stellen, which works in a similar way (apparently, "to ask an asking" is no good in German, either).

    Negative sentences

    Remember that Russian sort of uses double and triple negatives. To be more precise, it is coordinated negation: when the sentence is negative, you should automatically negate every pronoun referring to someone, anywhere, some time, anything, in some way and so on:

    • Мы никогда́ нику́да ни с кем не ходи́м = We never go anywhere with anyone (Literally, "We never to nowhere with nobody don't go").

    All such words should change to nobody, nowhere, never, nothing, by no means and so on. No one and nothing will have the correct case.

    Adverbs

    The typical position for (-е)-ending adverbs is before the verb. For example:

    • «Он хорошо́ види́т»="He sees well".
    • «Том бы́стро ушёл»="Tom left quickly"

    Consonant mutation.

    You might have noticed that the consonant before the ending is sometimes different in the infinitive than in the personal forms. It is called mutation and is quite similar to the process that makes "tense" into "tension" (where an "s" turns into a "sh"). Here are the patterns you might encounter:

    • Б, П, В, Ф, М adding л (люби́ть / люблю́)
    • С, Х becoming ш (писа́ть / пишу́)
    • Д, З becoming ж (ви́деть / ви́жу)
    • Т, К becoming ч (плати́ть / плачу́)
    • СК, СТ becoming Щ (пусти́ть / пущу́)

    If there is alteration, there is a rule:

    • И-conjugation verbs only have 1st person singular mutated. It is normal (e.g. люблю / любит)
    • Е-conjugation verbs have mutation in ALL personal forms (if at all). It is non-productive behavior, which in practice means that a lot of popular verb stems still have it (e.g. писать, сказать). However, new Е-conjugation verbs never get this pattern.

    рисовать → рисую, on the other hand, is a regular transformation of -овать/-евать verbs

    Playing

    The verb «играть» is used as follows:

    • в + Accusative for games
    • на + Prepositional for musical instruments

    For example, Я игра́ю в футбо́л / Я игра́ю на гита́ре.

  • 05 Prepositions and Places101 @ 75% 25 •••
    без · европе · из · какой · комната · комнате · комнату · людей · люди · находится · около · петербург · петербурге · стране · тут · улица · улице · улицы · этой
    19 words

    Verbs of motion

    Russian distinguishes between "going" on foot and by some sort of vehicle. If you aren't moving within the city, use a 'vehicle verb' ехать (one-way movement) or ездить (repeated, round trip or in general). More on that later, in "Motion verbs".

    Into/onto... at-to?

    Once again, with в and на you use Prepositional for location, and Accusative for direction:

    • Я живу́ в Ло́ндоне. ~ I live in London.
    • Я е́ду в Ло́ндон. ~ I am going (by vehicle) to London.

    Here is a 'cheat sheet' of forms you'll need for places (no living beings, so—the easy Accusative for masculine):

    Nominative Acc. Prep. example
    -а/-я -у/-ю Америка → в Америку/в Америке
    ∅/-о/-е ∅/-о/-е стол → на стол / на столе
    feminine дверь → на дверь/на двери
    -ия -ию -ии Англия → в Англию/в Англии
    -ие -ие -ии здание → в здание / в здании

    Word choice

    For "outdoors" Russians use «на улице» (literally, "on the street").

    The preposition о (об) means "about" only as in the sense of "thinking/writing about". Don't use it for "approximately". With «мне» a special form is used, обо.

    The contraction "USA" or "the U.S." is США (сэ-шэ-А, with the stress on the last vowel).

    There is no difference drawn between "city" and "town".

    In Russian it is typical to describe objects as "standing", "lying", "being situated", "hanging". This is rare in English, and often sounds unnatural, therefore in this course it is perfectly OK to translate a "whereabouts"-verb with a simple "is", "was" etc.

    Here and there, and here

    For "here", the words здесь and тут are almost completely interchangeable in any imaginable context. Тут is considered a bit more informal, and is used in set expressions ( тут же~right away, тут и там). «Здесь» is somewhat less suitable for figurative meanings (when by "here" you mean the current situation rather than a place). In this course, they are completely interchangeable when not being used in a set expression.

    находиться is a verb to denote the whereabouts of things, and, sometimes of people (when the emphasis is on exactly where they are). It could be translated as "to be situated" or "to be located", but as these verbs usually sound rather formal in English, so you can just use "to be".

    около is almost the same as «возле». It can also be used in the sense of "about"(=approximately).

  • 05 Around you93 @ 75% 25 •••
    английски · близко · впереди · главный · говорю · гостиница · гостиницы · немецки · по · русски · слева · совсем · справа
    13 words

    Do that the English way

    To express the idea of speaking some language, or something being written in that language, Russian has adverbs literally meaning "Russian-ly", "English-ly" etc.. :

    • Я не говорю́ по-ру́сски. = I do not speak Russian.
    • Вы говори́те по-англи́йски. = Do you speak English?

    They are formed from -ский adjectives by attaching по- and changing the tail to bare -ски: по-ру́сски, по-италья́нски, по-япо́нски, по-вьетна́мски, по-америка́нски, по-францу́зски and so on.

    And remember, these words actually mean something done "in a certain way", so «суши по-американски» (American-style sushi) should not surprise you!

    Locative 2

    A relatively small group of short masculine nouns have an accented ending with в/на in the meaning of place (and only then):

    • Мы в аэропорту́. = We are at the airport.
    • Я сплю́ на полу́. = I sleep on the floor.

    Our course has about a dozen of them (there are about 100 in the language). Also, there exists a very small group of feminine nouns, all "-ь"-ending, that have a stressed Locative-2 ending:

    • Твой сви́тер в крови́. = Your sweater is covered in blood.

    All these nouns use their normal Prepositional form with "о" and "при".

    совсе́м

    Совсем is used to show that a quality is "totally" present/not present— usually with negatives:

    • Он совсе́м не рабо́тает. = He doesn't work at all.
    • Том совсе́м не ест. = Tom doesn't eat at all.
    • Мы совсе́м бли́зко. = We are really close (i.e. almost there).

    междунаро́дный

    It comes from «ме́жду» + «наро́ды», i.e. "between"+"peoples", which is quite literally "international".

    The loanword «интернациональный» means the same but has quite limited use in certain combinations like "international team" or "international debt" (mostly these are from political contexts). This course largely avoids this word.

    Most likely, "international team/orchestra" etc. is the context where you must use «интернациональный»).

    живо́тное

    The word for an "animal" is a nominalised neuter adjective, and its case forms follow an adjectival pattern. Of course, its gender is fixed:

    • Это живо́тные. = These are animals.
    • Я люблю́ живо́тных. = I like animals.
  • 05 Questions91 @ 75% 25 •••
    зачем · когда · кого · кто · куда · ней · нём · о · откуда · почему · там · чей · чьи · чья · чьё · чём · школе
    17 words

    Where

    Russian makes a distinction between being somewhere (тут/здесь, там) , going there (сюда, туда) and coming from there (отсюда, оттуда)—so naturally question words follow suit:

    • Где? = Where (at)?
    • Куда? = Where to?
    • Откуда? = Where from?

    Who or what are you?

    Russian uses «Кто»(who) when asking about identity and occupation and «Что» is used for objects rather than people. Since Russian nouns have cases, кто and что also change depending on their role in the implied sentence. As you will discover a little bit further down the tree, «Кто» behaves rather like a masculine adjective.

    CASE What Who Whose
    Nom. что кто чей, чьё, чья ,чьи
    Gen. чего́ кого́ чьего́, чьего́, чье́й, чьих
    Acc. что кого Gen/Nom; «чью» for Fem.
    Prep чём ком чьём, чьём, чьей, чьих

    Почему? and Зачем?

    • Почему is used when asking a question about a cause of some event or action. It is a question that looks back at the past.
    • Зачем starts a question about the purpose of some action or some event that can have one. It is a question that looks towards a desired future.

    In a few regions of Russia (Tatarstan, for example) people may use зачем for both questions if their usage of Russian is influenced by a major local language that makes no distinction between the two. In Standard Russian these are two clearly separate entities.

  • 05 There is83 @ 75% 25 •••

    0 words

    Word order

    To say "there is/are" in Russian, do the following:

    • say THE PLACE
    • then the verb (if any)
    • then THE OBJECT

    «есть» is not used, unless the sentence really has to emphasize the existence of the object. Some examples:

    • На столе́ ло́жка. = There is a spoon on the table.
    • На сту́ле ма́льчик. = There is a boy on the chair.
    • В до́ме никого́ нет. = There is no one in the house.
    • На столе́ лежи́т ко́шка. = A cat is lying on the table.

    In the Present tense no verb is necessary; in the past, you would at least need a form of "to be". Note that even in the present Russian still uses verbs like "is situated", "stands", "lies" way more often than would be considered normal in English.

    The most natural translation into English is a structure like "There is an apple on the table" or "An apple is on the table". The emphasis is on the object, not on the place.

    Actually, such a sentence answers the question of WHAT is in the said place. For out-of-the-blue sentences about objects that have nothing unique about them it matches what English THERE-IS sentences are for. So this is what we have in this course.

    Actions

    The initial position of a "place" inside the sentence holds for many other structures, too. Whenever the place is not a part of the "message" of your sentence, it is usually somewhere at the beginning (that is, if the place frames your description of an action rather than providing crucial information).

    If the whole point of uttering a sentence is telling someone about the place then, naturally, it takes the sentence-final position:

    • За́втра я в Нью-Йо́рке. = I am in New York tomorrow. (not somewhere else)

    lies/stands

    You don't have to translate verbs like "to stand" and "to lie" literally when they refer to objects. Such use is not, by a wide margin, nearly as standard in English as it is in Russian:

    • На столе́ стои́т ча́шка. = A cup is ("stands") on the table.

    In English "to be" is perfectly fine, so we accept that.

  • 05 Adjectives Basics and Spelling81 @ 75% 25 •••
    вкусный · громкая · младший · старший · тихая · тихий · хорошая · хороший
    8 words

    In Russian adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender/number and case. Out of 24 combinations only 12 forms are different. This system is completely regular, with no change of stress. The endings have “hard” and “soft” variants depending on the stem (for example, ый/ий or “ая/яя”).

    Here is the Nominative and Genitive for “classic” hard- and soft-stem adjectives ("new"/"blue"):

    NOM GEN
    fem но́вая/си́няя чашка но́вой/си́ней ча̒шки
    masc но́вый/си́ний дом но́вого/си́него до́ма
    neut но́вое/си́нее окно́ но́вого/си́него окна
    pl. но́вые/си́ние ча́шки но́вых/си́них ча́шек

    note that masculine and neuter merge in all their forms different from the Nominative one (their Accusative will be the same as the Gen. or the Nom. depending on animacy). In the Nominative there is also -ОЙ masculine ending: большо́й (“big”). Only for ending-stressed adjectives.

    • ОГО/ЕГО are historical spellings: г actually sounds like [в]
    • unstressed -ая(яя) /-ое (ее) sound identical in standard Russian: си́няя and си́нее have no difference in pronunciation.

    The following universal rules of Russian spelling will give you the rest of the endings for any adjective you ever meet (there exist 4 patterns at most):

    • After Г-К-Х (“velars”) and Ш-Щ-Ж-Ч (“hushes”) use И and never Ы
    • After Ц , Г-К-Х (“velars”) and Ш-Щ-Ж-Ч (“hushes”) use А, У and never Я, Ю
    • After Ц and Ш-Щ-Ж-Ч (“hushes”) use Е when unstressed and never О.
  • 05 Food74 @ 75% 25 •••
    для · за · купи · нам · нарезать · помыть · приготовить · риса · с молоком · сварить
    10 words

    Yummy

    Some nouns, like "water" or "bread", are not normally used in the plural. They are called uncountable or mass nouns. Both English and Russian have them. Food offers a delicious intake of mass nouns!

    • карто́шка(potatoes), лук(onions), морко́вь (carrots), шокола́д are mass nouns in Russian
    • a reminder: mass nouns may use the Genitive instead of Accusative if you mean "some quantity"(e.g., Купи́ хле́ба/карто́шки. = Buy some bread/potatoes.

    The preposition «для»(for) always takes Genitive nouns, just like «у» or «возле».

    'Taters

    The formal word for potato is карто́фель (German speakers, rejoice), but it's hardly ever used in speech. Use «карто́шка» instead.

    The word for tomato is помидо́р. There is also the word тома́т, but it is

    • the plant's name, pretty formal; look on price tags
    • the base stem for derivative products: тома́тная па́ста = tomato paste

    • посуда is a word for different containers used for cooking , consuming and further storage of food. English, sadly, does not have the exact equivalent. However, it is obviously "dishes" that you wash and "cookware/tableware" that you buy.

    Verbal wisdom

    In this skill, we used perfective verbs for "cook", "cut", "wash". The reason is simple: that's the verb you'd use when you want a single specific action, often with a result—rather than referring to "activity" (activity may be fun but, in some cases, pointless).

    More on that later. For now, just go with the flow.

  • 05 Verbs in the Present 171 @ 75% 25 •••
    видим · видите · видишь · видят · всегда · готовим · готовит · готовите · готовишь · готовлю · готовят · делает · домой · думает · думаете · думаешь · думаю · едите · живу · живут · живёшь · завтрак · знаете · знаешь · значит · иду · идут · идём · идёт · идёте · идёшь · кажется · кровати · любим · любите · много · обедать · от · понимает · понимаешь · понимаю · пусть · сам · стоит · хотите · хотят · читаешь · читаю · школу · школы
    50 words

    Е- and И- conjugation

    The verbs in Russian change according to person and number. Each form has a different ending. There are only two patterns (apart from some phonetic changes).

    endings Е- / И- examples
    я -ю (у) чита́ю, пишу́ / говорю́, ви́жу
    ты -ешь / -ишь чита́ешь, пи́шешь / говори́шь, ви́дишь
    он/она́ -ет / -ит чита́ет, пи́шет / говори́т, ви́дит
    мы -ем / -им чита́ем, пи́шем / говори́м, ви́дим
    вы -ете / -ите чита́ете, пи́шете / говори́те, ви́дите
    они́ -ют(ут) / -ят (ат) чита́ют, пи́шут / говоря́т, ви́дят

    We will learn these one by one. There are only four stems with completely irregular conjugation. The verbs хоте́ть, дать, есть, бежа́ть and all their derivatives follow neither the Е- nor the И-conjugation exactly.

    Note that if the endings are stressed, Ё replaces Е. Fortunately, a non-past form has only 2 options:

    • fixed stress – on the stem (чита́ю, чита́ете, ви́жу, ви́дит) or on the ending (стою́, стои́т, стои́шь)
    • "я"-form has a stressed ending (Я пишу́). The stress falls on the stem everywhere else (ты пи́шешь, она пи́шет..)

    A verb uses one stem to form Infinitive and Past tense forms. It uses the 2nd one, similar, for the non-past forms and the imperative. So you cannot predict all forms from the infinitive. You can make a good guess, though.

    Meals

    In this course we use the American English definitions:

    • за́втрак = breakfast, a morning meal
    • обе́д = lunch, a midday meal
    • у́жин = dinner, an evening meal
  • 05 The Accusative: the Direct Object63 @ 75% 25 •••
    вашу · видит · вижу · воду · дайте · девочку · знает · знаю · кошку · курицу · маму · мне · нашу · папу · собаку · тарелку · утку · хочет · хочешь · хочу · чашки · чашку · читает · эту
    24 words

    Accusative

    Until now, you've been using the base form of the word in sentences like «Он ест яблоко».

    Actually, whenever a verb, like "read", "cut" or "want" acts directly on some noun, the latter is a direct object. Such nouns take the Accusative case.

    Formation

    Only nouns ending in / have a separate, unique form. «Мама» is a good example of this class :

    • ма́ма → ма́му

    Neuter nouns and feminine nouns with a final (e.g., «мы́шь») just reuse the Nominative form.

    Now we are left with masculine nouns ending in a consonant (сок, медве́дь, брат). They use the same form as their Nominative or Genitive:

    • living beings ("animate") copy the Genitive
    • objects ("inanimate") stay Nominative
    • in the plural, this rule applies to all Russian nouns
    -а/-я (masc.) neuter (fem.)
    -у/-ю Nom. / Gen. Nominative Nominative

    With "substances"(mass nouns), the Genitive form may be used instead. It conveys the meaning of "some" quantity.

    Verbs that take a direct object are called transitive. Too bad that some verbs transitive in Russian are intransitive in English ("wait") and vice versa ("like")!

    I want it

    Russian verbs have two main ending patterns. We are going to introduce them very soon.

    Unfortunately, the verb «хоте́ть»(to want) is irregular and mixes both. On a brighter note, it is very common, so you'll memorize it eventually.

    Unlike the English verb '"want", it does not have a strong connotation of 'need', Similarly, the Russian verb for "give"(да́ть) is totally OK for polite requests. Just use it with «пожа́луйста».

    • the person you give things to is NOT a direct object in Russian. It is called an indirect object and takes the Dative. We'll deal with it later.
  • 05 Partitive61 @ 75% 25 •••
    воды · миска · пива · пиво · риса · сока · стакан · чая
    8 words

    As you know, the Genitive case has lots of uses in Russian.

    One of them expresses an amount of something:

    • чашка чая = a cup of tea
    • тарелка риса = a plate of rice
    • корзина яблок = a basket of apples

    With mass nouns it is also used to express "some" unspecified amount of that stuff when used instead of the Accusative:

    • Я хочу воды = I want (some) water.
    • Дайте, пожалуйста, риса. = Could I have some rice, please? (literally, "Give me, please, some rice").
    • Хочешь сока? = Want some juice?

    Note that this usage is only characteristic for situations when you ask or hypothesize about using "some or other amount" of a substance. You cannot actually say that you are drinking "воды" right now—but you can say that you want some (or that you sipped some in the past—with a perfective¹, of course).

    чашка чаю

    «Чай» has an alternative Partitive form «чаю»:

    • Хочешь чашечку чаю? = Want cup of tea?

    It is optional. Actually, many short masculine nouns that denote substances used to have such form. However, «чай» is, probably, the only one where the form is immensely popular in spoken speech and does not sound old-fashioned or downright archaic.

    стакан

    Russian differentiates between a number of drinking vessels. Стака́н is what you call a "glass" in English: typically, a cylindrical vessel made of glass, with no handle. However, if you mean a measurement unit (quite popular in cooking), it corresponds to the English word "cup". In Russian instead of a "cup" of flour you use a "glass" of flour.

    • a beer or a wine glass is «бока́л»
    • a smaller wine glass is «рю́мка»

    ¹ Perfective is an aspect. Russian has verbs of two flavors: those that denote "processes" and those that mean "events" (events are never used in the present). I would argue that aspect is the main culprit for consumption verbs here. You can want "воды" forever, but you aren't "drinking" it at any specific moment. Semantically, "some" water only becomes a real amount when you are done, not while you are still at it.

  • 05 Genitive Case - 152 @ 75% 25 •••
    брата · воды · возле · девочки · его · ешь · её · женщины · карандаш · карандаша · кошки · мальчика · мамы · масла · масло · молока · мужчины · нет · ни · ничего · папы · пью · ребёнка · рис · сестры · собака · собаки · сок · сока · хлеба · этого · яблока
    32 words

    In Russian “I have” is expressed by «У меня (есть)» structure. The owner is in the Genitive case.

    Genitive

    "The of-case". It is one of the most universal cases. How do you make the forms? Here is the regular pattern:

    ENDING Genitive sg. soft stem
    -a/-я мама мамы земля земли
    zero-ending masc, -о/-е neut сок / молоко сока / молока конь коня
    fem мышь мыши

    A zero ending means that the word ends in a consonant or a soft sign (which is just a way to show the final consonant is "soft"). In the Nominative singular, a Russian word can only have the following endings: а, я, о, е, ё or nothing ("zero ending").

    Genitive of Negation

    If you use «нет» to say that there is "no" something or you do not have it, the object is always in Genitive:

    У меня́ есть я́блоко → У меня́ нет я́блока

    Здесь есть рюкза́к → Здесь нет рюкзака́.

    Major uses

    • "of" (possession): яблоко мамы = mom's apple
    • "of" (amount): чашка чая, много чая = a cup of tea, a lot of tea

    A huge number of prepositions requires this case. Yes, «у меня есть», «У неё есть» only use «меня» and «неё» because «у» wants Genitive.

    For он, она and оно Genitive doubles as a non-changing possessive "his", "her", "their": его, её, их.

    • initial «н» is used for him/her/them with the majority of prepositions (doesn't affect possessives)

    Indeclinable nouns

    A little side note: some nouns of foreign origin are indeclinable. It means that all their forms are the same. Foreign nouns that end in о/е become like that (кофе, метро, радио, резюме), as well as all nouns that do not fit into Russian declension patterns (see above).

    This includes female names that end in anything other than А or Я. A few -ending names are an exception (Любовь and Biblical names like Юдифь).

    So, all of the following names are automatically indeclinable: Маргарет, Мэри, Элли, Дженни, Рэйчел, Натали, Энн, Ким, Тесс, Жасмин.

    I am away

    Russian also uses the Genitive to state that someone is "away", "not there": Мамы сейчас нет. In English such use would correspond to "There is no mom at the moment", or even "There is no me now". We are not hard on that particular construction in the course, but it is important to know it all the same.

    Added bonus: when a verb directly acts on a noun, the noun is called a direct object and is in Accusative. In Russian, only -а/-я feminine nouns have a unique form for it. Others just reuse Genitive or don't change the word at all (Nominative)

    Nothing

    Russian uses.... let's call it "consistent" negation. It means that in negative sentences you are required to use "nothing" instead of "anything", "nowhere" instead of "somewhere" and so on. Let's meet the first of these pronouns:

    • У меня ничего нет. = I don't have anything.
    • Она ничего не ест. = She doesn't eat anything.

    You'll also notice that, unlike standard English, Russian has no rule against using double negatives.

  • 05 Animals 151 @ 75% 25 •••
    волк · змеи · курица · лев · львы · медведи · медведь · муха · мухи · мыши · мыши · мышь · птица · птицы · пьют · собаки · утка · утки
    18 words

    "Spelling rules"

    Note how plurals of «соба́ка» and «ко́шка» end in И: соба́ки, ко́шки, even though you might expect А to turn into Ы.

    There are some restrictions on which consonants are used with which vowels when making word forms. Here are the rules for и, а, у vs. ы, я, ю:

    • use only И, not Ы, after к, г, х/ ж, ш, щ, ч
    • use only А, У after к, г, х/ ж, ш, щ, ч and ц (and never use Я, Ю after them)

    К, Г, Х are called velar consonants (i.e. made in the back) and Ш, Щ, Ж, Ч are often called hushes. The latter do not show palatalized/non-palatalized pairs in modern Russian, so the spelling rule does not affect pronunciation anyhow. It's just a convention.

    Fleeting vowels

    It is not too important for you at the moment, but you may notice how О and Е sometimes appear in consonant clusters or disappear from them. For example:

    • Э́то лев. = This is a lion.
    • В зоопа́рке нет льва́. = There isn't a lion at the zoo.

    Later you will encounter the Genitive plural (often used with numbers and words like "many" or "few"), which shows a simple pattern for -suffixed feminine nouns that do not have a vowel before "-ка":

    • много кошек = many cats
    • много девочек = many girls
    • много уток = many ducks
    • много тарелок = many plates

    As you can see, the vowel (О or Е) depends on whether the previous consonant is palatalized or not. Hushes behave as if they were palatalized, despite Ж and Ш having lost this quality in the modern language.

  • 05 Plurals42 @ 75% 25 •••
    актёры · девочки · едят · кошки · лошади · мужчины · наши · озеро · озёра · офисы · планы · полотенца · полотенце · столы · сёстры · тарелки · тетради · тетрадь · эти · яйца · яйца
    21 words

    Here is how the Nominative Plural is formed.

    TYPE ending Example
    -а/-я -nouns ы/и ма́мы, зе́мли
    -nouns, feminine и крова́ти
    most consonant-ending masculines ы/и столы́, ма́льчики
    -о/-е -nouns а/я о́кна, моря́
    some consonant-ending masculines а/я доктора́, глаза́

    (so, the plural «я́блоки» is actually an uncommon way of doing it)

    There are some irregular plurals too.

    Spelling Rules

    Or maybe not. Sometimes Russian forces your choice of vowel to spell or pronounce after a certain letter.

    The 7-letter rule: Whenever you make any form of a word, and you need to write И or Ы, check this:

    • after К, Г, Х and Ш, Ж, Щ, Ч always use И

    These are velars ("back" consonants) and hushes. For hushes, it is merely a spelling convention, owing to their former "soft" status. For velars, it is true to their pronunciation — i.e., these consonants always use the palatalized И where another consonant would use Ы:

    • страна́ → стра́ны
    • строка́ → стро́ки

    Of these seven consonants, «К» should be your main concern for now. A lot of nouns have it as a suffix or a part of their suffix, forcing you to remember this rule.

    The 8-letter rule: Whenever you make any form of a word, and you need to write А, У or Я, Ю after a consonant, follow the rule:

    • after К, Г, Х , Ш, Ж, Щ, Ч and Ц, always use А or У
  • 05 Name and polite "You"40 @ 75% 25 •••
    алло · благодарю · ваня · вас · вера · вы · ещё · здравствуй · здравствуйте · зовут · иван · иванович · ивановна · извини · можете · отлично · раз · скажи · скажите · сказать · так · чернов
    22 words

    Thou art

    Russian makes a distinction between ты, singular "you", and вы, plural "you" (y'all). The latter also doubles for "polite" you, with verbs also in plural. And don't forget that the "excuse" in "Excuse me" is a verb!

    • Use ты with friends and your family members
    • Use вы with adult strangers, your teachers and in other formal interactions (at the store, the doctor's, the airport etc.)
    • People use вы with those who are much older
    • Nobody is "polite" toward kids
    Contrary to what many native speakers have come to believe in the last ten or fifteen years, the polite "you" is not automatically capitalized in Russian, and never was. Such capitalization is used in some formal styles.

    Grandson, son of Grand

    As you might know if you ever read any Russian literature, Russians have three names; their first name and their surname—just like you have—and a patronymic (отчество), which is based on their father's name (отец = father). A very common 'polite' pattern is to use a person's first name and a patronymic:

    • Ива́н Иванович, вы за́няты? = Ivan Ivanovich, are you busy?

    In this course, name+patronymic are always used with the polite вы-form.

    What is your name?

    «Как вас зову́т?» is literally "How (do) they call you?"

    Russian has a casual diminutive form for many common names, : Ива̓н→Ва́ня, Мари́я→Маша, Алекса́ндр(Алекса́ндра)→Са́ша, Евге́ний(Евге́ния)→Же́ня, Еле́на→Ле́на, Алексе́й→Лёша, Пётр→Пе́тя. Needless to say, there's no "politeness" with these, but they are often used with some degree of affection.

    Excuse me...

    Russian has two very common polite patterns for questions that English does not:

    • negative questions give a shade of "by any chance": «Извини́те, вы не зна́ете Михаи́ла?» = Excuse me, do you happen to know Mikhail?
    • "Please tell" when asking for information: «Скажи́те, пожа́луйста, где музе́й?» = Excuse me, where is the museum?

    Thank you

    «Спаси́бо» is the word. A fancier option would be «Благодарю́!» (a form of the verb «благодари́ть», "to thank"), though quite a number of people use it, if only for variety.

  • 05 Phrases 122 @ 75% 25 •••
    вечер · всё · дела · день · до · доброе · добрый · извините · как · надо · ночи · площадь · пожалуйста · пока · привет · свидания · скорого · спасибо · спокойной · уже · утро · хорошо
    22 words

    Hello

    Russian has a more informal greeting «Приве́т» and a more formal «Здра́вствуй(те)». Here, we focus on the first, since it is the shorter one.

    When on phone, use «Алло́» (Алё).

    «Пожа́луйста» (please) has another popular position in the sentence—namely, after the verb (more on that later).

    you can also use «пожа́луйста» as a reply to "thanks", meaning "You are welcome!"

    How are you?

    The phrase for "How are you?" (Как дела́?) literally means "How are your affairs (the stuff you do)?"

    No one uses it as a greeting, i.e. you are not expected to use it with people you barely know (or those you know, for that matter). And be prepared for a person to actually tell you how they've been doing. ;)

    Good morning!

    Morning typically starts at 4 or 5 a.m., afternoon at noon, evening at 5 p.m. (at 6 for some) and night at 11 or at midnight.

    You only use "Good night" (Споко́йной но́чи) when parting before sleep (or saying your goodbyes really late, so it is implied you or the listener are going to bed soon after).

    If you are advanced enough to have noticed oblique forms used in some phrases—you are right! Greetings and other similar expressions are often shortened versions of longer phrases, where words still retain their forms. For example, «Споко́йной но́чи» probably replaces the longer «Я жела́ю вам споко́йной но́чи!» (I wish you a peaceful night). Needless to say, the full version is never used.

  • 14 Speaking 1142 @ 75% 25 •••
    говорил · говорила · говорили · говорит · говоришь · говорят · думает · думал · думали · думаю · заканчивает · изучает · изучаете · изучал · изучала · изучать · изучаю · кроме · лекцию · лекция · ли · может быть · ответил · ответила · ответили · ответить · ошибка · ошибку · ошибок · преподаватель · пропуск · пропуска · спросил · спросила · спросили
    35 words

    Sequence of tenses in Russian

    There is no sequence of tenses in Russian whatsoever.

    The information in a subordinate sentence is understood to be relative to the main clause:

    • Он сказа́л, что не зна́ет. = He said he didn't know.

    So if the piece of information is simply about where things are or what someone does, use present tense in the subordinate clause.

    ли

    Use the particle "ли" in reported questions or situations when you don't know which option is true:

    • Я спроси́л, зна́ет ли он Москву́. = I asked him if he knew Moscow.
    • Мы не зна́ем, бу́дет ли он в о́фисе. = We don't know whether he is going to show up in the office.
    The particle is attached to the word that is in doubt. It needn't be a verb, for instance, «Я не зна́ю, в Москве́ ли он» (i.e. whether he is in Moscow or in some other city). The particle generally attaches to the first stressed word of the clause.

    Talk or say?

    The verb говори́ть is used both as "to say, to tell" and as "to talk, to speak". When you report someone's words, obviously, the 2nd meaning is in action:

    • Она говори́т, что хо́чет спать. = She says that she wants to sleep.

    Russian has a whole set of perfective verbs. The thing is, usually you arrange verbs neatly into closely matching pairs of imperfective + perfective. And these are different for the two meanings of «говори́ть»:

    • to say → говори́ть / сказ́ать
    • to speak → говори́ть / поговори́ть

    Remember «Скажи́те, пожа́луйста ... » ?

    Rather than referring to ongoing actions or past(future) actions in general, perfective verbs refer to actions in a point-wise manner, ignoring the action's inner structure. That is, such "singular" actions happen at some particular "moment" and can be conveniently arranged in a sequence when telling a story. This distinction is about to come into focus in one of the following skills.

  • 23 Genitive Plural161 @ 75% 25 •••
    денег · детей · длинных · домов · дочерей · интересных · карандашей · книг · кроватей · лошадей · мальчиков · машин · месяцев · моих · мышей · недель · несколько · ножей · проблем · птиц · синих · слишком · слов · столов · сыновей · таких · тарелок · учеников · учителей · фильмов · чашек · школ
    32 words

    The formation of Genitive Plural

    All other forms (except the Nominative) are the same for all plural nouns, regardless of gender. The Genitive is the other exception. Here is how it is formed:

    • -а, -я, -о nouns: just remove the last vowel sound. Extends to -ия and -ие nouns (which become -ий). A vowel is inserted if a consonant cluster forms at the end. We will address a few common cases of fleeting vowels later in the course.

      • ма́ма, неде́ля → мам, неде́ль
      • сло́во, окно́ → слов, о́кон
      • фами́лия, мело́дия → фами́лий, мело́дий
      • ко́шка → ко́шек
    • hard consonant: typical “masculine” nouns ending in hard non-sibilant consonants get the ending -ов. Those in “-й” get -ев, and so do nouns in “-ц” when the ending is unstressed (which won't help you much).

      • стол, оте́ц, го́род → столо́в, отцо́в, городо́в
      • ме́сяц → ме́сяцев
    • soft consonant: feminine and masculine nouns ending in or hushes (Ж, Ш, Щ, Ч) will get -ей as the ending. Neuter nouns ending in also use this pattern.

      • ночь, крова́ть → ноче́й, крова́тей
      • учи́тель, муж → учителе́й, муже́й
      • мо́ре → море́й
    • «и́мя» and «вре́мя» become имён, времён (though, for «се́мя» and «стре́мя» it is «семя́н» and «стремя́н»)

    Not so easy

    • be careful around nouns that form plurals irregularly, like друг →друзья́. Here are the genitive plurals of «друг», «мать», «дочь», «сын», «стул», «брат», «лист» and «де́рево» :

      • друзе́й, матере́й, дочере́й, сынове́й
      • сту́льев, бра́тьев, ли́стьев, дере́вьев
  • 23 Body, Life and Death153 @ 75% 25 •••
    аптека · аптеку · болит · больнице · больницу · больницы · болят · верх · глаза · голова · груди · давно · душа · душе · души · живот · живота · животе · левая · левой · лекарств · лекарство · лица · лице · лицо · низ · ног · нога · ноги · ноги · нос · носы · осматривает · осматривал · осматривали · осматривают · палец · пальцев · память · пациент · пациента · пациентов · правая · правой · правую · рождение · рождения · рот · рту · рты · рука · руках · руки · руки · сердце · сердцу · спина · спине · спины · сторона · тела · тела · температура · умер · умерла · ухо · уши · части · части · часть · язык · языка
    72 words

    You have big eyes

    Be careful NOT to use «есть» when describing properties of body parts, if their existence is normal and unlikely to surprise anyone:

    • У меня длинный нос = I have a long nose.

    A Handy thing to know

    The Russian words for limbs and what they have on the end of them can be a little confusing initially. Depending on the situation, рука can mean hand or it can mean arm. The same is true for нога; it can be foot or leg. Most of the time the meaning is clear from the context.

    The difference works as follows:

    • in English "hand", strictly speaking, means the part starting at the wrist.
    • in Russian «рука», strictly speaking, means the whole arm.
    • when you need a word describing the limb functionally (as something we use to work, to grab things etc.), English uses "hand" while Russian uses "arm".

    The same goes for the lower limb.

  • 23 Perfective Verbs -1151 @ 75% 25 •••
    бросил · бросила · вдруг · вечером · взял · взяла · взяли · встал · встала · встать · встретил · встретила · встретили · выбрал · выбрала · выбрать · дай · дал · дала · диск · диске · забыл · забыла · забыли · задание · записал · записала · записали · ключ · контрольная · контрольную · купил · купила · купили · легла · лечь · лёг · могу · может · можешь · наконец · написал · написала · написали · написать · ночью · обсудили · обсудить · опоздал · опоздала · опять · получил · помогла · помочь · посмотрел · посмотрела · потерял · потеряла · потом · привык · привыкла · привыкли · привыкнуть · пришла · пришло · пришёл · продал · продала · продать · прочитал · прочитала · рассказ · сделал · сделала · сделали · сделать · сегодня · сказал · сказала · сказали · сообщение · сообщения · увидел · увидела · увидеть · узнал · узнала · узнали · утром · фотографии · фотографий · фотографию
    92 words

    Aspect in Russian

    Verbs in Russian come in two 'flavors' : perfective (eg. “пригото́вить”) and imperfective (eg. “гото́вить”).

    Let's get this straight right away: most perfectives are made by attaching a prefix—and the endings of the resulting verb change in the same way they changed for the source verb.

    Perfective verbs express an action, an "event" linked to a point in time. Sometimes they assert the presence of a result. You use them for sequences of actions, too.

    Imperfective verbs are used for everything else: processes, states, repeated actions and for generic reference to an action (when the time of occurrence is irrelevant).

    In this introductory lesson we deal with the most basic pattern of use:

    • perfective verbs are used to tell stories about successive actions
    • imperfectives are used for simultaneous processes
    • perfective verbs are often used to describe single actions that have a specific result, e.g., “Give me that”, “I bought some food”, “I have painted many pictures”. However, not all of them can be reliably described like that.
    • we use imperfective to tell that someone has or has never done something, especially in "out of the blue" situations. When the action was supposed to be done (which is known by the listener), we use the perfective.

    Morphology

    Being too lazy to make up many different verbs, we usually make new ones based on the old ones. The vast majority of unprefixed verbs are imperfective.

    • Prefixation is the main method to create a perfective verb: писа́ть→написа́ть, идти́→пойти́.
    • a different suffix is sometimes used: опа́здывать←опозда́ть
    • occasionally, the stress changes: нареза́ть→наре́зать
    • different stems are used for a few verbs: говори́ть→сказа́ть

    The last phenomenon is known as suppletion and only happens for a limited number of verbs and their derivatives. The English verb "to go" is another example of such behavior (its past form is "went").

    Note that suffixation is very popular for secondary imperfectives. Usually only one prefixed verb is considered an "ideal match" for an imperfective verb. Others are somewhat different in meaning (or a lot different). But you need imperfective partners for these, too, so Russian uses suffixes for that:

    • чита́ть = to read (imperf.)
    • перечита́ть = to reread (perf.) → cannot be considered a "natural" perfective for this verb
    • перечи́тывать = to reread (imperf.)

    can

    The verb «мочь» is used to talk about the general possibility of something, and also, very often—about your ability to perform something and reach some result. Perfectives are used in this second meaning:

    • Я могу́ написа́ть кни́гу за ме́сяц = I can write a book in a month.
    • Она́ мо́жет посмотре́ть? = Can she take a look?

    We do not use мочь for skills. Russian has уметь for this.

    опять / снова

    Both mean "again" and are largely interchangeable when they mean that an action from the past has occurred again.

    «Опять» is more popular but it's focused on staying "the same as before". «Снова» (cf. «новый») can also mean action performed "anew, from the beginning".

    Only «опять» is used in «опять же» (~"besides").

    When asking someone to repeat, use «ещё раз».

    What else is there to it?

    imperfective verbs

    • name the action as a whole (“I can swim”)
    • describe prolonged states and processes, regular actions

    Perfective verbs describe events: singular, definite actions that are viewed as localized in time. They “happened” at some moment (“I made a video”, “I slept for some time and then went outside”). Or they describe a certain change of state at some "turning point" (not yet eaten→eaten, not slept enough→slept enough and ready to get up).

    It is argued in a few works that "a natural" perfective is just a prefixed verb where a prefix's metaphorical meaning so conveniently overlaps the verb's own meaning, that you cannot feel any change. So don't be surprised if some vague actions have several perfective matches for a single imperfective verb.

    That also means that sometimes you'd better memorize a pair even if it is technically a "poor" match. After all, in some contexts it will come in handy:

    • есть → съе́сть (to consume something, completely)
    • есть → пое́сть (to have a meal, to spend some time eating—regardless of whether you finish your meal or decide you've had enough half-way)
  • 23 Dative and Plurals141 @ 75% 25 •••
    верит · верить · веришь · верю · верят · всем · всему · всех · городу · гуляем · гуляет · гуляешь · гуляла · гулять · девочкам · девочках · девочке · дереву · деревья · деревьям · детям · детях · долго · дома · дорога · дороге · дорогу · им · имена · к · кому · кошке · мальчикам · мальчику · маме · моим · ним · нравятся · объясняет · объяснял · объясняла · объяснять · объясняю · обычно · окна · папе · парку · писателю · письма · письмо · по · показывает · показывал · показывала · показываю · показывают · пора · родителям · своим · слова · словам · сумках · твоим · трудно · улице · учителю · учителя · хочется · человеку · школам · школе · этой · этому
    73 words

    The Dative Case in Russian

    You have already seen that many expressions of feelings and experience use the Dative: ”Мне нра́вится...”, “Ма́ме хорошо́”, “Ему́ 5 лет”, “Мне ка́жется ...” etc.

    The Dative introduces an indirect object of an action: usually the person whom the action is directed towards. An example would be a sentence like “I handed a package to my mom”: “my mom” here is a recipient.

    Actually, this depends on the verb, just like in English. Some popular verbs of speech, writing or “giving” will use the bare Dative for the recipient: говори́ть, сказа́ть, писа́ть, чита́ть, дать, принести́ and so on.

    Dative prepositions

    • по: the basic meaning is “movement along the surface”("covering" it) which may realise as “walking around the park”, “running down the street”, “looking for it all over the house” etc.
    • к: towards, to. Often used when you are going towards somebody (“towards Anna” = «к Анне»)
    • several bookish prepositional phrases like «благодаря́» (thanks to) or «вопреки́» (contrary to)

    По has an additional meaning, “apiece” or "each" : «Они́ взя́ли по три я́блока»=”They took 3 apples each”.

    There is a bookish use of «по» meaning "upon". It goes with Prepositional, and is mostly used in set prepositional phrases like «по оконча́нии» (upon completion).

    Cases in plural

    Plurals generally have only one pattern shared by all nouns. The ending only depends on the case, not the class of a noun:, «я говорю́ о дома́х, стра́нах, города́х, я́блоках, дочеря́х».

    Only the Nominative and (especially) the Genitive have a number of different plural endings that depend on the class of a noun.

  • 23 Shopping133 @ 75% 25 •••
    брюки · вам · вина · вино · вон · ищем · ищет · ищу · карандаши · купить · куртка · мясо · найти · нужен · нужна · нужно · нужны · обуви · обувь · овощи · одежда · одежду · пальто · платить · платье · побольше · покажу · поменьше · размер · размера · рубашка · стоят · та · те · то · тот · ту · фрукты · юбка · юбку
    40 words

    Give me that!

    By now, you have probably noticed a surprising lack of "that one" in Russian. The thing is, Russian mostly uses "этот" both for "this" and "that", unless you need to make a contrast between "this one here" and "that one there".

    However, when you are really pointing at things, use whatever you like!

    • «вот тут»~right here;«вот э́тот» ~ "this one here"
    • «вон там»~over there; «вон тот» ~ "that one over there"

    ("вот" is acceptable with both)

    Clothing

    • оде́жда is a mass noun for "clothes", о́бувь for footwear.
    • ту́фли are also "shoes", but a more specific kind: "dress shoes" or the shoes you'd use with a gown
    • боти́нок ...a dictionary will say it's a bit higher than a "dress shoe". In reality, especially in men's speech, the word is often used for shoes, too
    • сапо́г is most definitely a boot
    • пальто́ is typically a long outer garment
    • ку́ртка is more generic but usually refers to a shorter outer garment—with proportions not much different from a shirt
    • руба́шка is the word used for shirt. «Соро́чка» is a formal word for a shirt that is worn as a part of a suit (eg. with pants, a jacket and a necktie), but people still use "руба́шка" anyway.

    a bigger/smaller shirt

    From the Adjectives skill you might remember «бо́льше» and «меньше» as words for "more/bigger" and "less/fewer/smaller". Since these work as adverbs, it is problematic to use them with nouns.

    Instead, the words «побо́льше» / «поме́ньше» are used AFTER a noun:

    • Я хочу́ стол побо́льше/поме́ньше.
    • Да́йте я́блоко побо́льше.

    This works with some other popular adjectives: подлинне́е, покоро́че, полу́чше. When not used with nouns directly, these have a colloquial quality.

    Actually, with adjectives other than большо́й/мале́нький you may resort to «бо́лее дли́нное пальто́». However, «бо́лее большо́е»? No. Just no.

  • 23 Adjectives 1131 @ 75% 25 •••
    белой · белую · больше · большие · большое · большую · важный · все · длинная · длинную · длинный · должен · дорогое · дорогой · зелёный · интересная · интересные · интересный · короткая · короткий · красивая · красивый · красная · красный · лучше · маленькая · маленькие · маленький · маленькое · меньше · новая · нового · новой · новую · новый · общая · общее · общий · плохая · плохие · плохой · плохую · погода · правила · правило · разные · серая · серые · серый · синей · синюю · синяя · следующий · старая · старый · странное · странные · странный · странных · твою · только · умная · умный · умных · хорошего · хорошее · хорошей · хорошие · хорошую · хуже · цвет · цвета · цвета · цел · целый · чем · чёрная · чёрный
    78 words

    In Russian the adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in gender(number) and case. Fortunately, the system is completely regular and the stress stays the same. The forms for the cases you know are:

    ENDINGS masculine neuter feminine
    Nom. -ый(о́й)/-ий -ое/-ее -ая/-яя
    Acc. Nom. or Gen. -ое/-ее -ую/-юю
    Gen. -ого/-его see masc. -ой/-ей
    Prep. -ом/-ем see masc. -ой/-ей

    The plural ending in the Nominative is -ые (ие). We will address the oblique forms later in the course.

    (we are not teaching possessive adjectives for now, )

    A few examples:

    • Я живу в большом городе. (Prep.,masc.)
    • Дайте большого кота. (Acc.,masc.)
    • Нам надо найти хорошую книгу. (Acc.,fem)

    velars and hushes

    Adjectives with the stem on -к, -г, -х, -ш, -щ, -ж, -ч will use "и", "а", "у" instead of "ы", "я", "ю" so watch carefully ("русский", for instance).

    We will tackle the endings one at a time.

    целый vs. весь

    In Russian the idea of "the whole" of something can be expressed by either «целый» or «весь». The former is used when implying the unexpectedly "large" amount; it is the one we're teaching in this skill:

    • Он целый день спит. (normally, a person should have been awake for a long time)
  • 23 Time and Numbers111 @ 75% 25 •••
    август · апрель · будет · был · была · было · восемнадцать · восемь · времени · времени · время · вчера · год · года · два · двадцать · две · двенадцать · девочек · девятнадцать · девять · декабрь · декабря · десять · ей · ему · завтра · июле · июль · июля · июнь · конец · кошек · лет · май · мало · март · марта · мая · месяц · минут · минута · минуту · начале · начало · ноябрь · один · одиннадцать · одна · одно · окна · октябре · октябрь · отпуск · отпуска · приходит · прихожу · пятнадцать · пять · пятьдесят · семнадцать · семь · сентябре · сентябрь · сколько · скоро · собак · сорок · тебе · три · тридцать · тринадцать · ухожу · феврале · февраль · февраля · час · часа · часов · четыре · четырнадцать · шестнадцать · шесть · январь
    84 words

    Using numbers with nouns

    Let's focus on the Nominative for now (this also works when Acc.=Nom). Russian numbers may seem a bit weird. The case of the noun depends on the last word of the number:

    last word means Case example
    оди́н (одна́, одно́, одни́ ) 1 Nom. sg. оди́н дом, одна́ ма́ма, два́дцать одно́ окно́, оди́н сто́л
    два (две), три, четы́ре 2, 3, 4 Gen. sg. две ко́шки, два стола́, три ма́льчика, три́дцать четы́ре стола́
    Larger than that 5, 6, 12, 100 etc. Gen. pl. пять ко́шек, пять ма́льчиков, два́дцать пять ко́шек, миллио́н ко́шек

    Just like English, Russian has words for eleven through nineteen, so they fall into the "larger" category.

    Genitive plural has a rather bizarre set of patterns, so a separate skill later on will teach you how to make it for most nouns.

    Expressions

    • I am 10 (years old) = Мне де́сять (лет) Note the Dative "мне" and the number in the Nominative. The Genitive plural "лет" is irregular.

    The Dative forms of он, она and они are ему, ей, им respectively.

    • at 9 o'clock = в де́вять часо́в → the Accusative here (same as the Nominative)
    • at 2 in the morning = в два (часа́) но́чи (in Russian 'morning' starts at about 4-5 a.m.)
    • in January, June. etc. = в январе́, ию́не ... (Prepositional). Note that all the month names are masculine nouns.
    • the beginning/end of July = нача́ло/коне́ц ию́ля

    Why are Russian numbers so strange? Well, for 2-3-4 these are the remnants of the Dual number (which is between the singular and the plural). As for the larger numbers, they are essentially "nouns": a heap of cats, a lot of cats, a thousand... of cats.

    Сейчас

    Russian uses two words for "now". One is «сейчас», which means "now, at the moment", and describes the current moment in a neutral manner, often implying that things change and the state described is attributed to this particular moment. It can change soon:

    • Сейчас никого нет дома. = No one is home (right) now.
    • Сейчас пять утра. = It is 5 a.m. now.

    Теперь is the "now" you use when things are different from "before". You imply that the situation has changed. It is also associated with a more prolonged period of time, i.e. the state of affairs is different from before, and will stay so for now:

    • Мы теперь работаем в главном офисе. = We now work at the main office. (We did not, but now we are, and things are going to stay like that for some time)

    время

    The noun «время» ("time") belongs to a really small class of neuter nouns. Its Genitive form is времени, and all other oblique forms also retain the -ен part.

  • 32 Education172 @ 75% 25 •••
    библиотеке · биологии · биологический · биологическом · биология · более · были · весь · вечера · воскресенье · восьмой · всю · вся · второй · готовилась · готовиться · готовлюсь · двойка · двойки · двойку · девятое · девятый · десяти · десятое · десятом · директор · директором · доска · доске · занятий · занятия · здание · здании · зданию · истории · история · кабинет · кабинетов · китайская · китайскому · класс · классе · классом · колледж · колледже · литературу · математика · математике · математики · математику · менее · напиши · напишите · научилась · научились · научился · научиться · окончил · окончила · окончили · первый · плавать · понедельник · понедельника · после · последние · последний · последняя · поступил · поступила · поступить · предмет · преподавала · преподаю · преподают · преподаёт · преподаёте · простое · простой · прочитай · прочитайте · пятая · пяти · пятом · пятый · пятёрка · пятёрку · седьмое · седьмой · сложный · ста · сто · суббота · субботу · субботы · считает · считать · текст · третий · третье · третьем · третью · упражнение · упражнения · упражнения · урок · урока · утра · учебник · учебника · учебнике · учебники · факультеты · физика · физике · физический · четвёрка · четвёрку · четвёртом · четвёртый · шестая · шести · шестой · экзамен · экзамена · экзамене · экзамену · экзамены · этаж · этаже · этажей · юридический · юридическом
    133 words

    Ordinal numbers

    Russian ordinal numbers behave like adjectives. Also, thankfully, if you have a long number only the last word is affected when the gender and/or case change:

    • 31st = три́дцать пе́рвый
    • on the 31st of December = три́дцать пе́рвого декабря́ (it is Genitive here)

    High-rise

    The floor numbering uses the system common in the U.S., i.e. the floor on the ground level is "the 1st floor". This is what you are going to see on the elevator buttons—so we try to stick to this "literal" translation.

    University departments

    A typical structure of a university::

    университе́т

    факульте́т ("department/faculty"), отделе́ние ("subdivision")

    .   ​‍‍‎‏↳ ка́федра ("branch")

    If a "факульте́т" is really large, it may have several "отделе́ния" inside, which are then subdivided further into "ка́федры".

    A university can also have an "институ́т" ("institute") inside. Or a number of them. An institute may have departments of its own.

    Grades

    The grading system in Russia uses numbers 2 to 5:

    • 2, «неудовлетвори́тельно» —"fail", an F
    • 3, «удовлетвори́тельно» —a "just about satisfactory" mark, something like a C minus
    • 4, «хорошо́» —a "good" mark, similar to a B
    • 5, «отли́чно»—an "excellent" mark, an A

    In speech we usually call them «дво́йка», «тро́йка», «четвёрка» and «пятёрка». «Едини́ца»(1) is virtually never assigned (maybe only in the case of particularly mighty failure, combining poor performance with behavior).

    Universities—officially—only use the words («неуд.», «уд.»/«удовл.», «хор.», «отл.» when abbreviated). And yet, the numbers are also widely used in conversation.

    Classes

    A school lesson is 45 minutes long, followed by a short break («переме́на»).

    A class at a university consists of two 45-minute-long periods, often with a 5-minute break in between. This is why people usually call it «па́ра» ("a pair, a couple"). In the Russian Far East «ле́нта»("a ribbon") is a more popular term—but do not try your luck using this term anywhere else!

    Summer break and shorter breaks during the academic year are «кани́кулы». This is a plural-only noun.

    Grades (the other kind)

    Finally, a word (or two) about grades/school years. For the sake of convenience, this course assumes that первый класс is the exact equivalent of first grade, grade one or year one, etc, which may or may not be the case depending on where you're from. For the record, Russian schools run from первый класс when you are six or seven years old to одиннадцатый класс when you are seventeen, although the last two years are not compulsory.

  • 23 Arts & Entertainment251 @ 50% 50 •••
    альбом · альбома · англичане · англичанин · артист · артисты · архитектура · архитектурой · аудитории · балерина · балерину · век · века · веке · выступили · выступит · выступят · герой · двадцатого · двадцатом · двадцатый · девятнадцатого · девятнадцатом · девятнадцатый · дискотеке · дискотеку · живопись · живописью · зрители · зрителю · канал · канале · каналов · комедии · комедию · комедия · мест · место · мультфильм · мультфильма · мультфильмы · оркестр · оркестром · памятник · памятнику · передача · передачу · про · пьеса · пьесу · пьесы · рассказывает · рассказываешь · рассказывают · рисунки · рисунков · рисунок · ряд · рядов · ряду · семнадцатого · семнадцатом · семнадцатый · сериал · сериалы · сказке · сказки · сказку · современная · современные · современный · содержание · содержании · стихи · стихов · сцена · сцене · сюжет · сюжета · талантливая · талантливые · талантливый
    82 words

    Tell us about it

    There is another verb in Russian for "to tell", «рассказывать». It covers the situations when what you tell is quite a bit longer than a single sentence. You may link it to рассказ ("a story"). No brick walls here, only with «рассказать» it is understood you're passing on a rather finished piece of information about some topic. «Говорить/ сказать» is primarily for shorter answers where coverage of some topic is not the point (also, when reporting someone's words).

    When expressing what you are talking "about", you may use о + Prepositional or про + Accusative. The meaning is roughly the same, especially in the sentences covered in this course, and they are largely interchangeable. In most situations only the shade of meaning changes:

    • «о» focuses more on the overall coverage
    • «про» focuses more on something "specific" and detailed but maybe not as true "in general"

    «О» is a lot more frequent than «про».

  • 23 Instrumental Case152 @ 50% 50 •••
    банк · банка · банком · братом · вилкой · врачом · даже · дверью · девочкой · женщиной · за · карандашом · картошкой · кем · кроватью · луком · мальчиках · мальчики · мальчиком · мамой · между · мной · мостом · мосту · мужчиной · над · ней · ним · ними · окном · папой · перед · поговори · поговорите · под · подо · поздравляю · помощью · праздником · ребёнком · рисуем · рисует · рисую · ручкой · рядом · с · с новым годом · сестрой · словарь · словаря · словарём · со · столом · столу · стулом · тобой · трудом · удовольствием · человеком · этим
    60 words

    Fortunately, this is the very last case!

    It is used for some very specific meanings, that’s why we've put off covering it for so long.

    • It is used alone for a “tool” or an “agent” of an action. English mostly uses “with” or “by” instead: “молотком” (with a hammer), ”ветром” (by wind), “силой” (by force)
    • It is used alone with some verbs of “being”, “becoming”, “seeming”: Я стал учителем ~ “I have become a teacher”

    It is also used with prepositions:

    • с (со) = “with” (together with someone/something) — note that “Я с ней” or even “Мы с ней” is the most natural way of saying “She and I”
    • за/ перед — behind/ in front of
    • над/ под — above/under
    • между — between (also used with Genitive)

    Мы с тобой

    When you tell someone about "you and I" or "my friend and I" etc., it is most idiomatic to use мы с + your companion in Instrumental.

    • Мы с тобой друзья. = You and I are friends.
    • Мы с мамой вчера купили компьютер. = Mom and I bought a computer yesterday.

    Of course, when translating sentences out of the blue, you cannot (strictly speaking) tell if a speaker means "I" or "we". This is rarely a source of confusion in real situations (where it is unlikely a speaker goes on randomly switching between "I" and "we").

    Sometimes you can interpret a joint action using "and" or "with", whatever sounds more natural:

    • Мы с ними вчера не говорили. = They and I didn't talk yesterday / I didn't talk with (to) them yesterday.

    But wait, there's more!

    Actually, Russian also has a handful of inconsistent cases that only exist for some words. They are (mostly) beyond the scope of this course:

    • the Locative-2: the most important. Why? Because it's obligatory with the nouns that it applies to. It expresses the meaning of place, with в, на or both. It exists for over a hundred masculine nouns: в году, на мосту, в лесу, на полу. And for about 20 feminine nouns in —ь: в крови (the ending is always stressed for both!)
    • the Neo-vocative: a form of a name used when addressing a person. It exists for common names and several nouns: Вань! Вер! Алён! Мам! Пап! (just the last vowel sound is removed). The Historical vocative ("человек → человече") has been lost in modern Russian.
    • the Genitive-2: for “some amount of a substance”. Increasingly replaced by the usual Genitive but still can be used for several masculine nouns: “Хочу чаю
    • “Waiting” case: not much of a case, but actually the verb “ждать” (to wait) would use Accusative for people and things that can affect their appearance and Genitive for everything else (an event/thing that does not choose when to arrive).
  • 23 Past & Infinitive132 @ 50% 50 •••
    автобус · автобуса · видел · видела · видели · все · говорил · говорила · говорили · говорить · думал · думала · думали · ждал · ждала · ждали · ждать · живём · жил · жила · жили · жило · знал · знала · знали · идти · лежал · лежала · лежали · лежу · подожди · пробовал · пробовала · пробовали · работал · работала · работали · раньше · слышал · слышала · слышали · смотрел · смотрела · смотрели · смотреть · стоял · стояла · стояли · стояло · стоять · телевизора · умел · умела · умеют · устал · устала · устали · ходил · ходила · ходить · хотел · хотела · хотели · читал · читала
    65 words

    The infinitive stem

    In Russian the Past tense and the Infinitive are formed from the same stem.

    The forms are actually much easier than in the Present because there are only four forms in total for masculine/feminine/neuter + plural, similar to adjectives (the forms were participles once).

    VERB masc fem neut pl
    ending
    быть был была́ бы́ло бы́ли
    есть ел е́ла е́ло е́ли

    «идти» and all its derivatives (пойти́, прийти́, найти́..) has a strange, irregular past stem:

    walked, went: он пошёл, она пошла́, оно пошло́, они пошли́

    For the masculine form, there is a phonetic simplification for verbs with infinitives in -чь,-сти/-зти, -зть/-сть. For example “мочь”(“can”), “ползти́”(crawl) and “лезть”(climb): он мог, полз, лез — no final Л here.

    This skill mostly covers the past form of imperfective verbs (only «уста́ть» and «подожда́ть» are perfective). What it means for you is that when 2 or more such actions are mentioned, they were all happening at the same time or in no particular order. Why? Imperfective verbs like «идти́», «жить», «говори́ть» are by nature unspecific about their exact time frame.

    • they express repeated or prolonged action
    • they express action in progress
    • they can also express the fact that an action has or has not occured (with or without details on "when" it took place).

    What about the present form?

    For some verb types the two stems are nearly identical (понима́ть, говори́ть). Which is a good thing for you!

  • 32 Prefixes291 @ 50% 50 •••
    восстание · восстании · восстановили · восстановить · остановилась · остановилось · остановился · остановиться · передай · передайте · передумаем · передумаешь · передумал · передумала · переедем · перееду · переехала · переехали · перезвонил · перезвоню · переоделась · переоденусь · переодеться · перестали · перестань · пригласил · пригласила · пригласили · придумал · придумать · придумаю · принеси · принесла · принесу · принёс · проверить · проверьте · проверю · пропустила · пропустили · пропустит · проспал · просплю · разбил · разбила · разбили · разбить · разобрал · разобрали · разобрать · разработал · разработали · разработать · рассвет · рассвете · расстроилась · расстроился · расстроится · снизил · снизили · снимите · снял · сняла · собрала · собрали · собрать · создал · создали
    68 words

    Though English has words like undergo, ongoing or rearrange, making new words from old ones is not a particularly productive way of building the core vocabulary in the English language. Russian has quite a number of prefixes and suffixes routinely used in words, including those in your essential vocabulary.

    Such verbs have natural polysemy (in layman's terms: a handful of somewhat related meanings). For example, собрать means both "to gather, to pick up" (eg. flowers) and "to assemble" (eg. an IKEA chair). Both meanings grow from the parts that comprise the word: брать is "to take, to pick", and со- adds a meaning of "togetherness".

    Some prefixes

    • пере- has a rough meaning of re- or over-doing, passing some limit or extensively doing the action.
    • раз-/рас- often expresses action "outward", scattering or splitting apart (physically or metaphorically). It also has a meaning of inducing an "excited" state.
    • про mimics its behaviour with verbs of motion and has a rough meaning of an action that went past its intended goal, "thorough" action or action that goes through something (e.g. проверить "to check", пропустить "to miss; to let through", провалиться "to fall though / to fail")

    It is important to understand that only a few prefixes are like «пере», i.e. have a very focused meaning. Most Russian prefixes behave similarly to English prepositions when you add them to English verbs as particles. One's knowledge of English helps one guess what "turn up", "take off" or "run out" may mean. However, you can never be sure without a dictionary or a context that makes the meaning obvious (or you can ask someone to explain the word to you).

  • 32 History & Fantasy292 @ 50% 50 •••
    армии · армия · битва · воин · воина · воину · войне · войну · войны · волшебник · волшебников · враг · врага · враги · врагов · выстрелил · выстрелили · греции · грецию · греция · да здравствует · держит · держу · дракон · дракона · драконов · дракону · древнего · древней · древнем · древнюю · древняя · заброшенном · заброшенных · замка · замке · замок · злое · злой · использовались · используется · копьё · королеве · королевой · королевы · король · крепость · лука · меч · мировая · мировой · началась · начнётся · оружие · попала · произойдёт · произошла · произошло · пушек · пушка · пушки · революции · революцию · революция · рим · рима · риме · рыцари · рыцарь · служат · служим · стрел · стрела · стрелы · стрелял · стрелять · стреляют · танки · танков · танковая · убил · убьют · храм · храме · щит
    85 words

    Да здра́вствует коро́ль!

    The Russian "Long live the X" structure is an example of the high-style 3rd-person imperative. It sounds solemn and is typical of old texts. One more example:

    • Да бу́дет свет! = Let there be light!

    за́мок / замо́к

    "A castle" and "a lock" are spelt the same in Russian; only the stress is different. Such use is a calque from German. Or rather WAS—in Polish. The Russian word for "castle" is borrowed from Polish, hence its penultimate stress:

    • Мы наконе́ц взя́ли за́мок. = We finally took the castle.

    Борьба́ добра́ со злом.

    Good and evil as concepts are «добро́» and «зло». If you want to describe a person or a deed as good or evil, use adjectives «до́брый» and «злой».

    The former previously meant "good" as in "not bad"; this is why you have «доброе утро». In modern Russian this meaning is largely gone.

    Храм

    A larger (in layman's terms) Christian church building is called a «храм», which is also a word for places of worship belonging to other religions/belief systems.

    World War II

    The Russian expressions for the two world wars of the 20th century are «Пе́рвая мирова́я война́» and «Втора́я мирова́я война́». In less official texts and speech they work just fine without «война»:

    • Этот фильм был снят ещё до второй мировой. = This movie was filmed before World War II.
  • 32 Business283 @ 50% 50 •••
    важно · договор · заключат · заключили · заключить · зарплата · качество · над · название · организовала · организовали · отдела · отделе · план · планов · плану · проектах · проекте · проектом · производит · производите · производят · сдавала · сдают · сдаём · серьёзный · серьёзных · собрание · собрания · советуем · советует · советую · уволили · уволят · успешная · успешный · успешных · участвовать · участвует · участвуешь · участвую · финансовая · финансовый · фирма · фирмы · центральном · центральный · экономист · экономиста
    49 words

    организовать

    One of the verbs introduced here deserves special attention. «Организовать» belongs to a small group of so-called biaspectual verbs. These verbs work both as a perfective and an imperfective verb—the interpretation depends on context and common sense:

    • Он атакует. = He is attacking.
    • Он атакует утром. = He will attack in the morning.
    • Мы организуем концерты. = We organize concerts.
    • Они обязательно организуют встречу. = They will, surely, organize a meeting.

    работать над чем-то

    "Working on something" is a set expression in Russian too. Use «над» with the Instrumental:

    • Инженеры и учёные работают над решением этой проблемы = Engineers and scientist are already working on a solution to that problem.

    успешный

    The adjective "successful" is mostly used with nouns meaning some endeavors or attempts to do something; also with nouns like "company", "businessman".

    Their use with random words for people is also creeping in slowly (as a calque from English) but it is going to sound weird and awkward for quite a while. Unlike English, this usage in Russian is mainly associated with fame and financial success, so it limits the professions that feel "right" and unambiguous when described as «успешный».

  • 32 Fleeting Vowels273 @ 50% 50 •••
    банок · бутылок · вилок · испанец · испанка · испанцев · колец · кольца · кольца · коробок · кружек · кружка · кружки · куска · кусков · ложек · перец · перца · ручек
    19 words

    Sometimes a word gains or loses a vowel when declined to a different form:

    • 1 чашка → 5 чашек
    • 1 день → 2 дня
    • 1 кусок → 2 куска

    It only happens to О and Е and mostly in words having certain suffixes. Such sounds are called fleeting vowels and appear/disappear quite regularly in some stems.

    ►if a vowel appears, it only appears in Genitive plural

    ► if a vowel vanishes, it vanishes everywhere except Nominative singular.

    Here, we mainly focus on the following words:

    • those that have -ок/ек (ец) as a suffix. The vowel disappears in all forms except Nom.sing.)
    • feminine nouns with the suffix . Usually a vowel appears in Genitive plural. Е appears after "soft" consonants or hushes (дочек, чашек), О appears everywhere else (банок).
    • some nouns that have vowels appear or disappear in the stem consonant cluster

    The existence of these vowels can be traced back to the time when Ь and Ъ used to be short vowels ("yers"). Back then, all syllables in Russian had to end in a vowel. Later, these sounds were lost in weak positions (word-final position or the position before a stressed vowel/a strong position).

    But that's history. Anyway, it is nice to know that in «сто»/«сотня» (a hundred), «со мной» there is a good reason for "о" to be where it is. The disappearing vowel in «весь»/«все» has the same origin.

    Some of the fleeting vowels in Modern Russian have appeared from an analogy with other words and have no historical basis in Old East Slavic.

  • 32 Prefixed Verbs of Motion242 @ 50% 50 •••
    вовремя · войду · вошла · вошли · выйду · выйти · вышел · граница · границей · границу · отойди · отойдите · переходите · переходишь · перехожу · подойди · подошли · подошёл · приду · придёте · прилетела · прилетели · прилетит · пришли · проходит · проходите · прохожу · сквозь · убегу · убежала · убежишь · уедут · уезжаешь · уезжают · уехал · уйду · уйдём · уйти · уходим · уходите · уходить · ушла
    42 words

    Back in Motion

    Having covered the basic verbs of motion earlier, it's time to go a bit deeper.

    While English often uses additional words and/or a completely different verb to convey different nuances of movement somewhere, Russian typically takes one of the basic verbs of motion and modifies it with a prefix.

    They often come in pairs, so we have:

    при- expresses approaching in a general way. Иван приехал в Россию = Ivan arrived in/came to Russia. у- conveys going away or leaving. Дженни уехала из Москвы = Jenny left Moscow.

    в-/во- for movement into an enclosed space. Он вошёл в комнату. = He entered the room. вы- for movement out of an enclosed space. Я выйду из дома = I will leave the house.

    под-/подо- movement towards. Он подошёл ко мне = He walked up to me. от-/ото- movement away from. Она отошла от него = She walked away from him.

    Also:

    про- through or past. Мы проехали туннель = we drove through the tunnel. Они прошли мимо церкви = They walked past a church.

    пере- across Я перешла/перешёл мост = I crossed the bridge.

    A tricky aspect

    You may have spotted so far that the examples have all been the one-directional versions of 'go' and that they are all past or future. Well, here's where it may get confusing. When they have a prefix attached, the one- and two- directional versions of 'go' convey aspect rather than 'directionality'. This probably makes more sense with an example:

    Я перехожу мост - I am crossing the bridge/I cross the bridge

    Я перейду мост - I will cross the bridge.

  • 32 Verbs of Motion201 @ 50% 50 •••
    бегает · бегать · бегают · беги · бежал · бежали · бежать · бежите · веду · ведут · ведёт · голуби · голубь · голубя · едем · едете · едут · ездил · ездила · ездим · ездит · ездите · ездить · езжу · каждое · каждой · каждый · кино · летали · летать · летают · летел · летит · летят · лечу · музее · музей · назад · озере · пешком · плаваем · плаваете · плыву · плывут · плывёт · плыла · пляж · пляже · побежал · побежала · побежали · повернул · повернула · повернули · повернуть · поехал · поехала · поехали · пошла · пошли · пошёл · пруд · пруда · пруду · самолёт · самолёта · середина · середине · середину · франции · францию · ходили · ходишь · чаще · шла · шоссе · шёл
    77 words

    Run: there and back again

    Russian verbs of motion come in two varieties:

    • a one-way, specific verb (like идти́→). They're used for one-way trips strictly to/from some goal (usually a single instance)
    • a multi-directional verb (like ходи́ть⇆)

    Multi-directional verbs ⇆↝

    They can express three different things:

    • repeated trips: «Я хожу́ в школу»
    • a round trip: «Где ты была?»—«Ходи́ла в магази́н».
    • moving with no goal or referring the action/trip in general: «Моя́ до́чка уже́ хо́дит».

    From a practical point of view, a one-way verb is virtually always a Continuous tense in English, while a multidirectional verb corresponds with a Simple tense or the Present Perfect (a trip happened→"I've been there - and come back"). Or to a Continuous tense when it is a random movement.

    • Pay attention to бежа́ть (to run→), which is an irregular verb (though, only a little bit).

    Pairs (→ / ⇆)

    • идти́ / ходи́ть – movement on foot or within a city; also OK when talking about a public transportation route
    • е́хать / е́здить – movement by vehicle on land, also a generic verb for travelling to other countries.
    • лете́ть / лета́ть – "to fly", to move though air
    • плы́ть / пла́вать – "to swim", to move by water
    • нести́ / носи́ть – "to carry" an object, on foot
    • везти́ / вози́ть – "to carry" a person/object, by some means of transportation
    • вести́ / води́ть – to "lead" a person, on foot (also about roads and about "driving" a vehicle)

    Up to 14 or 18 verbs of motion are found in Russian, though we only teach 3 to 5 common ones.

    Waaait, what about perfectives?

    To make a perfective (specific!) verb, add a prefix «по-» to a one-way verb (идти́→пойти́). It gives a perfective with an implied focus on the initial point ("setting out").

    • other prefixes add their meaning; to get an imperfective verb, attach the same prefix to a multi-directional verb (уйти/уходи́ть, уе́хать/уезжа́ть, прилете́ть/прилета́ть etc.) Pay attention to «-езжать».

    • With "по-" the imperfective meaning differs (a rather typical shade "to perform an action for some time")

  • 32 House181 @ 50% 50 •••
    адреса · адресе · ваза · вазе · висел · висела · висит · включил · включила · включить · выключил · выключила · выключить · гараж · гараже · дворе · деревянная · деревянный · еду · еды · жёлтая · жёлтые · жёлтый · звонил · звонила · звонит · зелёной · зелёные · зелёным · зеркале · картина · картине · квартира · квартире · квартиру · ковра · ковром · коридор · коридора · кресла · кресло · крыша · крыше · крышей · крышу · кухни · кухня · лифт · лифта · лифте · мебели · мебель · начал · начала · начали · открыл · открыли · продавали · продают · продаёт · рок · светло · светлое · сел · села · сели · сесть · слушаем · слушаешь · слушаю · слушают · сначала · снимаем · снимал · снимали · снимаю · стена · стене · стены · телефону · темно · тяжёлое · тяжёлый · удобная · удобный · удобных · хватает · хватало · холодильник · холодильнике · шкаф · шкафу
    92 words

    Points of compass

    Example translation
    на + Acc. на север north (about motion)
    на + Prep. на севере (+Gen) in the north (of)
    к + Dat. к северу (+от Gen) to the north (of), north of
    с + Gen. с севера from the north

    Now you can say where you live:

    • на юге Берли́на = in the south of Berlin (i.e. inside the city)
    • к югу от Берли́на = to the south of Berlin (i.e. in another settlement outside of the city)

    «Двор» and "courtyard"

    The word «двор» requires some attention. Technically it can be either yard or courtyard in English because it means either a piece of land near the house or an area inside a group of buildings.

    In this course it is "courtyard". After all, you'll mostly encounter «двор» when people refer to the area enclosed by a group of buildings as opposed to the area by the street. Don't expect it to look idyllic, though.

    Locative

    Just a reminder that there are certain short masculine nouns for places which have a stressed ending in the Prepositional, instead of the which you'd expect. Ex.: на полу́, на мосту́, в шкафу́, в лесу́, на берегу́, в порту́, на льду́, на углу́ в саду́, в снегу́.

    It is not a variant form, i.e. its use is obligatory, which makes it the strongest "extra" case in Russian.

    the Pseudo-passive

    It is very common in Russian to use the 3rd person plural of a verb without any "they" to express that the action is performed by unspecified "persons":

    bare 3rd pers.pl. English: passive (mostly)
    Меня́ зову́т Том. My name's Tom.
    Тут де́лают маши́ны. Cars are made here.
    Так не говоря́т. People don't talk like that.
    В нача́ле гото́вят лук. First, the onions are cooked.

    This particular wording won't work if you describe something that happens "by itself".

    хвата́ть

    Using the impersonal verb «хвата́ть» is one of the ways to express the idea of having enough of something. The person is used in the Dative while the thing you have or do not have enough of is stated in the Genitive:

    • Мне не хвата́ет де́нег. = I do not have enough money.
    • Нам хвата́ет еды́. = We have enough food.
    • Ей хвата́ет рабо́ты. = She has enough work.

    The perfective counterpart is «хвати́ть».

  • 41 Science321 @ 50% 50 •••
    анализ · анализа · анализом · атом · атома · атомов · большинство · верно · вещества · веществами · вещество · вид · видов · виды · водород · водорода · вращается · вселенная · вселенной · газ · газы · давление · давлении · давления · данные · данных · до сих пор · достаточно · естественно · естественный · жидкости · жидкость · измерить · изучен · изучено · какова · каково · каковы · кислород · кислорода · клетка · клетки · клеток · кристалл · кристаллов · лаборатории · лаборатория · луна · луны · масса · массу · металл · металлов · металлы · метод · методов · методы · микроскоп · млекопитающее · млекопитающих · молекула · молекулы · наблюдается · наука · науке · наукой · неверно · объясняется · объясняются · оказалась · оказались · оказалось · описана · описывает · открыл · открыть · планета · планеты · показал · показали · при · природа · природу · проводим · проводить · проводят · происхождение · происхождения · процесс · процессы · рептилии · рептилий · рост · свойств · свойства · свойство · скорости · скорость · со временем · состоит · состоят · считается · теория · увеличение · увеличении · ускорение · ускорения · утверждение · форма · форму · формы · частица · частицы · эксперимент · эксперименты · электричестве · электричество · элемент · элемента · эффект · явление · явления
    122 words

    Ready to shoot for the stars? Get in! Of course, we cannot teach you all of the science in a handful of lessons. This skill focuses on popular scientific concepts like electricity, analysis or the atom. It also gives you a taste of some words typical of scientific and educational style, so that you will not feel lost if you find them in a publication.

    Како́в?

    This bookish word is often used to ask about the identity of some property:

    • Какова́ суть пробле́мы? = What is the essence of the problem?
    • Какова́ ма́сса прото́на? = What is the mass of a proton?
    • Како́в разме́р вселе́нной? = What is the size of the universe?

    «Како́й» can be used in some of these sentences with careful rewording but generally it will sound clumsy unless used for a numeric property:

    • Какова́ ма́сса мюо́на? ≃ Кака́я у мюо́на ма́сса?

    да́нные

    "Data" is a plural-only word in Russian. Moreover, it is a nominalised adjective, so its endings are just like the ones adjectives have.

    при

    This is, actually, one of the four prepositions normally used with the Prepositional case. It roughly means "in the presence of", which does not have a good match in English. In a scientific context we often use it to describe conditions or circumstances:

    • При э́той температу́ре газ бы́стро расширя́ется. = At that temperature, the gas expands rapidly.

    • При увеличе́нии ма́ссы увели́чится и давле́ние. = If the mass is increased, the pressure will also increase.

    • При обы́чном давле́нии эффе́кт незаме́тен. = Under normal pressure, the effect is not noticeable.

    Short adjectives

    Some predicate adjectives are used quite often in scientific writing and speech:

    • Вселе́нная огро́мна. = The Universe is enormous.
    • Вре́мя о́чень мало́. = Time is very short.
    • Сопротивле́ние сли́шком велико́. = The resistance is too high.
  • 41 Technics and Home213 @ 50% 50 •••
    балкон · бензин · бензина · беру · берём · берёт · вагон · вагоне · вагонов · ванну · включи · включите · всего · всём · выключи · дешёвая · дешёвый · душ · душе · дёшево · ежедневная · ежедневно · ежедневные · инженер · инженеры · интернет · интернете · использовала · использовать · используете · используй · календари · календарь · компьютере · компьютеры · конверт · конверте · корабля · кораблях · лампой · лампы · легко · лестниц · лестница · лестнице · лёгкая · лёгкий · мечтает · мечтать · мир · мира · мире · мобильного · мобильный · мобильных · мотоцикл · мотоцикле · напечатай · напечатайте · напечатала · напечатать · общественного · общественный · плеер · плеера · плееры · поезда · поезда · поезде · покупаем · покупает · покупать · покупаю · покупают · почту · принимает · принимают · с собой · садится · садятся · сажусь · сломал · сломала · слушай · слушайте · строил · строим · строит · строить · техника · техники · трамвае · трамвай · трамвая · транспорт · транспорта · упал · упала · упало · флешка · флешке · фотоаппарата · чайник · чайнике · энциклопедии · энциклопедию · энциклопедия
    107 words

    пойду́

    Here we introduce the prefixed perfective for "to go(walk)" — пойти́. It is a perfective verb with a focus on "setting out" somewhere, just like other verbs of motion with «по-» («пое́хать», «побежа́ть», «полете́ть», «пове́сти»).

    Поезд идёт до станции «Блок»

    It is completely normal to use «идти» when talking about public transportation, i.e. passenger vehicles that repeatedly follow a prescribed route. These are preferred when talking about routes. Typically, it is идти because we treat it more like an objective fact of a certain trip taking you somewhere, than a particular vehicle going to a certain place (almost as if «идти» is not used as a verb of motion but as a way of stating the destination). «Ходить» is also used: for example, when saying that a bus exists that takes you from one place to another.

    When arriving at a terminal station on a subway, you can hear the following:

    • Поезд дальше не идёт. Просьба выйти из вагона. ~ lit. The train goes no further. Please exit from the car.

    A personal vehicle will always use ехать/ездить.

    A reminder: you use ONE-WAY verbs when describing motion in one direction, even if repeated. The verbs cease being interchangeable when the context of repeated motion implies the "trip back" cannot be included (like "After school I go to the station and take a train home."— here you have a sequence that makes the return trip absurd). We rarely have such sentences in the course. In real life, just remember to occasionally take a step back and refresh the basic idea behind the opposition: one-way motion vs. multi-directional trip.

  • 41 Something212 @ 50% 50 •••
    где-нибудь · где-то · грустно · жалко · жаль · какая-нибудь · какого-нибудь · какой-нибудь · кем-то · кого-нибудь · кого-то · которое · котором · который · кто-нибудь · кто-то · нигде · никому · никто · обычного · обычный · отличается · отличаются · то · того · тому · тот · точно · чем-то · что такое · что-нибудь · что-то · чём-то
    33 words

    который

    «Который» ("that/which") is like an adjective, only it takes the gender of whichever object it "represents", and the case that corresponds to its role in the part of the sentence you use it in:

    • Где книга, которую я ищу?
    • Где книга, о которой мы говорили?

    Real or not: -то vs. -нибудь

    кто-нибудь and что-нибудь mean a "hypothetical" object. A placeholder for what you have in mind, not actually filled by anything in particular (and maybe you are wrong). Mostly useless in statements about the past: if you are sure it happened, then the object did exist.

    (remember, «кто» is masculine,_ «что» is neuter)

    кто-то and что-то refer to a specific but "unknown" object. You see/know that something exists (or you are sure of it) but you don't know its identity.

    They are somewhat interchangeable when you mean there's free choice from a limited number of options ("OK, have someone call me if Alex comes").

    NB: "any-" pronouns have wider use in English. When "anyone" means "whichever person you want", consider "кто угодно" or, if you mean everyone, "все". The above only applies to cases of an "unknown" object.

    I've got something special for you!

    Кое-что and Кое-кто are "secret" pronouns. They mean a certain object that you know but are deliberately not mentioning by name. Either you want to keep people guessing or do not consider the identity important to your point ("Yeah, I have worked with some people here").

    Special cases

    Когда-нибудь is used mainly for "ever" in the past or "one day" in the future. Когда-то is mostly for "once" in the past; almost never used in future.

    Как-нибудь is also sometime used to refer to some future moment rather than manner of action.

    Где-то is also used colloquially to mean "approximately*.

    Кое-как is only an adverb. It means either a job done sloppily or an action performed "barely", with difficulty.

  • 32 The Same272 @ 25% 75 •••
    один и тот же · одинаковые · одинаковый · одинаковых · одно и то же · одного и того же · одном и том же · самая · самое · самый · та же · так же · такая же · такое же · такой же · там же · то же · тогда же · той же · тот же · туда же
    21 words

    одинаковый / такой же

    Consider these two structures:

    • Tom and Tim are the same (as each other).
    • Tom and Tim are the same (as you).

    English uses "the same" for both. Russian expresses these two relations differently:

    • Том и Тим одина́ковые.
    • Том и Тим таки́е же (, как ты).

    Other similar things

    A number of these «же»-words exist:

    • тот же X = the same X →usually the same object
    • тако́й же X = the same (kind of) X → usually the object with the same characteristics
    • так же = in the same way
    • тогда́ же = at the same time
    • там же = at the same place
    • туда́ же = to the same place

    NB: «же» has other uses, namely to emphasize information the listener must be aware of but fails to use (Ты же сам меня́ спроси́л).

    When comparing to something else, a paired pronoun is used in a relative clause:

    • Это тот же челове́к, что и вчера́. = This is the same person as yesterday.
    • Она́ живёт там же, где и мы. = She lives at the same place where we do.
    • Мы рабо́таем тогда́ же, когда́ и вы. = We work at the same time as you.

    Note the "и", which makes it a lot more natural.

    The usage of these pronouns is not as obvious. Тако́й же is typically paired with как and тот же with что or кото́рый(for persons).

    I don't care

    To say that you "don't care", "don't give a (smth)" about something, you use «всё равно́» with Dative subject.

    • Мне всё равно́, что ты поду́маешь.

    You also use it to say that doing something is "essentially the same thing" as something else.

    Set expressions

    «Тут же» actually means "right away".

    You can say something is "one and the same" object by using «оди́н и тот же» or «оди́н» (the latter is OK when it's a modifier):

    • Мы живём в одно́м (и том же) до́ме.
    • Тома́т и помидо́р — э́то одно́ и то же.

    (одно́ и то же as a "noun" is always neuter and cannot be replaced by одно́)

    You can say something is the same object as already mentioned before by using «тот же са́мый»:

    • Это та же са́мая статья́! = That's the same very article!
    • Вы уве́рены, что это тот же са́мый челове́к? = Are you sure that's exactly the same man (as before)?
  • 32 Prepositions 2271 @ 25% 75 •••
    вместо · вокруг · за · из-за · мимо · на · несмотря на · правил · проедем · проеду · проехала · проехать · пройдём · пройдёте · против · прошли · прошёл · через
    18 words
    • из-за (+ Gen.) is a Genitive preposition with the meaning of "because of". It is mostly used to name the cause of something unpleasant or time-consuming (eg. "They got fired because of you").

    • мимо (+ Gen.) is a preposition meaning passing by something or missing the intended destination (target). It is quite productive in combination with verbs of motion having the про- prefix, which also works for the for the idea of "passing", "continuing motion despite reaching some point".

    • вместо (+ Gen.) means "instead of", "in place of"—for examples, when expressing something being "replaced" by something else (hence the «место» part).

  • 32 Plans263 @ 25% 75 •••
    вернуться · встречаться · закончить · осмотреть · подождать · постирать · потратить · приезжать · принести · продолжить · путешествовать · собираемся · собираетесь · собирается · собираешься · собиралась · собирались · собирался · собираюсь · собираются
    20 words

    собира́ться

    The focus of this skill is just one Russian verb, «собира́ться». It means something between "to be going to" and "to plan/to intend to". The verb means that it is your intention to perform some action, and you are, most likely, taking some steps (physical or cognitive) to let it eventually happen:

    • Мы за́втра собира́емся пойти́ в кино́. = We are planning to go the movies tomorrow.
    • Они́ собира́ются ждать до пяти́. = They are planning(going) to wait till five.
    • Мы собира́лись погуля́ть по па́рку. = We were going to take a walk through the park.

    It also has its plain literal meaning of "to gather" or "to pack your stuff, preparing to leave". Interestingly, when talking about going to some place where some "event" is taking place, its literal and metaphorical meaning work together, so the verb can be used directly with a place: «Я собира́юсь на ле́кцию».

    The primary use of «собира́ться» is to show pre-planned future actions of persons. Things and beings that do not have consciousness can only use this verb in its literal meaning.

  • 32 Adjectives 3262 @ 25% 75 •••
    азиатские · азиатский · азиатском · американский · американскую · англо-русский · англо-русского · бедной · бедный · бесполезная · бесполезные · бесполезный · бесполезных · богатые · богатый · весенние · весенним · весенних · восточной · восточную · вредная · вредную · европейские · европейский · железная · железное · железный · западная · западной · западную · зимнее · зимние · зимняя · знакомую · знакомый · золотое · золотой · инструмент · инструментах · инструменте · испанский · испанского · испанском · испанскую · каменное · каменном · каменный · каникулы · кольцо · курсы · летнее · летние · летний · музыкальном · музыкальный · музыкальных · неправильный · осенние · осенних · отличная · отличный · полезную · полезный · полная · полный · польский · польского · польскую · полюс · полюсе · правильный · пустая · пустой · пустыми · северная · северном · северный · скучная · скучный · скучных · совет · школьная · школьном · школьный · южную · южный
    86 words

    Russian has a number of adjectives formed from other types of words, for example, nouns. Where English might use a noun chain or a few nouns stitched together ("summer shirt", "homework"), we often use an adjective—of course, if we have one («летняя рубашка», «домашняя работа»).

    Adjectival declension

    Here is the full table:

    ENDINGS masc. neut. fem. plural
    Nom. -ый(о́й)/ ‑ий -ое/ ‑ее ‑ая/ ‑яя -ые/-ие
    Acc. Nom. or Gen. -ое/ ‑ее -ую/ ‑юю Nom. or Gen.
    Gen. -ого/‑его see m. -ой/-ей -ых/-их
    Prep. -ом/-ем see m. -ой/-ей -ых/-их
    Dat. ‑ому/‑ему see m. -ой/-ей -ым/-им
    Instr. -ым/-им see m. -ой/-ей ‑ыми/ ‑ими

    знакомый

    «Знакомый» means "familiar". It also widely used as a noun for "pal, acquaintance" (знакомый for males, знакомая for females)

  • 32 Together253 @ 25% 75 •••
    вдвоём · встанем · давай · давайте · друг друга · друг с другом · загорает · загорать · купим · поможем · посмотрим · проведём · ужинаем · ужинает · ужинаю · ужинают
    16 words

    Let's speak Russian

    To express the idea of "let's" (a suggestion or proposal to carry out an action or participate in some activity together) Russian uses the imperative Давай (plural давайте).

    Use it with the infinitive for imperfective verbs:

    • Дава́йте чита́ть вме́сте.
    • Дава́й спать.
    • Дава́й рисова́ть.
    • Дава́йте говори́ть по-ру́сски.

    Use it with non-past "we"-form for perfective verbs:

    • Дава́й прочита́ем расска́з.
    • Дава́йте пойдём в парк.
    • Дава́й напи́шем ей отве́т.
    • Дава́й нарису́ем дом

    Each other

    The set expression «друг друга» is used to express the action done to "each other". The first "friend" is always in Nominative, and the second takes the case required by the sentence—and any prepositions you need:

    • Мы лю́бим друг дру́га. = We love each other
    • Они́ ду́мают друг о дру́ге. = They think about each other.

    Just the two of us

    To express doing an action together, Russian may opt to use words that specify the number of people as 2, 3 etc: вдвоём, втроём, вчетверо́м, впятеро́м, вшестеро́м, всемеро́м, also вдесятеро́м. Two to four are used the most. 8, 9 or larger than 10 are virtually never used.

    English just uses "together", so, understandably, these are useful to know but boring to translate:

    • Они́ жи́ли там вдвоём. = They lived there together (the two of them)

    Bonus to those who speak languages that have similar adverbs.

  • 32 Compound Future241 @ 25% 75 •••
    болеть · будем · будет · будешь · буду · будут · варить · висеть · выступал · выступать · ехать · мыла · мыть · обсуждать · пианист · пианиста · помогать · рисовать · ставить · стоить · танцевать · ужинать · учить · фотографировать · чувствовать
    25 words

    Imperfective future

    There is another way of expressing the future in Russian besides the perfective covered earlier, namely (you guessed it) the imperfective. Its primary use is to show some prolonged or repeated activity in the future rather than to focus on a single action done at some particular point in time. (It tends to be overused by foreign learners).

    To form the imperfective future, use the appropriate variation of будет and an infinitive of an imperfective verb:

    • Завтра я буду спать = I'll be sleeping tomorrow
    • Они будут весь день учиться = They are going to be studying all day.
    • Летом я буду больше бегать = I'm going to run more in the summer.
    • Будете есть торт? = Will you eat the cake?

    It is quite useful for describing what you will generally be occupied with at a certain moment or day ("at 3 p.m. I'll still be working") in the future.

    I will not do this!

    There is one more important verb to discuss here. «Стать» (to become) is used with an infinitive in negative sentences to express a decision not to do something, both in past and in future.:

    • Я не стану смотреть этот фильм! = I will not watch this movie!
    • Вчера она не стала готовить обед. = Yesterday she did not cook lunch (because she chose not to).

    We mostly skip the past use because English does not actually distinguish between the past action that just did not happen and the past actions that were not taken because a person decided not to. Стать is also used (to a degree) in positive past sentences to mean "started doing the prolonged activity". Quite a rare thing in future.

  • 32 City and People202 @ 25% 75 •••
    автобусная · автобусной · автобусные · актриса · актрисы · вашем · вход · входа · выход · выхода · выходом · гостиниц · другая · другой · другом · ждите · жду · ждут · ждёт · железная · железной · закрыт · закрыто · закрыты · иностранец · иностранцев · итальянец · итальянка · кинотеатр · кинотеатрах · китаец · китайцев · нами · нашем · немец · немка · остановка · остановки · открыт · открыта · открыто · офисе · площади · площади · площадь · площадью · по-моему · повар · повара · район · районе · реке · рекой · свободен · свободна · свободно · станцию · станция · столица · столице · сторона · стороне · супермаркет · супермаркете · углом · центр · центра · центре
    68 words

    Stop right there!

    What you call a place where some transport stops, that depends on the transport. The trains stop at «ста́нция» while bus and tram stops are «остано́вка» («авто́бусная», «тролле́йбусная», «трамва́йная»).

    Note the Locative 2 in мост and угол(corner): на мосту́, на углу́, в углу́.

    «Маршру́тка» is a minibus that travels at semi-regular intervals, often trying to take an adequate amount of passengers at the starting point. Most will follow the same route as the regular bus of the same number. Due to translation difficulties, it is not covered in this course.

    «Вокза́л» is a large railway station with a station building, often a terminus but not necessarily (that's where you would look for an inter-city train).

    Englishman and Englishwoman

    Most popular names for people from different countries or ethnic groups will have a version for males and another for females. Look for a suffix, since the formation of these kind of nouns is extremely typical: англича́нин/англича́нка, испа́нец/испа́нка, шве́д/шведка, коре́ец/корея́нка, кита́ец/китая́нка, францу́з/францу́женка, гре́к/греча́нка...

    Other point of interest

    Railway is «желе́зная доро́га» in Russian (lit. 'iron road'). «Суперма́ркет», while sometimes similar to supermarkets you know, is usually a medium-size self-service shop selling primarily groceries and some other essentials, so grocery store is closer to the definition.

  • 32 Reflexive182 @ 25% 75 •••
    беспокойтесь · беспокоюсь · боимся · боится · боялась · бреетесь · бреется · брился · велосипеда · велосипеде · возвращалась · возвращаться · возвращаюсь · встретились · встретиться · встречается · встречаются · двигается · движется · заботился · заботится · заботишься · забочусь · закрывается · закрылась · закрылся · катаемся · катается · кататься · катаюсь · коньках · коньки · лыжах · лыжи · меняется · меняться · меняются · моюсь · мылся · мыться · начинается · начинаются · одеваемся · одевается · одеваешься · одевалась · одеваюсь · осталась · осталось · остался · открывается · открылась · открылось · открылся · поцеловались · поцеловался · приближается · продаются · продаётся · раздевается · раздеваешься · раздеваюсь · родилась · родился · сама · себя · смеешься · смеются · смеялся · смеётся · ссоримся · ссорюсь · ссорятся · становилось · становится · чувствует · чувствуете · чувствую
    78 words

    In theory

    The reflexive is used when a subject performs an action "on itself". In English it is generally not stated explicitly. When you say that someone shaves or stops, it is understood that the action relates to themselves, unless a different "object" is provided.

    These verbs end in -ся /-сь in Russian («ся» after a consonant, «сь» after a vowel)

    As a rule, these verbs never take a direct object in the Accusative. «Бояться» (to be afraid of) is one of the few exceptions, in that it can use Accusative for people.

    In practice

    Russian reflexive verbs may mean a number of things. Here are the most popular meanings:

    • true reflexive: мыться, бриться. Mostly for verbs like "wash", "shave", "comb your hair".
    • reciprocal ("each other"): встречаться, целоваться, "meet/date/go out with", "kiss".
    • passive (for imperfective verbs only): Еда готовится лучшими поварами. "The food is (being) prepared by the best chefs"
    • emotional state or some movement/change: родиться, удивиться, учиться, радоваться, меняться, двигаться, "to be born", "to be surprised", "to learn", "to be glad", "to change", "to move".
    • inclination to do something (in impersonal constructions): Мне не спится = I do not feel like sleeping.
    • lexical verbs that are reflexive for no particular reason: нравиться, бояться, заниматься, садиться. Some of these are only used with «-ся». Some also exist in a "bare" form but mean a completely different thing.
    We do not have some of the non-reflexive base verbs in the course (some are rare or just a little beyond what we could include in the course and not make it overly long). However, some just don't exist.

    себя

    «Себя» is a reflexive object pronoun: it means the same thing as the subject of the verb (or the implied subject, if the sentence doesn't contain a subject):

    • Посмотри на себя! = Look at yourself!
    • Мы не думали о себе. = We didn't think about ourselves.
    • Он говорит сам с собой. = He is talking to himself («сам с собой» is just more idiomatic here)

    Note that, as usual for pronouns, it is much more natural before the verb. Its declension pattern is, naturally, the same as for «меня» or «тебя». Since it can't be the subject of the sentence, it doesn't have a Nominative form.

    It is also used with some verbs:

    • чувствовать себя = to feel (a certain way)
    • представить (себе) = to imagine
    • вести себя = to behave
    • брать с собой = to take along ("with yourself")
    • выходить из себя = to lose one's temper

    («с собой» then is generally used to express having something with you or "on one's person", not only with "брать")

    Remember the «Мы у друга»-structures? They work here, too:

    • Я у себя. = I am at my place.
    • Мы у себя дома. = We are at (our) home.

    Other

    • reflexive verbs for some actions (often harmful) typical of a subject: Собака кусается = The dog bites.

    It often works for animals and people (to scratch, to butt, to swear). However, in a sense, it is also the meaning in "Книга легко читается", which corresponds to "The book is easy to read", i.e. usually it "is read" without difficulty (by whoever reads it).

    • про себя = "to oneself" (as opposed to "aloud")
    • сам по себе = on its own
    • само собой (разумеется) = "it goes without saying"
    • Мне не по себе. = I feel uneasy/sick/uncomfortable.
  • 32 Countries and Places173 @ 25% 75 •••
    американец · американка · американке · американцев · американцу · англии · англию · англия · белоруссии · белоруссии · белоруссия · гора · горе · горы · добро пожаловать · иностранные · иностранный · иностранных · испании · испании · испания · италией · италии · италия · итальянские · итальянский · итальянское · казахстан · казахстана · казахстане · канаде · канаду · канады · карте · карту · киев · киева · киеве · китае · китай · китая · когда-нибудь · лондон · лондоне · отдохнули · отдохнуть · польша · польше · польшу · понравилась · понравился · понравится · почти · приедет · приеду · приехал · приехали · сибири · сибирь · спортсмен · спортсменка · спортсменов · спортсмены · украинец · украинский · француз · французов · французски · французские · французский · французское · японец · японию · япония · японка · японский · японского · японцев
    78 words

    Sweden, a Swede, Swedish

    In Russian, the name of the country, the name of a person from there and their language are all different words. They are related, however, and few patterns exist:

    country male female adjective
    А́нглия англича́нин англича́нка англи́йский
    Кита́й (China) кита́ец китая́нка кита́йский
    Ита́лия италья́нец италья́нка италья́нский
    Кана́да кана́дец кана́дка кана́дский
    Аме́рика америка́нец америка́нка америка́нский
    Казахста́н каза́х каза́шка каза́хский
    Фра́нция францу́з францу́женка францу́зский

    It's worth pointing out here (in case you hadn't spotted it already) that while English capitalizes country/language adjectives, Russian does not.

    Simple Future

    Describing a "simple" future action (not a process) is rather straightforward—take a perfective verb and make its "present" form the same as you did with imperfective. The difference is, perfective verbs have no present:

    • Ду́маю, тебе́ понра́вится Том = I think you'll like Tom. (from нра́виться/по́нравиться)
    • Я приду́ в шко́лу = I'll come to school. (прийти is a prefixed perfective variant of «идти»)

    English, of course, has a number of ways of expressing the future, so use "will" or "is going to" (or indeed the present continuous/progressive) as you deem appropriate.

    Программи́ст-кана́дец

    Since in Russian, ethnicity is described with a noun, they can produce hyphenated compounds (just like other nouns). We have very few of them in this course.

    • писа́тель-италья́нец = an Italian writer
    • студе́нт-худо́жник = a student who is an artist
    • студе́нт-каза́х = a Kazakh student
    • подру́га-англича́нка = an English friend (fem.)

    Междунаро́дный

    It comes from «ме́жду» + «наро́ды», i.e. "between"+"peoples", which is quite literally "international".

    The loanword «интернациональный» means the same but has quite limited use in certain combinations like "international team" or "international debt" (mostly these are from political contexts). This course largely avoids this word.

    Most likely, "international team/orchestra" etc. is the context where you must use «интернациональный»).

    Speak English!

    You can use both «говорить по-английски» (adverb) and «говорить на английском» (на + Prep.)

    «На английском» is specifically about content in the language or about linguistic ability. «По-английски» is about the way an action is done/ an object is made (for objects, it does not mean the language).

    So a book can only be written «на английском». However, if you mean "English-style pizza", it can only be «пицца по-английски»!

  • 41 Crime and Justice351 @ 25% 75 •••
    адвокат · адвоката · адвокаты · арестовали · арестован · арестованы · ведут · ведёт · вина · виновен · виновна · виновны · вор · вора · воре · доказана · доказано · доказательств · доказательства · защищает · защищали · защищать · мошенник · мошенника · на свободе · подозреваете · подозревать · подозревают · поиск · полиции · полиция · посадили · посадят · преступление · преступлением · преступник · преступника · приговорил · приговорили · расследование · расследовании · свидетель · свидетелю · совершил · совершить · суд · суда · судьи · судья · тюрьма · тюрьме · тюрьму · убийство · убийца · убийцу · украл · украла · украли
    58 words

    proof and evidence

    Usually when we are talking about a body of evidence proving something, it is plural «доказательства» (mathematical proof is still «доказательство»)

    A piece of (material) evidence, a clue is also «улика». We do not teach it here but a useful word to know nonetheless.

    совершить

    The verb «совершить» is the one you use to say someone "committed" a crime. In general language, it is also used in certain combinations like "to make a breakthrough" or "to make a discovery".

    тюрьма

    After a criminal has been found guilty, he or she is often sent to or put in jail as a punishment. Russian uses the verb «посадить». Incidentally, this is the same verb that is used to say that you've planted a tree. Where English uses the verb 'to be', in Russian, a person «сидит в тюрьме», literally 'sits in jail'.

  • 41 Nothing Left342 @ 25% 75 •••
    не о чем · не с кем · негде · незачем · некогда · некого · некому · некуда · нечего
    9 words

    This skill is about saying something like "I have nothing to fear" or "There is nothing to think about". Russian has special impersonal constructions to do just that; it makes use of negative predicate pronouns.

    They are all formed by adding a stressed «не» to a corresponding question word, which should be either "who"/"what" or an adverbial question word (e.g., "where").

    Use Dative to specify a person for whom this applies:

    • Мне не́чего чита́ть. = I have nothing to read.
    • Тут не́кого иска́ть. = There is no one to look for here.
    • Нам не́чего теря́ть. = We have nothing to lose.
    • Ей не́где спать. = She has nowhere to sleep.
    • Ва́не не с кем игра́ть. = Vanya has no one to play with.
    • Я ду́мал, э́той пробле́ме не́откуда взя́ться. = I had thought such a problem has nowhere to arise from.

    Note how the prepositions split pronouns formed from «кто» and «что». Only a few "simple" prepositions can do this, however:

    • Мне не с кем обща́ться. = I have no one to communicate with.
    • Не о чем беспоко́иться. = Nothing to worry about.
    • Не в чем вы́йти. = Nothing to wear to go out (about clothing).
    • Не на чем спать. = Nothing to sleep on.

    It is also useful to stress that such pronouns are only formed from oblique forms of «кто» and «что», since they never act as a sentence subject. Words «не́кто» and «не́что» are not in this list; they actually behave as analogues of "кто-то" and "что-то" in their base forms, just of a higher style.

    P.S. «как» does not produce such a pronoun. Neither do «почему́» and «како́й».

  • 41 Some Spoken Patterns341 @ 25% 75 •••
    ага · блин · ведь · вообще-то · всё равно · зайду · зайти · зашла · и так · круто · куда · куча · кучу · народу · нету · так что · ужасная · ужасно · ужасный · чуть не · чуть-чуть · чё · чё-нибудь
    23 words

    This skill gives you a glimpse of a few constructions common in speech and writing that are outside formal style.

    не́ту

    This word is the same as a predicative «нет», used in constructions of non-existence and not having:

    • У нас не́ту вре́мени! = We got no time!

    Ага́/Угу́

    These are informal versions of affirmative "yes" (yep, yup, uh-huh). «Ага́» uses a fricative sound, similar to uh-huh. «Угу́» is actually pronounced the same way, just with your mouth closed, so its spelling is just an attempt to imitate that "mm-hmm" sound.

    )

    While texting, Russian users often use smileys without the "eyes". If they are even more friendly than that or something is very funny, the number of brackets might skyrocket ))))))

    блин

    There are many ways to say "Crap!" or "Jeez!" in Russian. Блин is, probably, the most common in speech while being rather mild (it is a substitute for a much stronger word). «Чёрт» is also very common and acceptable in a wide range of contexts (and it is not associated with more obscene words). It is what you will find in many movies and games, even those aimed at kids.

  • 41 Spiritual and Supernatural332 @ 25% 75 •••
    ангел · ангела · ангелы · атеист · атеистом · бог · бога · буддистом · буддисты · мечетей · мечеть · молись · молитесь · молиться · мусульманин · мусульманка · привидение · привидений · привидения · религией · религии · религия · рождества · рождество · синагога · синагоге · синагогу · смерти · смерть · страдание · судьба · судьбу · существует · существуешь · существуют · христиане · христианин · христианка · церквей · церкви
    40 words

    A few cultural notes

    Russian has two words for church, «це́рковь» and «храм».

    «Храм» is a more generic term and is used in contexts where "temple" or "house of worship" would usually be used in English.

    «Це́рковь»(church) is a Christian place of worship, and also means the organization itself. A smaller church building is more likely to be called «церковь», although the size is not the defining factor (this is determined by the number of altars and what the building has been called traditionally).

    The Orthodox Church in Russia (and a few other countries) still uses the historic Julian calendar for some of its celebrations. As of 2021, there is a 13-day difference between the Julian and the Gregorian (modern) calendar, so Christmas in Russia falls on January 7.

    «Бог» is pronounced /бох/, which reflects the older pronunciation of the letter 'Г'. Its oblique forms are pronounced normally.

    Salat, a Muslim religious practice conducted 5 times a day, is typically «нама́з» in Russian. It is not a prayer, by the way, which would be «дуа́».

    Ghosts

    The word for a ghost, «привидение», can act as an animate or inanimate noun. Ghosts are usually animate when you treat them as characters. When you are talking about ghosts as a phenomenon or in general, they are just as easily inanimate. The exact choice depends on the speaker.

    If you want to say "a ghost of something", use призрак (it is otherwise a more serious word). In this use the word is usually treated as inanimate (the word is also inanimate if the ghost is female):

    • Я увидел призрак короля. = I saw the ghost of the king.
  • 41 Politics and Government331 @ 25% 75 •••
    в депутаты · власти · власть · выборах · выборы · глава · голосовали · голосовать · государства · государства · действия · депутат · закон · законы · заявил · кандидат · кандидата · критиковал · критиковали · критиковать · критикует · лидер · министр · министра · мнение · население · оппозиции · оппозиция · парламент · парламента · партии · партий · партия · по мнению · по словам · победила · победит · победить · политик · политика · политиков · правительства · правительство · президент · президента · президентом · премьер-министр · премьера · примут · принимает · принимаю · принимают · принял · приняли · принять · решение · родина · родину · родины · состояние · состоянии · территории · территория · экономика · экономики · экономику · является
    67 words

    полиция / милиция

    For a long time, «мили́ция» had been the word for Russian police. Then, during the 2009-2011 reform the name was changed to «поли́ция». The «милиционе́р» then becomes «полице́йский»

    Still, expect native speakers to use мили́ция and милиционе́р in speech for quite a while.

    выборы

    "Election(s)" is always plural in Russian.

    являться

    Russian has a formal verb «являться» which means "to be". The verb is reflexive. Its use is characteristic of formal writing and not necessary even there.

    However, there are some contexts where it is hard to do without it. For example, if you have a subordinate clause or a verb phrase where "to be" is the main verb (omitting it does not work well in this case):

    • A person that is not a politician, cannot understand this. = Челове́к, кото́рый не явля́ется поли́тиком, не мо́жет э́того поня́ть.

    Or, well, you can use a participle if you are that formal. Here, you can also use a Dative impersonal construction, which means about the same (eg. «Ты никогда не смо́жешь поня́ть»→«Тебе́ никогда не поня́ть»):

    • Челове́к, не явля́ющийся поли́тиком, не мо́жет э́того поня́ть.
    • Челове́ку, не явля́ющемуся поли́тиком, э́того не поня́ть.

    премьер-министр

    You can use either «премье́р-мини́стр» or a more colloquial word «премье́р» (which is behaves as a typical masculine noun)

    Officially, Russia has no position under the name of "prime minister", however, the Chairman of the Government is commonly called a prime minister in speech and in media. Which is why we teach it.

  • 41 Computers & Internet311 @ 25% 75 •••
    блог · блога · введите · ввела · ввели · видео · войти · вошел · вошла · вставил · вставить · вставь · вышел · документ · документе · жёсткий диск · жёстком диске · занимает · запускать · запусти · запустил · картинка · картинку · картинок · клавиатура · клавиатуре · клавиатуру · клавиша · клавиши · клавишу · кнопку · логин · места · микрофон · микрофона · микрофоны · монитор · монитора · нажал · нажала · нажать · нажмите · настройки · наушники · неверный · отправил · отправила · отправить · пароль · пост · программа · программу · сайт · сайта · сети · сеть · скачать · скопировала · скопировать · скопируй · социальная · социальной · социальную · стёр · стёрла · удали · удалила · удалить · файл · файла · файлы · фейсбук
    72 words
  • 41 Adverbial Participles312 @ 25% 75 •••
    благодаря · гуляя · думая · зная · написав · не подумав · одевшись · понимая · посмотрев · раздевшись · сделав · судя по · уходя · читая
    14 words

    An adverbial participle is a special form of the verb used to turn a verb into an adverb, you describe another action with it:

    There are two types of adverbial participles in Russian:

    • Imperfective: "while doing"
    • Perfective: "having done"

    English generally doesn't have these expressions as a one-word form. In Russian participles and adverbial participles are mostly used in books and when using a more formal style. However, there are a few popular adverbial participles that get used in speech sometimes.

    • Я рисовал горы и леса, думая о доме. = I drew mountains and forests, thinking about home.
    • Войдя в комнату, я включил свет. = Having entered the room, I switched the light on.

    Formation

    Not every verb has a participle. Still, here are the rules.

    Imperfective adverbial participles are formed by adding the suffix (or а) to the present stem:

    • входя, слушая, думая, включая, говоря
    • слыша

    Perfective adverbial participles are formed by adding one of the suffixes , or -вши(obligatory for reflective verbs), -ши (for stems ending in a consonant) to the infinitive stem:

    • сделав, поняв, узнав, съев, выключив
    • вернувшись, побрившись

    If the stem ends in т or д, is used instead:

    • найти → найдя
    • войти → войдя

    Adverbial participles behave like adverbs, i.e. they only have one form.

    Set expressions

    Some of these words have crystallized into popular expressions:

    • судя по = judging by
    • молча = silently
    • X лет спустя = X years later (bookish)
  • 41 An Introduction to Participles301 @ 25% 75 •••
    вышедшая · вышедшего · вышедший · вышедших · говорящая · говорящего · говорящую · живущая · живущие · живущих · забыт · забыта · забыто · заплатившего · заплативший · играющая · играющий · играющих · играющую · написавший · написан · написана · написанная · написанное · написанные · написано · пишущая · пишущий · построен · построено · предложение · предложений · предложения · приготовленный · пьющая · пьющего · пьющий · рисующая · рисующий · рисующих · рисующую · сделана · сделанная · сделанное · сделанный · сделано · севшая · севшие · севшую · читающая · читающего · читающие
    52 words

    A participle is a form of a verb used as an adjective:

    • I see a girl (who is) reading a newspaper. = Я ви́жу де́вочку, чита́ющую газе́ту.

    Participles behave like adjectives, so they have the same set of endings and grammatical cases. The difference is, you don't use a full participle as a predicate. Also, the usual position of participle phrases is after the noun, though they can precede it, too:

    • Я ви́жу чита́ющую газе́ту де́вочку.

    They are generally considered characteristic of a bookish or formal style. That is why we are only covering them briefly, to get you familiar enough with the concept that you'll recognise them when you bump into one when reading a text. This is really just a glimpse of what's there — the course would be incomplete without the participles but you don't have to use them (and, in fact, you're better off not using them, at least when speaking).

    Some participles have crystallized into adjectives, too:

    • говоря́щий попуга́й = a talking parrot.

    How To

    Russian verbs have present and past participles, which can be either active or passive (only transitive verbs can have passive participles, of course). These participles are formed from the verb's present stem and the verb's past stem.

    In the present tense, the suffix used depends on the conjugation. Here is the list of suffixes:

    ACTIVE PASSIVE
    PRESENT ущ(ющ) , ащ (ящ) ом(ем) , им
    PAST ш, вш нн(н), енн(ен), т

    Here are some examples. Try to determine which kind of participle you see: иду́щий, едя́щий, даю́щий, говоря́щий, чита́ющий, чита́емый, чита́вший, продаю́щий, прося́щий, спра́шивающий, купи́вший, ку́пленный, прода́вший, про́данный.

    There are actual rules that cover which verbs get which past suffix. However, teaching the formation of an arbitrary participle would be an overkill for this particular course. It is enough that you are able to identify them.

    • Again, look at the list above and make sure you can understand the meaning of each participle.

    Note that past passive participles ("a book that has been read") are only formed from perfective verbs in modern Russian.

    Short participles

    Passive participles can be short, like adjectives, which is most useful for past participles. The agent, if needed, is in the Instrumental (such a use sounds quite formal):

    • Пла́тье (бы́ло) сде́лано в Кита́е. = The dress was made in China.
    • Э́та кни́га (была́) напи́сана в 1999 = This book was written in 1999.
    • Иллюстра́ция нарисо́вана мной. = The illustration was drawn by me.
  • 41 Measure281 @ 25% 75 •••
    весом · глубина · глубине · глубиной · длина · длиной · длину · километр · километра · километров · метра · метров · около · пробежала · пробежали · пробежать · пробежит · проведёт · провела · провели · провёл · проехал · проехали · проехать · проживёт · прожил · прожили · пройти · прошла · прошли · расстояние · расстоянии · тонн · тонна · тонны · ширина · шириной · ширину
    38 words

    Russia uses the metric system. Here are the main units you'll learn in this course:

    • метр (meter): a bit longer than a yard
    • киломе́тр (kilometer): 1000 meters, or about 0.6 miles
    • килогра́мм (kilogram): a bit over 2 pounds
    • то́нна (tonne): 1000 kilograms, roughly equivalent to ton (or about 2205 pounds, to be more exact)

    Square («квадратный») meters and kilometers are used for areas (м², км²).

    For areas of land, «гекта́р» (Га, 10000 м²) is often used. In spoken speech people also use «со́тка» (100 м²) for their garden plots in the country (the name comes from the fact that it is 1/100 of a hectare)

    Instrumental

    To speak about an object of a certain length/weight etc., the Instrumental form of a quantity is used:

    • стол длино́й 2 ме́тра = a table 2 meters long
    • о́зеро глубино́й 30 ме́тров = a lake 30 meters deep
    • дом высото́й 20 этаже́й = a house 20 storeys tall

    про-verbs

    To express the idea of a certain activity "covering" a certain space or time interval, verbs with the prefix «про-» are often employed. Of course, you should consult the dictionary to know if a certain verb of this structure exists or has that particular meaning.

    It is different from verbs of motion like "пройти" because many other verbs can have this prefix:

    • Мы прошли́ 5 киломе́тров = We walked 5 kilometers
    • Я проспа́л весь день. = I slept the entire day.
    • Мы простоя́ли тут два часа́. = We stood here for two hours.

    NOTE about VERBS OF MOTION: some of these derivatives will not be verbs of motion and actually can differ in stress or form (проезжа́л/прое́здил). We are only covering distances here. When talking about motion, the derivative of the one-way verb is used for distance. For time, you use the multidirectional verb, or, if you want to put an emphasis on how extremely long it took, its про-prefixed derivative:

    • Я пробежа́л 6 миль.
    • Я (про)бе́гал пять часо́в.

    The проходи́л, пробе́гал, прое́здил options are not neutral in style but are encountered in spoken speech anyway.

  • 41 Numbers 2261 @ 25% 75 •••
    анне · анне · анну · больших · большом · восемьдесят · восьмидесяти · году · двести · двум · двух · двухтысячного · двухтысячном · девяносто · девятьсот · дешевле · доллара · долларов · женился · женится · жениться · женюсь · замуж · заплатил · заплатить · ком · красных · маленьких · миллион · миллиона · миллионов · одиннадцатая · одиннадцатого · одиннадцатое · одиннадцатый · пятьсот · рублей · рубль · рубля · сдача · сдачи · сдачу · семьдесят · сергей · сергея · средний · средняя · тринадцатая · тринадцатого · тринадцатое · триста · трём · трёх · тысяча · тысячи · тысячу · цена · цену · число · чёрных · шестьдесят
    61 words

    Ordinal numbers

    Ordinal numbers decline exactly like adjectives. Fortunately, only the last word is declined, others are like in cardinal numbers. And no and's:

    • 1904th = ты́сяча девятьсо́т четвёртый
    • 2015th = две ты́сячи пятна́дцатый
    • in 2015th = в две ты́сячи пятна́дцатом
    Actually, «третий» declines a bit differently, similar to "animal-possessives" (eg. кошачий): третий, третья, третье, третьи / третьего, третьей . . . Note the Ь.

    Declension of numbers

    In Russian, tens and hundreds are compound words with both parts declining («сто» has an unusual pattern):

    • пять·деся́т (50) → о пяти́·десяти кни́гах
    • шесть·деся́т (60) → за шестью́·десятью дверьми
    • две́·сти (200) → Двум·ста́м ма́льчикам пришли́ пи́сьма
    (you might recall that numbers 5-20 and also 30, 50,60,70,80 decline just like a feminine noun, eg. «кровать»)

    Oblique cases of numbers are madness even for native speakers, so they usually either make mistakes, or think their way around such complicated forms. After all, no one makes you use convoluted sentence structure IRL.

    Consequently, we are not spending much time on these forms.

    Use of adjectives with numbers

    With два, три, четыре, in combinations like "3 big cats" the agreement of the adjective may not match the noun—to be more exact, in happens in the Nominative.

    Masculine and neuter nouns will use the adjective in the Genitive plural («два длинных ножа»). For feminine nouns, there is variation. Typically, the Nominative plural is preferred:

    • На столе две большие ложки.
    • Две молодые женщины ждут ответа.

    However, if the Gen.sg is different from the Nom.plural (сестры́-сёстры) or if the verb is in the singular—the Genitive plural is better:

    • У меня есть старший брат и три младших сестры.
    • На столе было три больших тарелки.

    If the adjective modifies the whole number phrase, only the Nominative is used: каждые три дня, долгие две недели, мои любимые четыре года.

    With inanimate nouns, the same applies in the Accusative case.

  • 41 Subjunctive and Conditional233 @ 25% 75 •••
    бы · запомнил · запомнили · запомнит · запомню · играл · играла · играли · курил · курили · опаздывал · опаздывала · пел · пела · пели · писал · писала · поел · поесть · позавтракал · позавтракали · позавтракать · пойти · помнил · помнила · помнили · пообедал · пообедать · пообедаю · попросил · попросила · приходил · приходили · скажи · сказал · сказала · спал · спала · то · учились · учился · учиться · чтобы
    43 words

    Want me to do it?

    The Subjunctive is, basically, when you speak of actions that are not real but rather desired, asked to be performed or just actions that might have happened.

    One of the important uses of conditional (a.k.a. subjunctive) in Russian is with «чтобы» ("in order to") to express the idea of some action being required or asked for from someone.

    1 entityinfinitive. The sentence is pretty straightforward when you only have one person:

    • Я рано встаю, чтобы не опаздывать. = I get up early so that I won't be late.

    2 entitiespast. When A does something for B to do something, use PAST tense in subjunctive:

    • Он хочет, чтобы я жил = He wants me to live.
    • Мама просит, чтобы завтра ты был дома = Mom asks that you would be home tomorrow.
    • Я рано встаю, чтобы ты не забыл позавтракать. = I get up early so that you would not forget to have breakfast.

    In more formal English it would look like "Mother asks that you be home tomorrow", though English has more idiomatic ways of saying that.

    So, use the past to form the subjunctive in any structures like "A told B to do something", "A did X so that B would do Y", "We need that A do X" etc. The analogy with the English "that" (which might come off as overly formal) is probably a good way to grasp all these structures, since, unfortunately, in more idiomatic English the sentence structures would be quite different to the Russian.

    Pay attention to the use of aspect. When asking someone NOT to do something, imperfective is normally used.

    • With verbs of asking, you only use the past form if you do use a subjunctive phrase. If you've opted to use a Dative "recipient" instead, the verb is in the infinitive:* Мы попросили его подождать.

    If only you were here...

    The conditional, unsurprisingly, is also used in conditional sentences. When you describe hypothetical (unreal) situations, you always use Past + the particle бы. This particle normally comes right after если or after the subject / the verb:

    • Если бы ты знал физику, то получил бы пять. = If you knew Physics, you'd have got an 'A'.
    • Я хотела бы знать больше языков. = I'd like to know more languages.

    Russian does not distinguish (grammatically) between "would be" and "would have been"; they both just use past and are distinguished based on what makes sense in a given situation.

  • 41 Speaking2232 @ 25% 75 •••
    в виду · в-третьих · во-вторых · во-первых · главное · дело в том · долгие · долгий · задала · задам · задать · имеет · имеете · имел · имею · к сожалению · кстати · можно · неудивительно · по-вашему · по-твоему · поблагодарил · поблагодарить · показалось · прав · права · права · право · разговор · разговоры · решат · решил · решить · скорее всего · совершенно · считаете · считаю · так как · характер · хватит
    40 words

    счита́ть vs. ду́мать

    When expressing your opinion, you may use either of the two. «Счита́ть» implies that you think so because of your views, or because that would be your decision, or because you gave it some thought. «Ду́мать» can mean a lot of things, a random, incidental thought included.

    Basically, you just have to know that «счита́ть» may mean something other than "to count", and as for using it yourself... well, depends on your exposure to Russian.

    име́ть

    «име́ть» is a formal verb for "to have" used in business and official language (у кого-то есть что-то is neutral). However, there are a few set expressions where the verb can be used even in normal speech.

    • «име́ть в виду́» = "to mean". When a person means something, it is what they wanted to say.
    • «име́ть пра́во»/«не име́ть пра́ва» = "to have the/a right to"/ "to have no right to".
    • «име́ть большо́е значе́ние» = "to be of great importance" (you may replace "great" with your epithet of choice)
    • «име́ть смысл» = "to be not unreasonable/to have some sense"
    • «име́ть что-то про́тив» = "to mind" (to be against something). Usually in the negative.
  • 41 Kitchen and Food231 @ 25% 75 •••
    апельсинами · апельсиновый · апельсины · банан · бананы · банка · банку · бесплатно · бесплатные · бесплатный · бутылки · бутылку · выпил · выпила · кастрюлю · кастрюля · каша · кашу · килограмм · килограмма · кусок · лимон · лимона · лимоном · лимоны · макарон · макароны · огурец · огурца · огурцы · отрежь · отрезала · пакет · пакеты · печенье · плите · плиту · подарил · подарили · подарю · половина · половину · помидоров · пробуем · пробует · пробую · продавец · продавца · ручка · ручки · сахаром · свежее · свежие · свежий · свежих · сладкая · сладкий · сладкое · сломана · солью · соуса · сразу · стакана · стакане · столовая · столовой · столовую · съел · съели · съешь · теплее · толстые · толстый · толстым · только что · торт · торта · торте · торты · учила · учит · учу · холоднее · худая · худой · худые · шоколадная · шоколадное · яблочное · яблочный
    90 words

    есть

    The verb «есть» (to eat) doesn't have a true perfective partner according to some sources. Its perfective counterpart would depend on the meaning:

    • I ate an apple → съесть
    • I had a bite to eat then went to the museum → пое́сть

    So, when you mean consuming a certain "object", you use «съесть» to express that the object is fully eaten (within reason, it obviously doesn't have to be the seeds, core and all to 'count'!) However, when you are talking about the activity of eating as replenishing your energy, having a lunch break etc., use «пое́сть». In this skill we teach «съесть».

    "Я пое́л суп/су́па" would mean that you ate some soup, focusing on the fact of having a meal rather than full consumption. This will sound strange with small foodstuffs which are typically eaten completely (sandwiches, apples etc.) If this is the case, it's better to outright state that you ate a piece or took a bite of something.

    килограмм

    When counting, the Genitive plural form for «грамм» and «килограмм» may be either of the following:

    • 5 гра́ммов / 5 килогра́ммов
    • 5 грамм / 5 килогра́мм

    The zero-ending option is definitely the most popular these days, at least in speech (it was considered colloquial about 40 years ago).

    пакет

    «Су́мка» is a bag made of a durable material. An expendable plastic or paper bag typical of supermarkets is «паке́т». And it is actually полиэтиле́новый (polyethylene), not пла́стиковый (which is usually used for hard plastics).

    «Пакет» is also used for packs of sugar, salt, rice, milk etc.

  • 41 Being Instrumental222 @ 25% 75 •••
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    74 words

    Working and being

    Instrumental, while being a relatively niche case, is used for a number of verbs that mean "being" something (or someone) and "being interested" in something. For example, with быть when in the Past or the Future.

    «Явля́ться» is a formal verb for "to be" which you must know but you won't necessarily use all that much. One important use would be somewhat formal sentences of the model ''A' is a 'B' that is a 'C'.' Imagine something like this:

    • These days, a school principal is a person who is usually not a teacher ~ В наше время директор школы — человек, который обычно не является учителем.

    A somewhat stilted example, but still quite good because it would sound strange here to omit "являться" (to be) in the 2nd half of this sentence. Fortunately, these sorts of definitions are often "A is a B who does C", so you don't have to worry too much.

    «Занима́ться» is a verb that has no direct equivalent in English and therefore can be tricky to translate. It has a general meaning of "being occupied with something", which means pursuing some activity (cf. заня́тие "occupation, class", за́нят "busy").

    Depending on the nature of the activity it can be any of the following:

    • learning занима́юсь испа́нским
    • hobby: занима́юсь ролевы́ми и́грами
    • work: занима́юсь исто́рией славя́н
    • sports: занима́юсь футбо́лом
    • current activity or occupation: Чем ты занима́ешься ~What are you doing/What do you do?

    There is also «увлека́ться» which is more directly connected to hobbies (увлече́ния) which you are "keen on" or "into" e.g. я увлекаюсь иностранными языками.

    Instrumental for adjectives

    Here is a reference table, as well as some examples (words for white, blue, narrow, big, the best)

    masc/neut fem pl
    ENDINGS -ым/-им -ой/-ей -ыми/-ими
    eg. бе́лый бе́лым бе́лой бе́лыми
    eg. си́ний си́ним си́ней си́ними
    eg. у́зкий у́зким у́зкой у́зкими
    eg. большо́й больши́м большо́й больши́ми
    eg. лу́чший лу́чшим лу́чшей лу́чшими

    Два́, три́, четы́ре become двумя́, тремя́, четырьмя́

    Note how after hushes (ж, ш, щ, ч), ой is used for end-stressed adjectives and ей for stem-stressed ones. That reflects the pronunciation: after a hush, unstressed о/а sound the same as an unstressed и/е would.

  • 41 Placing Objects223 @ 25% 75 •••
    академией · академии · академия · берегу · ботинки · ботинок · бумага · бумаги · вверх ногами · зонт · зонта · зонты · кладу · клал · клала · лист · листа · листов · листы · находимся · находитесь · находятся · повесил · повесили · повесить · повесь · полке · полки · положил · положила · портрет · портретом · портреты · поставит · поставишь · поставлю · прямо · расписание · расписания · ставил · ставила · ставлю · стоим · стою · стоят · сюда
    46 words

    Object placement in Russian

    This concept is hard to translate but easy to grasp. Frankly, Russians (on average) tend to be more precise about the manner in which an object "is" somewhere or is "put" somewhere.

    "Being" verbs do not have natural perfective counterparts because they are about a certain state.

    Stand

    Стоя́ть is used with "vertical" positions:

    • a vertical orientation of a long or thin object (a book, a ski leaning against a wall etc.)
    • a stable position of an object that has a "base" by design: plates, cups, shoes, boxes, furniture etc.
    • about buildings, especially large. But not about rooms (offices, for examples).

    Lie

    Лежа́ть is used with "horizontal" orientations:

    • a flat position of an object like book, a closed laptop, clothes, sheet of paper
    • a sideways position of an object that is "normally" placed in a stable position ("stands")

    Hanging about

    Висе́ть is used with hanging/clinging objects:

    • pictures, mirrors, notices, fridge magnets
    • clothes on a hanger, curtains, ropes
    • clothes hanging over a chair etc.

    That's all. When you place an object into one of these three positions you use «ста́вить»(поста́вить), «класть»(положи́ть) and «ве́шать»(пове́сить) respectively. This also applies if you change an object's state (eg., it is lying flat, and you want it hung on a wall).

    Use a "present-style" set of endings of a perfective verb to make its future form: «Я повешу картину тут/сюда» = I'll hang the picture here.

    • Mind the класть / положи́ть pair, where the imperfective and perfective forms come from different roots.

    Be situated

    Better late than never, I guess. There are a few verbs that only ever denote position, of which only «находи́ться» is within the scope of this course. The verb is often used with large objects like buildings, rooms, cities. However, it is not limited to these kinds of objects (it's just less not quite as common).

    «Находи́ться» can sound overly formal in some situations. Basically, it is a verb that specifies the whereabouts of the subject, so it is appropriate when location truly IS in focus. Do not use it with people much, except in questions regarding the exact whereabouts (e.g., over the phone when you are trying to find your friends: «Где вы сейча́с нахо́дитесь?») With small objects "lie"/"stand", discussed above, are probably a better choice.

  • 41 Future & Past with Perfectives221 @ 25% 75 •••
    выпьет · выпью · дам · даст · если · закажу · заказал · куплю · найду · найдём · напишет · напишу · напишут · нарисовал · нарисовала · нарисуем · нарисует · нарисуешь · нарисую · научится · научишься · научусь · начну · начнём · начнёт · нашла · нашёл · объяснит · объясните · объяснить · поговорим · поговорит · пойду · пойдём · пойдёт · поймёшь · получит · получите · получу · поняла · поняли · приготовим · приготовит · приготовлю · продали · продам · продаст · сделает · сделаю · скажет · скажу · увидит · увидите · увидишь · узнаем · узнает · узнаю · упадёт · упадёшь
    59 words

    Formation

    Take a perfective verb and do the same thing you do to imperfectives in the Present. Seriously. The reason is that perfective verbs have no Present form in Russian.

    IMPERFECTIVE PERFECTIVE
    Я чита́ю. = I am reading. Я прочита́ю = I will read.
    Я гото́влю суп. = I am making soup. Я пригото́влю суп. = I will make soup.
    Она у́чит слова́. = She is learning words. Она́ вы́учит слова́. = She'll learn the words.
    Ма́льчик идёт домо́й. = The boy is going home. Ма́льчик пойдёт домо́й. = The boy will go home.
    Мы слу́шаем сона́ту. = We're listening to the sonata. Мы послу́шаем сона́ту. = We'll listen to the sonata.
    Я де́лаю столы́. = I make desks. Я сде́лаю три стола́. = I'll make three desks.

    Whenever you mean a "simple", single action and/or a specific result, this is THE form you'll want to use. There is also another way of talking about the future, "буду"+imperfective infinitive but we're leaving that for later.

    Conditionals

    We're introducing the basics of «если»("if") in this skill. In Russian you use it with the Future when talking about future events (which is different from English). Compare: If you see (present tense with future meaning) Jenny, call me = Если ты увидишь (future perfective of 'to see') Дженни, скажи мне, lit. 'If you will see Jenny, call me.'

    Пусть (let/have) is used with the non-past forms.

    Basically, most learners tend to use too many perfective verbs in the Past and too many imperfectives in the Future. A common mistake is "future projection" of present tense forms. E.g. "I'm doing that tomorrow morning". In Russian, it does not generally work that way, though sometimes it is OK.

    Mutation

    That stuff with «Она готовит»/«Я готовлю». In И-conjugation it only happens in the 1st person singular, and in semi-regular verbs of Е-conjugation, it happens everywhere.

  • 41 Imperative 2211 @ 25% 75 •••
    будь · будьте · внимателен · внимательна · внимательны · встань · встаньте · дай · дайте · думай · думайте · ешьте · закрой · закройте · играй · играйте · конечно · ляг · лягте · нарисуй · нарисуйте · оба · обе · объясни · открой · откройте · пей · пейте · плавай · плавайте · повтори · повторите · повторить · позвони · позвонила · позвонили · позвоните · позвонить · помой · помойте · пораньше · поставила · поставили · поставь · поставьте · прости · простите · раздевайся · раздевайтесь · раньше · садись · сделай · сделайте · страниц · страница · страницы · чистые · чистый · чистых · читайте
    60 words

    Perfective vs. Imperfective

    Certainly use imperfective when specifying the manner in which the action should be performed.

    Use perfective when asking for a simple action without it being really obvious next action.

    Certainly, with "Please" and following details, since it is really rare you would politely ask for an obvious thing to do.

    There is also the important permission/denial pattern: use imperfective when NOT letting something.

    MAY YOU DO IT? Example
    yes + imperf. «Можно открыть окно?» — «Да, открывай». (I don't mind)
    yes + perf. «Можно открыть окно?» — «Да, открой». (support)
    neg. + imperf. Не открывай ничего. (do not allow)

    Feel yourself at home

    Curiously enough, imperfectives are absolutely polite for a few common motion and action verbs used when inviting people:

    • Садитесь, пожалуйста = Please, sit down,
    • Приходите ещё! = Do come again.
    • Входите, пожалуйста. = Come in, please. (also «проходите», lit. "come through", and «заходите»)

    I guess they can be formally classified as obvious but you can also just memorize the verbs.

    положить ↔ поставить

    There is a distinction in Russian between putting things in a random or "lying flat" position and "setting" them into a vertical or upright position. The last one is important for things that by design are supposed to have a "working" orientation even if they are flat (a plate, a cup, a box, a bed, a laptop etc.)

    • use ставить/поставить for a stable or vertical position (as a result, the object стоит)
    • use класть/положить for a flat, upset or random orientation (as a result, the object лежит)

    Words

    • садитесь is commonly used as an invitation to sit down. Присаживайтесь is also very popular despite being usually recommended against (literally, it means to perform a squat or to sit down for a short while).

2019-11-21
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Alphabet 1 updated 2020-08-28

Russian uses a version of the Cyrillic Alphabet. Many letters look similar to their Latin counterparts. As Cyrillic typography was remodeled around 300 years ago, both alphabets have a similar style.

For information on how to install a Russian keyboard layout, please click here.

We'll start with some simple sentences right away. Russian does not have articles, nor does it normally use the verb “to be” in the Present tense.

(sentences like "Bob is an actor" are usually punctuated with a dash: «Боб — актёр»)

Letters and Sounds

К, О, М, Т, А sound similar to their Latin counterparts (to be more precise, "о" is the sound in "more"). However, in handwriting and typed italics, the letter Т can look rather like a lower case 'm' in the Latin alphabet (это→это).

Е actually sounds more like "ye", as in "yell", not as in "Hear ye, hear ye!" (this will work for now; it's more complicated after a consonant).

В sounds like 'v', Б sounds like 'b'. Н is "n" and И is "i" ('eeh'). The remaining letters are included in the table below:

Ёё⁰ (your) Вв (vase) Бб (bed)
Ээ (red) Нн¹ (nap) Дд¹ (dab)
Уу (soon) Хх² (Bach) Гг (gap)
Ии (meet) Йй (yes) Лл¹ (nil)
Юю (you) Рр (trilled R) Пп (poor)
Ыы³ (hit) Сс (Sam) Зз (zebra)
Яя (yard) Фф (photon) Цц (cats)
Жж⁴ (seizure) Шш⁴ (shun) Щщ⁴
Чч (cheer) Ъ and Ь⁵
  • Ёё The umlaut-like double dots are optional in writing. Syllables containing this letter are always stressed.
  • ¹ т, д, н, л are pronounced near your teeth.
  • ² х('kh') is somewhat similar to the H in "hue". It is like making the "sh" sound, only it is pronounced where you make the "K" sound.
  • ³ ы has no equivalent in English. It is an "eeh"-like sound, but less distinct, sounds closer to "e" in "lover", and has your tongue deeper that in "heat" or "hit".
  • ⁴ for ш and ж your tongue is lower than in English and slightly bent back. Щ has all your tongue raised—it is a longer and more hissy sound. Ч corresponds to щ (i.e. a bit different than "ch").
  • ъ and ь are separators and have no sound.

Л can have a flat top, like П, or a pointy top like А (it comes from the Greek Λ). Д and Л have a similar top in many fonts, though it's up to the designer. Handwritten Д looks like D, and д like a g or a д (the last two affect the italic shapes).

An Italic Г in lower case usually looks this: г.

(a picture with a table of Russian letters)

That's it with the introduction! We will discuss reading words in more detail in later skills.

P.S. In our notes, we use an accute accent to show you the stress (e.g., ра́дио). It is a standard practice in Russian textbooks for little children or foreign learners—and, generally, the most common way of marking the position of the stress.

Basics 1 updated 2021-04-04

Welcome to our course!

Now you are ready to proceed to the main part of the tree!

We are happy that you have chosen our Russian course. Just to make it clear, we are using American English in this course—but don't worry, we will accept most versions of English where appropriate. Just be careful around expressions like "bathroom" or "1st floor", because these may mean different things than what you are used to.

As for Russian, we teach the standard language, which is based on the variation spoken around Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and we stick to the usage typical of these cities. Do not worry, though: for more than one reason Russian is rather uniform over the territory of Russia (still, there is some variation in pronunciation and a few items of everyday vocabulary). We try to stay neutral in style, with occasional trips into formal and informal language.

Cases and word order

Russian is an inflected language, so the (declensions) of nouns and modifying adjectives correspond to their role in the sentence.

These forms are called cases. Russian has 6 cases: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Prepositional, Dative and Instrumental. The Nominative is the dictionary form; as for the others, we are going to cover them gradually, one by one.

This allows for a more loose word order. But not random! A typical word order is subject—verb—object. “Old” information (the things you tell about) is normally closer to the beginning of the sentence which is probably why pronouns are often found closer to the beginning of a sentence than a noun would be :

  • I know him. → Я его́ зна́ю.
  • I know Maria. → Я зна́ю Мари́ю.

That includes words like “here”, “in this way”, “then” and so on.

Unlike English, adverbs are NOT universally grouped at the end. So pay attention to the typical positions for the expressions of time, place and manner. Eg. “very much” is typically in the end-position in English, but in Russian it is just before the thing that is "very" or “very much”:

  • She likes to read very much = Она́ о́чень лю́бит чита́ть

Good luck!

Vowel reduction

Like in English, vowel letters aren't all pronounced just like in the alphabet. In Russian, unstressed syllables have vowels reduced:

  • А and О become the same uh-sound
  • И and Е (Э) become the same sound similar to "i" in "hit"
  • Я actually becomes an i-like sound, not an uh-like (except in a few words). This also affects "а" after ч, ш, щ, ж or ц in many words (sadly, not all).

So, when a vowel is not stressed, it becomes weaker, somewhat shorter, and also some vowels become indistinguishable.

More on the case system

For now, we will only be studying simple sentences that either use the dictionary form, the Nominative case, or use the Accusative (direct object of an action), which has the same form for many classes of nouns.

The case is defined by its use. Nevertheless, these forms have names, usually calques from Latin that reflect some typical use (but not the only one):

  • Nominative (subject)
  • Accusative (direct object)
  • Genitive ("of" something)
  • Prepositional (place or topic)
  • Dative (recipient, "indirect" object)
  • Instrumental (means of action)

As you can see, these names are of little use until you know what sentence, verb or preposition requires that you use that particular form.

Some nouns of foreign origin are indeclinable, i.e. all their forms are the same. This includes words like метро, Дженни or кафе.

Phrases 1 updated 2021-04-02

Hello

Russian has a more informal greeting «Приве́т» and a more formal «Здра́вствуй(те)». Here, we focus on the first, since it is the shorter one.

«Пожа́луйста» (please) has another popular position in the sentence—namely, after the verb (more on that later).

you can also use «пожа́луйста» as a reply to "thanks", meaning "You are welcome!"

How are you?

The phrase for "How are you?" (Как дела́?) literally means "How are your affairs (the stuff you do)?"

No one uses it as a greeting, i.e. you are not expected to use it with people you barely know (or those you know, for that matter). And be prepared for a person to actually tell you how they've been doing. ;)

Good morning!

Morning typically starts at 4 or 5 a.m., afternoon at noon, evening at 5 p.m. (at 6 for some) and night at 11 or at midnight.

You only use "Good night" (Споко́йной но́чи) when parting before sleep (or saying your goodbyes really late, so it is implied you or the listener are going to bed soon after).

If you are advanced enough to have noticed oblique forms used in some phrases—you are right! Greetings and other similar expressions are often shortened versions of longer phrases, where words still retain their forms. For example, «Споко́йной но́чи» probably replaces the longer «Я жела́ю вам споко́йной но́чи!» (I wish you a peaceful night). Needless to say, the full version is never used.

Basics 2 updated 2021-04-04

I have a cat

English prefers to express ownership and “possession” with the verb “have”. In Russian “existence” is almost universally used instead (in the official/academic style «иметь» to have is OK to use).

Use it like this:

  • У A есть X ~ by A there is an X → A has an X

The owner is in the Genitive case (more on that later) while X is formally the subject. For now we will only study the Genitive form for some pronouns.

You have wonderful eyes!

Omit ”есть” if the existence of the object is obvious or not the point — very typical for describing traits or a number of objects (“Tom has a beautiful smile/large eyes”, “She has a very fat cat”). This also applies to expressing temporary states and illnesses (“She has a migraine”).

I eat/ She eats

In English, the only way a verb changes in the present tense is that you add -s for the 3rd person singular. In Russian, all 6 forms are different and fit two regular patterns.

However, eat «есть» and want «хоте́ть» are two of the four verbs that are irregular (that is, do not strictly follow either of the 2 patterns).

Note that the "present" tense is formed from one stem and the "past" and infinitive from the second one. In general, these two are slightly different. For now, don't worry about the infinitive stem.

Hard and soft

Russian consonants are split into two groups of 15, which are pronounced in two different ways, palatalized (aka "soft") and non-palatalized (aka "hard"). We'll stick to the shorter "soft" and "hard" (sorry).

When a consonant is "soft" it means that you pronounce it with your tongue raised high; for "non-palatalized" consonants it stays low. Russian orthography has its history but, long story short, you can tell the "softness" of a consonant from a vowel letter spelled afterwards:

  • А, Ы, У, Э, О follow "hard" consonants
  • Я, И, Ю, Е, Ё follow palatalized ones

If there is nothing after a consonant, the soft sign Ь is used to show the softness. In consonant clusters palatalization is predictable from the softness of the last consonant. We aren't teaching it here. These days the trend is to only "soften" the last consonant in most clusters, while a hundred years ago some clusters were palatalized even without any obvious reason.

To show you how it works, here is an example, using an ad-hoc transcription:

  • же́нщина = [жэнʲщиᵉна]
  • стена́ = [стʲиᵉна] or [сʲтʲиᵉна]

There are dictionaries («орфоэпический словарь») that show the recommended pronunciation of words and contain general pronunciation rules, too.

Voicing

Some consonants let your voice come out immediately (voiced) while others wait for the release of the consonant and only then let your voice escape (unvoiced). In Russian there are 6 pairs of such consonants: Б/П, В/Ф, Г/К, Д/Т, Ж/Ш, З/С.

  • whenever one of these consonants (except В) follows another, the second overrides or reverses the voicing of the first: сд = [зд], вс= [фс]
  • the end of the phrase is unvoiced: этот клуб [клуп]
  • rules apply between the word boundaries, too
  • Х, Ч, Ц, Щ also play this game, even though Russian lacks letters for their voiced partners ([ɣ], [дж'], [дз], [ж'ж']). They will devoice the preceding consonant or become voiced themselves.

Name and polite "You" updated 2021-04-02

Thou art

Russian makes a distinction between ты, singular "you", and вы, plural "you" (y'all). The latter also doubles for "polite" you, with verbs also in plural. And don't forget that the "excuse" in "Excuse me" is a verb!

  • Use ты with friends and your family members
  • Use вы with adult strangers, your teachers and in other formal interactions (at the store, the doctor's, the airport etc.)
  • People use вы with those who are much older
  • Nobody is "polite" toward kids

Grandson, son of Grand

As you might know if you ever read any Russian literature, Russians have three names; their first name and their surname—just like you have—and a patronymic (отчество), which is based on their father's name (отец = father). A very common 'polite' pattern is to use a person's first name and a patronymic:

  • Ива́н Ива́нович, вы за́няты? = Ivan Ivanovich, are you busy?

In this course, name+patronymic are always used with the polite вы-form.

What is your name?

«Как вас зову́т?» is literally "How (do) they call you?"

Russian has a casual diminutive form for many common names: Ива̓н→Ва́ня, Мари́я→Ма́ша, Алекса́ндр(Алекса́ндра)→Са́ша, Евге́ний(Евге́ния)→Же́ня, Еле́на→Ле́на, Алексе́й→Лёша, Пётр→Пе́тя. Needless to say, there's no "politeness" with these, but they are often used with some degree of affection.

Excuse me...

Russian has two very common polite patterns for questions that English does not:

  • negative questions give a shade of "by any chance": «Извини́те, вы не зна́ете Михаи́ла?» = Excuse me, do you happen to know Mikhail?
  • "Please tell" when asking for information: «Скажи́те, пожа́луйста, где музе́й?» = Excuse me, where is the museum?

Thank you

«Спаси́бо» is the word to use. A fancier option would be «Благодарю́!» (a form of the verb «благодари́ть», "to thank"), though quite a number of people use it, if only for variety.

Plurals updated 2018-10-25

Here is how the Nominative Plural is formed.

TYPE ending Example
-а/-я -nouns ы/и ма́мы, зе́мли
-nouns, feminine и крова́ти
most consonant-ending masculines ы/и столы́, ма́льчики
-о/-е -nouns а/я о́кна, моря́
some consonant-ending masculines а/я доктора́, глаза́

(so, the plural «я́блоки» is actually an uncommon way of doing it)

There are some irregular plurals too.

Spelling Rules

Or maybe not. Sometimes Russian forces your choice of vowel to spell or pronounce after a certain letter.

The 7-letter rule: Whenever you make any form of a word, and you need to write И or Ы, check this:

  • after К, Г, Х and Ш, Ж, Щ, Ч always use И

These are velars ("back" consonants) and hushes. For hushes, it is merely a spelling convention, owing to their former "soft" status. For velars, it is true to their pronunciation — i.e., these consonants always use the palatalized И where another consonant would use Ы:

  • страна́ → стра́ны
  • строка́ → стро́ки

Of these seven consonants, «К» should be your main concern for now. A lot of nouns have it as a suffix or a part of their suffix, forcing you to remember this rule.

The 8-letter rule: Whenever you make any form of a word, and you need to write А, У or Я, Ю after a consonant, follow the rule:

  • after К, Г, Х , Ш, Ж, Щ, Ч and Ц, always use А or У

Where is it? updated 2021-09-21

Russian words take different forms depending on their role in the sentence. These forms are called cases. A few forms may look the same (cf. "frequent rains" vs. "It rains often").

These forms have names (mostly calques from Latin) that describe some "prototypal" use of such case: Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Prepositional, Dative and Instrumental. For you, these are just tags: the use is what defines a case.

As of now, you know the NOMINATIVE case: the dictionary form of a word. This form acts as the grammatical subject of the sentence, the "doer". It is also used for both nouns in "A is B" structure:

  • Мой па́па ест.
  • Том — мой брат.

You also know a few Genitive forms (у меня) but that's it. For now, we will tackle something easier.

Prepositional case

When we talk about things being somewhere, we typically use в (in) or на (on) with the Prepositional form of the noun. It doesn't work when you mean motion to that place!

The Prepositional case (a.k.a. Locative) is the only case that is never used on its own without a preposition, even though only four or five prepositions ever use it:

  • Я на конце́рте. = I am at a concert.
  • Я в шко́ле. = I am at (in) school.
  • ви́део о шко́ле = a video about school

Unlike English (“at/in school”), in Russian each "place" is associated with just one preposition. The rough overall rule is: use “в” (in, at) when talking about buildings and places with certain boundaries and use “на” (on, at) when talking about open spaces or events:

  • в до́ме (in the house), в шко́ле (at school), в ко́мнате (in the room), в теа́тре (in the theater), в кино́ (at the cinema), в университе́те (at the university)
  • на у́лице (in the street, outdoors), на пло́щади (at the square), на конце́рте (at the concert), на уро́ке (at the lesson), на корабле́ (on a ship)

When you mean physically being inside/on top of some object, there is little ambiguity. "Places", unfortunately, require memorization.

Prepositional endings

Here is the rule that covers most nouns:

  • feminine nouns ending in ь take
  • nouns ending in -ия, -ий or -ие also take (so that they end in -ии instead)
  • all other nouns take

What about me and my friends?

Use “у + Genitive” when talking about being at some person’s place: Да, я у дру́га = Yeah, I am at my friend’s place.

▲▼WC

The room with a toilet is туале́т. In this course, we stick to the North American "bathroom", even though a room with a bath is, technically ва́нная (it has ва́нна, "a bath"). Still, in Russian you would not ask for a "bath-room" unless you really mean it.

And what if I gotta go away?

We’ll deal with that later. But the pattern is consistent. When you are somewhere, going to that place and going away from that place, use the following triplets:

AT TO FROM
в + Prep в + Acc из + Gen
на + Prep на + Acc с + Gen
у + Gen к + Dat от + Gen

For example, if the place is used with на, the correct prepositions for the three uses are на–на–с.

Animals 1 updated 2021-04-04

"Spelling rules"

Note how plurals of «соба́ка» and «ко́шка» end in И: соба́ки, ко́шки, even though you might expect А to turn into Ы.

There are some restrictions on which consonants are used with which vowels when making word forms. Here are the rules for и, а, у vs. ы, я, ю:

  • use only И, not Ы, after к, г, х/ ж, ш, щ, ч
  • use only А, У after к, г, х/ ж, ш, щ, ч and ц (and never use Я, Ю after them)

К, Г, Х are called velar consonants (i.e. made in the back) and Ш, Щ, Ж, Ч are often called hushes. The latter do not show palatalized/non-palatalized pairs in modern Russian, so the spelling rule does not affect pronunciation anyhow. It's just a convention.

Fleeting vowels

It is not too important for you at the moment, but you may notice how О and Е sometimes appear in consonant clusters or disappear from them. For example:

  • Э́то лев. = This is a lion.
  • В зоопа́рке нет льва́. = There isn't a lion at the zoo.

Later you will encounter the Genitive plural (often used with numbers and words like "many" or "few"), which shows a simple pattern for -suffixed feminine nouns that do not have a vowel before "-ка":

  • много кошек = many cats
  • много девочек = many girls
  • много уток = many ducks
  • много тарелок = many plates

As you can see, the vowel (О or Е) depends on whether the previous consonant is palatalized or not. Hushes behave as if they were palatalized, despite Ж and Ш having lost this quality in the modern language.

Genitive Case - 1 updated 2021-04-02

In Russian “I have” is expressed by «У меня (есть)» structure. The owner is in the Genitive case.

Genitive

"The of-case". It is one of the most universal cases. How do you make the forms? Here is the regular pattern:

ENDING Genitive sg. soft stem
-a/-я мама мамы земля земли
zero-ending masc, -о/-е neut сок / молоко сока / молока конь коня
fem мышь мыши

A zero ending means that the word ends in a consonant or a soft sign (which is just a way to show the final consonant is "soft"). In the Nominative singular, a Russian word can only have the following endings: а, я, о, е, ё or nothing ("zero ending").

Genitive of Negation

If you use «нет» to say that there is "no" something or you do not have it, the object is always in Genitive:

У меня́ есть я́блоко → У меня́ нет я́блока

Здесь есть рюкза́к → Здесь нет рюкзака́.

Major uses

  • "of" (possession): яблоко мамы = mom's apple
  • "of" (amount): чашка чая, много чая = a cup of tea, a lot of tea

A huge number of prepositions require this case. Yes, «у меня есть», «У неё есть» only use «меня» and «неё» because «у» wants Genitive.

For он, она and оно Genitive doubles as a non-changing possessive "his", "her", "their": его, её, их.

  • initial «н» is used for him/her/them with the majority of prepositions (doesn't affect possessives)

Indeclinable nouns

A little side note: some nouns of foreign origin are indeclinable. It means that all their forms are the same. Foreign nouns that end in о/е become like that (кофе, метро, радио, резюме), as well as all nouns that do not fit into Russian declension patterns (see above).

This includes female names that end in anything other than А or Я. A few -ending names are an exception (Любовь and Biblical names like Юдифь).

So, all of the following names are automatically indeclinable: Маргарет, Мэри, Элли, Дженни, Рэйчел, Натали, Энн, Ким, Тесс, Жасмин.

I am away

Russian also uses the Genitive to state that someone is "away", "not there": Мамы сейчас нет. In English such use would correspond to "There is no mom at the moment", or even "There is no me now". We are not hard on that particular construction in the course, but it is important to know it all the same.

Added bonus: when a verb directly acts on a noun, the noun is called a direct object and is in Accusative. In Russian, only -а/-я nouns have a unique form for it. Others just reuse the Genitive or don't change anything (Nominative)

Nothing

Russian uses.... let's call it "consistent" negation. It means that in negative sentences you are required to use "nothing" instead of "anything", "nowhere" instead of "somewhere" and so on. Let's meet the first of these pronouns:

  • У меня ничего нет. = I don't have anything.
  • Она ничего не ест. = She doesn't eat anything.

You'll also notice that, unlike standard English, Russian has no rule against using double negatives.

Possessives and Gender updated 2020-08-12

Russian possessives

There isn't much to say about words like "my" or "your" in Russian.

  • his/her/their do not change: его́, её, их (and they don't get an initial Н after prepositions!)
  • my/your/our roughly follow an adjectival pattern, i.e. they copy the gender and the case of the noun they describe. Just like этот:
    • мой/твой/наш папа
    • моя́/твоя́/на́ша ма́ма

Unlike English, no distinction is made between my and mine, her and hers etc.

Pronunciation: in «его», as well as in adjective endings and "сегодня" the letter Г is pronounced В. It is a historical spelling.

Grammatical gender

Nouns in Russian belong to one of three genders: feminine, masculine or neuter. If a noun means a person of a certain gender, use that one. For all other nouns look at the end of the word:

ending in Nom.sg. gender examples
-а/-я feminine ма́ма, земля́, Росси́я, маши́на
consonant masculine сок, ма́льчик, чай, интерне́т, апельси́н
-о/-е neuter окно́, яйцо́, мо́ре
feminine or masculine; consult a dictionary ло́шадь, ночь, мать, любо́вь / день, конь, медве́дь, учи́тель

If there is a soft sign, it is not possible to easily predict the gender. However, among the most common -ending nouns 65–70% are feminine. Some suffixes end in a soft sign; they always produce the same gender:

  • -ость/-есть, -знь → feminine (e.g., жизнь)
  • -тель, -арь, -ырь → masculine (e.g., учитель)

All nouns with -чь, щь, -шь, -жь at the end are feminine. The convention is to spell masculine ones without the soft sign: нож, луч, муж, душ. It does not affect pronunciation, anyway.

Partitive updated 2021-02-13

The Genitive case has many uses in Russian.

One of them is expressing an amount:

  • чашка чая = a cup of tea
  • тарелка риса = a plate of rice
  • корзина яблок = a basket of apples

With mass nouns it is also used to express "some" unspecified amount when used instead of the Accusative:

  • Я хочу воды = I want (some) water.
  • Дайте, пожалуйста, риса. = lit. "Give me, please, some rice".

The usage is only typical when you ask or hypothesize about using "some amount" of stuff. You cannot actually say you are drinking "воды" right now—but you can say you want some (or sipped some in the past—with a perfective¹, of course).

чашка чаю

«Чай» has an alternative Partitive form «чаю»:

  • Хочешь чашечку чаю? = Want a cup of tea?

It is optional. Some short masculine nouns that denote substances have such form. «Чай» is among the few that are immensely popular in speech and do not sound old-fashioned.

стакан

Russian differentiates between a number of drinking vessels. Стака́н is what you call a "glass" in English: typically, a cylindrical glass vessel with no handle. As a measurement unit (used in cooking) it is the same as English "cup".

  • a beer/wine glass is «бока́л»
  • a small wine glass is «рю́мка»

¹ Perfective is an aspect. Russian has verbs of two flavors: those that denote "processes" and those that mean "events" (events are never used in the present).

The Accusative: the Direct Object updated 2021-04-04

Accusative

Until now, you've been using the base form of the word in sentences like «Он ест яблоко».

Actually, whenever a verb, like "read", "cut" or "want" acts directly on some noun, the latter is a direct object. Such nouns take the Accusative case.

Formation

Only nouns ending in / have a separate, unique form. «Мама» is a good example of this class :

  • ма́ма → ма́му

Neuter nouns and feminine nouns with a final (e.g., «мы́шь») just reuse the Nominative form.

Now we are left with masculine nouns ending in a consonant (сок, медве́дь, брат). They use the same form as their Nominative or Genitive:

  • living beings ("animate") copy the Genitive
  • objects ("inanimate") stay Nominative
  • in the plural, this rule applies to all Russian nouns
-а/-я (masc.) neuter (fem.)
-у/-ю Nom. / Gen. Nominative Nominative

With "substances"(mass nouns), the Genitive form may be used instead. It conveys the meaning of "some" quantity.

Verbs that take a direct object are called transitive. Too bad that some verbs transitive in Russian are intransitive in English ("wait") and vice versa ("like")!

I want it

Russian verbs have two main ending patterns. We are going to introduce them very soon.

Unfortunately, the verb «хоте́ть»(to want) is irregular and mixes both. On a brighter note, it is very common, so you'll memorize it eventually.

Unlike the English verb '"want", it does not have a strong connotation of 'need', Similarly, the Russian verb for "give"(да́ть) is totally OK for polite requests. Just use it with «пожа́луйста».

  • the person you give things to is NOT a direct object in Russian. It is called an indirect object and takes the Dative. We'll deal with it later.

Verbs in the Present 1 updated 2018-10-25

Е- and И- conjugation

The verbs in Russian change according to person and number. Each form has a different ending. There are only two patterns (apart from some phonetic changes).

endings Е- / И- examples
я -ю (у) чита́ю, пишу́ / говорю́, ви́жу
ты -ешь / -ишь чита́ешь, пи́шешь / говори́шь, ви́дишь
он/она́ -ет / -ит чита́ет, пи́шет / говори́т, ви́дит
мы -ем / -им чита́ем, пи́шем / говори́м, ви́дим
вы -ете / -ите чита́ете, пи́шете / говори́те, ви́дите
они́ -ют(ут) / -ят (ат) чита́ют, пи́шут / говоря́т, ви́дят

We will learn these one by one. There are only four stems with completely irregular conjugation. The verbs хоте́ть, дать, есть, бежа́ть and all their derivatives follow neither the Е- nor the И-conjugation exactly.

Note that if the endings are stressed, Ё replaces Е. Fortunately, a non-past form has only 2 options:

  • fixed stress – on the stem (чита́ю, чита́ете, ви́жу, ви́дит) or on the ending (стою́, стои́т, стои́шь)
  • "я"-form has a stressed ending (Я пишу́). The stress falls on the stem everywhere else (ты пи́шешь, она пи́шет..)

A verb uses one stem to form Infinitive and Past tense forms. It uses the 2nd one, similar, for the non-past forms and the imperative. So you cannot predict all forms from the infinitive. You can make a good guess, though.

Meals

In this course we use the American English definitions:

  • за́втрак = breakfast, a morning meal
  • обе́д = lunch, a midday meal
  • у́жин = dinner, an evening meal

The Infinitive, Likes and Dislikes updated 2021-04-05

I like/I love ?

In Russian, you can express liking things and activities pretty much the same way as in English, with similar verbs. The usage differs a bit, though.

A a rule of thumb, «Я люблю́» means "I love" only when directed at a single person (or animal). Otherwise, it's just "I like".

  • "LOVE" люби́ть means a stable, lasting feeling (note the phonetic change for the 1st person singular: "люблю"). A normal, transitive verb, i.e. used with the Accusative. Use it for loving an individual or liking some things/people/activity in general (verbs take infinitive). Very much preferred in negations of such activities (i.e. "don't like to wait")
  • "LIKE" нра́виться means moderate "liking" something or someone, often something specific. Not transitive! The thing liked is the subject, acting indirectly on a person: «Мне нра́вится стол» = I like the table.

  • note that «Мне нра́вится стол» works in a similar way to the English verb "to appeal": "This table appeals to me". The sentence is built as though the table "transmits" the feeling towards you. While rare in English, in Russian, this is pretty typical for feelings and experience to be expressed that way («Мне хорошо́»).

The two forms «нра́виться» (infinitive) and «нра́вится» (3rd person singular) are pronounced exactly the same. They are spelled differently for the sake of consistency (most infinitives end in «-ть», so -ть + ся = -ться)

When you refer to generic things and activities, both verbs can be used but «люби́ть» is mildly more useful.

May I?

Possibility and/or permission are often expressed with words мо́жно and нельзя́.

  • Здесь мо́жно жить. = One may live here.
  • Здесь нельзя́ есть. = One cannot/should not eat here.

The English translation may vary. You can specify the person for whom the permission or recommendation applies, in the Dative (but you do not have to):

  • Мне нельзя́ спать. = I should not sleep.
  • Нам нельзя́ мно́го есть. = We should not eat a lot.

P.S. the -ся at the end of "нра́вится" is a reflexive particle and comes after the ending (in verbs, use -сь after a vowel, -ся after a consonant) . Technically, a reflexive verb is one where the subject of the verb acts on itself. As you can see, the meaning does not always reflect this. «Нра́виться» is among the verbs that are reflexive "just because".

Don't worry about it too much for now. We'll be tackling reflexives in more detail further down the tree.

Food updated 2021-04-05

Yummy

Some nouns, like "water" or "bread", are not normally used in the plural. They are called uncountable or mass nouns. Both English and Russian have them. Food offers a delicious intake of mass nouns!

  • карто́шка(potatoes), лук(onions), морко́вь (carrots), шокола́д are mass nouns in Russian
  • a reminder: mass nouns may use the Genitive instead of Accusative if you mean "some quantity"(e.g., Купи́ хле́ба/карто́шки. = Buy some bread/potatoes.

The preposition «для»(for) always takes Genitive nouns, just like «у» or «возле».

'Taters

The formal word for potato is карто́фель (German speakers, rejoice), but it's hardly ever used in speech. Use «карто́шка» instead.

The word for tomato is помидо́р. There is also the word тома́т, but it is

  • the plant's name, pretty formal; look on price tags
  • the base stem for derivative products: тома́тная па́ста = tomato paste

  • посуда is a word for different containers used for cooking , consuming and further storage of food. English, sadly, does not have the exact equivalent. However, it is obviously "dishes" that you wash and "cookware/tableware" that you buy.

Verbal wisdom

In this skill, we used perfective verbs for "cook", "cut", "wash". The reason is simple: that's the verb you'd use when you want a single specific action, often with a result—rather than referring to "activity" (activity may be fun but, in some cases, pointless).

More on that later. For now, just go with the flow.

Adjectives Basics and Spelling updated 2018-10-25

In Russian adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender/number and case. Out of 24 combinations only 12 forms are different. This system is completely regular, with no change of stress. The endings have “hard” and “soft” variants depending on the stem (for example, ый/ий or “ая/яя”).

Here is the Nominative and Genitive for “classic” hard- and soft-stem adjectives ("new"/"blue"):

NOM GEN
fem но́вая/си́няя чашка но́вой/си́ней ча̒шки
masc но́вый/си́ний дом но́вого/си́него до́ма
neut но́вое/си́нее окно́ но́вого/си́него окна
pl. но́вые/си́ние ча́шки но́вых/си́них ча́шек

note that masculine and neuter merge in all their forms different from the Nominative one (their Accusative will be the same as the Gen. or the Nom. depending on animacy). In the Nominative there is also -ОЙ masculine ending: большо́й (“big”). Only for ending-stressed adjectives.

  • ОГО/ЕГО are historical spellings: г actually sounds like [в]
  • unstressed -ая(яя) /-ое (ее) sound identical in standard Russian: си́няя and си́нее have no difference in pronunciation.

The following universal rules of Russian spelling will give you the rest of the endings for any adjective you ever meet (there exist 4 patterns at most):

  • After Г-К-Х (“velars”) and Ш-Щ-Ж-Ч (“hushes”) use И and never Ы
  • After Ц , Г-К-Х (“velars”) and Ш-Щ-Ж-Ч (“hushes”) use А, У and never Я, Ю
  • After Ц and Ш-Щ-Ж-Ч (“hushes”) use Е when unstressed and never О.

Conjunctions updated 2018-10-25

а vs. и

In Russian, и is used to show similarity. Otherwise you should use а, which shows contrast. To be more specific, here are the typical patterns:

  • Я мальчик, а ты девочка. = I am a boy and you are a girl.
  • Я работаю в кафе, а ты в школе. = I work in a cafe, and you (work) in a school.
  • Я люблю спать, а ты нет. = I like sleeping, and you don't.
  • А ты? = And you? → often used to indicate a question.

зато (negative, зато positive)

A conjunction used for "compensating" for something unpleasant with something that, you imply, is good:

  • У нас нет молока, зато есть хлеб = We don't have milk but we do have bread.
  • Мальчик ещё не умеет писать, зато хорошо читает. = The boy cannot write yet but he reads well.

Not exactly the best thing to translate into English ("on the other hand"? "but at least"? "thankfully?"), so it is not often used in this course.

хотя ('though')

Much like the English though/even though/although. It is often combined with "и" before the predicate (which is sometimes directly after «хотя»):

  • Он здесь, хотя (он) и не знает ничего.= Он здесь, хотя (он) ничего и не знает. = He is here, even though he doesn't know anything.

как

This conjunction has a rather interesting use, to show when someone perceives someone else's action:

  • Я ви́жу, как она́ танцу́ет. = I see her dancing.
  • Они́ слу́шают, как музыка́нт игра́ет. = They listen to the musician playing.

For а, there is also "narrative" contrast pattern, largely absent from this course (but not from real-life Russian):

  • На столе чашка, а в чашке чай. = There is a cup on the table, and the cup has tea in it.
  • Он здесь, а это значит — воды нет. = He is here, and that means there's no water.
  • Такси — это машина, а машины не всегда хорошо работают. = A taxi is a car, and cars do not always work well. (here, you are making your point by introducing a new thought "unexpected" by a listener)

There is updated 2018-10-25

Word order

To say "there is/are" in Russian, do the following:

  • say THE PLACE
  • then the verb (if any)
  • then THE OBJECT

«есть» is not used, unless the sentence really has to emphasize the existence of the object. Some examples:

  • На столе́ ло́жка. = There is a spoon on the table.
  • На сту́ле ма́льчик. = There is a boy on the chair.
  • В до́ме никого́ нет. = There is no one in the house.
  • На столе́ лежи́т ко́шка. = A cat is lying on the table.

In the Present tense no verb is necessary; in the past, you would at least need a form of "to be". Note that even in the present Russian still uses verbs like "is situated", "stands", "lies" way more often than would be considered normal in English.

The most natural translation into English is a structure like "There is an apple on the table" or "An apple is on the table". The emphasis is on the object, not on the place.

Actually, such a sentence answers the question of WHAT is in the said place. For out-of-the-blue sentences about objects that have nothing unique about them it matches what English THERE-IS sentences are for. So this is what we have in this course.

Actions

The initial position of a "place" inside the sentence holds for many other structures, too. Whenever the place is not a part of the "message" of your sentence, it is usually somewhere at the beginning (that is, if the place frames your description of an action rather than providing crucial information).

If the whole point of uttering a sentence is telling someone about the place then, naturally, it takes the sentence-final position:

  • За́втра я в Нью-Йо́рке. = I am in New York tomorrow. (not somewhere else)

lies/stands

You don't have to translate verbs like "to stand" and "to lie" literally when they refer to objects. Such use is not, by a wide margin, nearly as standard in English as it is in Russian:

  • На столе́ стои́т ча́шка. = A cup is ("stands") on the table.

In English "to be" is perfectly fine, so we accept that.

Questions updated 2018-10-25

Where

Russian makes a distinction between being somewhere (тут/здесь, там) , going there (сюда, туда) and coming from there (отсюда, оттуда)—so naturally question words follow suit:

  • Где? = Where (at)?
  • Куда? = Where to?
  • Откуда? = Where from?

Who or what are you?

Russian uses «Кто»(who) when asking about identity and occupation and «Что» is used for objects rather than people. Since Russian nouns have cases, кто and что also change depending on their role in the implied sentence. As you will discover a little bit further down the tree, «Кто» behaves rather like a masculine adjective.

CASE What Who Whose
Nom. что кто чей, чьё, чья ,чьи
Gen. чего́ кого́ чьего́, чьего́, чье́й, чьих
Acc. что кого Gen/Nom; «чью» for Fem.
Prep чём ком чьём, чьём, чьей, чьих

Почему? and Зачем?

  • Почему is used when asking a question about a cause of some event or action. It is a question that looks back at the past.
  • Зачем starts a question about the purpose of some action or some event that can have one. It is a question that looks towards a desired future.

In a few regions of Russia (Tatarstan, for example) people may use зачем for both questions if their usage of Russian is influenced by a major local language that makes no distinction between the two. In Standard Russian these are two clearly separate entities.

People 1 updated 2018-10-25

Vocabulary

  • директор is usually the main boss, akin to CEO in English. Also the Principal or Head Teacher of a school.
  • ученик is a school student or a "follower" or "disciple" of some "teacher" in a more spiritual sense. AmE speakers may confuse it with "студент", which is strictly a college-level student.
  • коллега is your first word of common gender, i.e. its gender depends on who you are referring to.

Around you updated 2021-04-05

Do that the English way

To express the idea of speaking some language, or something being written in that language, Russian has adverbs literally meaning "Russian-ly", "English-ly" etc.. :

  • Я не говорю́ по-ру́сски. = I do not speak Russian.
  • Вы говори́те по-англи́йски. = Do you speak English?

They are formed from -ский adjectives by attaching по- and changing the tail to bare -ски: по-ру́сски, по-италья́нски, по-япо́нски, по-вьетна́мски, по-америка́нски, по-францу́зски and so on.

And remember, these words actually mean something done "in a certain way", so «суши по-американски» (American-style sushi) should not surprise you!

Locative 2

A relatively small group of short masculine nouns have an accented ending with в/на in the meaning of place (and only then):

  • Мы в аэропорту́. = We are at the airport.
  • Я сплю́ на полу́. = I sleep on the floor.

Our course has about a dozen of them (there are about 100 in the language). Also, there exists a very small group of feminine nouns, all "-ь"-ending, that have a stressed Locative-2 ending:

  • Твой сви́тер в крови́. = Your sweater is covered in blood.

All these nouns use their normal Prepositional form with "о" and "при".

совсе́м

Совсем is used to show that a quality is "totally" present/not present— usually with negatives:

  • Он совсе́м не рабо́тает. = He doesn't work at all.
  • Том совсе́м не ест. = Tom doesn't eat at all.
  • Мы совсе́м бли́зко. = We are really close (i.e. almost there).

междунаро́дный

It comes from «ме́жду» + «наро́ды», i.e. "between"+"peoples", which is quite literally "international".

The loanword «интернациональный» means the same but has quite limited use in certain combinations like "international team" or "international debt" (mostly these are from political contexts). This course largely avoids this word.

Most likely, "international team/orchestra" etc. is the context where you must use «интернациональный»).

живо́тное

The word for an "animal" is a nominalised neuter adjective, and its case forms follow an adjectival pattern. Of course, its gender is fixed:

  • Это живо́тные. = These are animals.
  • Я люблю́ живо́тных. = I like animals.

Prepositions and Places updated 2018-10-25

Verbs of motion

Russian distinguishes between "going" on foot and by some sort of vehicle. If you aren't moving within the city, use a 'vehicle verb' ехать (one-way movement) or ездить (repeated, round trip or in general). More on that later, in "Motion verbs".

Into/onto... at-to?

Once again, with в and на you use Prepositional for location, and Accusative for direction:

  • Я живу́ в Ло́ндоне. ~ I live in London.
  • Я е́ду в Ло́ндон. ~ I am going (by vehicle) to London.

Here is a 'cheat sheet' of forms you'll need for places (no living beings, so—the easy Accusative for masculine):

Nominative Acc. Prep. example
-а/-я -у/-ю Америка → в Америку/в Америке
∅/-о/-е ∅/-о/-е стол → на стол / на столе
feminine дверь → на дверь/на двери
-ия -ию -ии Англия → в Англию/в Англии
-ие -ие -ии здание → в здание / в здании

Word choice

For "outdoors" Russians use «на улице» (literally, "on the street").

The preposition о (об) means "about" only as in the sense of "thinking/writing about". Don't use it for "approximately". With «мне» a special form is used, обо.

The contraction "USA" or "the U.S." is США (сэ-шэ-А, with the stress on the last vowel).

There is no difference drawn between "city" and "town".

In Russian it is typical to describe objects as "standing", "lying", "being situated", "hanging". This is rare in English, and often sounds unnatural, therefore in this course it is perfectly OK to translate a "whereabouts"-verb with a simple "is", "was" etc.

Here and there, and here

For "here", the words здесь and тут are almost completely interchangeable in any imaginable context. Тут is considered a bit more informal, and is used in set expressions ( тут же~right away, тут и там). «Здесь» is somewhat less suitable for figurative meanings (when by "here" you mean the current situation rather than a place). In this course, they are completely interchangeable when not being used in a set expression.

находиться is a verb to denote the whereabouts of things, and, sometimes of people (when the emphasis is on exactly where they are). It could be translated as "to be situated" or "to be located", but as these verbs usually sound rather formal in English, so you can just use "to be".

около is almost the same as «возле». It can also be used in the sense of "about"(=approximately).

Verbs Present 2 updated 2021-04-04

→ and ⇆

There are two options for verbs of going: a specific 1-directional verb and also a repeated motion, multi-directional verb. For now, stick to this rule for идти́ / ходи́ть:

ENG RUS
right now I am going. Я иду́.→
habitual I often go there. Я ча́сто туда́ хожу́.
generic ↝↶↺ The baby already walks. I am walking (around). Ребёнок уже́ хо́дит. Я хожу́.

Asking

  • проси́ть → to ask for/beg for/request something
  • спра́шивать → to ask a question (i.e. ask for information)

In other words, when using про́сит, one wants to be given something (or for something to be done). He who спра́шивает wants an answer.

By the way, "to ask a question" is, actually, «зада́ть/задава́ть вопро́с». Those who speak German may recall eine Frage stellen, which works in a similar way (apparently, "to ask an asking" is no good in German, either).

Negative sentences

Remember that Russian sort of uses double and triple negatives. To be more precise, it is coordinated negation: when the sentence is negative, you should automatically negate every pronoun referring to someone, anywhere, some time, anything, in some way and so on:

  • Мы никогда́ нику́да ни с кем не ходи́м = We never go anywhere with anyone (Literally, "We never to nowhere with nobody don't go").

All such words should change to nobody, nowhere, never, nothing, by no means and so on. No one and nothing will have the correct case.

Adverbs

The typical position for (-е)-ending adverbs is before the verb. For example:

  • «Он хорошо́ види́т»="He sees well".
  • «Том бы́стро ушёл»="Tom left quickly"

Consonant mutation.

You might have noticed that the consonant before the ending is sometimes different in the infinitive than in the personal forms. It is called mutation and is quite similar to the process that makes "tense" into "tension" (where an "s" turns into a "sh"). Here are the patterns you might encounter:

  • Б, П, В, Ф, М adding л (люби́ть / люблю́)
  • С, Х becoming ш (писа́ть / пишу́)
  • Д, З becoming ж (ви́деть / ви́жу)
  • Т, К becoming ч (плати́ть / плачу́)
  • СК, СТ becoming Щ (пусти́ть / пущу́)

If there is alteration, there is a rule:

  • И-conjugation verbs only have 1st person singular mutated. It is normal (e.g. люблю / любит)
  • Е-conjugation verbs have mutation in ALL personal forms (if at all). It is non-productive behavior, which in practice means that a lot of popular verb stems still have it (e.g. писать, сказать). However, new Е-conjugation verbs never get this pattern.

рисовать → рисую, on the other hand, is a regular transformation of -овать/-евать verbs

Playing

The verb «играть» is used as follows:

  • в + Accusative for games
  • на + Prepositional for musical instruments

For example, Я игра́ю в футбо́л / Я игра́ю на гита́ре.

Time and Numbers updated 2021-04-02

Using numbers with nouns

Let's focus on the Nominative for now (this also works when Acc.=Nom). Russian numbers may seem a bit weird. The case of the noun depends on the last word of the number:

last word means Case example
оди́н (одна́, одно́, одни́ ) 1 Nom. sg. оди́н дом, одна́ ма́ма, два́дцать одно́ окно́, оди́н сто́л
два (две), три, четы́ре 2, 3, 4 Gen. sg. две ко́шки, два стола́, три ма́льчика, три́дцать четы́ре стола́
Larger than that 5, 6, 12, 100 etc. Gen. pl. пять ко́шек, пять ма́льчиков, два́дцать пять ко́шек, миллио́н ко́шек

Just like English, Russian has words for eleven through nineteen, so they fall into the "larger" category.

Genitive plural has a rather bizarre set of patterns, so a separate skill later on will teach you how to make it for most nouns.

Expressions

  • I am 10 (years old) = Мне де́сять (лет) Note the Dative "мне" and the number in the Nominative. The Genitive plural "лет" is irregular.

The Dative forms of он, она and они are ему, ей, им respectively.

  • at 9 o'clock = в де́вять часо́в → the Accusative here (same as the Nominative)
  • at 2 in the morning = в два (часа́) но́чи (in Russian 'morning' starts at about 4-5 a.m.)
  • in January, June. etc. = в январе́, ию́не ... (Prepositional). Note that all the month names are masculine nouns.
  • the beginning/end of July = нача́ло/коне́ц ию́ля

Why are Russian numbers so strange? Well, for 2-3-4 these are the remnants of the Dual number (which is between the singular and the plural). As for the larger numbers, they are essentially "nouns": a heap of cats, a lot of cats, a thousand... of cats.

Сейчас

Russian uses two words for "now". One is «сейчас», which means "now, at the moment", and describes the current moment in a neutral manner, often implying that things change and the state described is attributed to this particular moment. It can change soon:

  • Сейчас никого нет дома. = No one is home (right) now.
  • Сейчас пять утра. = It is 5 a.m. now.

Теперь is the "now" you use when things are different from "before". You imply that the situation has changed. It is also associated with a more prolonged period of time, i.e. the state of affairs is different from before, and will stay so for now:

  • Мы теперь работаем в главном офисе. = We now work at the main office. (We did not, but now we are, and things are going to stay like that for some time)

время

The noun «время» ("time") belongs to a really small class of neuter nouns. Its Genitive form is времени, and all other oblique forms also retain the -ен part.

Family updated 2018-10-25

Not much to say here, except that Russian does not have a special word for siblings or grandparents.

Unlike English, Russians rarely say "my mother", "my grandfather"; usually they omit "my".

свой ~ one's own

...And when they don't, it is more natural to use reflexive "свой" (one's own). English does not have anything quite like that. Essentially, it is a substitute for my, your, his, her etc. that you use when it refers to the person (or thing) that is the subject of the sentence or, at least, the clause you are in. A few typical examples:

  • Кошка ест из своей миски = The cat is eating out of its bowl.
  • Мы у (своих) родителей = We are at our parents' place. (here you can omit "своих")
  • Я думаю, он у своих родителей = I think he's at his parents' place.

Forms of «свой» follow the same mostly-adjectival pattern that «мой»,«твой», «ваш», «наш» and «этот» use: свой, своя, своё, свои → своего, свою, своих...

Since «свой» describes something belonging to the subject of the sentence, it cannot be used with the subject of the sentence itself. The exception is made when you are making generalisations, e.g. "One's (own) reputation is always more important"~«Своя репутация всегда важнее».

Pay attention to what the grammatical subject is. Sentences like «Мне нравится у своей сестры» are sort-of-OK sometimes, but you are really treading on thin ice here. This one sounds almost normal, while some others would immediately look unnatural.

Mister!

In spoken Russian «дядя»(uncle) and «тётя»(aunt) are often used to refer to some adult "guy" or "woman". A special case is children's use, since they often use it even as a form of address ("тётя Маша!").

This course doesn't cover this. But it's still useful to know.

People 2 updated 2021-04-05

A student

Russian has different words for a school student (aka a pupil, BrE) and a college-level student, which both have masculine and feminine versions:

  • учени́к / учени́ца – a school student or a student/apprentice in general, especially in spiritual sense
  • студе́нт / студе́нтка – a college or university-level student (attends a corresponding institution)

Молоде́ц is a word you use when someone "did a good job". It comes with a patronizing shade, so ideally you use it towards your friends or actual students/ subordinates (but not towards people whose work you are in no position to judge).

5 men

When you are counting people, use "челове́к" for numbers that end in «пять» (5) or more. Anywhere else use the normal Genitive plural "люде́й" (with много and мало both are possible, but I'd stick to люде́й).

Learning and studying

Russian has a number of ways to express learning, but in this course we have учи́ться, учи́ть, and занима́ться. The 1st verb, учи́ться, is introduced in this skill. Here is a little more information:

meaning examples
учи́ться to study (e.g. to attend classes or to do self-study) Днём я учу́сь.
учи́ться в(на) + Prep. to study somewhere; to be in nth grade/nth year Де́вочка у́чится в шко́ле, в 3-м кла́ссе.
учи́ть + Acc.subject to learn, to memorize something («наизу́сть» ="by heart") Я учу́ слова́. Я учу́ ру́сский язы́к.
учи́ть + Acc + Dat to teach somebody something Я учу́ студе́нтов ру́сскому.

Doctor

The usual word for a (medical) doctor is «врач». We also have «до́ктор», which is fine but informal. However, a "doctor" as a person with a corresponding degree is «до́ктор» (no alternatives).

Weather and Nature updated 2021-04-05

It's raining

"To go" is the verb used for precipitation in Russian:

  • Идёт дождь = It is raining.
  • Идёт снег. = It is snowing.
  • Идёт град. = it is hailing (we don't have it in the course).

in summer/winter

Russian has adverbs for "in spring", "in summer" etc. They are formed as the Instrumental case of a corresponding noun.

We'll cover the Instrumental in detail later. Right now just get used to the words themselves:

  • Весно́й мо́кро. = It's wet in spring
  • Зимо́й хорошо́ = It's good/nice in winter.
  • О́сенью гря́зно. = It's muddy in the fall.
  • Ле́том со́лнечно. = It is sunny in summer.

Russians usually assign each season 3 months, i.e. winter is December through February and spring is March through May (even if you have snow well into April).

Category of State

It is easier than it sounds. When expressing a "state", some modality, or one's opinion on the situation, Russian often uses these impersonal words, saying that such and such state is observed:

  • Мне хо́лодно. = I'm (feeling) cold.
  • На у́лице тепло́. = It is warm outside.
  • Хорошо́, что вы тут. = It is good you are here.
  • Тру́дно сказа́ть. = It is hard to say.

Many are homonymous with adverbs and short-form adjectives. So we'll study them later with adjectives. For now, we only have a handful of such words useful when discussing the weather.

Needless to say, these do not use any grammatical subject and are quite useful with verbs like "to be" and "to become" ("It's getting warmer").

Sport updated 2021-04-03

win/lose

Here you encounter two perfective verbs; these two very obviously refer to a specific result:

  • Ты проигра́л! = You lost!
  • Нам надо вы́играть. = We need to win.

Note the formation of the past. If you remember был, была́—all Russian past forms are essentially formed the same way. The endings correspond to gender and number:

masc fem neut pl

We'll be practising many more past forms in the skill in the next row.

Reflexive

As a reminder, if a verb has -ся at the end, you add it after the usual ending («-сь» is used after a vowel):

  • ката́ться на лы́жах = to ski
  • Я ката́юсь на лы́жах = I ski.

«бежа́ть», to run

In this skill, we introduce the one-way verb "to run". You may not remember but it has one of the four irregular stems:

SING. PLUR.
Я бегу́ Мы бежи́м
Ты бежи́шь Вы бежи́те
Он бежи́т Они бегу́т

Adjectives 1 updated 2021-04-05

In Russian the adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in gender(number) and case. Fortunately, the system is completely regular and the stress stays the same. The forms for the cases you know are:

ENDINGS masculine neuter feminine
Nom. -ый(о́й)/-ий -ое/-ее -ая/-яя
Acc. Nom. or Gen. -ое/-ее -ую/-юю
Gen. -ого/-его see masc. -ой/-ей
Prep. -ом/-ем see masc. -ой/-ей

The plural ending in the Nominative is -ые (ие). We will address the oblique forms later in the course.

A few examples:

  • Я живу в большом городе. (Prep.,masc.)
  • Дайте большого кота. (Acc.,masc.)
  • Нам надо найти хорошую книгу. (Acc.,fem)

velars and hushes

Adjectives with the stem on -к, -г, -х, -ш, -щ, -ж, -ч will use "и", "а", "у" instead of "ы", "я", "ю" so watch carefully ("русский", for instance).

We will tackle the endings one at a time.

целый vs. весь

In Russian the idea of "the whole" of something can be expressed by either «целый» or «весь». The former is used when implying the unexpectedly "large" amount; it is the one we're teaching in this skill:

  • Он целый день спит. (normally, a person should have been awake for a long time)

Past & Infinitive updated 2021-04-03

The infinitive stem

In Russian the Past tense and the Infinitive are formed from the same stem.

The forms are actually much easier than in the Present because there are only four forms in total for masculine/feminine/neuter + plural, similar to adjectives (the forms were participles once).

VERB masc fem neut pl
ending
быть был была́ бы́ло бы́ли
есть ел е́ла е́ло е́ли

«идти» and all its derivatives (пойти́, прийти́, найти́..) has a strange, irregular past stem:

walked, went: он пошёл, она пошла́, оно пошло́, они пошли́

For the masculine form, there is a phonetic simplification for verbs with infinitives in -чь,-сти/-зти, -зть/-сть. For example “мочь”(“can”), “ползти́”(crawl) and “лезть”(climb): он мог, полз, лез — no final Л here.

This skill mostly covers the past form of imperfective verbs (only «уста́ть» and «подожда́ть» are perfective). What it means for you is that when 2 or more such actions are mentioned, they all happened at the same time or in no particular order. Why? Imperfective verbs like «идти́», «жить», «говори́ть» are by nature unspecific about their exact time frame.

  • they express repeated or prolonged action
  • they express action in progress
  • they can also express the fact that an action has or has not occured (with or without details on "when" it took place).

What about the present form?

For some verb types the two stems are nearly identical (понима́ть, говори́ть). Which is a good thing for you!

Shopping updated 2021-04-04

Give me that!

By now, you have probably noticed a surprising lack of "that one" in Russian. Russian mostly uses "этот" both for "this" and "that", unless you need to make a contrast between "this one here" and "that one there".

However, when you are really pointing at things, use whatever you like!

  • «вот тут»~right here;«вот э́тот» ~ "this one here"
  • «вон там»~over there; «вон тот» ~ "that one over there"

("вот" is acceptable with both)

Clothing

  • оде́жда is a mass noun for "clothes", о́бувь for footwear.
  • ту́фли are also "shoes", but a more specific kind: "dress shoes" or the shoes you'd use with a gown
  • боти́нок ...a dictionary will say it's a bit higher than a "dress shoe". In reality, especially in men's speech, the word is often used for shoes, too
  • сапо́г is most definitely a boot
  • пальто́ is typically a long outer garment
  • ку́ртка is more generic but usually refers to a shorter outer garment—with proportions not much different from a shirt
  • руба́шка is the word used for shirt. «Соро́чка» is a formal word for a shirt that is worn as a part of a suit (eg. with pants, a jacket and a necktie), but people still use "руба́шка" anyway.

a bigger/smaller shirt

From the Adjectives skill you might remember «бо́льше» and «меньше» as words for "more/bigger" and "less/fewer/smaller". Since these work as adverbs, it is problematic to use them with nouns.

Instead, the words «побо́льше» / «поме́ньше» are used AFTER a noun:

  • Я хочу́ стол побо́льше/поме́ньше.
  • Да́йте я́блоко побо́льше.

This works with some other popular adjectives: подлинне́е, покоро́че, полу́чше. When not used with nouns directly, these have a colloquial quality.

Actually, with adjectives other than большо́й/мале́нький you may resort to «бо́лее дли́нное пальто́». However, «бо́лее большо́е» is not used.

Dative and Plurals updated 2020-08-15

The Dative Case in Russian

You have already seen that many expressions of feelings and experience use the Dative: ”Мне нра́вится...”, “Ма́ме хорошо́”, “Ему́ 5 лет”, “Мне ка́жется ...” etc.

The Dative introduces an indirect object of an action: usually the person whom the action is directed towards. An example would be a sentence like “I handed a package to my mom”: “my mom” here is a recipient.

Actually, this depends on the verb, just like in English. Some popular verbs of speech, writing or “giving” will use the bare Dative for the recipient: говори́ть, сказа́ть, писа́ть, чита́ть, дать, принести́ and so on.

Dative prepositions

  • по: the basic meaning is “movement along the surface”("covering" it) which may realise as “walking around the park”, “running down the street”, “looking for it all over the house” etc.
  • к: towards, to. Often used when you are going towards somebody (“towards Anna” = «к Анне»)
  • several bookish prepositional phrases like «благодаря́» (thanks to) or «вопреки́» (contrary to)

По has an additional meaning, “apiece” or "each" : «Они́ взя́ли по три я́блока»=”They took 3 apples each”.

There is a bookish use of «по» meaning "upon". It goes with Prepositional, and is mostly used in set prepositional phrases like «по оконча́нии» (upon completion).

Cases in plural

Plurals generally have only one pattern shared by all nouns. The ending only depends on the case, not the class of a noun:, «я говорю́ о дома́х, стра́нах, города́х, я́блоках, дочеря́х».

Only the Nominative and (especially) the Genitive have a number of different plural endings that depend on the class of a noun.

Speaking 1 updated 2021-04-05

Sequence of tenses in Russian

There is no sequence of tenses in Russian whatsoever.

The information in a subordinate sentence is understood to be relative to the main clause:

  • Он сказа́л, что не зна́ет. = He said he didn't know.

So if the piece of information is simply about where things are or what someone does, use present tense in the subordinate clause.

ли

Use the particle "ли" in reported questions or situations when you don't know which option is true:

  • Я спроси́л, зна́ет ли он Москву́. = I asked him if he knew Moscow.
  • Мы не зна́ем, бу́дет ли он в о́фисе. = We don't know whether he is going to show up in the office.

The particle is attached to the word that is in doubt. It needn't be a verb, for instance, «Я не зна́ю, в Москве́ ли он» (i.e. whether he is in Moscow or in some other city). «Ли» generally attaches to the first stressed word of the clause.

Talk or say?

The verb говори́ть is used both as "to say, to tell" and as "to talk, to speak". When you report someone's words, obviously, the 2nd meaning is in action:

  • Она говори́т, что хо́чет спать. = She says that she wants to sleep.

Russian has a whole set of perfective verbs. Usually you arrange verbs neatly into closely matching pairs of imperfective + perfective. And these are different for the two meanings of «говори́ть»:

  • to say → говори́ть / сказ́ать
  • to speak → говори́ть / поговори́ть

Remember «Скажи́те, пожа́луйста ... » ?

Rather than referring to ongoing actions or past(future) actions in general, perfective verbs refer to actions in a point-wise manner, ignoring the action's inner structure. That is, such "singular" actions happen at some particular "moment" and can be conveniently arranged in a sequence when telling a story. This distinction is about to come into focus in one of the following skills.

Perfective Verbs -1 updated 2021-04-04

Aspect in Russian

Verbs in Russian come in two 'flavors' : perfective (eg. “пригото́вить”) and imperfective (eg. “гото́вить”).

Let's get this straight right away: most perfectives are made by attaching a prefix—and the endings of the resulting verb change in the same way they changed for the source verb.

Perfective verbs express an action, an "event" linked to a point in time. Sometimes they assert the presence of a result. You use them for sequences of actions, too.

Imperfective verbs are used for everything else: processes, states, repeated actions and for generic reference to an action (when the time of occurrence is irrelevant).

In this introductory lesson we deal with the most basic pattern of use:

  • perfective verbs are used to tell stories about successive actions
  • imperfectives are used for simultaneous processes
  • perfective verbs are often used to describe single actions that have a specific result, e.g., “Give me that”, “I bought some food”, “I have painted many pictures”. However, not all of them can be reliably described like that.
  • we use imperfective to tell that someone has or has never done something, especially in "out of the blue" situations. When the action was supposed to be done (which is known by the listener), we use the perfective.

Morphology

Being too lazy to make up many different verbs, we usually make new ones based on the old ones. The vast majority of unprefixed verbs are imperfective.

  • Prefixation is the main method to create a perfective verb: писа́ть→написа́ть, идти́→пойти́.
  • a different suffix is sometimes used: опа́здывать←опозда́ть
  • occasionally, the stress changes: нареза́ть→наре́зать
  • different stems are used for a few verbs: говори́ть→сказа́ть

The last phenomenon is known as suppletion and only happens for a limited number of verbs and their derivatives. The English verb "to go" is another example of such behavior (its past form is "went").

Note that suffixation is very popular for secondary imperfectives. Usually only one prefixed verb is considered an "ideal match" for an imperfective verb. Others are somewhat different in meaning (or a lot different). But you need imperfective partners for these, too, so Russian uses suffixes for that:

  • чита́ть = to read (imperf.)
  • перечита́ть = to reread (perf.) → cannot be considered a "natural" perfective for this verb
  • перечи́тывать = to reread (imperf.)

can

The verb «мочь» is used to talk about the general possibility of something, and also, very often—about your ability to perform something and reach some result. Perfectives are used in this second meaning:

  • Я могу́ написа́ть кни́гу за ме́сяц = I can write a book in a month.
  • Она́ мо́жет посмотре́ть? = Can she take a look?

We do not use мочь for skills. Russian has уметь for this.

опять / снова

Both mean "again" and are largely interchangeable when they mean that an action from the past has occurred again.

«Опять» is more popular but it's focused on staying "the same as before". «Снова» (cf. «новый») can also mean action performed "anew, from the beginning".

Only «опять» is used in «опять же» (~"besides").

When asking someone to repeat, use «ещё раз».

What else is there to it?

imperfective verbs

  • name the action as a whole (“I can swim”)
  • describe prolonged states and processes, regular actions

Perfective verbs describe events: singular, definite actions that are viewed as localized in time. They “happened” at some moment (“I made a video”, “I slept for some time and then went outside”). Or they describe a certain change of state at some "turning point" (not yet eaten→eaten, not slept enough→slept enough and ready to get up).

It is argued in a few works that "a natural" perfective is just a prefixed verb where a prefix's metaphorical meaning so conveniently overlaps the verb's own meaning, that you cannot feel any change. So don't be surprised if some vague actions have several perfective matches for a single imperfective verb.

That also means that sometimes you'd better memorize a pair even if it is technically a "poor" match. After all, in some contexts it will come in handy:

  • есть → съе́сть (to consume something, completely)
  • есть → пое́сть (to have a meal, to spend some time eating—regardless of whether you finish your meal or decide you've had enough half-way)

Instrumental Case updated 2021-04-04

Fortunately, this is the very last case!

It is used for some very specific meanings, that’s why we've put off covering it for so long.

  • It is used alone for a “tool” or an “agent” of an action. English mostly uses “with” or “by” instead: “молотком” (with a hammer), ”ветром” (by wind), “силой” (by force)
  • It is used alone with some verbs of “being”, “becoming”, “seeming”: Я стал учителем ~ “I have become a teacher”

It is also used with prepositions:

  • с (со) = “with” (together with someone/something) — note that “Я с ней” or even “Мы с ней” is the most natural way of saying “She and I”
  • за/ перед — behind/ in front of
  • над/ под — above/under
  • между — between (also used with Genitive)

Мы с тобой

When you tell someone about "you and I" or "my friend and I" etc., it is most idiomatic to use мы с + your companion in Instrumental.

  • Мы с тобой друзья. = You and I are friends.
  • Мы с мамой вчера купили компьютер. = Mom and I bought a computer yesterday.

Of course, when translating sentences out of the blue, you cannot (strictly speaking) tell if a speaker means "I" or "we". This is rarely a source of confusion in real situations (where it is unlikely a speaker goes on randomly switching between "I" and "we").

Sometimes you can interpret a joint action using "and" or "with", whatever sounds more natural:

  • Мы с ними вчера не говорили. = They and I didn't talk yesterday / I didn't talk with (to) them yesterday.

But wait, there's more!

Actually, Russian also has a handful of inconsistent cases that only exist for some words. They are (mostly) beyond the scope of this course:

  • the Locative-2: the most important. Why? Because it's obligatory with the nouns that it applies to. It expresses the meaning of place, with в, на or both. It exists for over a hundred masculine nouns: в году, на мосту, в лесу, на полу. And for about 20 feminine nouns in —ь: в крови (the ending is always stressed for both!)
  • the Neo-vocative: a form of a name used when addressing a person. It exists for common names and several nouns: Вань! Вер! Алён! Мам! Пап! (just the last vowel sound is removed). The Historical vocative ("человек → человече") has been lost in modern Russian.
  • the Genitive-2: for “some amount of a substance”. Increasingly replaced by the usual Genitive but still can be used for several masculine nouns: “Хочу чаю
  • “Waiting” case: not much of a case, but actually the verb “ждать” (to wait) would use Accusative for people and things that can affect their appearance and Genitive for everything else (an event/thing that does not choose when to arrive).

Body, Life and Death updated 2021-03-19

You have big eyes

Be careful NOT to use «есть» when describing properties of body parts, if their existence is normal and unlikely to surprise anyone:

  • У меня длинный нос = I have a long nose.

A Handy thing to know

The Russian words for limbs and what they have on the end of them can be a little confusing initially. Depending on the situation, рука can mean hand or it can mean arm. The same is true for нога; it can be foot or leg. Most of the time the meaning is clear from the context.

The difference works as follows:

  • in English "hand", strictly speaking, means the part starting at the wrist.
  • in Russian «рука», strictly speaking, means the whole arm.
  • when you need a word describing the limb functionally (as something we use to work, to grab things etc.), English uses "hand" while Russian uses "arm".

The same goes for the lower limb.

Genitive Plural updated 2018-10-25

The formation of Genitive Plural

All other forms (except the Nominative) are the same for all plural nouns, regardless of gender. The Genitive is the other exception. Here is how it is formed:

  • -а, -я, -о nouns: just remove the last vowel sound. Extends to -ия and -ие nouns (which become -ий). A vowel is inserted if a consonant cluster forms at the end. We will address a few common cases of fleeting vowels later in the course.

    • ма́ма, неде́ля → мам, неде́ль
    • сло́во, окно́ → слов, о́кон
    • фами́лия, мело́дия → фами́лий, мело́дий
    • ко́шка → ко́шек
  • hard consonant: typical “masculine” nouns ending in hard non-sibilant consonants get the ending -ов. Those in “-й” get -ев, and so do nouns in “-ц” when the ending is unstressed (which won't help you much).

    • стол, оте́ц, го́род → столо́в, отцо́в, городо́в
    • ме́сяц → ме́сяцев
  • soft consonant: feminine and masculine nouns ending in or hushes (Ж, Ш, Щ, Ч) will get -ей as the ending. Neuter nouns ending in also use this pattern.

    • ночь, крова́ть → ноче́й, крова́тей
    • учи́тель, муж → учителе́й, муже́й
    • мо́ре → море́й
  • «и́мя» and «вре́мя» become имён, времён (though, for «се́мя» and «стре́мя» it is «семя́н» and «стремя́н»)

Not so easy

  • be careful around nouns that form plurals irregularly, like друг →друзья́. Here are the genitive plurals of «друг», «мать», «дочь», «сын», «стул», «брат», «лист» and «де́рево» :

    • друзе́й, матере́й, дочере́й, сынове́й
    • сту́льев, бра́тьев, ли́стьев, дере́вьев

Adjectives 2 updated 2018-10-25

In this skill, we focus a bit more on adjectives and their case forms

задача vs. задание

As a "problem" in a Math class, «задача» is more frequent. Other than that, «задача» may be a problem, a task, an objective—while «задание» is a task assigned by someone else (again, unless it's an exercise you randomly encountered in your textbook).

Superlative

When you want to express "the most" strong degree of some quality, Russian will almost always use an analytical form. Just add the adjective «самый» in front:

  • Это самая длинная книга.
  • Ты самый плохой папа.

There are one-word forms for many adjectives, though few of them are popular. Here are the synthetic forms, to give you an idea:

  • лучший, худший, быстрейший, теплейший
  • интереснейший, длиннейший, кратчайший
  • наилучший, наидлиннейший, наисложнейший

наи-prefixed versions should be used with extreme care since they will almost always sound too fancy for spoken language and too emotional for academic writing. Still, a few of most popular may be just the right thing in written style (eg. наилучший, наихудший, наисложнейший).

Predicates and States(+Adverbs) updated 2021-04-04

Practical Short Adjectives

Adjectives in Russian have a long form and a short one. A long one is used before nouns and as a part of a predicate. A short "predicative" form can ONLY be used as a predicate (with a "to be" verb). Usually it looks the same as an adverb.

To be more exact, that typically refers to adjectives that mean qualities that exist on a sliding scale (good, short, soft etc.) rather than yes/no characteristics (wooden, American).

Their usage depends on the meaning and style and isn't all that easy. It is especially frustrating for a learner when a short and a long form are interchangeable but modify the overall tone.

Now, from a practical point of view, a number of adjectives are used in a short form very often (or always) and/or have a distinct meaning when used in this form. It is safe to say that most adjectives in Russian aren't much used in the short form, so better learn those that are.

That's what we are going to do. And you get adverbs for free.

Other predicative adjectives/adverbs uses

  • feeling/state: It is cold/I feel cold: «Мне холодно. Тут холодно. Дома всегда хорошо». Is not even considered an adjective in most descriptions. Usually linguists define them as a "category of state"
  • general judgement of the form "You are wrong"/"It is perfect/bad" → Это просто отлично. Ты неправ.
  • «Превосходно!» — short sentences like "Good!" or "Magnificent!". Actually, that's where a huge variety of adjectives with a meaning of "terrific"/"awful" are used in the short form, even if hardly anywhere else.
  • when an adjective like "glad" or "similar" has details on what you are glad about or similar to, it is normally short.

Education updated 2021-04-04

Ordinal numbers

Russian ordinal numbers behave like adjectives. Also, thankfully, if you have a long number only the last word is affected when the gender and/or case change:

  • 31st = три́дцать пе́рвый
  • on the 31st of December = три́дцать пе́рвого декабря́ (it is Genitive here)

High-rise

The floor numbering uses the system common in the U.S., i.e. the floor on the ground level is "the 1st floor". This is what you are going to see on the elevator buttons—so we try to stick to this "literal" translation.

University departments

A typical structure of a university::

университе́т

факульте́т ("department/faculty"), отделе́ние ("subdivision")

.   ​‍‍‎‏↳ ка́федра ("branch")

If a "факульте́т" is really large, it may have several "отделе́ния" inside, which are then subdivided further into "ка́федры".

A university can also have an "институ́т" ("institute") inside. Or a number of them. An institute may have departments of its own.

Grades

The grading system in Russia uses numbers 2 to 5:

  • 2, «неудовлетвори́тельно» —"fail", an F
  • 3, «удовлетвори́тельно» —a "just about satisfactory" mark, something like a C minus
  • 4, «хорошо́» —a "good" mark, similar to a B
  • 5, «отли́чно»—an "excellent" mark, an A

In speech we usually call them «дво́йка», «тро́йка», «четвёрка» and «пятёрка». «Едини́ца»(1) is virtually never assigned (maybe only in the case of particularly mighty failure, combining poor performance with behavior).

Universities—officially—only use the words («неуд.», «уд.»/«удовл.», «хор.», «отл.» when abbreviated). And yet, the numbers are also widely used in conversation.

Classes

A school lesson is 45 minutes long, followed by a short break («переме́на»).

A class at a university consists of two 45-minute-long periods, often with a 5-minute break in between. This is why people usually call it «па́ра» ("a pair, a couple"). In the Russian Far East «ле́нта»("a ribbon") is a more popular term—but do not try your luck using this term anywhere else!

Summer break and shorter breaks during the academic year are «кани́кулы». This is a plural-only noun.

Grades (the other kind)

Finally, a word (or two) about grades/school years. For the sake of convenience, this course assumes that первый класс is the exact equivalent of first grade, grade one or year one, etc, which may or may not be the case depending on where you're from. For the record, Russian schools run from первый класс when you are six or seven years old to одиннадцатый класс when you are seventeen, although the last two years are not compulsory.

Countries and Places updated 2021-04-05

Sweden, a Swede, Swedish

In Russian, the name of the country, the name of a person from there and their language are all different words. They are related, however, and few patterns exist:

country male female adjective
А́нглия англича́нин англича́нка англи́йский
Кита́й (China) кита́ец китая́нка кита́йский
Ита́лия италья́нец италья́нка италья́нский
Кана́да кана́дец кана́дка кана́дский
Аме́рика америка́нец америка́нка америка́нский
Казахста́н каза́х каза́шка каза́хский
Фра́нция францу́з францу́женка францу́зский

It's worth pointing out here (in case you hadn't spotted it already) that while English capitalizes country/language adjectives, Russian does not.

Simple Future

Describing a "simple" future action (not a process) is rather straightforward—take a perfective verb and make its "present" form the same as you did with imperfective. The difference is, perfective verbs have no present:

  • Ду́маю, тебе́ понра́вится Том = I think you'll like Tom. (from нра́виться/по́нравиться)
  • Я приду́ в шко́лу = I'll come to school. (прийти is a prefixed perfective variant of «идти»)

English, of course, has a number of ways of expressing the future; use "will" or "is going to" as you deem appropriate.

Программи́ст-кана́дец

Since in Russian, ethnicity is described with a noun, they can produce hyphenated compounds (just like other nouns). We have very few of them in this course.

  • писа́тель-италья́нец = an Italian writer
  • студе́нт-худо́жник = a student who is an artist
  • студе́нт-каза́х = a Kazakh student
  • подру́га-англича́нка = an English friend (fem.)

Междунаро́дный

It comes from «ме́жду» + «наро́ды», i.e. "between"+"peoples", which is quite literally "international".

The loanword «интернациональный» means the same but has quite limited use in certain combinations like "international team" or "international debt" (mostly these are from political contexts). This course largely avoids this word.

Most likely, "international team/orchestra" etc. is the context where you must use «интернациональный»).

Speak English!

You can use both «говорить по-английски» (adverb) and «говорить на английском» (на + Prep.)

«На английском» is specifically about content in the language or about linguistic ability. «По-английски» is about the way an action is done/ an object is made (for objects, it does not mean the language).

So a book can only be written «на английском». However, if you mean "English-style pizza", it can only be «пицца по-английски»!

House updated 2021-04-05

Points of compass

Example translation
на + Acc. на север north (about motion)
на + Prep. на севере (+Gen) in the north (of)
к + Dat. к северу (+от Gen) to the north (of), north of
с + Gen. с севера from the north

Now you can say where you live:

  • на юге Берли́на = in the south of Berlin (i.e. inside the city)
  • к югу от Берли́на = to the south of Berlin (i.e. in another settlement outside of the city)

«Двор» and "courtyard"

The word «двор» requires some attention. Technically it can be either yard or courtyard in English because it means either a piece of land near the house or an area inside a group of buildings.

In this course it is "courtyard". After all, you'll mostly encounter «двор» when people refer to the area enclosed by a group of buildings as opposed to the area by the street. Don't expect it to look idyllic, though.

Locative

Just a reminder that there are certain short masculine nouns for places which have a stressed ending in the Prepositional, instead of the which you'd expect. Ex.: на полу́, на мосту́, в шкафу́, в лесу́, на берегу́, в порту́, на льду́, на углу́ в саду́, в снегу́.

It is not a variant form, i.e. its use is obligatory, which makes it the strongest "extra" case in Russian.

the Pseudo-passive

It is very common in Russian to use the 3rd person plural of a verb without any "they" to express that the action is performed by unspecified "persons":

bare 3rd pers.pl. English: passive (mostly)
Меня́ зову́т Том. My name's Tom.
Тут де́лают маши́ны. Cars are made here.
Так не говоря́т. People don't talk like that.
В нача́ле гото́вят лук. First, the onions are cooked.

This particular wording won't work if you describe something that happens "by itself".

хвата́ть

Using the impersonal verb «хвата́ть» is one of the ways to express the idea of having enough of something. The person is used in the Dative while the thing you have or do not have enough of is stated in the Genitive:

  • Мне не хвата́ет де́нег. = I do not have enough money.
  • Нам хвата́ет еды́. = We have enough food.
  • Ей хвата́ет рабо́ты. = She has enough work.

The perfective counterpart is «хвати́ть».

Reflexive updated 2021-04-04

In theory

The reflexive is used when a subject performs an action "on itself". In English it is generally not stated explicitly. When you say that someone shaves or stops, it is understood that the action relates to themselves, unless a different "object" is provided.

These verbs end in -ся /-сь in Russian («ся» after a consonant, «сь» after a vowel)

As a rule, these verbs never take a direct object in the Accusative. «Бояться» (to be afraid of) is one of the few exceptions, in that it can use Accusative for people.

In practice

Russian reflexive verbs may mean a number of things. Here are the most popular meanings:

  • true reflexive: мыться, бриться. Mostly for verbs like "wash", "shave", "comb your hair".
  • reciprocal ("each other"): встречаться, целоваться, "meet/date/go out with", "kiss".
  • passive (for imperfective verbs only): Еда готовится лучшими поварами. "The food is (being) prepared by the best chefs"
  • emotional state or some movement/change: родиться, удивиться, учиться, радоваться, меняться, двигаться, "to be born", "to be surprised", "to learn", "to be glad", "to change", "to move".
  • inclination to do something (in impersonal constructions): Мне не спится = I do not feel like sleeping.
  • lexical verbs that are reflexive for no particular reason: нравиться, бояться, заниматься, садиться. Some of these are only used with «-ся». Some also exist in a "bare" form but mean a completely different thing.

We do not have several non-reflexive base verbs in the course (some are rare or just a little beyond what we could include). However, some just don't exist.

себя

«Себя» is a reflexive object pronoun: it means the same thing as the subject of the verb (or the implied subject, if the sentence doesn't contain a subject):

  • Посмотри на себя! = Look at yourself!
  • Мы не думали о себе. = We didn't think about ourselves.
  • Он говорит сам с собой. = He is talking to himself («сам с собой» is just more idiomatic here)

Note that, as usual for pronouns, it is often found before the verb. Its declension pattern is the same as for «меня» or «тебя». Since it can't be the subject of the sentence, it doesn't have a Nominative form.

It is also used with some verbs:

  • чувствовать себя = to feel (a certain way)
  • представить (себе) = to imagine
  • вести себя = to behave
  • брать с собой = to take along ("with yourself")
  • выходить из себя = to lose one's temper

(«с собой» is generally used to express having something with you or "on one's person", not only with "брать")

Remember the «Мы у друга»-structures? They work here, too:

  • Я у себя. = I am at my place.
  • Мы у себя дома. = We are at (our) home.

Other

  • reflexive verbs for some actions (often harmful) typical of a subject: Собака кусается = The dog bites.

It often works for animals and people (to scratch, to butt, to swear). However, in a sense, it is also the meaning in "Книга легко читается", which corresponds to "The book is easy to read", i.e. usually it "is read" without difficulty (by whoever reads it).

  • про себя = "to oneself" (as opposed to "aloud")
  • сам по себе = on its own
  • само собой (разумеется) = "it goes without saying"
  • Мне не по себе. = I feel uneasy/sick/uncomfortable.

Time expressions 2 updated 2021-04-04

More popular time expressions

  • тепе́рь is the word for "now" when you mean that there is a change from how it was before ("Now I live in Rome", "What do we do now!?", "Now you know Russian"). We are pretty lenient on the distinction in the course, though.
  • use «че́рез» + Accusative to express an amount of time that should pass before the event comes («через неделю» = in a week, a week later).
  • use Accusative + «наза́д» to express "X time ago"(«сто лет назад» = 100 years ago). «Тому́ наза́д» means the same thing but this use has been quickly losing its popularity since WWII and isn't taught here (it is mostly characteristic of people born before 1950).
  • по + Dative pl. expresses "on Mondays" etc.

рисова́ть, плани́ровать...

Verbs with suffixes -ова/-ева replace it with уй sound in their present tense stem. The actual endings will be -ую, -уешь, -ует and so on:

  • Я рису́ю, плани́рую, анализи́рую, ра́дуюсь
  • Она рису́ет, анализи́рует ...

There is also a non-productive class of verbs with -дава́ть, -става́ть, -знава́ть that exhibits similar behavior (вай):

  • Я даю́, встаю́,
  • Ты даёшь, узнаёшь.

It's small, but it has some popular imperfective verbs like «встава́ть» (get up), «дава́ть» (give), «устава́ть» (get tired) and «узнава́ть» (to learn some piece of information).

Imperative and Adverbs updated 2021-04-04

Two types of imperative

Not hard at all.

First, look at the 3rd person plural: читают, пишут, любят and so on. Remove the ending.

  • if you are left with a vowel at the end, add Й
  • if you are left with a consonant, add И after a consonant cluster or "л" (otherwise, just ь).

Done! Читай, пиши, люби. To make it plural or polite, just add -те: читайте.

This lesson deals with the И-pattern plus some irregular forms. However, the pattern described above works for the vast majority of verbs. The irregular stems give you ешь, дай, беги.

Aspect is imperative

Which aspect to use? Well, if you focus on the process ("Please, slice evenly") or encourage engaging in some activity, use imperfective. Otherwise, especially If you want to get a result or a single specific action, use perfective.

When forbidding something, use the imperfective.

You may notice that sometimes when Russians want a specific action (let's call that "simple request"), they still use imperfective. Why? Here is the prototypal meaning of such usage:

  • the initial phase of the action is accented (overridden for some verbs)
  • it is a contextually obvious action ("Please, do come in!", "Now, turn in your tests") → or else it sounds quite assertive (maybe intentionally)
  • a simple action is expected to be performed immediately

By the way, that "obvious" point is why imperfectives are not, as a rule, used for detailed "simple requests", especially with "please". It is OK for some typical guest-receiving situations ("please, come in", "please sit down"). But IMP. is out of question with clearly non-obvious detailed requests like "Take my cat from the sofa, please"—if it were obvious why would you ask in such detail? These two contradict each other: appealing to the listener's common sense ('You should obviously do that') while at the same time using 'please' and giving the details.

Verbs of Motion updated 2021-04-04

Run: there and back again

Russian verbs of motion come in two varieties:

  • a one-way, specific verb (like идти́→). They're used for one-way trips strictly to/from some goal (usually a single instance)
  • a multi-directional verb (like ходи́ть⇆)

Multi-directional verbs ⇆↝

They can express three different things:

  • repeated trips: «Я хожу́ в школу»
  • a round trip: «Где ты была?»—«Ходи́ла в магази́н».
  • moving with no goal or referring the action/trip in general: «Моя́ до́чка уже́ хо́дит».

From a practical point of view, a one-way verb is mostly a Continuous tense in English, while a multidirectional verb corresponds with a Simple tense or the Present Perfect (a trip happened→"I've been there - and come back"). Or to a Continuous tense when it is a random movement.

  • Pay attention to бежа́ть (to run→), which is an irregular verb (though, only a little bit).

Pairs (→ / ⇆)

  • идти́ / ходи́ть – movement on foot or within a city; also OK when talking about a public transportation route
  • е́хать / е́здить – movement by vehicle on land, also a generic verb for travelling to other countries.
  • лете́ть / лета́ть – "to fly", to move through air
  • плы́ть / пла́вать – "to swim", to move by water
  • нести́ / носи́ть – "to carry" an object, on foot
  • везти́ / вози́ть – "to carry" a person/object, by some means of transportation
  • вести́ / води́ть – to "lead" a person, on foot (also about roads and about "driving" a vehicle)

Up to 14 or 18 verbs of motion are found in Russian, though we only teach 3 to 5 common ones.

Waaait, what about perfectives?

To make a perfective (specific!) verb, add a prefix «по-» to a one-way verb (идти́→пойти́). It gives a perfective with an implied focus on the initial point ("setting out").

  • other prefixes add their meaning; to get an imperfective verb, attach the same prefix to a multi-directional verb (уйти/уходи́ть, уе́хать/уезжа́ть, прилете́ть/прилета́ть etc.) Pay attention to «-езжать».

  • With "по-" the imperfective meaning differs (a rather typical shade "to perform an action for some time")

City and People updated 2021-04-04

Stop right there!

What you call a place where some transport stops, depends on the transport. The trains stop at «ста́нция» while bus and tram stops are «остано́вка» («авто́бусная», «тролле́йбусная», «трамва́йная»).

Note the Locative 2 in мост and угол(corner): на мосту́, на углу́, в углу́.

«Маршру́тка» is a minibus that travels at semi-regular intervals, often filling its capacity of passengers at the starting point. Most will follow the same route as the regular bus of the same number. Due to translation difficulties, it is not covered in this course.

«Вокза́л» is a large railway station with a station building, often a terminus but not necessarily (that's where you would look for an inter-city train).

Englishman and Englishwoman

Most popular names for people from different countries or ethnic groups will have a version for males and another for females. Look for a suffix, since the formation of these nouns is extremely typical: англича́нин/англича́нка, испа́нец/испа́нка, шве́д/шведка, коре́ец/корея́нка, кита́ец/китая́нка, францу́з/францу́женка, гре́к/греча́нка...

Other point of interest

Railroad is «желе́зная доро́га» in Russian (lit. 'iron road'). «Суперма́ркет», while sometimes similar to supermarkets you know, is usually a medium-size self-service shop selling primarily groceries and some other essentials, so grocery store is closer to the definition.

Imperative 2 updated 2021-04-05

Perfective vs. Imperfective

Certainly use imperfective when specifying the manner in which the action should be performed.

Use perfective when asking for a simple action that is not a really obvious next action.

(for example, with "please" and following details; it is rare you would politely ask for an obvious thing to do)

There is also the important permission/denial pattern: use imperfective when NOT letting something.

MAY YOU DO IT? Example
yes + imperf. «Можно открыть окно?» — «Да, открывай». (I don't mind)
yes + perf. «Можно открыть окно?» — «Да, открой». (support)
neg. + imperf. Не открывай ничего. (do not allow)

Feel yourself at home

Curiously enough, imperfectives are absolutely polite for a few common motion and action verbs used when inviting people:

  • Садитесь, пожалуйста = Please, sit down,
  • Приходите ещё! = Do come again.
  • Входите, пожалуйста. = Come in, please. (also «проходите», lit. "come through", and «заходите»)

I guess they can be formally classified as obvious but you can also just memorize the verbs.

положить ↔ поставить

There is a distinction in Russian between putting things in a random or "lying flat" position and "setting" them into a vertical or upright position. The last one is important for things that by design are supposed to have a "working" orientation even if they are flat (a plate, a cup, a box, a bed, a laptop etc.)

  • use ставить/поставить for a stable or vertical position (as a result, the object стоит)
  • use класть/положить for a flat, upset or random orientation (as a result, the object лежит)

Words

  • садитесь is commonly used as an invitation to sit down. Присаживайтесь is also very popular despite being usually recommended against (literally, it means to perform a squat or to sit down for a short while).

Something updated 2021-04-05

который

«Который» ("that/which") is like an adjective, only it takes the gender of whichever object it "represents", and the case that corresponds to its role in the part of the sentence you use it in:

  • Где книга, которую я ищу?
  • Где книга, о которой мы говорили?

Real or not: -то vs. -нибудь

кто-нибудь and что-нибудь mean a "hypothetical" object. A placeholder for what you have in mind, not actually filled by anything in particular (and maybe you are wrong). Mostly useless in statements about the past: if you are sure it happened, then the object did exist.

(remember, «кто» is masculine,_ «что» is neuter)

кто-то and что-то refer to a specific but "unknown" object. You see/know that something exists (or you are sure of it) but you don't know its identity.

They are somewhat interchangeable when you mean there's free choice from a limited number of options ("OK, have someone call me if Alex comes").

NB: "any-" pronouns have wider use in English. When "anyone" means "whichever person you want", consider "кто угодно" or, if you mean everyone, "все". The above only applies to cases of an "unknown" object.

I've got something special for you!

Кое-что and Кое-кто are "secret" pronouns. They mean a certain object that you know but are deliberately not mentioning by name. Either you want to keep people guessing or do not consider the identity important to your point ("Yeah, I have worked with some people here").

Special cases

Когда-нибудь is used mainly for "ever" in the past or "one day" in the future. Когда-то is mostly for "once" in the past; almost never used in future.

Как-нибудь is also sometime used to refer to some future moment rather than manner of action.

Где-то is also used colloquially to mean "approximately*.

Кое-как is only an adverb. It means either a job done sloppily or an action performed "barely", with difficulty.

Technics and Home updated 2021-04-04

пойду́

Here we introduce the prefixed perfective for "to go(walk)" — пойти́. It is a perfective verb with a focus on "setting out" somewhere, just like other verbs of motion with «по-» («пое́хать», «побежа́ть», «полете́ть», «пове́сти»).

Поезд идёт до станции «Блок»

It is completely normal to use «идти» when talking about public transportation, i.e. passenger vehicles that repeatedly follow a prescribed route. These are preferred when talking about routes. Typically, it is идти because we treat it more like an objective fact of a certain trip taking you somewhere, than a particular vehicle going to a certain place (almost as if «идти» is not used as a verb of motion but as a way of stating the destination). «Ходить» is also used: for example, when saying that a bus exists that takes you from one place to another.

When arriving at a terminal station on a subway, you can hear the following:

  • Поезд дальше не идёт. Просьба выйти из вагона. ~ lit. The train goes no further. Please exit from the car.

A personal vehicle will always use ехать/ездить.

A reminder: you use ONE-WAY verbs when describing motion in one direction, even if repeated. The verbs cease being interchangeable when the context of repeated motion implies the "trip back" cannot be included (like "After school I go to the station and take a train home."— here you have a sequence that makes the return trip absurd). We rarely have such sentences in the course. In real life, just remember to occasionally take a step back and refresh the basic idea behind the opposition: one-way motion vs. multi-directional trip.

Future & Past with Perfectives updated 2021-04-04

Formation

Take a perfective verb and do the same thing you do to imperfectives in the Present. Seriously. The reason is that perfective verbs have no Present form in Russian.

IMPERFECTIVE PERFECTIVE
Я чита́ю. = I am reading. Я прочита́ю = I will read.
Я гото́влю суп. = I am making soup. Я пригото́влю суп. = I will make soup.
Она у́чит слова́. = She is learning words. Она́ вы́учит слова́. = She'll learn the words.
Ма́льчик идёт домо́й. = The boy is going home. Ма́льчик пойдёт домо́й. = The boy will go home.
Мы слу́шаем сона́ту. = We're listening to the sonata. Мы послу́шаем сона́ту. = We'll listen to the sonata.
Я де́лаю столы́. = I make desks. Я сде́лаю три стола́. = I'll make three desks.

Whenever you mean a "simple", single action and/or a specific result, this is THE form you'll want to use. There is also another way of talking about the future, "буду"+imperfective infinitive but we're leaving that for later.

Conditionals

We're introducing the basics of «если»("if") in this skill. In Russian you use it with the Future when talking about future events (which is different from English). Compare: If you see (present tense with future meaning) Jenny, call me = Если ты увидишь (future perfective of 'to see') Дженни, скажи мне, lit. 'If you will see Jenny, call me.'

Пусть (let/have) is used with the non-past forms.

Basically, most learners tend to use too many perfective verbs in the Past and too many imperfectives in the Future. A common mistake is "future projection" of present tense forms. E.g. "I'm doing that tomorrow morning". In Russian, it does not generally work that way, though sometimes it is OK.

Mutation

That stuff with «Она готовит»/«Я готовлю». In И-conjugation it only happens in the 1st person singular, and in semi-regular verbs of Е-conjugation, it happens everywhere.

Being Instrumental updated 2021-01-12

Working and being

Instrumental, while being a relatively niche case, is used for a number of verbs that mean "being" something (or someone) and "being interested" in something. For example, with быть when in the Past or the Future.

«Явля́ться» is a formal verb for "to be" which you must know but you won't necessarily use all that much. One important use would be somewhat formal sentences of the model ''A' is a 'B' that is a 'C'.' Imagine something like this:

  • These days, a school principal is a person who is usually not a teacher ~ В наше время директор школы — человек, который обычно не является учителем.

A somewhat stilted example, but still quite good because it would sound strange here to omit "являться" (to be) in the 2nd half of this sentence. Fortunately, these sorts of definitions are often "A is a B who does C", so you don't have to worry too much.

«Занима́ться» is a verb that has no direct equivalent in English and therefore can be tricky to translate. It has a general meaning of "being occupied with something", which means pursuing some activity (cf. заня́тие "occupation, class", за́нят "busy").

Depending on the nature of the activity it can be any of the following:

  • learning занима́юсь испа́нским
  • hobby: занима́юсь ролевы́ми и́грами
  • work: занима́юсь исто́рией славя́н
  • sports: занима́юсь футбо́лом
  • current activity or occupation: Чем ты занима́ешься ~What are you doing/What do you do?

There is also «увлека́ться» which is more directly connected to hobbies (увлече́ния) which you are "keen on" or "into" e.g. я увлекаюсь иностранными языками.

Instrumental for adjectives

Here is a reference table, as well as some examples (words for white, blue, narrow, big, the best)

masc/neut fem pl
ENDINGS -ым/-им -ой/-ей -ыми/-ими
eg. бе́лый бе́лым бе́лой бе́лыми
eg. си́ний си́ним си́ней си́ними
eg. у́зкий у́зким у́зкой у́зкими
eg. большо́й больши́м большо́й больши́ми
eg. лу́чший лу́чшим лу́чшей лу́чшими

Два́, три́, четы́ре become двумя́, тремя́, четырьмя́

Note how after hushes (ж, ш, щ, ч), ой is used for end-stressed adjectives and ей for stem-stressed ones. That reflects the pronunciation: after a hush, unstressed о/а sound the same as an unstressed и/е would.

Placing Objects updated 2021-04-05

Object placement in Russian

This concept is hard to translate but easy to grasp. Frankly, Russians (on average) tend to be more precise about the manner in which an object "is" somewhere or is "put" somewhere.

"Being" verbs do not have natural perfective counterparts because they are about a certain state.

Stand

Стоя́ть is used with "vertical" positions:

  • a vertical orientation of a long or thin object (a book, a ski leaning against a wall etc.)
  • a stable position of an object that has a "base" by design: plates, cups, shoes, boxes, furniture etc.
  • about buildings, especially large. But not about rooms (offices, for examples).

Lie

Лежа́ть is used with "horizontal" orientations:

  • a flat position of an object like book, a closed laptop, clothes, sheet of paper
  • a sideways position of an object that is "normally" placed in a stable position ("stands")

Hanging about

Висе́ть is used with hanging/clinging objects:

  • pictures, mirrors, notices, fridge magnets
  • clothes on a hanger, curtains, ropes
  • clothes hanging over a chair etc.

That's all. When you place an object into one of these three positions you use «ста́вить»(поста́вить), «класть»(положи́ть) and «ве́шать»(пове́сить) respectively. This also applies if you change an object's state (eg., it is lying flat, and you want it hung on a wall).

Use a "present-style" set of endings of a perfective verb to make its future form: «Я повешу картину тут/сюда» = I'll hang the picture here.

  • Mind the класть / положи́ть pair, where the imperfective and perfective forms come from different roots.

Be situated

Better late than never, I guess. There are a few verbs that only ever denote position, of which only «находи́ться» is within the scope of this course. The verb is often used with large objects like buildings, rooms, cities. However, it is not limited to these kinds of objects (it's just less not quite as common).

«Находи́ться» can sound overly formal in some situations. Basically, it is a verb that specifies the whereabouts of the subject, so it is appropriate when location truly IS in focus. Do not use it with people much, except in questions regarding the exact whereabouts (e.g., over the phone when you are trying to find your friends: «Где вы сейча́с нахо́дитесь?») With small objects "lie"/"stand", discussed above, are probably a better choice.

Kitchen and Food updated 2020-07-15

есть

The verb «есть» (to eat) doesn't have a true perfective partner according to some sources. Its perfective counterpart would depend on the meaning:

  • I ate an apple → съесть
  • I had a bite to eat, then went to the museum → пое́сть

When you mean consuming an "object", you use «съесть» to express that it is fully eaten (within reason, it obviously doesn't have to be the seeds, core and all to 'count'!) However, when you are talking about the activity of eating as replenishing your energy, having a lunch break etc., use «пое́сть».

In this skill, we teach «съесть».

«Я пое́л су́па/суп» can actually be used. It means you had "some" soup, focusing on what your meal was rather than full consumption. This will sound odd with small foodstuffs (sandwiches, apples etc.). They are usually eaten completely; if you did not it is better to say you ate a piece, took a bite and so on.

килограмм

When counting, the Genitive plural form for «грамм» and «килограмм» may be either of the following:

  • 5 гра́ммов / 5 килогра́ммов
  • 5 грамм / 5 килогра́мм

The zero-ending option is definitely the most popular these days, at least in speech (it was considered colloquial about 40 years ago).

пакет

«Су́мка» is a bag made of a durable material. An expendable plastic or paper bag typical of supermarkets is «паке́т». A plastic bag is in fact «полиэтиле́новый» (polyethylene), not «пла́стиковый» (which is usually used for hard plastics).

«Пакет» is also used for packs of sugar, salt, rice, milk etc.

Speaking2 updated 2020-07-15

счита́ть vs. ду́мать

When expressing your opinion, you may use either of the two. «Счита́ть» implies you think so because of your views, or because that would be your decision, or because you gave it some thought. «Ду́мать» can mean a lot of things, including a random, fleeting thought.

Basically, you just have to know that «счита́ть» does not only mean "to count". As for using it yourself... well, it depends on your exposure to Russian.

име́ть

«име́ть» is a formal verb for "to have" used in business and official language (у кого-то есть что-то is neutral). However, there are a few set expressions where the verb can be used even in normal speech.

  • име́ть в виду́ = to mean. When a person means something, it is what they wanted to say.
  • име́ть пра́во / не име́ть пра́ва = to have the/a right to/ to have no right to.
  • име́ть большо́е значе́ние = to be of great importance (you may replace "great" with your epithet of choice)
  • име́ть смысл = to be not unreasonable/to make some sense
  • име́ть что-то про́тив = to mind (to be against something). Usually in the negative.

Subjunctive and Conditional updated 2020-07-15

Want me to do it?

The Subjunctive is, basically, when you speak of actions that are not real but rather desired, asked to be performed or just actions that might have happened.

One of the important uses of conditional (a.k.a. subjunctive) in Russian is with «чтобы» ("in order to") to express the idea of some action being required or asked for from someone.

1 entityinfinitive. The sentence is pretty straightforward when you only have one person:

  • Я рано встаю, чтобы не опаздывать. = I get up early so that I won't be late.

2 entitiespast. When A does something for B to do something, use the PAST tense:

  • Он хочет, чтобы я жил = He wants me to live.
  • Мама просит, чтобы завтра ты был дома = Mom asks that you be home tomorrow.
  • Я рано встаю, чтобы ты не забыл позавтракать. = I get up early so that you do not forget to have breakfast.

So, use the past form in any structures like "A told B to do something", "A did X so that B does Y", "We need that A do X" etc. The analogy with the English "that" (which may come off as overly formal) is probably a good way to grasp this structure. Unfortunately, in more idiomatic English the sentence structures are quite different from Russian.

Pay attention to the use of aspect. When asking someone NOT to do something, imperfective is normally used.

With verbs of asking, you only use the past form if you do use the conditional. If you've opted to use a Dative "recipient" instead, the verb is in the infinitive: Мы попросили его подождать.

If only you were here...

The conditional, unsurprisingly, is also used in conditional sentences. When you describe hypothetical (unreal) situations, you always use Past + the particle бы. This particle normally comes right after если or after the subject / the verb:

  • Если бы ты знал физику, то получил бы пять. = If you knew Physics, you'd have got an 'A'.
  • Я хотела бы знать больше языков. = I'd like to know more languages.

Russian does not distinguish (grammatically) between "would be" and "would have been"; both use the past form and are distinguished based on what makes sense in a given situation.

Compound Future updated 2018-10-25

Imperfective future

There is another way of expressing the future in Russian besides the perfective covered earlier, namely (you guessed it) the imperfective. Its primary use is to show some prolonged or repeated activity in the future rather than to focus on a single action done at some particular point in time. (It tends to be overused by foreign learners).

To form the imperfective future, use the appropriate variation of будет and an infinitive of an imperfective verb:

  • Завтра я буду спать = I'll be sleeping tomorrow
  • Они будут весь день учиться = They are going to be studying all day.
  • Летом я буду больше бегать = I'm going to run more in the summer.
  • Будете есть торт? = Will you eat the cake?

It is quite useful for describing what you will generally be occupied with at a certain moment or day ("at 3 p.m. I'll still be working") in the future.

I will not do this!

There is one more important verb to discuss here. «Стать» (to become) is used with an infinitive in negative sentences to express a decision not to do something, both in past and in future.:

  • Я не стану смотреть этот фильм! = I will not watch this movie!
  • Вчера она не стала готовить обед. = Yesterday she did not cook lunch (because she chose not to).

We mostly skip the past use because English does not actually distinguish between the past action that just did not happen and the past actions that were not taken because a person decided not to. Стать is also used (to a degree) in positive past sentences to mean "started doing the prolonged activity". Quite a rare thing in future.

Prefixed Verbs of Motion updated 2018-10-25

Back in Motion

Having covered the basic verbs of motion earlier, it's time to go a bit deeper.

While English often uses additional words and/or a completely different verb to convey different nuances of movement somewhere, Russian typically takes one of the basic verbs of motion and modifies it with a prefix.

They often come in pairs, so we have:

при- expresses approaching in a general way. Иван приехал в Россию = Ivan arrived in/came to Russia. у- conveys going away or leaving. Дженни уехала из Москвы = Jenny left Moscow.

в-/во- for movement into an enclosed space. Он вошёл в комнату. = He entered the room. вы- for movement out of an enclosed space. Я выйду из дома = I will leave the house.

под-/подо- movement towards. Он подошёл ко мне = He walked up to me. от-/ото- movement away from. Она отошла от него = She walked away from him.

Also:

про- through or past. Мы проехали туннель = we drove through the tunnel. Они прошли мимо церкви = They walked past a church.

пере- across Я перешла/перешёл мост = I crossed the bridge.

A tricky aspect

You may have spotted so far that the examples have all been the one-directional versions of 'go' and that they are all past or future. Well, here's where it may get confusing. When they have a prefix attached, the one- and two- directional versions of 'go' convey aspect rather than 'directionality'. This probably makes more sense with an example:

Я перехожу мост - I am crossing the bridge/I cross the bridge

Я перейду мост - I will cross the bridge.

Arts & Entertainment updated 2021-04-04

Tell us about it

There is another verb in Russian for "to tell", «рассказывать». It covers the situations when what you say is quite a bit longer than a single sentence. You may link it to рассказ ("a story"). With «рассказать» it is understood you're passing on a rather finished piece of information about some topic. «Говорить/ сказать» is primarily for shorter answers where coverage of some topic is not the point (also, when reporting someone's words).

When expressing what you are talking "about", you may use о + Prepositional or про + Accusative. The meaning is roughly the same, especially in the sentences covered in this course, and they are largely interchangeable. In most situations only the shade of meaning changes:

  • «о» focuses more on the overall coverage
  • «про» focuses more on something "specific" and detailed but maybe not as true "in general"

«О» is more common than «про».

Together updated 2020-07-04

Let's speak Russian

To express the idea of "let's" (a suggestion or proposal to carry out an action or participate in some activity together) Russian uses the imperative Давай (plural давайте).

Use it with the infinitive for imperfective verbs:

  • Дава́йте чита́ть вме́сте.
  • Дава́й спать.
  • Дава́й рисова́ть.
  • Дава́йте говори́ть по-ру́сски.

Use it with non-past "we"-form for perfective verbs:

  • Дава́й прочита́ем расска́з.
  • Дава́йте пойдём в парк.
  • Дава́й напи́шем ей отве́т.
  • Дава́й нарису́ем дом

Each other

The set expression «друг друга» is used to express the action done to "each other". The first "friend" is always in Nominative, and the second takes the case required by the sentence—and any prepositions you need:

  • Мы лю́бим друг дру́га. = We love each other
  • Они́ ду́мают друг о дру́ге. = They think about each other.

Just the two of us

To express doing an action together, Russian may opt to use words that specify the number of people as 2, 3 etc: вдвоём, втроём, вчетверо́м, впятеро́м, вшестеро́м, всемеро́м, also вдесятеро́м. Two to four are used the most. 8, 9 or larger than 10 are virtually never used.

English just uses "together", so, understandably, these are useful to know but boring to translate:

  • Они́ жи́ли там вдвоём. = They lived there together (the two of them)

Bonus to those who speak languages that have similar adverbs.

Numbers 2 updated 2021-04-05

Ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers decline exactly like adjectives. Fortunately, only the last word is declined, others are like in cardinal numbers. And no and's:

  • 1904th = ты́сяча девятьсо́т четвёртый
  • 2015th = две ты́сячи пятна́дцатый
  • in 2015th = в две ты́сячи пятна́дцатом

Actually, «третий» declines a bit differently, similar to "animal-possessives" (eg. кошачий): третий, третья, третье, третьи / третьего, третьей . . . Note the Ь.

Declension of numbers

In Russian, tens and hundreds are compound words with both parts declining («сто» has an unusual pattern):

  • пять·деся́т (50) → о пяти́·десяти кни́гах
  • шесть·деся́т (60) → за шестью́·десятью дверьми
  • две́·сти (200) → Двум·ста́м ма́льчикам пришли́ пи́сьма

(you may recall that numbers 5-20 and also 30, 50, 60, 70, 80 decline just like a feminine noun, eg. «кровать»)

Oblique cases of numbers are difficult even for native speakers, so they usually either make mistakes, or think their way around such forms. After all, no one makes you use convoluted sentence structure IRL.

Consequently, we are not spending much time on these forms.

Use of adjectives with numbers

With два, три, четыре, in combinations like "3 big cats" the agreement of the adjective may not match the noun—to be more exact, it happens in the Nominative.

Masculine and neuter nouns will use the adjective in the Genitive plural («два длинных ножа»). For feminine nouns, there is variation. Typically, the Nominative plural is preferred:

  • На столе две большие ложки.
  • Две молодые женщины ждут ответа.

The Genitive plural is also occasionally used, especially in speech (but the Nominative is still more common):

  • У меня три младших сестры.

If the adjective modifies the whole number phrase, only the Nominative is used: каждые три дня, долгие две недели, мои любимые четыре года.

With inanimate nouns, the same applies in the Accusative case.

Adjectives 3 updated 2020-07-21

Russian has a number of adjectives formed from other types of words, for example, nouns. Where English might use a noun chain or a few nouns stitched together ("summer shirt", "homework"), we often use an adjective—of course, if we have one («летняя рубашка», «домашняя работа»).

Adjectival declension

Here is the full table:

ENDINGS masc. neut. fem. plural
Nom. -ый(о́й)/ ‑ий -ое/ ‑ее ‑ая/ ‑яя -ые/-ие
Acc. Nom. or Gen. -ое/ ‑ее -ую/ ‑юю Nom. or Gen.
Gen. -ого/‑его see m. -ой/-ей -ых/-их
Prep. -ом/-ем see m. -ой/-ей -ых/-их
Dat. ‑ому/‑ему see m. -ой/-ей -ым/-им
Instr. -ым/-им see m. -ой/-ей ‑ыми/ ‑ими

знакомый

«Знакомый» means "familiar". It also widely used as a noun for "pal, acquaintance" (знакомый for males, знакомая for females)

Plans updated 2021-04-04

собира́ться

The focus of this skill is just one Russian verb, «собира́ться». It means something between "to be going to" and "to plan/to intend to". The verb means that it is your intention to perform some action, and you are, most likely, taking some steps (physical or cognitive) to let it eventually happen:

  • Мы за́втра собира́емся пойти́ в кино́. = We are planning to go the movies tomorrow.
  • Они́ собира́ются ждать до пяти́. = They are planning(going) to wait till five.
  • Мы собира́лись погуля́ть по па́рку. = We were going to take a walk through the park.

It also has its plain literal meaning of "to gather" or "to pack your stuff, preparing to leave". Interestingly, when talking about going to some place where some "event" is taking place, its literal and metaphorical meaning work together, so the verb can be used directly with a place: «Я собира́юсь на ле́кцию».

The primary use of «собира́ться» is to show pre-planned future actions of persons. Things and beings that do not have consciousness can only use this verb in its literal meaning.

Prepositions 2 updated 2021-09-21

  • из-за (+ Gen.) is a Genitive preposition with the meaning of "because of". It is mostly used to name the cause of something unpleasant or time-consuming (e.g., "They got fired because of you").

  • мимо (+ Gen.) is a preposition meaning passing by something or missing the intended destination (target). It is quite productive in combination with verbs of motion having the про- prefix, which also works for the idea of "passing", "continuing motion despite reaching some point".

  • вместо (+ Gen.) means "instead of", "in place of"—for example, when expressing something being "replaced" by something else (hence the «место» part).

The Same updated 2021-04-05

одинаковый / такой же

Consider these two structures:

  • Tom and Tim are the same (as each other).
  • Tom and Tim are the same (as you).

English uses "the same" for both. Russian expresses these two relations differently:

  • Том и Тим одина́ковые.
  • Том и Тим таки́е же (, как ты).

Other similar things

A number of these «же»-words exist:

  • тот же X = the same X →usually the same object
  • тако́й же X = the same (kind of) X → usually the object with the same characteristics
  • так же = in the same way
  • тогда́ же = at the same time
  • там же = at the same place
  • туда́ же = to the same place

NB: «же» has other uses, namely to emphasize information the listener must be aware of but fails to use (Ты же сам меня́ спроси́л).

When comparing to something else, a paired pronoun is used in a relative clause:

  • Это тот же челове́к, что и вчера́. = This is the same person as yesterday.
  • Она́ живёт там же, где и мы. = She lives at the same place where we do.
  • Мы рабо́таем тогда́ же, когда́ и вы. = We work at the same time as you.

Note the "и", which makes it a lot more natural.

The usage of these pronouns is not as obvious. Тако́й же is typically paired with как and тот же with что or кото́рый(for persons).

I don't care

To say that you "don't care", "don't give a (smth)" about something, you use «всё равно́» with Dative subject.

  • Мне всё равно́, что ты поду́маешь.

You also use it to say that doing something is "essentially the same thing" as something else.

Set expressions

«Тут же» actually means "right away".

You can say something is "one and the same" object by using «оди́н и тот же» or «оди́н» (the latter is OK when it's a modifier):

  • Мы живём в одно́м (и том же) до́ме.
  • Тома́т и помидо́р — э́то одно́ и то же.

(одно́ и то же as a "noun" is always neuter and cannot be replaced by одно́)

You can say something is the same object as already mentioned before by using «тот же са́мый»:

  • Это та же са́мая статья́! = That's the same very article!
  • Вы уве́рены, что это тот же са́мый челове́к? = Are you sure that's exactly the same man (as before)?

Fleeting Vowels updated 2020-08-20

Sometimes a word gains or loses a vowel when declined:

  • 1 ча́шка → 5 ча́шек
  • 1 день → 2 дня
  • 1 кусо́к → 2 куска́

This only happens to О and Е, and mostly in words having certain suffixes. Such sounds are called fleeting vowels and appear/disappear quite regularly in some stems.

► Gained vowels appear only in Genitive plural

► Lost vowels appear only in Nominative singular.

Here, we mainly focus on the following words:

  • those that have -ок/ек (ец) as a suffix. The vowel disappears in all forms except Nom.sing.)
  • feminine nouns with the suffix . Usually a vowel appears in Genitive plural. Е appears after "soft" consonants or hushes (до́чек, ча́шек), О appears everywhere else (ба́нок).
  • some nouns that have vowels appear or disappear in the stem consonant cluster

The existence of these vowels can be traced back to the time when Ь and Ъ used to be short vowels ("yers"). Back then, all syllables in Russian had to end in a vowel. Later, these sounds were lost in weak positions (word-final position or the position before a stressed vowel/a strong position).

But that's history. Anyway, it is nice to know that in «сто»/«сотня» (a hundred), «со мной» there is a good reason for "о" to be where it is. The disappearing vowel in «весь»/«все» has the same origin.

Some of the fleeting vowels in Modern Russian have appeared from an analogy with other words and have no historical basis in Old East Slavic.

Measure updated 2021-04-04

Russia uses the metric system. Here are the main units you'll learn in this course:

  • метр (meter): a bit longer than a yard
  • киломе́тр (kilometer): 1000 meters, or about 0.6 miles
  • килогра́мм (kilogram): a bit over 2 pounds
  • то́нна (tonne): 1000 kilograms, roughly equivalent to ton (or about 2205 pounds, to be more exact)

Square («квадратный») meters and kilometers are used for areas (м², км²).

For areas of land, «гекта́р» (Га, 10000 м²) is often used. In spoken speech people also use «со́тка» (100 м²) for their garden plots in the country (the name comes from the fact that it is 1/100 of a hectare)

Instrumental

To speak about an object of a certain length/weight etc., the Instrumental form of a quantity is used:

  • стол длино́й 2 ме́тра = a table 2 meters long
  • о́зеро глубино́й 30 ме́тров = a lake 30 meters deep
  • дом высото́й 20 этаже́й = a house 20 storeys tall

про-verbs

To express the idea of a certain activity "covering" a certain space or time interval, verbs with the prefix «про-» are often employed. Of course, you should consult the dictionary to know if a certain verb of this structure exists or has that particular meaning.

It is different from verbs of motion like "пройти" because many other verbs can have this prefix:

  • Мы прошли́ 5 киломе́тров = We walked 5 kilometers
  • Я проспа́л весь день. = I slept the entire day.
  • Мы простоя́ли тут два часа́. = We stood here for two hours.

NOTE about VERBS OF MOTION: some of these derivatives will not be verbs of motion and actually can differ in stress or form (проезжа́л/прое́здил). We are only covering distances here. When talking about motion, the derivative of the one-way verb is used for distance. For time, you use the multidirectional verb, or, if you want to put an emphasis on how extremely long it took, its про-prefixed derivative:

  • Я пробежа́л 6 миль.
  • Я (про)бе́гал пять часо́в.

The проходи́л, пробе́гал, прое́здил options are not neutral in style but are encountered in spoken speech anyway.

Business updated 2018-10-25

организовать

One of the verbs introduced here deserves special attention. «Организовать» belongs to a small group of so-called biaspectual verbs. These verbs work both as a perfective and an imperfective verb—the interpretation depends on context and common sense:

  • Он атакует. = He is attacking.
  • Он атакует утром. = He will attack in the morning.
  • Мы организуем концерты. = We organize concerts.
  • Они обязательно организуют встречу. = They will, surely, organize a meeting.

работать над чем-то

"Working on something" is a set expression in Russian too. Use «над» with the Instrumental:

  • Инженеры и учёные работают над решением этой проблемы = Engineers and scientist are already working on a solution to that problem.

успешный

The adjective "successful" is mostly used with nouns meaning some endeavors or attempts to do something; also with nouns like "company", "businessman".

Their use with random words for people is also creeping in slowly (as a calque from English) but it is going to sound weird and awkward for quite a while. Unlike English, this usage in Russian is mainly associated with fame and financial success, so it limits the professions that feel "right" and unambiguous when described as «успешный».

Prefixes updated 2021-04-04

Though English has words like undergo, ongoing or rearrange, the core vocabulary is usually not built this way. Russian, however, has quite a number of prefixes and suffixes routinely used in words, including those in your essential vocabulary.

Such verbs have natural polysemy (in layman's terms: a handful of somewhat related meanings). For example, собрать means both "to gather, to pick up" (eg. flowers) and "to assemble" (eg. furniture from a kit of parts). Both meanings grow from the parts that comprise the word: брать is "to take, to pick", and со- adds a meaning of "togetherness".

Some prefixes

  • пере- has a rough meaning of re- or over-doing, passing some limit or extensively doing the action.
  • раз-/рас- often expresses action "outward", scattering or splitting apart (physically or metaphorically). It also has a meaning of inducing an "excited" state.
  • про mimics its behavior with verbs of motion and has a rough meaning of an action that went past its intended goal, "thorough" action or action that goes through something (e.g. проверить "to check", пропустить "to miss; to let through", провалиться "to fall though / to fail")

It is important to understand that only a few prefixes are like «пере», i.e. have a very focused meaning. Most Russian prefixes behave similarly to English prepositions when you add them to English verbs as particles. One's knowledge of English helps one guess what "turn up", "take off" or "run out" may mean. However, you can never be sure without a dictionary or a context that makes the meaning obvious.

History & Fantasy updated 2021-04-04

Да здра́вствует коро́ль!

The Russian "Long live the X" structure is an example of the high-style 3rd-person imperative. It sounds solemn and is typical of old texts. One more example:

  • Да бу́дет свет! = Let there be light!

за́мок / замо́к

"A castle" and "a lock" are spelt the same in Russian; only the stress is different. Such use is a calque from German. Or rather WAS—in Polish. The Russian word for "castle" is borrowed from Polish, hence its penultimate stress:

  • Мы наконе́ц взя́ли за́мок. = We finally took the castle.

Борьба́ добра́ со злом.

Good and evil as concepts are «добро́» and «зло». If you want to describe a person or a deed as good or evil, use adjectives «до́брый» and «злой».

The former previously meant "good" as in "not bad"; this is why you have «доброе утро». In modern Russian this meaning is largely gone.

Храм

A larger (in layman's terms) Christian church building is called a «храм», which is also a word for places of worship belonging to other religions/belief systems.

World War II

The Russian expressions for the two world wars of the 20th century are «Пе́рвая мирова́я война́» and «Втора́я мирова́я война́». In less official texts and speech they work just fine without «война»:

  • Этот фильм был снят ещё до второй мировой. = This movie was filmed before World War II.

An Introduction to Participles updated 2021-04-04

A participle is a form of a verb used as an adjective:

  • I see a girl (who is) reading a newspaper. = Я ви́жу де́вочку, чита́ющую газе́ту.

Participles behave like adjectives, so they have the same set of endings and grammatical cases. The difference is, you don't use a full participle as a predicate. Also, the usual position of participle phrases is after the noun, though they can precede it, too:

  • Я ви́жу чита́ющую газе́ту де́вочку.

They are generally considered characteristic of a bookish or formal style. That is why we are only covering them briefly, to get you familiar enough with the concept that you'll recognise them when you bump into one when reading a text. This is really just a glimpse of what's there — the course would be incomplete without the participles but you don't have to use them (and, in fact, you're better off not using them, at least when speaking).

Some participles have crystallized into adjectives, too:

  • говоря́щий попуга́й = a talking parrot.

How To

Russian verbs have present and past participles, which can be either active or passive (only transitive verbs can have passive participles, of course). These participles are formed from the verb's present stem and the verb's past stem.

In the present tense, the suffix used depends on the conjugation. Here is the list of suffixes:

ACTIVE PASSIVE
PRESENT ущ(ющ) , ащ (ящ) ом(ем) , им
PAST ш, вш нн(н), енн(ен), т

Here are some examples. Try to determine which kind of participle you see: иду́щий, едя́щий, даю́щий, говоря́щий, чита́ющий, чита́емый, чита́вший, продаю́щий, прося́щий, спра́шивающий, купи́вший, ку́пленный, прода́вший, про́данный.

There are actual rules that cover which verbs get which past suffix. However, teaching the formation of an arbitrary participle would be an overkill for this particular course. It is enough that you are able to identify them.

  • Again, look at the list above and make sure you can understand the meaning of each participle.

Note that past passive participles ("a book that has been read") are only formed from perfective verbs in modern Russian.

Short participles

Passive participles can be short, like adjectives, which is most useful for past participles. The agent, if needed, is in the Instrumental (such a use sounds quite formal):

  • Пла́тье (бы́ло) сде́лано в Кита́е. = The dress was made in China.
  • Э́та кни́га (была́) напи́сана в 1999 = This book was written in 1999.
  • Иллюстра́ция нарисо́вана мной. = The illustration was drawn by me.

Adverbial Participles updated 2019-02-20

An adverbial participle is a special form of the verb used to turn a verb into an adverb, you describe another action with it:

There are two types of adverbial participles in Russian:

  • Imperfective: "while doing"
  • Perfective: "having done"

English generally doesn't have these expressions as a one-word form. In Russian participles and adverbial participles are mostly used in books and when using a more formal style. However, there are a few popular adverbial participles that get used in speech sometimes.

  • Я рисовал горы и леса, думая о доме. = I drew mountains and forests, thinking about home.
  • Войдя в комнату, я включил свет. = Having entered the room, I switched the light on.

Formation

Not every verb has a participle. Still, here are the rules.

Imperfective adverbial participles are formed by adding the suffix (or а) to the present stem:

  • входя, слушая, думая, включая, говоря
  • слыша

Perfective adverbial participles are formed by adding one of the suffixes , or -вши(obligatory for reflective verbs), -ши (for stems ending in a consonant) to the infinitive stem:

  • сделав, поняв, узнав, съев, выключив
  • вернувшись, побрившись

If the stem ends in т or д, is used instead:

  • найти → найдя
  • войти → войдя

Adverbial participles behave like adverbs, i.e. they only have one form.

Set expressions

Some of these words have crystallized into popular expressions:

  • судя по = judging by
  • молча = silently
  • X лет спустя = X years later (bookish)

Science updated 2021-04-04

Ready to shoot for the stars? Get in! Of course, we cannot teach you all of the science in a handful of lessons. This skill focuses on popular scientific concepts like electricity, analysis or the atom. It also gives you a taste of some words typical of scientific and educational style, so that you will not feel lost if you find them in a publication.

Како́в?

This bookish word is often used to ask about the identity of some property:

  • Какова́ суть пробле́мы? = What is the essence of the problem?
  • Какова́ ма́сса прото́на? = What is the mass of a proton?
  • Како́в разме́р вселе́нной? = What is the size of the universe?

«Како́й» can be used in some of these sentences with careful rewording but generally it will sound clumsy unless used for a numeric property:

  • Какова́ ма́сса мюо́на? ≃ Кака́я у мюо́на ма́сса?

да́нные

"Data" is a plural-only word in Russian. Moreover, it is a nominalised adjective, so its endings are just like the ones adjectives have.

при

This is, actually, one of the four prepositions normally used with the Prepositional case. It roughly means "in the presence of", which does not have a good match in English. In a scientific context we often use it to describe conditions or circumstances:

  • При э́той температу́ре газ бы́стро расширя́ется. = At that temperature, the gas expands rapidly.

  • При увеличе́нии ма́ссы увели́чится и давле́ние. = If the mass is increased, the pressure will also increase.

  • При обы́чном давле́нии эффе́кт незаме́тен. = Under normal pressure, the effect is not noticeable.

Short adjectives

Some predicate adjectives are used quite often in scientific writing and speech:

  • Вселе́нная огро́мна. = The Universe is enormous.
  • Вре́мя о́чень мало́. = Time is very short.
  • Сопротивле́ние сли́шком велико́. = The resistance is too high.

Politics and Government updated 2021-04-04

полиция / милиция

For a long time, «мили́ция» had been the word for Russian police. Then, during the 2009-2011 reform the name was changed to «поли́ция». The «милиционе́р» then becomes «полице́йский»

Still, expect native speakers to use мили́ция and милиционе́р in speech for quite a while.

выборы

"Election(s)" is always plural in Russian.

являться

Russian has a formal verb «являться» which means "to be". The verb is reflexive. Its use is characteristic of some formal writing.

However, there are some contexts where it is hard to do without it. For example, if you have a subordinate clause or a verb phrase where "to be" is the main verb (omitting it does not work well in this case):

  • A person who is not a politician, cannot understand this. = Челове́к, кото́рый не явля́ется поли́тиком, не мо́жет э́того поня́ть.

Here, you can also use the Dative impersonal construction, which means about the same (eg. «Ты никогда не смо́жешь поня́ть»→«Тебе́ никогда не поня́ть»):

  • Челове́к, не явля́ющийся поли́тиком, не мо́жет э́того поня́ть.
  • Челове́ку, не явля́ющемуся поли́тиком, э́того не поня́ть.

премьер-министр

You can use either «премье́р-мини́стр» or a more colloquial word «премье́р» (which behaves as a typical masculine noun)

Officially, Russia has no position under the name of "prime minister", however, the Chairman of the Government is commonly called a prime minister in speech and in the media. Which is why we teach it.

Spiritual and Supernatural updated 2021-04-04

A few cultural notes

Russian has two words for church, «це́рковь» and «храм».

«Храм» is a more generic term and is used in contexts where "temple" or "house of worship" would usually be used in English.

«Це́рковь»(church) is a Christian place of worship, and also means the organization itself. A smaller church building is more likely to be called «церковь», although the size is not the defining factor (this is determined by the number of altars and what the building has been called traditionally).

The Orthodox Church in Russia (and a few other countries) still uses the historic Julian calendar for some of its celebrations. As of 2021, there is a 13-day difference between the Julian and the Gregorian (modern) calendar, so Christmas in Russia falls on January 7.

«Бог» is pronounced /бох/, which reflects the older pronunciation of the letter 'Г'. Its oblique forms are pronounced normally.

Salat, a Muslim religious practice conducted 5 times a day, is typically «нама́з» in Russian. It is not a prayer, by the way, which would be «дуа́».

Ghosts

The word for a ghost, «привидение», can act as an animate or inanimate noun. Ghosts are usually animate when you treat them as characters. When you are talking about ghosts as a phenomenon or in general, they are just as easily inanimate. The exact choice depends on the speaker.

If you want to say "a ghost of something", use призрак (it is otherwise a more serious word). In this use the word is usually treated as inanimate (the word is also inanimate if the ghost is female):

  • Я увидел призрак короля. = I saw the ghost of the king.

Some Spoken Patterns updated 2021-04-04

This skill gives you a glimpse of a few constructions common in speech and writing that are outside formal style.

не́ту

This word is the same as a predicative «нет», used in constructions of non-existence and not having:

  • У нас не́ту вре́мени! = We got no time!

Ага́/Угу́

These are informal versions of affirmative "yes" (yep, yup, uh-huh). «Ага́» uses a fricative sound, similar to uh-huh. «Угу́» is actually pronounced the same way, just with your mouth closed, so its spelling is just an attempt to imitate that "mm-hmm" sound.

)

While texting, Russian users often use smileys without the "eyes". If they are even more friendly than that or something is very funny, the number of brackets might skyrocket ))))))

блин

There are many ways to say "Crap!" or "Jeez!" in Russian. Блин is, probably, the most common in speech while being rather mild (it is a substitute for a much stronger word). «Чёрт» is also very common and acceptable in a wide range of contexts (and it is not associated with more obscene words). It is what you will find in many movies and games, even those aimed at kids.

Nothing Left updated 2021-04-04

This skill is about saying something like "I have nothing to fear" or "There is nothing to think about". Russian has special impersonal constructions to do just that; it makes use of negative predicate pronouns.

They are all formed by adding a stressed «не» to a corresponding question word, which should be either "who"/"what" or an adverbial question word (e.g., "where").

Use Dative to specify a person for whom this applies:

  • Мне не́чего чита́ть. = I have nothing to read.
  • Тут не́кого иска́ть. = There is no one to look for here.
  • Нам не́чего теря́ть. = We have nothing to lose.
  • Ей не́где спать. = She has nowhere to sleep.
  • Ва́не не с кем игра́ть. = Vanya has no one to play with.
  • Я ду́мал, э́той пробле́ме не́откуда взя́ться. = I had thought such a problem has nowhere to arise from.

Note how the prepositions split pronouns formed from «кто» and «что». Only a few "simple" prepositions can do this, however:

  • Мне не с кем обща́ться. = I have no one to communicate with.
  • Не о чем беспоко́иться. = Nothing to worry about.
  • Не в чем вы́йти. = Nothing to wear to go out (about clothing).
  • Не на чем спать. = Nothing to sleep on.

It is also useful to stress that such pronouns are only formed from oblique forms of «кто» and «что», since they never act as a sentence subject. Words «не́кто» and «не́что» are not in this list; they actually behave as analogues of "кто-то" and "что-то" in their base forms, just of a higher style.

P.S. «как» does not produce such a pronoun. Neither do «почему́» and «како́й».

Crime and Justice updated 2020-07-04

proof and evidence

Usually when we are talking about a body of evidence proving something, it is plural «доказательства» (mathematical proof is still «доказательство»)

A piece of (material) evidence, a clue is also «улика». We do not teach it here but a useful word to know nonetheless.

совершить

The verb «совершить» is the one you use to say someone "committed" a crime. In general language, it is also used in certain combinations like "to make a breakthrough" or "to make a discovery".

тюрьма

After a criminal has been found guilty, he or she is often sent to or put in jail as a punishment. Russian uses the verb «посадить». Incidentally, this is the same verb that is used to say that you've planted a tree. Where English uses the verb 'to be', in Russian, a person «сидит в тюрьме», literally 'sits in jail'.


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