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Rhea507672

Rhea

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Learning Indonesian from English

Level 25 · 66287 XP

Crowns: 330/345

Skills: 69

Lessons: 310

Lexemes: 1882

Strength: 95%

Created: 2020-12-21
Last Goal: 2021-10-27
Daily Goal: 50 XP
Timezone: UTC+7

Last update: 2021-09-25 14:45:22 GMT+3


712960908

Indonesian Skills by StrengthCrownsNameOriginal Order

  • 05 Basics 112 @ 100% 0 •••
    air · apel · dan · dia · hitam · itu · jeruk · kamu · kuat · kucing · makan · mau · merah · minum · punya · putih · saya · suka · susu
    19 words

    Pronunciation

    Indonesian words are spoken as they are written. Vowels pronounciation:

    Indonesian English
    a AH like "a" in "father"
    e AY like "a" in "date", or UH like "a" in "about", or E like "e" in "bed"
    i EE like "ee" in "see"
    o OH like "o" in "no", or AW like "o" in "on"
    u OO like "ou" in "you"

    Sentence Composition

    Common sentence structure:

    Subject – Verb – Object

    Note that in Indonesian we don't have articles (a, an, the) and we don't discriminate between the singular form and the plural form of a noun. That's right, the word stays the same whether there is only one of it or there are more than one!

    For example:

    Indonesian English
    Saya mau apel I want an apple
    Saya mau apel I want apples
    Kamu mau jeruk You want an orange
    Kamu mau jeruk You want oranges

    You’ll find more tips and notes throughout the courses. Selamat belajar!

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info:
    Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Click here : Structure Basic sentence, Tips & notes, Addendum.

    Click here : Overview Grammar Topics, Bahasa Indonesia, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    saya, makan, apel, suka, jeruk, mau, kamu, punya, itu, minum, air, susu, dia, kucing, merah, kuat, dan, hitam, putih


    Tinycards collection with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Tinycards Bahasa Indonesia, Kosakata Kursus Duolingo


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Introduction21 @ 100% 0 •••
    andi · apa kabar · bali · berapa · bukan · dari · dua puluh · halo · jakarta · jepang · mana · nama · sepuluh · siapa · tahun · tini · umur
    17 words

    Self-Introduction Phrases

    1. Literally meaning "What (your) news" in English, Apa kabar actually means “How are you” or “How do you do”.

    2. Siapa is used instead of apa for asking a person’s name in Indonesian. A fuller explanation Click Here


    Indonesian Noun Phrase

    Generally, the sentence structure of Indonesian and English is similar. But, the structure of noun phrase is opposite to English, the main noun position is before the modifier noun.

    For example:

    Nama saya = My name

    Apel merah = Red apple


    To be

    In spoken Indonesian, You don’t need to translate “to be” (is, am, are). To be means adalah in Indonesian. Even, in written the function of it is just to emphasize the noun, sometimes it is also omitted.

    For example:

    My name is Jon = Nama saya Jon.


    No in Indonesian

    Indonesian has some ways to express “no” (bukan, tidak, jangan and belum) . Bukan is used to negate nouns and adverbs, Tidak is used to negate verbs and adjectives, Jangan is to tell somebody not to do something and Belum means not yet or event may happen in the future.

    For example:

    Indonesian English
    Saya bukan James I am not James
    Kamu tidak suka jeruk You do not like oranges
    Jangan pergi! Don't go!
    Dia belum pergi She has not gone yet

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info about the word order in a noun phrase:
    Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Please have a look here for more info :
    Click here : Adalah, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Please have a look here for more info about negation words:
    Click here : Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    halo, apa kabar, Andi, Tini, siapa, nama, dari, bukan, mana, Jakarta, Jepang, Bali, berapa, dua puluh, sepuluh, umur, tahun


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Basics 222 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Let’s step up the game. Welcome to Basics 2!

    You have learned some personal pronouns in Basics 1 (aku, kamu, dia), and you are going to find the rest of them here. There are some highlights that should be put as a reminder:

    • Indonesian has formal and informal pronouns which you should pay attention the most when you are going to talk about “you” and “I” (Aww). Use “Anda” (You) and “Saya” (I) only in formal situation.

    • Indonesian differentiates between singular “you” and plural “you”. The use of “Kamu”/”Anda” signalizes the person to be only one, whereas “Kalian” means there are multiple people.

    • Indonesian has an inclusive and exclusive “we”. For example, if you (A) and your friend (B) are talking to someone (C), and the conversation goes like this:
      A: “Kami makan ikan.” (We eat fish).
      This means that A and B ate fish, but C might or did not. But if it is like this:
      A: “Kita makan ikan.” (We eat fish).
      This means that all of them ate fish. The first example uses “Kami” which implies exclusivity, whereas the second example uses “Kita” to include C, which implies inclusiveness.

    • Indonesian does not have non-personal subject pronouns, hence use “itu” (that) or “ini” (this) instead.

    Here is the table to summarize the rules of pronoun uses:

    English Indonesian Formal/Informal
    I Saya Formal
    I Aku Informal
    You (Singular) Anda Formal
    You (Singular) Kamu Informal
    You (Plural) Kalian Formal & Informal
    We (Inclusive) Kita Formal & Informal
    We (Exclusive) Kami Formal & Informal
    He/She Dia Formal & Informal
    They Mereka Formal & Informal

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info :
    Click here: "ia" & "dia" , the differences :

    Please have a look here for more info:
    Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    aku, kita, menulis, buku, surat, mereka, membaca, menu, koran, ini, anda, kami, kalian, besar, gaun, kaya, ia


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Greetings23 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Greetings

    Indonesian uses the word selamat to greet people. Selamat is actually derived from Arabic word salam which means peace. You just need to add selamat before the time or condition in greeting.

    Indonesian English
    Selamat pagi Good morning
    Selamat siang Good afternoon
    Selamat sore Good afternoon
    Selamat malam Good evening
    Selamat tidur (lit. Good sleep) Good night
    Selamat tinggal (lit. Good leaving) Goodbye
    Selamat datang (lit. Good coming) Welcome

    Note that the concept of time of the day in Indonesian is slightly different from that in English, so use the greetings accordingly!

    Position of the sun Time of the day
    The sun is going up, from dawn to around 10am Pagi
    The sun is right up your head, from around 10am to 3pm Siang
    The sun is going down, from around 3pm to dusk Sore
    The sun is not visible in the sky Malam

    Indonesian also uses Assalamu ’alaikum to greet someone and responds with Wa 'alaikumsalam as Islam majority country.

    The word selamat is also used to congratulate other people.

    Indonesian English
    Selamat ulang tahun Happy birthday
    Selamat Idul Fitri Eid Mubarak
    Selamat tahun baru Happy new year
    Selamat natal Merry christmas

    Terima kasih

    Terima kasih means "thank you" is Indonesian phrase to express gratitude. If you want to express greater sense of gratitude, you can say terima kasih banyak.

    In informal situations, you can just shorten terima kasih become makasih just like "thanks" in English.

    Sama-sama or Terima kasih kembali is used to respond thanking, “You are welcome” in English.


    Additional info


    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    tidak, ya, terima kasih, maaf, selamat pagi, silakan, sama-sama, sampai jumpa, selamat datang, selamat jalan, assalamualaikum, selamat siang, waalaikumsalam, selamat tinggal, permisi, selamat malam, terima kasih banyak, selamat sore, sampai jumpa lagi, salam, selamat idul fitri


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Restaurant31 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Restaurant

    Rice is the staple food for Indonesians.
    Indonesian has the following words for rice:
    'padi' = rice when it's still growing in the fields.
    'beras' = rice when it's harvested and ready for sale (raw).
    'nasi' = rice when it's cooked (and edible).

    So, when you're travelling through the country and see the ricefields ('sawah'), what you see is called 'padi'.
    Raw, uncooked rice in a shop or a market is called 'beras'.
    It's only called 'nasi' when it's cooked and edible.

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info about the word order in a noun phrase:
    Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    For more info about the use of 'ini' and 'itu':
    Click here: 'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum

    For more info about 'negation':
    Click here: Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    nasi, goreng, ayam, dengan, restoran, pesan, minuman, sup, makanan, daging, tomat, tahu, jus, tempe, stroberi, telur, sarapan, teh, kopi, kue, enak, manis, roti, gula, cokelat, merica, garam, kacang, pisang, es, panas, minta, sambal, kecap, bayar, harga


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Places 132 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Places 1

    'dari', 'ke' , 'di' are the main prepositions used to indicated location.
    It's used like this :

    Dari sini = From here (movement from a place)
    Ke sini = To here (movement to a place)
    Di sini = Here (no movement)

    Dari sana = From there (movement from a place)
    Ke sana = To there (movement to a place)
    Di sana = There (no movement)

    Examples:
    Saya pulang dari kantor. = I come home from the office.
    Saya pergi ke sekolah. = I go to school.
    Saya ada di rumah. = I am at home.

    Please note that an Indonesian sentence doesn't necessarily need a verb.
    The following sentences are also correct:
    Saya dari Indonesia. = I am from Indonesia.
    Saya ke sekolah. = I go to school.
    Saya di rumah. = I am at home.

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info :

    Click here : Ada, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Click here : Adalah, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Click here : Structure Basic sentence, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Click here : Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    di, ada, dapur, rumah, sini, sekolah, ke, pergi, gedung, pasar, hotel, sana, situ, pulang, bank, toko, toilet


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Base Verbs41 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Base verbs

    A base word can belong to one or more word classes: noun, verb, adjective, etc...
    This skill is about the verb as a base word.

    Examples:
    Saya datang = I come.
    Saya pergi = I go.
    Saya lupa = I forgot.
    Saya ingat = I remember.
    Saya pulang = I go home.

    The base words as shown in the examples above are verbs.
    These base words don't need an affix (more about affixes in later skills) to function as a verb.

    Verbs are not conjugated in Indonesian.
    Present tense, past tense, future tense: the verb remains the same.
    Singular, plural : the verb remains the same.

    Examples:
    Saya datang kemarin = I came yesterday.
    Mereka datang hari ini. = They come today.
    Dia akan datang besok. = He/She will come tomorrow.

    No matter the time (present/past/future) or the quantity (singular/plural), the verb 'datang' remains 'datang.

    Time is expressed by using time markers (yesterday, today, tomorrow, etc...).
    Singular or plural also doesn't matter, 'datang' remains 'datang'.

    That's easy, isn't it !?

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    datang, duduk, muncul, setuju, keluar, masuk, kembali, jatuh, tidur, tahu, lupa, ingat, tinggal, mulai, selesai, bisa


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Possesive Pronouns42 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Possessive pronouns

    In contrast to English, Indonesian possessive pronouns are just the same with subjective and objective pronouns. For example:

    "Ini rumah saya" (This is my house)
    "Ini rumah anda" (This is your house)
    "Ini rumah mereka" (This is their house)

    There are some exceptions for “aku”, “kamu”, and “dia”,which uses affixes "-ku", "-mu", and "-nya" respectively:

    "Ini rumah aku"= "Ini rumahku" (This is my house)
    "Ini rumah kamu"= "Ini rumahmu" (This is your house)
    "Ini rumah dia"= "Ini rumahnya" (This is his/her house)

    Take note that the pronouns are definitely located behind the noun even if it has 2 or more words. For example:

    "Ini kamar mandi saya" (This is my bathroom)
    "Rumah besarku" (My big house)
    "Di mana gaun hitam barumu?" (Where is your new black dress?)

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info about the word order in a noun phrase:
    Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Please have a look here for more info:
    Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    -ku, bola, milik, nama orang, -mu, anjing, -nya, pensil


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Clothing51 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Clothing

    Pakaian

    This skill is about clothing related items and most of the words introduced here are nouns.
    Please remember that an Indonesian noun phrase starts with the noun, followed by the modifiers (adjectives, possesive pronouns, etc).

    Examples [noun phrase]:
    Saya punya [kemeja putih]. = I have a [white shirt].
    [Kemeja saya] putih. = [My shirt] is white.
    [Kemeja putih saya] di tas. = [My white shirt]* is in the bag.

    Please note that 'kemeja' (a shirt) is not the same as a T-shirt ('kaus').
    kemeja = shirt (with buttons and a collar).
    kaus = T-shirt

    'kaus' is often spelled and pronounced as 'kaos'.
    'kaus' is the official spelling.
    'kaos' has a different meaning in the official spelling.

    Kaos kacau balau


    Additional info

    More info about the word order in a noun phrase:
    Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    More info about 'ini', 'itu':
    Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    tas, kantong, pakaian, membeli, celana, sepatu, dompet, payung, sabuk, kemeja, mantel, jaket, rok, membawa, sarung tangan, kaus kaki, topi, syal, dasi, memakai, kaus


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Conjunctives 152 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Conjunctives 1

    Conjunctives work similarly to English; they are used to connect phrases.

    One difference worth noting: the conjunction yang expands a previously mentioned idea, just like which, that, or i.e. in English. For instance,

    'Dia membaca buku yang saya suka'
    translates to 'He reads a book that I like.'

    However, while you can omit the that in the English translation, omitting yang in the Indonesian sentence would make it lose its original meaning.


    tapi = tetapi = but (tetapi is more formal)
    ketika = saat = waktu = when (at the time that)

    Additional info

    More info about the word order in a noun phrase:
    Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    More info about 'ini', 'itu':
    Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    tapi, yang, atau, ketika, karena, jadi, namun


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Plurals53 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Welcome to Plurals!

    Here you'll learn a thing or two about plural words in Bahasa Indonesia. Here is your starter pack to start your journey:

    1. One thing that should be noted is that you can almost immediately recognize whether or not a word is singular or plural by its repetition. Word repetition such as "buku-buku" (books) automatically turns the word into plural form.
    2. There are no plural forms for some objects that already has repetition in their name such as "kupu-kupu" (Butterfly), and "kura-kura" (turtle). It's "Kura-kura ninja" and not "Kura-kura kura-kura ninja" to translate "Ninja turtles"!
    3. You can express that a word is plural by using a singular noun and add numeric words in front of it (except one and zero, of course). When the quantity is mentioned, the noun is not repeated.
    4. Like singular words, adjectives (or other information aside from numerics) for plural words are put after the words.

    Take a look at the recap (Let's put a spotlight on spoons):

    English Indonesian Do or Don't
    Spoons Sendok-sendok Do
    Many spoons Banyak sendok Do
    Two spoons Dua sendok Do
    Two spoons Dua sendok-sendok Don't
    Two green spoons Dua sendok hijau Do
    Two green spoons Dua sendok-sendok hijau Don't
    Two green spoons Dua sendok hijau-hijau No please don't
    Two green spoons Dua hijau sendok-sendok Obviously don't

    The noun is not repeated when it is obvious from context if it is singular or plural.
    (satu sendok, dua sendok, tiga sendok, banyak sendok).

    The noun is also not repeated when talking about it in general: :
    "Anjng makan tulang." = "Dogs eat bones".
    "Kucing suka susu." = "Cats like milk."

    Additional info

    More info about the word order in a noun phrase:
    Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    More info about 'ini', 'itu':
    Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    apel, jeruk, kucing, buku, surat, koran, gaun, rumah, sekolah, gedung, bola, anjing, kue, hotel, toko


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Ber- Verbs61 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Ber- Verbs

    The ber- prefix can be attached to a noun, a verb, or an adjective. This prefix has several different meanings.

    To have

    root ber + noun meaning
    anak beranak to have a child
    nama bernama to have the name

    To wear (items of clothing) or use (vehicles)

    root ber + noun meaning
    sepatu bersepatu to wear shoes
    sepeda bersepeda to use (go by) bicycle

    To do

    root ber + verb meaning
    jalan berjalan to walk
    main bermain to play

    To produce

    root ber + noun meaning
    telur bertelur to produce eggs
    bunyi berbunyi to make a sound

    To work (have an occupation)

    root ber + noun/verb meaning
    tani bertani to farm (to work as a farmer)
    dagang berdagang to trade (to work as a trader)

    Irregular Forms

    The prefix ber- can become be- or bel- depending on the first letter or syllable of the root word.

    Ber- becomes be- if it is attached to a root word that begins with the letter r- or its first syllable ends with -er-. For example, ber + rambut becomes berambut (to have hair) and ber + kerja becomes bekerja (to work).

    Ber- becomes bel- if it is attached to the word ajar: ber + ajar becomes belajar (to study).

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    berhasil, berjalan, berhenti, berdiri, berada, bersaing, bertemu, berangkat, berubah, berbicara, berkembang, berkunjung, berkumpul, berlaku, bekerja, belajar, bermain, berpikir, bersama, berasal, berharap, bergerak


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Questions62 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Yes/No Questions

    An easy way to ask a yes/no question is simply to raise your intonation, with practically no change in the statement. In written form, this raised intonation is indicated by a question mark.

    • Mereka sudah pergi? (They have left?)

    Another way is to use the word apa or apakah at the beginning of the sentence. In this context, both words have no actual meaning; they simply indicate that the sentence is a question. Note that apakah is more formal.

    • Apa kamu mengerti? (Do you understand?)
    • Apakah Anda tinggal di sini? (Do you live here?)

    You can also ask a yes/no question by attaching -kah to another word, which is placed in the beginning of the question.

    • Salahkah aku? (Am I wrong?)

    Wh- Questions

    English Indonesian
    what apa
    who siapa
    why mengapa, kenapa
    how bagaimana
    when kapan
    where di mana

    Apa (what)

    Apa is used to ask questions about objects, meaning what or what kind of. Note that in this case, the word apa is different from the one used in yes/no questions.

    • Apa makanan ini? (What is this food?)
    • Buah apa ini? (What kind of fruit is this?)

    Siapa (who)

    Siapa is used to ask questions about a person. Although it means who, it is also used to ask someone's name or to whom an object belongs.

    • Siapa mereka? (Who are they?)
    • Siapa namamu? (What is your name?)

    Mengapa/kenapa (why)

    While mengapa and kenapa both mean why, kenapa is less formal.

    • Mengapa Anda marah? (Why are you angry?)
    • Kenapa kucing saya pergi? (Why does my cat leave?)

    Bagaimana (how)

    • Bagaimana kabarmu? (How are you?)
    • Bagaimana menggunakan ini? (How do we use this?)

    Kapan (when)

    Kapan is used to ask questions about a particular point in time. Even though it means when, kapan is only used in questions. It cannot be used as a conjunction.

    • Kapan liburan dimulai? (When does the holiday start?)

    Di mana (where)

    The word mana is usually combined with a preposition. Apart from di, mana is also combined with ke and dari: ke mana (where to) and dari mana (where from).

    • Di mana kantor kalian (Where is your office?)
    • Ke mana anjingmu pergi? (Where is your dog going?)
    • Mereka berasal dari mana? (Where do they come from?)

    Additional info

    More info about question words :
    Click here : Question words, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    More info about 'apa' and 'siapa' :
    Click here : Apa, Siapa, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    apa, kenapa, bagaimana, kapan, di mana, benar, salah, kah, mengapa, pertanyaan


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Colors71 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Colours

    Warna

    Kausmu warna-warni = Your T-shirt is colourful.

    Additional info

    Casual informal T-shirt.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    warna, biru, hijau, kuning, abu-abu, ungu, oranye, merah muda, cokelat


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Me- Verbs 172 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Me- verbs 1

    In this lesson you will learn verbs with the preffix me-. Verbs with this prefix are usually transitive verbs; they need an object. (Not all me-verbs are transitive).

    In conversations, some verbs may lose their me- prefix without a change in meaning. This often sounds less formal. The reverse can be true sometimes where not dropping the me- prefix makes one sound overly formal. You will have to learn these quirks in the field.

    Very often, the prefix causes sound change when attached to a base verb. The table below lists this behaviour:

    affix verb’s starting letter example
    me- l, m, n, r, w, y, ng, ny meminum (minum)
    mem- b, f, v membuat (buat)
    men- d, j, c mencari (cari)
    mem- p (dissolves into “m”) memesan (pesan)
    men- t (dissolves into “n”) menebang (tebang)

    Examples :

    l, m, n, r, w ==> me + base
    lempar ==> melempar
    minta ==> meminta

    b, f, v ==> me + m
    buat ==> membuat
    buka ==> membuka
    beri ==> memberi
    bayar ==> membayar
    bangun ==> membangun

    c, d, j ==> me + n
    coba ==> mencoba
    cari ==> mencari
    jaga ==> menjaga
    jadi ==> menjadi
    dengar ==> mendengar
    dorong ==> mendorong
    dapat ==> mendapat

    p ==> me + m – p
    pesan ==> memesan
    panggil ==> memanggil
    pilih ==> memilih

    t ==> me + n – t
    tarik ==> menarik
    tunggu ==> menunggu
    tutup ==> menutup
    terima ==> menerima
    turut ==> menurut
    tolak ==> menolak

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for additional info :
    Click here : "Me- verbs", Tips & Notes, Addendum

    More info about transitive and intransitive verbs :
    Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    meminum, melempar, melihat, meminta, memakan, memulai, membuat, membantu, membuka, memberi, membayar, membangun, mencoba, mencari, menjaga, mendengar, mendorong, menjadi, menjual, mendapat, memesan, memanggil, memilih, menarik, menunggu, menutup, menerima, menurut, menolak


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, me- verbs 1.

    Click here for another deck : me- prefix, Bahasa Indonesia.

  • 05 Adjectives81 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Adjectives 1

    Kata sifat

    If an adjective is modifying a noun, the adjective is placed after the noun.
    In a noun phrase, the head noun comes first, followed by the adjectives and other modifiers of the noun.
    Examples:
    Minuman dingin. = Cold drink.
    Saya suka kopi dingin = I like cold coffee.

    Adjectives about quantity (sedikit, banyak) are placed before the noun.
    Examples:
    Saya punya sedikit gula. = I have a little bit of sugar.
    Saya punya banyak buku. = I have many books.
    Saya punya banyak kucing kecil. = I have many small cats.

    An adjective can also function as a predicate.
    Examples:
    Kamu cantik. = You are beautiful.
    Saya pendek dan kamu tinggi. = I am short and you are tall.
    Kamu muda dan saya tua. = You are young and I am old.
    Ini mudah, ini tidak sulit. = This is easy, this is not difficult.
    Ini gampang, ini tidak susah. = This is easy, this is not difficult.


    Please note that in the examples above, the Indonesian sentences don't use a verb.
    The adjective is the predicate in these sentences.
    The English sentences use the verb "to be" to connect the subject and predicate.
    In other words, when translating these type of sentences from English to Indonesian, the verb "to be" is not translated.

    Examples:
    You are beautiful.
    Kamu ~~adalah~~ cantik <== 'adalah' cannot be used here.

    I am short and you are tall.
    Saya ~~adalah~~ pendek dan kamu ~~adalah~~ tinggi. <== 'adalah' cannot be used here.

    You are young and I am old.
    Kamu ~~adalah~~ muda dan saya ~~adalah~~ tua. <== 'adalah' cannot be used here.

    This is easy, this is not difficult.
    Ini ~~adalah~~ mudah, ini ~~adalah~~ tidak sulit. <== 'adalah' cannot be used here.

    This is easy, this is not difficult.
    Ini ~~adalah~~ gampang, ini ~~adalah~~ tidak susah. <== 'adalah' cannot be used here.

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info about the word order in a noun phrase:
    Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    For more info about the use of 'ini' and 'itu':
    Click here: 'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    dingin, hangat, baru, banyak, betul, sedikit, kecil, panjang, pendek, tinggi, muda, tua, jelek, cantik, bersih, kotor, miskin, jauh, dekat, jelas, rusak, bodoh, sempurna, sulit, mudah, biasa, pintar, mirip, lain, bahagia, sedih, penuh


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Numbers82 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Numbers

    Units Numbers Written Range
    - 11 – 19 Belas Belasan
    10s 10 – 90 Puluh Puluhan
    100s 100 – 900 Ratus Ratusan
    1000s 1000 – 9000 Ribu Ribuan

    Since we're in Numbers, let's go for a bit of math. Imagine if Z is a number. Let's assume that Z is 4 (Z = 4). Note that you can only replace Z with numbers 1 to 9.

    Mathematical Form Written Form Indonesian English
    Z + 10 Z belas Empat belas Fourteen
    Z x 10 Z puluh Empat puluh Forty
    Z x 100 Z ratus Empat ratus Four hundred
    Z x 1000 Z ribu Empat ribu Four thousand
    Z x 10 x 1000 Z puluh ribu Empat puluh ribu Forty thousand
    Z x 100 x 1000 Z ratus ribu Empat ratus ribu Four hundred thousand
    Z x 1000 x 1000 Z juta Empat juta Four millions

    The formula goes on even if the range widens. Easy, isn't it? Though, it should be noted that there is an exception for numbers that start with 1 (except 1 and 12 to 19) for they start with "se-" as the substitute of "satu" (one):

    Range Number Indonesian English
    Belas 11 Sebelas Eleven
    Puluh 10 Sepuluh Ten
    Ratus 100 Seratus A hundred
    Ribu 1.000 Seribu A thousand

    It should be noted, however, that it is acceptable to use "satu" instead of "se-" for numbers that start with 1 for ranges "Juta" (Million), "Miliar" (Billion), and above.

    Additional info

    lusin = dozen.

    selusin sama dengan dua belas.
    one dozen equals twelve.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    nol, satu, dua, tiga, empat, nomor, tambah, sama, lima, enam, tujuh, delapan, sembilan, jumlah, kurang, sebelas, lusin, selusin, belas, puluh, kali, ratus, seratus, seribu, ribu, sejuta, juta, persen, semiliar, miliar, pertama, kedua, ketiga, sekali, ratusan, ribuan, puluhan


    Tinycards decks with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, Numbers.

    Click here for another deck : Numbers.

  • 05 Me- Verbs 283 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Me- verbs 2

    'me-' verbs are formed like this :
    [me-] + [base word] = me-verb.

    Depending upon the starting letter of the [base word], the 'me-' perfix is conjugated.

    Starting letter base word Conjugation
    l, m, n, r, w Me + base
    vowel, g, h Me + ng
    c, d, j Me + n
    b, f, v Me + m
    k Me + ng – k
    t Me + n – t
    s Me + ny – s
    p Me + m – p
    monosyllabic Me + nge +base

    Examples :

    vowel, g, h ==> me + ng
    erti ==> mengerti
    ambil ==> mengambil
    ubah ==> mengubah
    ingat ==> mengingat
    ajar ==> mengajar
    isi ==> mengisi
    gali ==> menggali
    hadap ==> menghadap
    hilang ==> menghilang
    gambar ==> menggambar
    ganggu ==> mengganggu
    ganti ==> mengganti

    s ==> me + ny – s
    simpan ==> menyimpan
    susun ==> menyusun
    sentuh ==> menyentuh
    sewa ==> menyewa
    sapa ==> menyapa
    sapu ==> menyapu

    k ==> me + ng – k
    kirim ==> mengirim
    kejar ==> mengejar
    kandung ==> mengandung

    l, m, n, r, w ==> me + base
    rawat ==> merawat
    rusak ==> merusak
    nyala ==> menyala
    nyanyi ==> menyanyi

    Most of the 'me-' verbs are transitive.
    That means that this verb can have an object in a sentence.
    This object can function as the subject if the sentence is made passive.
    (Passive verbs and passive sentences are covered in other skills).

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for additional info :
    Click here : "Me- verbs", Tips & Notes, Addendum

    More info about transitive and intransitive verbs :
    Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    mengerti, mengambil, mengubah, mengingat, mengajar, mengisi, menggali, menghadap, menghilang, menggambar, mengganggu, mengganti, menyimpan, menyusun, menyentuh, menyewa, menyapa, menyapu, mengirim, mengejar, mengandung, merawat, merusak, menyala, menyanyi


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, me- verbs 2.

    Click here for another deck : me- prefix Bahasa Indonesia.

  • 05 Adjective 291 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Adjectives 2

    Kata sifat

    Like already mentioned in the other skill about 'adjectives', an adjective can have the following functions :
    - Attributive function
    - Predicative function
    - Adverbial function

    Attributive function:
    If an adjective is modifying a noun, the adjective is placed after the noun.
    In a noun phrase, the head noun comes first, followed by the adjectives and other modifiers of the noun.

    The word order in a noun phrase [FN]:
    (a) [FN] = noun + adjective + personal pronoun + determiner
    (b) [FN] = noun + personal pronoun + 'yang' + adjective + determiner

    (a) Kucing kecil saya itu = That small cat of mine.
    (b) Kucing saya yang kecil itu = That small cat of mine.

    Predicative function
    An adjective can also function as a predicate:
    Kamu cantik. = You are pretty.
    Kamu lucu. = You are funny.
    Kucingku nakal. = My cat is naughty.
    Nenek sakit. = Grandmother is ill.
    Tini sehat. = Tini is healthy.


    Please note that in the examples above, the Indonesian sentences don't use a verb.
    The adjective is the predicate in these sentences.
    The English sentences use the verb "to be" to connect the subject and predicate.
    In other words, when translating these type of sentences from English to Indonesian, the verb "to be" is not translated.

    Examples:
    You are pretty.
    Kamu ~~adalah~~ cantik <== 'adalah' cannot be used here.

    You are funny.
    Kamu ~~adalah~~ lucu. <== 'adalah' cannot be used here.

    My cat is naughty.
    Kucingku ~~adalah~~ nakal. <== 'adalah' cannot be used here.

    Grandmother is ill.
    Nenek ~~adalah~~ sakit. <== 'adalah' cannot be used here.

    Tini is healthy.
    Tini ~~adalah~~ sehat. <== 'adalah' cannot be used here.


    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info about the word order in a noun phrase:
    Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    For more info about the use of 'ini' and 'itu':
    Click here: 'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    baik, buruk, indah, tampan, gelap, terang, berat, ringan, rumit, sederhana, ramah, nakal, ragu, mantap, cukup, lebih, khusus, umum, bagus, kering, basah, lucu, serius, jahat, utama, sakit, sehat, lama, sebentar, resmi, siap, sesuai, hilang, tutup, buka, menarik, lebar, keras, sempit, lembut, berbahaya


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Family92 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Family

    Keluarga

    This skill introduces the names of the family members.
    Kakek = grandfather
    Nenek = grandmother
    Ayah = father
    Ibu = mother
    Kakak = older brother / older sister
    Adik = younger brother / younger sister

    Some of these family names, (bapak, ibu, saudara), are also used as a 'title' when addressing a person.
    Examples:

    Apakah Bapak/Ibu ingin teh manis ?
    Does father/mother want sweet tea ?
    Do you (Mister/Madam) want sweet tea ?

    Kapan Bapak/Ibu pergi ke Jakarta ?
    When does father/mother go to jakarta ?
    When do you (Mister/Madam) go to Jakarta ?

    Saudara saudari, selamat datang di pertemuan ini.
    Brothers and sisters, welcome to this gathering.

    Bapak/Pak and Ibu/Bu are often used to address someone in a polite way.
    It's considered rude to address someone who is older than you are with 'kamu'.
    Bapak/Pak and Ibu/Bu can be used as a polite substitute for 'kamu / Anda / kalian'.

    Saudara can also be used like that, to address someone of about the same age, also to avoid the use of 'kamu / Anda'.

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    ayah, orang tua, ibu, seorang, laki-laki, perempuan, anak, pasangan, suami, istri, keponakan, kakak, adik, adalah, menikah, sepupu, nenek, meninggal, kakek, cucu, orang, putra, putri, saudara, saudari, paman, tante, abang, keluarga, melahirkan, bayi, hamil, mertua, menantu, ipar


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Kitchen93 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Kitchen

    Dapur

    This skill introduces new words related to the kitchen.
    Examples:

    Saya masak di dapur. = I cook in the kitchen.
    Pisau saya tajam. = My knife is sharp.
    Wajan saya besar. = My wok is big.
    Tini menggoreng pisang di wajan. = Tini fries bananas in the wok.
    Tono suka makanan pedas. = Tono likes spicy (hot) food.
    Makanan ini perlu bumbu. = This food needs seasoning (spices).

    Some verbs related to the kitchen :
    potong ==> memotong = to cut, to chop.
    iris ==> mengiris = to slice thinly.
    masak ==> memasak = to cook (cooking in general).
    goreng ==> menggoreng = to fry (oil is used).
    rebus ==> merebus = to boil (water is used).
    kukus ==> mengukus = to steam (steam of hot water is used).
    panggang ==> memanggang = to grill/roast/broil (above coal fire, in an oven).
    bakar ==> membakar = to burn ; to grill/roast/broil (same as panggang).

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    memasak, pisau, minyak, sayur, buah, kubis, wortel, labu, untuk, menggoreng, wajan, kangkung, mentega, bir, cabai, cuka, paprika, bayam, merebus, panci, selai, anggur, kulkas, mi, terung, bawang, seledri, memotong, bubur, piring, keju, pasta, permen, spageti, brokoli, lobak, mengiris, oven, kentang, bumbu, memanggang, kompor, ubi, selada, jahe, asam, pahit, tawar, asin, pedas, gurih, rasa


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, Kitchen.

    Click here for another deck with related vocabulary: Food stuff, Bahasa Indonesia.

  • 05 Conjunctives 2101 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Conjunctives 2

    Examples of conjunction words that are used to connect two clauses:

    Saya tahu bahwa Tini pintar sekali.
    I know that Tini is very clever.

    Tini sangat pintar, tetapi dia harus belajar juga.
    Tini is very smart, but she has to study as well.

    Dia belajar setiap hari agar dia bisa lulus.
    She studies every day so that she can graduate.

    Jika dia lulus, kita akan membeli hadiah.
    If she graduates, we will buy a present.

    Nama depannya pendek, yaitu Tini dan Tono.
    Their first names are short, i.e. Tini and Tono.

    tetapi = tapi <== synonyms ;'tapi' is less formal.
    agar = supaya <== synonyms ;'supaya' is less formal.
    jika = kalau <== synonyms ;'kalau' is less formal.

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    seperti, bahwa, tetapi, sehingga, jika, yaitu, agar, bahkan, tanpa, kalau, daripada


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Professions102 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Jobs

    Pekerjaan

    This skill introduces vocabulary regarding jobs and professions.

    Names of jobs/professions can be formed by using the 'pe-' prefix.
    [pe-] + [base word] = noun.
    [pe-] + [tari] = penari. = dancer.
    [pe-] + [nyanyi] = penyanyi. = singer.
    [pe-] + [beli] = pembeli. = buyer.
    [pe-] + [jual] = penjual. = seller.
    [pe-] + [dagang] = pedagang. = trader, merchant.
    [pe-] + [tulis] = penulis. = writer, author.
    [pe-] + [pikir] = pemikir. = thinker, philosopher.
    [pe-] + [rawat] = perawat. = nurse.
    [pe-] + [layan] = pelayan. = waiter, servant.

    Some names of jobs are imported loan words, like : dokter, insinyur, sopir, sekretaris, jurnalis.

    Additional info

    More info about the 'pe-' prefix :
    Click here : pe- Prefix, , Tips & Notes, Addendum.'

    For more info about 'negation':
    Click here: Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    profesi, karier, dokter, guru, petani, nelayan, tukang, peneliti, raja, pangeran, ratu, polisi, pengacara, penjual, insinyur, profesor, hakim, pelayan, koki, pembeli, pemilik, jurnalis, wartawan, sekretaris, perawat, pegawai, pejabat, penyanyi, penari, pekerjaan, pekerja, penulis, pemimpin, prajurit, sopir, pemain, pemikir


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Dates and Time 1103 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Dates Times 1

    Tanggal dan waktu

    This skill introduces vocabulary about dates and times.
    Examples:

    Tahun, bulan, minggu, hari, jam, menit, detik.
    Year, month, week, day, hour, minute, second.

    Tini di Bali bulan lalu.
    Tini was in Bali last month.

    Tini akan pergi ke Bali minggu depan.
    Tini will go to Bali next week.

    Tadi pagi Tono makan nasi goreng.
    This morning Tono ate nasi goreng.

    Pagi, siang, sore, malam, Tono selalu makan nasi goreng.
    Morning, noon, afternoon, evening, night, Tono always eats nasi goreng.

    Setiap hari dia makan nasi goreng.
    Every day he eats nasi goreng.

    Musim hujan, musim kemarau, musim apa pun, dia makan nasi goreng.
    Rainy season, dry season, whatever season, he eats nasi goreng.

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    hari, senin, selasa, rabu, kamis, jumat, sabtu, minggu, detik, menit, jam, bulan, lalu, depan, pagi, siang, sore, petang, malam, kemarin, besok, lusa, kemarau, hujan, sekarang, musim, saat


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, Time.

    Click here for another deck: hours, days, months, Bahasa Indonesia.

  • 05 Adverbs 1111 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Adverbs 1

    Kata Keterangan

    Adverbs are used to clarify/modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or an entire sentence.

    Examples:

    Kamu sangat cantik. = You are very pretty.
    Kamu cantik sekali. = You are very pretty.
    Saya baru bangun. = I just woke up.
    Saya masih di rumah. = I am still at home.
    Saya sudah makan. = I have already eaten.
    Saya belum mandi. = I have not yet taken a shower.
    Saya sudah pernah ke Bali. = I have ever been to Bali.
    Saya belum pernah ke Bali. = I have never been to Bali.
    Saya jarang ke pantai. = I seldom go to the beach.
    Saya sering ke pantai. = I often go to the beach.
    Kadang-kadang Tini juga ikut. = Sometimes Tini also comes along.
    Tini tentu akan ikut hari ini. = Tini will certainly come along today.
    Mungkin Tono juga mau ikut. = Maybe Tono would also like to come along.
    Nanti saya pergi ke pantai. = Later I'll go to the beach.
    Hanya Tini yang ikut ke pantai. = Only Tini is coming along to the beach.
    Biasanya kami naik mobil. = Usually we go by car.
    Sopirnya hampir di sini. = The chauffeur is almost here.
    Tiba-tiba sopirnya muncul. = Suddenly the chauffeur appears.
    Kami langsung pergi. = We immediately go.

    Additional info

    More info about transitive and intransitive verbs :
    Click here : Adverbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    juga, akan, sudah, masih, sangat, belum, pernah, langsung, paling, akhirnya, sering, biasanya, mungkin, segera, selalu, hampir, nanti, terlalu, sebaliknya, jangan, tentu, setidaknya, agak, tiba-tiba, lagi-lagi, kadang-kadang, rupanya, hanya, telah


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Di-Verbs112 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Di- verbs

    The di- prefix is used to make a verb passive. In an active sentence the subject does the verb, while in a passive sentence, the verb is done to the subject of the sentence.

    Examples:

    Active sentence Passive sentence
    ID-1 Adikku mengambil dompetku. Dompetku diambil oleh adikku.
    EN-1 My little sibling took my wallet. My wallet was taken by my little sibling.
    ID-2 Mereka memakan nasi. Nasi dimakan mereka.
    EN-2 They ate the rice. The rice was eaten by them”.
    ID-3 Banyak orang mengenal Taylor Swift. Taylor Swift dikenal oleh banyak orang.
    EN-3 Many people know Taylor Swift. Taylor Swift is known by many people.

    Examples:
    1) Dompetku diambil (oleh) adikku.
    2) Dompetku sudah diambil (oleh) adikku tadi pagi.
    3) Dompetku sudah diambil tadi pagi oleh adikku.

    In the first two sentences the 'di-' verb is followed directly by the agent/actor (the one performing the action).
    'oleh' can be left out in such a sentence.
    In the third sentence, the 'di-' verb is not directly followed by the agent/actor.
    'oleh' cannot be left out in such a sentence.

    Additional info

    This skill is about passive verbs and the passive voice.
    Translations in the active voice are rejected.

    Please have a look here for more info about the 'passive voice' :
    Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    oleh, disebut, dianggap, dikenal, dibuat, dirilis, dimulai, diduga, dibangun, diberi, didukung, dipakai, diambil, dilarang, dibawa, ditulis, diterima, ditangkap, dipimpin, diperiksa, diproduksi, dinilai, dilihat, dibentuk, dijual, diangkat, dibuka, dipilih, ditutup, diminta, dibagi, ditambah


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, di- verbs.

    Another deck : Passive voice, Bahasa Indonesia.

  • 05 The Body121 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Body

    Tubuh, Badan

    This skill introduces vocabulary about body parts.

    Examples :

    Wajahmu cantik.
    Your face is pretty.

    Rambutmu panjang.
    Your hair is long.

    Matamu biru.
    Your eyes are blue.

    Bibirmu merah.
    Your lips are red.

    Gigimu putih.
    Your teeth are white.

    Hidungmu pesek.
    Your nose is flat.

    Hidungmu mancung.
    Your nose is sharp.

    Kakimu panjang.
    Your legs are long.

    Badanmu langsing.
    Your body is slim.

    More body parts in the lessons, selamat belajar !

    Additional info

    Here is another Tinycards deck with body parts :

    Click here: Body parts, Bahasa Indonesia.

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    tubuh, kepala, wajah, dahi, mata, alis, cium, rambut, telinga, hidung, mulut, bibir, bau, mencium, gigi, lidah, pipi, leher, tenggorokan, dada, perut, bahu, punggung, tangan, sikut, lengan, jari, pergelangan, kaki, paha, lutut, telapak, kuku, otot, kulit, jantung, paru, darah, otak, tulang, organ


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, Body.

    Another deck : Body parts, Bahasa Indonesia.

  • 05 -an122 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    -an suffix

    '-an' suffix is used to create nouns (from verbs, adjectives, nouns, etc...)
    The noun has the meaning related to the base word.

    Examples:
    [base word] + [-an] = noun
    [bagi (noun)]+ [-an] = bagian = part.
    [bangun (verb)]+ [-an] = bangunan = building.
    [bantu (verb)]+ [-an] = bantuan = help.
    [catat (verb)] + [-an] = catatan = a note.
    [layan (verb)] + [-an] = layanan = service
    [lapor (verb)] + [-an] = laporan = report
    [pilih (verb)]+ [-an] = pilihan = choice.
    [serang (verb)]+ [-an] = serangan = an attack.
    [tambah (noun)]+ [-an] = tambahan = addition.
    [urut (adjective)]+ [-an] = urutan = sequence, order.

    Additional info

    Please have look here for more info:
    Click here : -an Suffix, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    bagian, catatan, hubungan, bangunan, serangan, lingkungan, tujuan, lapangan, bantuan, laporan, pimpinan, anggaran, layanan, dukungan, urutan, jabatan, dugaan, putaran, tambahan, pilihan, an


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Direction123 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Direction

    Arah

    Additional info

    Mata angin :

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    kanan, kiri, posisi, dalam, belok, arah, atas, bawah, samping, luar, balik, naik, turun, utara, selatan, timur, barat, menuju, belakang, barat daya, barat laut, timur laut, tenggara, kutub, terbang, lewat, tiba, jarak, kompas


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Command131 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Command

    The example sentences below use transitive me-verbs in the (+) declarative sentences.
    When these (+) declarative sentences are converted into the (!) imperative mood, the me- prefix is dropped (the suffix remains in place).
    In the imperative mood, '-lah' particle can be attached to soften the tone of the command.
    Another way to soften the tone of the command is by using words as 'mohon', 'coba', 'tolong', 'silakan'.
    The command will sound more like a polite question asking for help.

    Examples:

    (+) Kamu mengambil es teh.
    (!) Ambil es teh !
    (!) Ambillah es teh !
    Get an iced tea !

    (+) Kamu mengambilkan ibumu segelas es teh.
    (!) Ambilkan ibumu segelas es teh !
    (!) Ambilkanlah ibumu segelas es teh !
    Get your mother an iced tea !

    (+) Kamu menyelesaikan pekerjaanmu.
    (!) Selesaikan pekerjaanmu !
    (!) Selesaikanlah pekerjaanmu !
    Finish your work !

    (+) Kamu menjawab pertanyaan saya.
    (!) Jawab pertanyaan saya !
    (!) Jawablah pertanyaan saya !
    Answer my question !

    (+) Kamu melempar bolanya ke Tini.
    (!) Lempar bolanya ke Tini !
    (!) Lemparlah bolanya ke Tini !
    Throw the ball to Tini !

    Words like : 'coba', 'tolong', 'silakan' are often used to soften the tone of the command.

    Coba panggil Tini ke sini !
    Tolong panggil Tini ke sini !
    Please call Tini over here !

    Silakan masuk, Pak !
    Please come in, Sir !

    Silakan makan salju kuning, Pak !
    Please eat yellow snow, Sir !

    When asking somebody else to participate and join the action, the following words are used : 'ayo', 'mari'.

    Ayo kita lompat dari jembatan !
    Mari kita lompat dari jembatan !
    Let us jump off the bridge !

    Ayo makan salju kuning !
    Mari makan salju kuning !
    Let's eat yellow snow !

    When ordering someone NOT to do something, the negation word 'jangan' is used.

    Jangan lompat dari jembatan !
    Don't jump off a bridge !

    Jangan makan salju kuning !
    Don't eat yellow snow !

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    lah, mohon, jaga, panggil, tanya, jawab, kan, tolong, serang, tembak, kumpul, lihat, mari, buka, tutup, biar, lakukan, bantu, main, beri, ayo, coba, pasang, lepas, kerja, pikir, gambar, ganti, simpan, sapu, kirim, kejar, potong, nyanyi, sebut, pakai, ambil, bawa, buat, lempar, tulis, baca, jual, beli, angkat, pilih


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Household132 @ 100% 0 •••

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    House

    Rumah

    This skill introduces new vocabulary regarding 'house', 'rumah'.

    Saya baru membeli furnitur.
    I just bought furniture.

    Saya perlu kursi dan meja baru.
    I needed a new chair and desk.

    Saya juga membeli bantal, seprai, tirai dan cermin untuk kamar tidur saya.
    I also bought a pillow, a bedsheet, curtains and a mirror for my bedroom.

    Gelas, cangkir dan mangkuk disimpan di dapur.
    Glasses, cups and bowls are stored in the kitchen.

    Biasanya sendok dan garpu dipakai untuk makan.
    Usually a spoon and fork are used to eat.

    Pisau jarang dipakai untuk makan.
    A knife is seldom used for eating.

    Handuk, sabun dan sampo disimpan di kamar mandi.
    Towels, soap and shampoo are stored in the bath room.

    Bak mandi sudah terisi air.
    The bath tub is already filled with water.

    Langit-langit di kamar saya berwarna biru.
    The ceiling in my room is blue.

    Dindingnya berwana putih dan lantainya berwarna cokelat.
    The walls are white and the floor is brown.

    Jendelanya menghadap kolam renang.
    The window faces the swimming pool.

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    meja, kursi, sendok, sofa, kamar, furnitur, garpu, gelas, botol, mangkuk, cangkir, langit-langit, jendela, tempat tidur, lampu, spons, kolam, kantor, pintu, dinding, cermin, atap, karpet, televisi, tangga, tirai, bak mandi, bantal, resep, sabun, handuk, pemanas, sampo, membersihkan, balkon, mainan, seprai, tempat sampah, pagar, gerbang


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, House.

    Another deck: House stuff, Bahasa Indonesia

  • 05 Animals133 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Animals

    Hewan, binatang

    This skill introduces new vocabulary regarding 'animals': 'hewan', 'binatang'.

    anjing = dog
    babi = pig
    bebek = duck
    beruang = bear
    burung = bird
    burung hantu = owl
    gajah = elephant
    harimau = tiger
    ikan = fish
    jerapah = giraffe
    kucing = cat
    kupu-kupu = butterfly
    laba-laba = spider
    lebah = bee
    kuda = horse
    kelinci = rabbit
    monyet = monkey
    semut = ant
    serigala = wolf

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    bebek, burung, hewan, lebah, ikan, gajah, beruang, sapi, kuda, babi, serigala, harimau, tikus, kupu-kupu, singa, kelinci, ular, laba-laba, hiu, monyet, lumba-lumba, serangga, semut, paus, jerapah


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Dates and Time 2141 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Dates 2

    Tanggal dan waktu

    This skill introduces more vocabulary about dates and times.

    The names of the months do not differ that much from Emglish:
    januari, februari, maret, april, mei, juni, juli, agustus, september, oktober, november, desember

    jam, hari, minggu, bulan, tahun, dekade, abad
    hour, day, week, month, year, decade, century

    Examples about time ('waktu'):

    Jam berapa sekarang?

    10:00 = jam/pukul sepuluh

    10:05 = jam/pukul sepuluh lewat/lebih lima (menit)

    10:10 = jam/pukul sepuluh lewat/lebih sepuluh (menit)

    10:15 = jam/pukul sepuluh lewat/lebih seperempat

    10:30 = jam/pukul setengah sebelas

    10:45 = jam/pukul sebelas kurang seperempat

    10:50 = jam/pukul sebelas kurang sepuluh (menit)

    10:55 = jam/pukul sebelas kurang lima (menit)

    11:00 = jam/pukul sebelas

    'jam' = 'pukul' are interchangeable here ('pukul' is more formal).

    'lewat' = 'lebih' are interchangeable here.

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    januari, februari, maret, april, mei, juni, juli, agustus, september, oktober, november, desember, tanggal, akhir, windu, dekade, abad, awal, pertengahan, seperempat, gugur, pukul, setengah, lagi, semi, generasi, kalender, masa, tengah, libur, minggu, dahulu, zaman


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, Intro.

    Anoter deck about time: hours, days, months, Bahasa Indonesia.

  • 05 Adverbs 2142 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Adverbs 2

    Kata Keterangan

    Adverbs are used to clarify/modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or an entire sentence. The position of an adverb varies, it depends on the adverb and how the adverb is used in a sentence.

    Examples:

    Tini sedang mandi sekarang. = Tini is taking a shower.
    Tini selalu mandi sebelum ke sekolah. = Tini always take a shower before going to school.
    Tini harus berangkat sekitar jam setengah tujuh. = Tini must leave at approximately half past six.
    Tini jarang terlambat. = Tini is seldom too late.
    Tini boleh mengendarai mobil. = Tini is allowed to drive a car.
    Sebenarnya Tini tidak perlu sopir. = Actually Tini does not need a driver.
    Akan tetapi, Dimas akan mengantarkan Tini ke sekolah. = However, Dimas will bring Tini to school.
    Tini tidak perlu mengendarai mobil. = Tini does not need to drive the car.
    Tini bisa santai saja di mobil = Tini can just relax in the car.

    "sedang" is an adverb that is used to indicate that the action is still ongoing.


    Additional info

    More info about adverbs :
    Click here : Adverbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    saja, dapat, harus, sedang, jarang, umumnya, sekitar, sendiri, begitu, tak, selamanya, perlu, boleh, tetap


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Pe-an151 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Pe-an affix

    Pe-an affix is used to from nouns.

    Examples:
    [pe-] + [base word] +[-an] = noun.
    [pe-] + [gunung] +[-an] = pegunungan = mountain range.
    [pe-] + [pilih] +[-an] = pemilihan = election.
    [pe-] + [dengar] +[-an] = pendengaran = sense of hearing.
    [pe-] + [lihat] +[-an] = penglihatan = eyesight.

    Additional info

    More info about 'pe- prefix :
    Click here : pe- Prefix, , Tips & Notes, Addendum.'

    More info about 'an- suffix :
    Click here : -an Suffix, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    pegunungan, pelabuhan, pelayanan, pemanasan, pertemuan, pengalaman, pemandangan, pemasukan, pemerintahan, pemilihan, pertumbuhan, perhatian, penciuman, pendengaran, pengadilan, pertandingan, penginapan, pendidikan, pengeluaran, penglihatan, penulisan, penyerangan, persaingan, perusahaan, pertarungan, peraturan, perbatasan, perbuatan, percakapan, persatuan, peralatan, perkembangan, perlawanan, perlombaan, permainan, persahabatan, pertahanan


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Feelings152 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Feelings 1

    Perasaan

    Many of the words introduced in this skill are adjectives.
    As a reminder, an adjective can function as a predicate in a sentence.
    In other words, such a sentence doesn't use a verb.

    Examples:
    Saya bosan. = I am bored.
    Saya kecewa. = I am disappointed.
    Saya takut. = I am scared.


    The following sentences use the same base words as above, but now the 'me-kan' affix is used.
    (there is another skill that explains the use of this 'me-kan' affix)(see link below).

    In the following sentences, the 'me-kan' verb has a 'causative' meaning.

    Examples:
    FIlm ini membosankan. = This movie is boring.
    Film ini mengecewakan. = This movie is disappointing.
    Film ini menakutkan. = This movie is scary.


    In grammar terms:
    [subject] [causes the base word] [to the direct object].
    The subject [Film ini] is causing the feeling as expressed by the base word [membosankan] to the [direct opbject].
    In the examples above, the [direct object] is implied and omitted:

    FIlm ini membosankan [semua orang].
    Film ini mengecewakan [semua orang].
    Film ini menakutkan [semua orang].

    Saya kecewa, karena film ini sangat membosankan.
    I am disappointed, because this movie is very boring.


    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info about 'me-kan' verbs:

    Click here : 'me-kan' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    takut, merasa, menakutkan, senang, aneh, perasaan, berani, mengenang, bosan, membosankan, suasana, hati, damai, keinginan, marah, kaget, kejutan, kecewa, mengecewakan, lelah, iri, emosi, sabar, tegang, menegangkan, lapar, malu, cinta, haus, kalem, adil, memalukan, pikiran, imajinasi, gairah, jijik, menjijikkan


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Particles153 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Particles

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    tentang, kepada, pun, secara, hingga, terhadap, si, sang, antara, serta, aduh, astaga, astagfirullah, bagi, sementara, selain, pula


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Ter- Participles161 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Ter- prefix

    The ter- prefix marks a passive verb, almost like the di- prefix.
    However, ter- is different in that it is used in situations where the verb is done spontaneously/unintentional (Dia tersenyum), unexpectedly (Adik terjatuh), or denoting the state of an object (Suratnya sudah terkirim).

    Example:
    Botol ini diisi dengan teh [oleh Tini) = This bottle is filled with tea (by Tini).

    Botol ini terisi teh = This bottle is filled with tea.

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    tersenyum, tertawa, terbuka, tertutup, tersebut, tertulis, terjatuh, terjadi, tertentu, terisi, teringat, terkirim, tersimpan, termasuk, terpaksa, terkenal, terletak, terkait, terdapat, terdiri, ternyata, terlibat


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Education171 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Education

    Pendidikan

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    kerjakan, kelas, tugas, siswa, bahasa, indonesia, jelaskan, pelajaran, ujian, teman, matematika, perpustakaan, papan, kantin, jadwal, seragam, fisika, contoh, teknik, mengerjakan, penjelasan, perguruan tinggi, bab, kimia, terlambat, istirahat, dihukum, dipanggil, halaman, kertas, kapur, sejarah, dikeluarkan, peringkat, pindah, wisuda, upacara, gelar, lulus


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Me-kan Verbs 1172 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Me-kan verbs 1

    The me-kan circumfix has two main functions: benefactive (when it is applied to a verb) and causative (when it is applied to an adjective).

    Benefactive

    Benefactive means doing something for someone else's benefit. In this case, the subject is doing the verb with the me-kan circumfix for the benefit of someone or something else.

    Example:

    • Ibu membacakan dongeng untuk adik. Mother is reading a bedtime story for little sister.
    • Sarah mengantarkan kue untuk Budi. Sarah is delivering cookies for Budi.

    Benefactive me-kan verbs are always transitive (needing direct objects!)

    Causative

    Causative means causing someone or something else to become or feel something. In this case, the me-kan circumfix is applied to an adjective. The subject is causing the object to feel or become the adjective with the me-kan circumfix.

    Example:

    • Ani membangunkan Ibu. Ani wakes up Mother. (lit. Ani causes Mother to be awake.)
    • Siti membersihkan kamarnya. Siti cleans her room. (lit. Siti causes her room to be clean)
    • Adi menyusahkan orangtuanya. Adi disappoints his parents. (lit. Adi causes his parents to be disappointed)

    In the following examples the object (everyone, everybody) is implied and left out.

    • Pesta ini membosankan. This party is boring.
    • Berita itu sangat menyedihkan. The news is very saddening.
    • Informasi ini membingungkan. This information is confusing.

    The direct object (everyone, everybody) is implied and omitted.
    In the examples above, the subject is causing everyone in general to feel or become an adjective (i.e. bored, sad, confused).
    These verbs are often translated as an adjective.

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info :

    Click here : 'me-kan' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    melemparkan, memainkan, melakukan, melanjutkan, melupakan, memasukkan, memunculkan, memasakkan, membicarakan, membawakan, memberikan, membacakan, mendengarkan, mendirikan, menjatuhkan, menjadikan, mendatangkan, mendapatkan, menjelaskan, memutuskan, memecahkan, memisahkan, memuaskan, memerlukan, memerintahkan, memastikan, memikirkan, menemukan, menuliskan, menunjukkan, meninggalkan, menambahkan, menurunkan, menawarkan


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, me-kan verbs 1.

    Another deck: me-kan, me-i, Bahasa Indonesia

  • 05 Superlatives and Comparison173 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Superlatives and Comparison

    Let's start with some examples:

    Dimas lebih tinggi daripada Tono. = Dimas is taller than Tono.
    Tini lebih pendek daripada Tono. = Tini is shorter than Tono.
    Di antara mereka, Dimas yang tertinggi = Amongst them, Dimas is the tallest.

    'lebih'.......'daripada' literally means 'more'.......'than' :

    lebih penting daripada = more important than
    lebih besar daripada = larger than
    lebih kecil daripada = smaller than
    lebih dalam daripada = deeper than

    "ter-" prefix is used here to form the superlative ('most' / '-est').

    terpenting = paling penting = most important.
    terbesar = paling besar = largest
    terkecil = paling kecil = smallest
    terdalam = paling dalam = deepest


    Additional info

    'daripada' is often replaced with 'dari' in everyday speech.


    Click here : Comparisons and superlatives, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    terbesar, terakhir, terbaik, terutama, terkecil, kurus, gemuk, terkurus, tergemuk, semakin, luas, cepat, lambat, tercepat, terluas, murah, mahal, penting, termurah, terpenting, malas, sepi, ramai, rajin, termalas, tajam, tumpul, terkuat, terkaya, termerah, dalam, dangkal, terdangkal, terdalam, tertua, termuda


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Me-kan Verbs 2181 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Me-kan verbs 2

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info :

    Click here : 'me-kan' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    mengambilkan, mengajarkan, mengingatkan, mengumumkan, menggantikan, menghilangkan, menggambarkan, menghasilkan, menghentikan, menggunakan, menyimpankan, menyewakan, menyelesaikan, menyambungkan, mengirimkan, mengembalikan, mengeluarkan, mengalahkan, mengatakan, mengembangkan, mengumpulkan, merusakkan, menyalakan, merupakan


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, me-kan verbs 2.

    Another deck: me-kan, me-i, Bahasa Indonesia

  • 05 Travel182 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Travel

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    mobil, taksi, bus, mengemudikan, tiket, penumpang, paspor, hati-hati, pilot, pesawat, bandara, terminal, jalan, motor, sepeda, pengendara, keterlambatan, membatalkan, masinis, kereta, mengendarai, stasiun, turis, kunjungan, mengunjungi, nakhoda, perahu, kapal, kendaraan, menginap, transportasi, alat, mesin, kecelakaan, sampai, ojek, koper


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Measures191 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Measure

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    mengukur, timbangan, kilogram, gram, satuan, waktu, miligram, kedalaman, meter, ketinggian, diukur, sungai, kilometer, sentimeter, liter, ukuran, hasil, badan, belasan, volume, meteran, ditimbang, rupiah, hektar, lipat, kecepatan, per, inci, mil, ons, sisi, sepertiga, permukaan


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Di-kan192 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Di-kan verbs

    The di-kan circumfix is the passive form of the me-kan. Like me-kan, the function of this circumfix can be benefactive or causative.

    While for the me-kan circumfix we interpret benefactive as doing something for someone else's benefit, in this context the verb is being done to the subject for the benefit of someone or something else.

    Examples:

    Active sentence Passive sentence
    ID-1 Ibu membacakan dongeng untuk adik. Dongeng dibacakan oleh Ibu.
    EN-1 Mother is reading a bedtime story for little sister. A bedtime story is being read by Mother.
    ID-2 Sarah mengantarkan kue untuk Budi. Kue untuk Budi diantarkan oleh Sarah.
    EN-2 Sarah is delivering cookies for Budi. Cookies for Budi are delivered by Sarah.

    For the causative function, di-kan is applied to an adjective. In this context, the subject is feeling or becoming the adjective thanks to the action of someone or something else.

    Examples:

    Active sentence Passive sentence
    ID-1 Ani membangunkan Ibu. Ibu dibangunkan Ani.
    EN-1 Ani wakes Mother up. Mother is being woken up by Ani.
    ID-2 Siti membersihkan kamarnya. Kamarnya dibersihkan oleh Siti.
    EN-2 Siti cleans her room. Her room is cleaned by Siti.

    Examples:

    1) Ibu dibangunkan (oleh) Ani.
    2) Ibu dibangunkan (oleh) Ani tadi pagi.
    3) Ibu sudah dibangunkan tadi pagi oleh Ani.

    In the first two sentences the 'di-' verb is followed directly by the agent/actor (the one performing the action).
    'oleh' can be left out in such a sentence.
    In the third sentence, the 'di-' verb is not directly followed by the agent/actor.
    'oleh' cannot be left out in such a sentence.

    Additional info

    This skill is about passive verbs and the passive voice.
    Translations in the active voice are rejected.

    Please have a look here for more info :

    Click here : 'me-kan' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    dilakukan, digunakan, ditemukan, didirikan, diberikan, dibandingkan, diharapkan, dijadikan, disampaikan, ditetapkan, dilaksanakan, diadakan, disebabkan, dikatakan, dikembangkan, diterbitkan, diselenggarakan, dilaporkan, disebutkan, dinyatakan, dibutuhkan, diluncurkan, diumumkan, dilahirkan, digantikan, dihasilkan


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, di-kan verbs.

    Another deck: me-kan, me-i, Bahasa Indonesia

  • 05 Feelings 2201 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Feelings 2

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    menertawakan, terkejut, mengejutkan, cemburu, sayang, tenang, berbeda, memimpikan, kesal, mimpi, ingin, senyuman, santai, merindukan, mengharapkan, tawa, harapan, mengantuk, kesan, aroma, cemas, humor, puas, ingatan, bebas, selera, dipercaya, karakter, pasti, peka, gugup, murung, respek, menaruh, sampah, benci, penasaran, bangga, kesepian, menangis


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Medical202 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Medical

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    Words: batuk, pilek, demam, penyakit, semoga, bengkak, sembuh, berobat, rumah sakit, apotek, gatal, klinik, obat, pasien, alergi, memeriksa, hati, patah, imunisasi, disuntik, terkilir, manusia, luka, dibersihkan, diobati, parah, operasi, berdarah


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Nature211 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Nature

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    tanah, api, udara, angin, sumber, batu, bumi, matahari, laut, alam, bunga, polusi, rumput, mencemari, bulan, bintang, awan, salju, benih, langit, hutan, pohon, gunung, danau, mawar, lumpur, samudera, planet, tumbuhan, puncak, dasar, gempa, cuaca, iklim, asap, temperatur, badai, hidup, petir, gurun, listrik, lubang


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Communication212 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Communication

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    komunikasi, informasi, pers, pesan, suara, selamat, huruf, media, massa, internet, berkata, kata, kalimat, teriak, merekam, perintah, diam, bertanya, pendapat, arti, pemberitahuan, situs, menjawab, diskusi, debat, argumen, judul, artikel, menerjemahkan, tema, wawancara, unduh, unggah, pengumuman, mengontak, berita, rahasia, komentar


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Me-i213 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Me-i verbs

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info :

    Click here : 'me-i' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    memasuki, meliputi, melayani, mewakili, melewati, melindungi, menikmati, memiliki, melalui, mengakhiri, mengikuti, mengatasi, mengakui, mengalami, menghadapi, menghindari, mengetahui, mengurangi, menguasai, mengenai, mempunyai, memenuhi, mempelajari, menyadari, memahami, menangani, mencapai, menjalani, menempati, menduduki, mendatangi


    Tinycards deck with the vocabulary:
    Click here : Bahasa Indonesia, me-i verbs.

    Another deck: me-kan, me-i, Bahasa Indonesia

  • 05 Prepositions 2221 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Prepositions 2

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    sebagai, pada, kecuali, selama, sebelum, setelah, sejak, kemudian, sesudah, menurut, walau, demi


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Materials222 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Materials

    Bahan

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    bahan, uang, debu, emas, terbuat, tembaga, besi, katun, perak, kain, pasir, karet, wol, kayu, plastik, logam


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Objects231 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Objects

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    barang, senjata, kotak, palang, kabel, objek, peta, kacamata, radio, dokumen, kartu, nampan, memuat, pengecas, bendera, hadiah, kunci, foto, pedang, komputer, bubuk, album, adaptor, masalah, bentuk, tanda, kamus, majalah, roda, pulpen, robot, layar, jarum, benang, lilin, amplop, korek, halaman, nyala, cahaya, padam


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Science232 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Science

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    titik, fungsi, material, pencarian, teori, jenis, dampak, energi, ilmu, metode, analisis, rumus, ide, penemuan, batas, suhu, skala, lingkaran, segitiga, atmosfer, sinar, derajat, ilmiah, pengetahuan, daftar, penelitian, membakar, reaksi, cara, teknologi, grafik, proses, perhitungan, persegi, sudut, hal, konsep


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Di-i233 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Di-i verbs

    Di-i verbs are the passive counterpart of the active 'me-i' verbs.

    Additional info

    This skill is about passive verbs and the passive voice.
    Translations in the active voice are rejected.

    Please have a look here for more info :

    Click here : 'me-i' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    dihubungi, diketahui, diikuti, disertai, diakui, dimiliki, dilengkapi, ditemui, dialami, dihadiri, ditangani, dikelilingi, dinamai, dikurangi, didampingi, dipenuhi, ditandai, dilindungi, dipengaruhi, diyakini, dipahami, dikuasai, dicapai, dijumpai, disukai, disetujui, dimintai, dikunjungi, ditandatangani, diawali, dilayani, dihadapi, dibatasi


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Art241 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Art

    Seni

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    seni, karya, musik, sastra, tari, film, sinetron, teater, lukisan, pertunjukan, bioskop, ritme, puisi, artis, lagu, museum, novel, cerpen, piano, konser, aktor, peran, gitar, musisi, lirik, wayang, aktris, biola, disutradarai, dibintangi


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Spiritual242 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Spiritual

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    tuhan, berdoa, agama, percaya, malaikat, setan, mati, islam, katolik, hindu, beragama, dewa, dewi, takdir, kristen, buddha, beribadah, masjid, gereja, wihara, pura, ulama, pendeta, pastor, neraka, surga, jiwa, candi, dukun, santet, hantu, sembahyang, khotbah, dosa, pahala, natal, lebaran, paskah, raya, merayakan, amal, sedekah


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 05 Memper-243 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Memper- verbs

    'memper-' verbs are active verbs.
    'diper-' verbs are the passive counterpart.

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info :

    Click here: 'memper-' verbs , Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    memperkuat, memperlemah, memperpanjang, memperpendek, mempermudah, memperbanyak, memperbesar, mempersulit, memperkecil, mempercepat, memperlambat, memperbaiki, memperburuk, memperkaya, memperketat, memperluas


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 32 Business250 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Business

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    usaha, saham, produksi, pembelian, rekening, industri, pajak, bos, konsumsi, pariwisata, keuntungan, modal, kontrak, penjualan, kekayaan, kredit, tingkat, investasi, konsumen, pabrik, pengangguran, penawaran, iklan, biaya, sewa, bisnis, ekonomi, pertanian


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 32 Counters251 @ 75% 25 •••

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    Counters / classifiers

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info :

    Click here : The Classifiers: Buah, Orang and Ekor

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    seekor, ekor, seseorang, segelas, sepucuk, secangkir, sepotong, sepiring, beberapa, sesuatu, masing-masing, butir, selembar, sebutir, semangkuk, lembar, semua, sehelai, sebatang, helai, batang, berbagai, sebuah, sejumlah, setiap


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 32 Diper-252 @ 75% 25 •••

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    Diper- verbs

    'diper-' verbs are the apssive counterpart of the active 'memper-' verbs.

    Additional info

    This skill is about passive verbs and the passive voice.
    Translations in the active voice are rejected.

    Please have a look here for more info :

    Click here: 'memper-' verbs , Tips & Notes, Addendum.

    Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

    Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    diperkuat, diperoleh, diperlemah, diperpanjang, diperpendek, diperbanyak, dipermudah, dipersulit, diperkecil, dipercepat, diperbesar, diperlambat, diperburuk, diperluas, diperbaiki, diperketat, diperkaya


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 32 Sports261 @ 75% 25 •••

    0 words

    Sports

    Olah raga

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    stadion, tim, golf, juara, kompetisi, tenis, menendang, balapan, sepak bola, pelatih, berenang, gol, olahraga, bulu tangkis, aba-aba, senam, kalah, pemenang, latihan, memukul, melompat, menang, memenangkan, memenangi


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 32 Politics262 @ 75% 25 •••

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    Politics

    Politik

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    perang, hak, kekuasaan, hukum, masyarakat, pembangunan, pemerintah, kewajiban, revolusi, kebebasan, partai, tentara, presiden, kesepakatan, keamanan, keadilan, krisis, politik, kementerian, kekerasan, konflik, mayoritas, oposisi, menteri, organisasi, wali kota, calon, hutang, balai kota, strategi, bangsa, suara, majelis, peristiwa, kejahatan, parlemen, negara, demokrasi, berjuang, pemilih, senator, memimpin, sistem, pidato, mendukung, pusat


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 32 Places 2271 @ 50% 50 •••

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    Places 2

    Tempat

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    tempat, daerah, ruang, alamat, provinsi, tepi, kabupaten, kebun binatang, pantai, desa, bar, gua, taman, kecamatan, wilayah, rute, jawa, pulau, kota, penjara, swalayan, jembatan, apartemen, menara, lantai, lokasi, aula, garasi


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 32 Ke-an Nouns272 @ 50% 50 •••

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    Ke-an affix

    There are few uses of Ke-an but most of them turns adjectives into nouns. Here are some examples:

    Root words With confix ke-an
    Bebas (Free) Kebebasan (Freedom)
    Aman (Secure) Keamanan (Security)
    Sedih (Sad) Kesedihan (Sadness)
    Beruntung (Lucky) Keberuntungan (Luck)

    You will learn a few more examples as you progress.

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    kehidupan, kebutuhan, kematian, kesehatan, kekuatan, kesempatan, kebijakan, keadaan, kebaikan, keberuntungan, kebiasaan, kebenaran, kemajuan, keburukan, keindahan


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 32 Reduplication verbs281 @ 75% 25 •••

    0 words

    Reduplicated verbs

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    berjalan-jalan, melihat-lihat, bermain-main, berjaga-jaga, berhati-hati, berpura-pura, bersama-sama, berturut-turut


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck


  • 32 People291 @ 75% 25 •••

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    People

    Orang-orang

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    kelompok, penduduk, dewasa, pria, wanita, memperkenalkan, populasi, kerumunan, para, bapak, budaya, kenal, tetangga, rekan, tamu, pacar, mengenali, klien, remaja, gadis, tawanan, nona, pahlawan, nyonya, musuh, anggota, tuan


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

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  • 32 Pe-293 @ 50% 50 •••

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    Pe- prefix

    Pe- prefix is used to form nouns.

    Additional info

    Please have a look here for more info :

    Click here : pe- Prefix, , Tips & Notes, Addendum

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    pejalan, pelajar, pelaku, pembaca, penyewa, pendiri, pendengar, pelukis, pemakai, pemberi, pencuci, pendatang, pembantu, pengirim, pengisi, pengunjung, pengembang, penggali, pembicara, pembuat, pembuka, penonton, penutup, pendukung, penerima


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

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  • 14 Countries301 @ 100% 0 •••

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    Countries

    Additional info

    Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

    perancis, amerika serikat, jerman, belanda, mesir, rusia, inggris, benua, asia, afrika, amerika, eropa, tiongkok, yunani, brasil, swiss, spanyol, dunia, tionghoa, australia


    Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
    Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

    Click here to download the Anki deck



2021-09-17
0.023

Basics 1 updated 2020-09-03

Pronunciation

Indonesian words are spoken as they are written. Vowels pronounciation:

Indonesian English
a AH like "a" in "father"
e AY like "a" in "date", or UH like "a" in "about", or E like "e" in "bed"
i EE like "ee" in "see"
o OH like "o" in "no", or AW like "o" in "on"
u OO like "ou" in "you"

Sentence Composition

Common sentence structure:

Subject – Verb – Object

Note that in Indonesian we don't have articles (a, an, the) and we don't discriminate between the singular form and the plural form of a noun. That's right, the word stays the same whether there is only one of it or there are more than one!

For example:

Indonesian English
Saya mau apel I want an apple
Saya mau apel I want apples
Kamu mau jeruk You want an orange
Kamu mau jeruk You want oranges

You’ll find more tips and notes throughout the courses. Selamat belajar!

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info:
Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Click here : Structure Basic sentence, Tips & notes, Addendum.

Click here : Overview Grammar Topics, Bahasa Indonesia, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

saya, makan, apel, suka, jeruk, mau, kamu, punya, itu, minum, air, susu, dia, kucing, merah, kuat, dan, hitam, putih


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Introduction updated 2020-09-03

Self-Introduction Phrases

  1. Literally meaning "What (your) news" in English, Apa kabar actually means “How are you” or “How do you do”.

  2. Siapa is used instead of apa for asking a person’s name in Indonesian. A fuller explanation Click Here


Indonesian Noun Phrase

Generally, the sentence structure of Indonesian and English is similar. But, the structure of noun phrase is opposite to English, the main noun position is before the modifier noun.

For example:

Nama saya = My name

Apel merah = Red apple


To be

In spoken Indonesian, You don’t need to translate “to be” (is, am, are). To be means adalah in Indonesian. Even, in written the function of it is just to emphasize the noun, sometimes it is also omitted.

For example:

My name is Jon = Nama saya Jon.


No in Indonesian

Indonesian has some ways to express “no” (bukan, tidak, jangan and belum) . Bukan is used to negate nouns and adverbs, Tidak is used to negate verbs and adjectives, Jangan is to tell somebody not to do something and Belum means not yet or event may happen in the future.

For example:

Indonesian English
Saya bukan James I am not James
Kamu tidak suka jeruk You do not like oranges
Jangan pergi! Don't go!
Dia belum pergi She has not gone yet

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info about the word order in a noun phrase:
Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Please have a look here for more info :
Click here : Adalah, Tips & notes, Addendum

Please have a look here for more info about negation words:
Click here : Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

halo, apa kabar, Andi, Tini, siapa, nama, dari, bukan, mana, Jakarta, Jepang, Bali, berapa, dua puluh, sepuluh, umur, tahun


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Basics 2 updated 2020-09-03

Let’s step up the game. Welcome to Basics 2!

You have learned some personal pronouns in Basics 1 (aku, kamu, dia), and you are going to find the rest of them here. There are some highlights that should be put as a reminder:

  • Indonesian has formal and informal pronouns which you should pay attention the most when you are going to talk about “you” and “I” (Aww). Use “Anda” (You) and “Saya” (I) only in formal situation.

  • Indonesian differentiates between singular “you” and plural “you”. The use of “Kamu”/”Anda” signalizes the person to be only one, whereas “Kalian” means there are multiple people.

  • Indonesian has an inclusive and exclusive “we”. For example, if you (A) and your friend (B) are talking to someone (C), and the conversation goes like this:
    A: “Kami makan ikan.” (We eat fish).
    This means that A and B ate fish, but C might or did not. But if it is like this:
    A: “Kita makan ikan.” (We eat fish).
    This means that all of them ate fish. The first example uses “Kami” which implies exclusivity, whereas the second example uses “Kita” to include C, which implies inclusiveness.

  • Indonesian does not have non-personal subject pronouns, hence use “itu” (that) or “ini” (this) instead.

Here is the table to summarize the rules of pronoun uses:

English Indonesian Formal/Informal
I Saya Formal
I Aku Informal
You (Singular) Anda Formal
You (Singular) Kamu Informal
You (Plural) Kalian Formal & Informal
We (Inclusive) Kita Formal & Informal
We (Exclusive) Kami Formal & Informal
He/She Dia Formal & Informal
They Mereka Formal & Informal

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info :
Click here: "ia" & "dia" , the differences :

Please have a look here for more info:
Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

aku, kita, menulis, buku, surat, mereka, membaca, menu, koran, ini, anda, kami, kalian, besar, gaun, kaya, ia


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Greetings updated 2020-09-03

Greetings

Indonesian uses the word selamat to greet people. Selamat is actually derived from Arabic word salam which means peace. You just need to add selamat before the time or condition in greeting.

Indonesian English
Selamat pagi Good morning
Selamat siang Good afternoon
Selamat sore Good afternoon
Selamat malam Good evening
Selamat tidur (lit. Good sleep) Good night
Selamat tinggal (lit. Good leaving) Goodbye
Selamat datang (lit. Good coming) Welcome

Note that the concept of time of the day in Indonesian is slightly different from that in English, so use the greetings accordingly!

Position of the sun Time of the day
The sun is going up, from dawn to around 10am Pagi
The sun is right up your head, from around 10am to 3pm Siang
The sun is going down, from around 3pm to dusk Sore
The sun is not visible in the sky Malam

Indonesian also uses Assalamu ’alaikum to greet someone and responds with Wa 'alaikumsalam as Islam majority country.

The word selamat is also used to congratulate other people.

Indonesian English
Selamat ulang tahun Happy birthday
Selamat Idul Fitri Eid Mubarak
Selamat tahun baru Happy new year
Selamat natal Merry christmas

Terima kasih

Terima kasih means "thank you" is Indonesian phrase to express gratitude. If you want to express greater sense of gratitude, you can say terima kasih banyak.

In informal situations, you can just shorten terima kasih become makasih just like "thanks" in English.

Sama-sama or Terima kasih kembali is used to respond thanking, “You are welcome” in English.


Additional info


Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

tidak, ya, terima kasih, maaf, selamat pagi, silakan, sama-sama, sampai jumpa, selamat datang, selamat jalan, assalamualaikum, selamat siang, waalaikumsalam, selamat tinggal, permisi, selamat malam, terima kasih banyak, selamat sore, sampai jumpa lagi, salam, selamat idul fitri


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Restaurant updated 2020-09-03

Restaurant

Rice is the staple food for Indonesians.
Indonesian has the following words for rice:
'padi' = rice when it's still growing in the fields.
'beras' = rice when it's harvested and ready for sale (raw).
'nasi' = rice when it's cooked (and edible).

So, when you're travelling through the country and see the ricefields ('sawah'), what you see is called 'padi'.
Raw, uncooked rice in a shop or a market is called 'beras'.
It's only called 'nasi' when it's cooked and edible.

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info about the word order in a noun phrase:
Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

For more info about the use of 'ini' and 'itu':
Click here: 'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum

For more info about 'negation':
Click here: Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

nasi, goreng, ayam, dengan, restoran, pesan, minuman, sup, makanan, daging, tomat, tahu, jus, tempe, stroberi, telur, sarapan, teh, kopi, kue, enak, manis, roti, gula, cokelat, merica, garam, kacang, pisang, es, panas, minta, sambal, kecap, bayar, harga


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Places 1 updated 2020-09-03

Places 1

'dari', 'ke' , 'di' are the main prepositions used to indicated location.
It's used like this :

Dari sini = From here (movement from a place)
Ke sini = To here (movement to a place)
Di sini = Here (no movement)

Dari sana = From there (movement from a place)
Ke sana = To there (movement to a place)
Di sana = There (no movement)

Examples:
Saya pulang dari kantor. = I come home from the office.
Saya pergi ke sekolah. = I go to school.
Saya ada di rumah. = I am at home.

Please note that an Indonesian sentence doesn't necessarily need a verb.
The following sentences are also correct:
Saya dari Indonesia. = I am from Indonesia.
Saya ke sekolah. = I go to school.
Saya di rumah. = I am at home.

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info :

Click here : Ada, Tips & notes, Addendum

Click here : Adalah, Tips & notes, Addendum

Click here : Structure Basic sentence, Tips & notes, Addendum

Click here : Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

di, ada, dapur, rumah, sini, sekolah, ke, pergi, gedung, pasar, hotel, sana, situ, pulang, bank, toko, toilet


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Base Verbs updated 2020-09-03

Base verbs

A base word can belong to one or more word classes: noun, verb, adjective, etc...
This skill is about the verb as a base word.

Examples:
Saya datang = I come.
Saya pergi = I go.
Saya lupa = I forgot.
Saya ingat = I remember.
Saya pulang = I go home.

The base words as shown in the examples above are verbs.
These base words don't need an affix (more about affixes in later skills) to function as a verb.

Verbs are not conjugated in Indonesian.
Present tense, past tense, future tense: the verb remains the same.
Singular, plural : the verb remains the same.

Examples:
Saya datang kemarin = I came yesterday.
Mereka datang hari ini. = They come today.
Dia akan datang besok. = He/She will come tomorrow.

No matter the time (present/past/future) or the quantity (singular/plural), the verb 'datang' remains 'datang.

Time is expressed by using time markers (yesterday, today, tomorrow, etc...).
Singular or plural also doesn't matter, 'datang' remains 'datang'.

That's easy, isn't it !?

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

datang, duduk, muncul, setuju, keluar, masuk, kembali, jatuh, tidur, tahu, lupa, ingat, tinggal, mulai, selesai, bisa


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Possesive Pronouns updated 2020-11-03

Possessive pronouns

In contrast to English, Indonesian possessive pronouns are just the same with subjective and objective pronouns. For example:

"Ini rumah saya" (This is my house)
"Ini rumah anda" (This is your house)
"Ini rumah mereka" (This is their house)

There are some exceptions for “aku”, “kamu”, and “dia”,which uses affixes "-ku", "-mu", and "-nya" respectively:

"Ini rumah aku"= "Ini rumahku" (This is my house)
"Ini rumah kamu"= "Ini rumahmu" (This is your house)
"Ini rumah dia"= "Ini rumahnya" (This is his/her house)

Take note that the pronouns are definitely located behind the noun even if it has 2 or more words. For example:

"Ini kamar mandi saya" (This is my bathroom)
"Rumah besarku" (My big house)
"Di mana gaun hitam barumu?" (Where is your new black dress?)

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info about the word order in a noun phrase:
Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Please have a look here for more info:
Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

-ku, bola, milik, nama orang, -mu, anjing, -nya, pensil


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

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Clothing updated 2020-09-03

Clothing

Pakaian

This skill is about clothing related items and most of the words introduced here are nouns.
Please remember that an Indonesian noun phrase starts with the noun, followed by the modifiers (adjectives, possesive pronouns, etc).

Examples [noun phrase]:
Saya punya [kemeja putih]. = I have a [white shirt].
[Kemeja saya] putih. = [My shirt] is white.
[Kemeja putih saya] di tas. = [My white shirt]* is in the bag.

Please note that 'kemeja' (a shirt) is not the same as a T-shirt ('kaus').
kemeja = shirt (with buttons and a collar).
kaus = T-shirt

'kaus' is often spelled and pronounced as 'kaos'.
'kaus' is the official spelling.
'kaos' has a different meaning in the official spelling.

Kaos kacau balau


Additional info

More info about the word order in a noun phrase:
Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

More info about 'ini', 'itu':
Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

tas, kantong, pakaian, membeli, celana, sepatu, dompet, payung, sabuk, kemeja, mantel, jaket, rok, membawa, sarung tangan, kaus kaki, topi, syal, dasi, memakai, kaus


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Conjunctives 1 updated 2020-09-03

Conjunctives 1

Conjunctives work similarly to English; they are used to connect phrases.

One difference worth noting: the conjunction yang expands a previously mentioned idea, just like which, that, or i.e. in English. For instance,

'Dia membaca buku yang saya suka'
translates to 'He reads a book that I like.'

However, while you can omit the that in the English translation, omitting yang in the Indonesian sentence would make it lose its original meaning.


tapi = tetapi = but (tetapi is more formal)
ketika = saat = waktu = when (at the time that)

Additional info

More info about the word order in a noun phrase:
Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

More info about 'ini', 'itu':
Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

tapi, yang, atau, ketika, karena, jadi, namun


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Plurals updated 2020-09-03

Welcome to Plurals!

Here you'll learn a thing or two about plural words in Bahasa Indonesia. Here is your starter pack to start your journey:

  1. One thing that should be noted is that you can almost immediately recognize whether or not a word is singular or plural by its repetition. Word repetition such as "buku-buku" (books) automatically turns the word into plural form.
  2. There are no plural forms for some objects that already has repetition in their name such as "kupu-kupu" (Butterfly), and "kura-kura" (turtle). It's "Kura-kura ninja" and not "Kura-kura kura-kura ninja" to translate "Ninja turtles"!
  3. You can express that a word is plural by using a singular noun and add numeric words in front of it (except one and zero, of course). When the quantity is mentioned, the noun is not repeated.
  4. Like singular words, adjectives (or other information aside from numerics) for plural words are put after the words.

Take a look at the recap (Let's put a spotlight on spoons):

English Indonesian Do or Don't
Spoons Sendok-sendok Do
Many spoons Banyak sendok Do
Two spoons Dua sendok Do
Two spoons Dua sendok-sendok Don't
Two green spoons Dua sendok hijau Do
Two green spoons Dua sendok-sendok hijau Don't
Two green spoons Dua sendok hijau-hijau No please don't
Two green spoons Dua hijau sendok-sendok Obviously don't

The noun is not repeated when it is obvious from context if it is singular or plural.
(satu sendok, dua sendok, tiga sendok, banyak sendok).

The noun is also not repeated when talking about it in general: :
"Anjng makan tulang." = "Dogs eat bones".
"Kucing suka susu." = "Cats like milk."

Additional info

More info about the word order in a noun phrase:
Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

More info about 'ini', 'itu':
Click here :'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

apel, jeruk, kucing, buku, surat, koran, gaun, rumah, sekolah, gedung, bola, anjing, kue, hotel, toko


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Ber- Verbs updated 2020-09-03

Ber- Verbs

The ber- prefix can be attached to a noun, a verb, or an adjective. This prefix has several different meanings.

To have

root ber + noun meaning
anak beranak to have a child
nama bernama to have the name

To wear (items of clothing) or use (vehicles)

root ber + noun meaning
sepatu bersepatu to wear shoes
sepeda bersepeda to use (go by) bicycle

To do

root ber + verb meaning
jalan berjalan to walk
main bermain to play

To produce

root ber + noun meaning
telur bertelur to produce eggs
bunyi berbunyi to make a sound

To work (have an occupation)

root ber + noun/verb meaning
tani bertani to farm (to work as a farmer)
dagang berdagang to trade (to work as a trader)

Irregular Forms

The prefix ber- can become be- or bel- depending on the first letter or syllable of the root word.

Ber- becomes be- if it is attached to a root word that begins with the letter r- or its first syllable ends with -er-. For example, ber + rambut becomes berambut (to have hair) and ber + kerja becomes bekerja (to work).

Ber- becomes bel- if it is attached to the word ajar: ber + ajar becomes belajar (to study).

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

berhasil, berjalan, berhenti, berdiri, berada, bersaing, bertemu, berangkat, berubah, berbicara, berkembang, berkunjung, berkumpul, berlaku, bekerja, belajar, bermain, berpikir, bersama, berasal, berharap, bergerak


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Questions updated 2020-09-03

Yes/No Questions

An easy way to ask a yes/no question is simply to raise your intonation, with practically no change in the statement. In written form, this raised intonation is indicated by a question mark.

  • Mereka sudah pergi? (They have left?)

Another way is to use the word apa or apakah at the beginning of the sentence. In this context, both words have no actual meaning; they simply indicate that the sentence is a question. Note that apakah is more formal.

  • Apa kamu mengerti? (Do you understand?)
  • Apakah Anda tinggal di sini? (Do you live here?)

You can also ask a yes/no question by attaching -kah to another word, which is placed in the beginning of the question.

  • Salahkah aku? (Am I wrong?)

Wh- Questions

English Indonesian
what apa
who siapa
why mengapa, kenapa
how bagaimana
when kapan
where di mana

Apa (what)

Apa is used to ask questions about objects, meaning what or what kind of. Note that in this case, the word apa is different from the one used in yes/no questions.

  • Apa makanan ini? (What is this food?)
  • Buah apa ini? (What kind of fruit is this?)

Siapa (who)

Siapa is used to ask questions about a person. Although it means who, it is also used to ask someone's name or to whom an object belongs.

  • Siapa mereka? (Who are they?)
  • Siapa namamu? (What is your name?)

Mengapa/kenapa (why)

While mengapa and kenapa both mean why, kenapa is less formal.

  • Mengapa Anda marah? (Why are you angry?)
  • Kenapa kucing saya pergi? (Why does my cat leave?)

Bagaimana (how)

  • Bagaimana kabarmu? (How are you?)
  • Bagaimana menggunakan ini? (How do we use this?)

Kapan (when)

Kapan is used to ask questions about a particular point in time. Even though it means when, kapan is only used in questions. It cannot be used as a conjunction.

  • Kapan liburan dimulai? (When does the holiday start?)

Di mana (where)

The word mana is usually combined with a preposition. Apart from di, mana is also combined with ke and dari: ke mana (where to) and dari mana (where from).

  • Di mana kantor kalian (Where is your office?)
  • Ke mana anjingmu pergi? (Where is your dog going?)
  • Mereka berasal dari mana? (Where do they come from?)

Additional info

More info about question words :
Click here : Question words, Tips & Notes, Addendum

More info about 'apa' and 'siapa' :
Click here : Apa, Siapa, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

apa, kenapa, bagaimana, kapan, di mana, benar, salah, kah, mengapa, pertanyaan


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Colors updated 2020-09-03

Colours

Warna

Kausmu warna-warni = Your T-shirt is colourful.

Additional info

Casual informal T-shirt.

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

warna, biru, hijau, kuning, abu-abu, ungu, oranye, merah muda, cokelat


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Me- Verbs 1 updated 2020-09-03

Me- verbs 1

In this lesson you will learn verbs with the preffix me-. Verbs with this prefix are usually transitive verbs; they need an object. (Not all me-verbs are transitive).

In conversations, some verbs may lose their me- prefix without a change in meaning. This often sounds less formal. The reverse can be true sometimes where not dropping the me- prefix makes one sound overly formal. You will have to learn these quirks in the field.

Very often, the prefix causes sound change when attached to a base verb. The table below lists this behaviour:

affix verb’s starting letter example
me- l, m, n, r, w, y, ng, ny meminum (minum)
mem- b, f, v membuat (buat)
men- d, j, c mencari (cari)
mem- p (dissolves into “m”) memesan (pesan)
men- t (dissolves into “n”) menebang (tebang)

Examples :

l, m, n, r, w ==> me + base
lempar ==> melempar
minta ==> meminta

b, f, v ==> me + m
buat ==> membuat
buka ==> membuka
beri ==> memberi
bayar ==> membayar
bangun ==> membangun

c, d, j ==> me + n
coba ==> mencoba
cari ==> mencari
jaga ==> menjaga
jadi ==> menjadi
dengar ==> mendengar
dorong ==> mendorong
dapat ==> mendapat

p ==> me + m – p
pesan ==> memesan
panggil ==> memanggil
pilih ==> memilih

t ==> me + n – t
tarik ==> menarik
tunggu ==> menunggu
tutup ==> menutup
terima ==> menerima
turut ==> menurut
tolak ==> menolak

Additional info

Please have a look here for additional info :
Click here : "Me- verbs", Tips & Notes, Addendum

More info about transitive and intransitive verbs :
Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

meminum, melempar, melihat, meminta, memakan, memulai, membuat, membantu, membuka, memberi, membayar, membangun, mencoba, mencari, menjaga, mendengar, mendorong, menjadi, menjual, mendapat, memesan, memanggil, memilih, menarik, menunggu, menutup, menerima, menurut, menolak


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Adjectives updated 2020-11-06

Adjectives 1

Kata sifat

If an adjective is modifying a noun, the adjective is placed after the noun.
In a noun phrase, the head noun comes first, followed by the adjectives and other modifiers of the noun.
Examples:
Minuman dingin. = Cold drink.
Saya suka kopi dingin = I like cold coffee.

Adjectives about quantity (sedikit, banyak) are placed before the noun.
Examples:
Saya punya sedikit gula. = I have a little bit of sugar.
Saya punya banyak buku. = I have many books.
Saya punya banyak kucing kecil. = I have many small cats.

An adjective can also function as a predicate.
Examples:
Kamu cantik. = You are beautiful.
Saya pendek dan kamu tinggi. = I am short and you are tall.
Kamu muda dan saya tua. = You are young and I am old.
Ini mudah, ini tidak sulit. = This is easy, this is not difficult.
Ini gampang, ini tidak susah. = This is easy, this is not difficult.


Please note that in the examples above, the Indonesian sentences don't use a verb.
The adjective is the predicate in these sentences.
The English sentences use the verb "to be" to connect the subject and predicate.

In other words, when translating these type of sentences from English to Indonesian, the verb "to be" is not translated.
The verb "to be" can be translated as 'adalah" or 'ada' in another context, but not in these sentences.

Examples:
You are beautiful.
Kamu ~~adalah/ada~~ cantik.
==> 'adalah' / 'ada' cannot be used here.

This is easy, this is not difficult.
Ini ~~adalah/ada~~ gampang, ini ~~adalah/ada~~ tidak susah.
==> 'adalah' / 'ada' cannot be used here.

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info about the word order in a noun phrase:
Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

For more info about the use of 'ini' and 'itu':
Click here: 'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

dingin, hangat, baru, banyak, betul, sedikit, kecil, panjang, pendek, tinggi, muda, tua, jelek, cantik, bersih, kotor, miskin, jauh, dekat, jelas, rusak, bodoh, sempurna, sulit, mudah, biasa, pintar, mirip, lain, bahagia, sedih, penuh


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Numbers updated 2020-09-03

Numbers

Units Numbers Written Range
- 11 – 19 Belas Belasan
10s 10 – 90 Puluh Puluhan
100s 100 – 900 Ratus Ratusan
1000s 1000 – 9000 Ribu Ribuan

Since we're in Numbers, let's go for a bit of math. Imagine if Z is a number. Let's assume that Z is 4 (Z = 4). Note that you can only replace Z with numbers 1 to 9.

Mathematical Form Written Form Indonesian English
Z + 10 Z belas Empat belas Fourteen
Z x 10 Z puluh Empat puluh Forty
Z x 100 Z ratus Empat ratus Four hundred
Z x 1000 Z ribu Empat ribu Four thousand
Z x 10 x 1000 Z puluh ribu Empat puluh ribu Forty thousand
Z x 100 x 1000 Z ratus ribu Empat ratus ribu Four hundred thousand
Z x 1000 x 1000 Z juta Empat juta Four millions

The formula goes on even if the range widens. Easy, isn't it? Though, it should be noted that there is an exception for numbers that start with 1 (except 1 and 12 to 19) for they start with "se-" as the substitute of "satu" (one):

Range Number Indonesian English
Belas 11 Sebelas Eleven
Puluh 10 Sepuluh Ten
Ratus 100 Seratus A hundred
Ribu 1.000 Seribu A thousand

It should be noted, however, that it is acceptable to use "satu" instead of "se-" for numbers that start with 1 for ranges "Juta" (Million), "Miliar" (Billion), and above.

Additional info

lusin = dozen.

selusin sama dengan dua belas.
one dozen equals twelve.

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

nol, satu, dua, tiga, empat, nomor, tambah, sama, lima, enam, tujuh, delapan, sembilan, jumlah, kurang, sebelas, lusin, selusin, belas, puluh, kali, ratus, seratus, seribu, ribu, sejuta, juta, persen, semiliar, miliar, pertama, kedua, ketiga, sekali, ratusan, ribuan, puluhan


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Me- Verbs 2 updated 2020-09-03

Me- verbs 2

'me-' verbs are formed like this :
[me-] + [base word] = me-verb.

Depending upon the starting letter of the [base word], the 'me-' perfix is conjugated.

Starting letter base word Conjugation
l, m, n, r, w Me + base
vowel, g, h Me + ng
c, d, j Me + n
b, f, v Me + m
k Me + ng – k
t Me + n – t
s Me + ny – s
p Me + m – p
monosyllabic Me + nge +base

Examples :

vowel, g, h ==> me + ng
erti ==> mengerti
ambil ==> mengambil
ubah ==> mengubah
ingat ==> mengingat
ajar ==> mengajar
isi ==> mengisi
gali ==> menggali
hadap ==> menghadap
hilang ==> menghilang
gambar ==> menggambar
ganggu ==> mengganggu
ganti ==> mengganti

s ==> me + ny – s
simpan ==> menyimpan
susun ==> menyusun
sentuh ==> menyentuh
sewa ==> menyewa
sapa ==> menyapa
sapu ==> menyapu

k ==> me + ng – k
kirim ==> mengirim
kejar ==> mengejar
kandung ==> mengandung

l, m, n, r, w ==> me + base
rawat ==> merawat
rusak ==> merusak
nyala ==> menyala
nyanyi ==> menyanyi

Most of the 'me-' verbs are transitive.
That means that this verb can have an object in a sentence.
This object can function as the subject if the sentence is made passive.
(Passive verbs and passive sentences are covered in other skills).

Additional info

Please have a look here for additional info :
Click here : "Me- verbs", Tips & Notes, Addendum

More info about transitive and intransitive verbs :
Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

mengerti, mengambil, mengubah, mengingat, mengajar, mengisi, menggali, menghadap, menghilang, menggambar, mengganggu, mengganti, menyimpan, menyusun, menyentuh, menyewa, menyapa, menyapu, mengirim, mengejar, mengandung, merawat, merusak, menyala, menyanyi


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Adjective 2 updated 2020-11-06

Adjectives 2

Kata sifat

Like already mentioned in the other skill about 'adjectives', an adjective can have the following functions :
- Attributive function
- Predicative function
- Adverbial function

Attributive function:
If an adjective is modifying a noun, the adjective is placed after the noun.
In a noun phrase, the head noun comes first, followed by the adjectives and other modifiers of the noun.

The word order in a noun phrase [FN]:
(a) [FN] = noun + adjective + personal pronoun + determiner
(b) [FN] = noun + personal pronoun + 'yang' + adjective + determiner

(a) Kucing kecil saya itu = That small cat of mine.
(b) Kucing saya yang kecil itu = That small cat of mine.

Predicative function
An adjective can also function as a predicate:
Kamu cantik. = You are pretty.
Kamu lucu. = You are funny.
Kucingku nakal. = My cat is naughty.
Nenek sakit. = Grandmother is ill.
Tini sehat. = Tini is healthy.


Please note that in the examples above, the Indonesian sentences don't use a verb.
The adjective is the predicate in these sentences.
The English sentences use the verb "to be" to connect the subject and predicate.

In other words, when translating these type of sentences from English to Indonesian, the verb "to be" is not translated.
The verb "to be" can be translated as 'adalah" or 'ada' in another context, but not in these sentences.

Examples:
You are funny.
Kamu ~~adalah/ada~~ lucu.
==> 'adalah' / 'ada' cannot be used here.

My cat is naughty.
Kucingku ~~adalah/ada~~ nakal.
==> 'adalah' / 'ada' cannot be used here.

Tini is healthy.
Tini ~~adalah~~ sehat.
==> 'adalah' / 'ada' cannot be used here.


Additional info

Please have a look here for more info about the word order in a noun phrase:
Click here : Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

For more info about the use of 'ini' and 'itu':
Click here: 'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

baik, buruk, indah, tampan, gelap, terang, berat, ringan, rumit, sederhana, ramah, nakal, ragu, mantap, cukup, lebih, khusus, umum, bagus, kering, basah, lucu, serius, jahat, utama, sakit, sehat, lama, sebentar, resmi, siap, sesuai, hilang, tutup, buka, menarik, lebar, keras, sempit, lembut, berbahaya


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Family updated 2020-09-03

Family

Keluarga

This skill introduces the names of the family members.
Kakek = grandfather
Nenek = grandmother
Ayah = father
Ibu = mother
Kakak = older brother / older sister
Adik = younger brother / younger sister

Some of these family names, (bapak, ibu, saudara), are also used as a 'title' when addressing a person.
Examples:

Apakah Bapak/Ibu ingin teh manis ?
Does father/mother want sweet tea ?
Do you (Mister/Madam) want sweet tea ?

Kapan Bapak/Ibu pergi ke Jakarta ?
When does father/mother go to jakarta ?
When do you (Mister/Madam) go to Jakarta ?

Saudara saudari, selamat datang di pertemuan ini.
Brothers and sisters, welcome to this gathering.

Bapak/Pak and Ibu/Bu are often used to address someone in a polite way.
It's considered rude to address someone who is older than you are with 'kamu'.
Bapak/Pak and Ibu/Bu can be used as a polite substitute for 'kamu / Anda / kalian'.

Saudara can also be used like that, to address someone of about the same age, also to avoid the use of 'kamu / Anda'.

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

ayah, orang tua, ibu, seorang, laki-laki, perempuan, anak, pasangan, suami, istri, keponakan, kakak, adik, adalah, menikah, sepupu, nenek, meninggal, kakek, cucu, orang, putra, putri, saudara, saudari, paman, tante, abang, keluarga, melahirkan, bayi, hamil, mertua, menantu, ipar


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Kitchen updated 2020-09-03

Kitchen

Dapur

This skill introduces new words related to the kitchen.
Examples:

Saya masak di dapur. = I cook in the kitchen.
Pisau saya tajam. = My knife is sharp.
Wajan saya besar. = My wok is big.
Tini menggoreng pisang di wajan. = Tini fries bananas in the wok.
Tono suka makanan pedas. = Tono likes spicy (hot) food.
Makanan ini perlu bumbu. = This food needs seasoning (spices).

Some verbs related to the kitchen :
potong ==> memotong = to cut, to chop.
iris ==> mengiris = to slice thinly.
masak ==> memasak = to cook (cooking in general).
goreng ==> menggoreng = to fry (oil is used).
rebus ==> merebus = to boil (water is used).
kukus ==> mengukus = to steam (steam of hot water is used).
panggang ==> memanggang = to grill/roast/broil (above coal fire, in an oven).
bakar ==> membakar = to burn ; to grill/roast/broil (same as panggang).

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

memasak, pisau, minyak, sayur, buah, kubis, wortel, labu, untuk, menggoreng, wajan, kangkung, mentega, bir, cabai, cuka, paprika, bayam, merebus, panci, selai, anggur, kulkas, mi, terung, bawang, seledri, memotong, bubur, piring, keju, pasta, permen, spageti, brokoli, lobak, mengiris, oven, kentang, bumbu, memanggang, kompor, ubi, selada, jahe, asam, pahit, tawar, asin, pedas, gurih, rasa


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Conjunctives 2 updated 2020-09-03

Conjunctives 2

Examples of conjunction words that are used to connect two clauses:

Saya tahu bahwa Tini pintar sekali.
I know that Tini is very clever.

Tini sangat pintar, tetapi dia harus belajar juga.
Tini is very smart, but she has to study as well.

Dia belajar setiap hari agar dia bisa lulus.
She studies every day so that she can graduate.

Jika dia lulus, kita akan membeli hadiah.
If she graduates, we will buy a present.

Nama depannya pendek, yaitu Tini dan Tono.
Their first names are short, i.e. Tini and Tono.

tetapi = tapi <== synonyms ;'tapi' is less formal.
agar = supaya <== synonyms ;'supaya' is less formal.
jika = kalau <== synonyms ;'kalau' is less formal.

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

seperti, bahwa, tetapi, sehingga, jika, yaitu, agar, bahkan, tanpa, kalau, daripada


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Professions updated 2020-09-03

Jobs

Pekerjaan

This skill introduces vocabulary regarding jobs and professions.

Names of jobs/professions can be formed by using the 'pe-' prefix.
[pe-] + [base word] = noun.
[pe-] + [tari] = penari. = dancer.
[pe-] + [nyanyi] = penyanyi. = singer.
[pe-] + [beli] = pembeli. = buyer.
[pe-] + [jual] = penjual. = seller.
[pe-] + [dagang] = pedagang. = trader, merchant.
[pe-] + [tulis] = penulis. = writer, author.
[pe-] + [pikir] = pemikir. = thinker, philosopher.
[pe-] + [rawat] = perawat. = nurse.
[pe-] + [layan] = pelayan. = waiter, servant.

Some names of jobs are imported loan words, like : dokter, insinyur, sopir, sekretaris, jurnalis.

Additional info

More info about the 'pe-' prefix :
Click here : pe- Prefix, , Tips & Notes, Addendum.'

For more info about 'negation':
Click here: Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

profesi, karier, dokter, guru, petani, nelayan, tukang, peneliti, raja, pangeran, ratu, polisi, pengacara, penjual, insinyur, profesor, hakim, pelayan, koki, pembeli, pemilik, jurnalis, wartawan, sekretaris, perawat, pegawai, pejabat, penyanyi, penari, pekerjaan, pekerja, penulis, pemimpin, prajurit, sopir, pemain, pemikir


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Dates and Time 1 updated 2020-09-03

Dates Times 1

Tanggal dan waktu

This skill introduces vocabulary about dates and times.
Examples:

Tahun, bulan, minggu, hari, jam, menit, detik.
Year, month, week, day, hour, minute, second.

Tini di Bali bulan lalu.
Tini was in Bali last month.

Tini akan pergi ke Bali minggu depan.
Tini will go to Bali next week.

Tadi pagi Tono makan nasi goreng.
This morning Tono ate nasi goreng.

Pagi, siang, sore, malam, Tono selalu makan nasi goreng.
Morning, noon, afternoon, evening, night, Tono always eats nasi goreng.

Setiap hari dia makan nasi goreng.
Every day he eats nasi goreng.

Musim hujan, musim kemarau, musim apa pun, dia makan nasi goreng.
Rainy season, dry season, whatever season, he eats nasi goreng.

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

hari, senin, selasa, rabu, kamis, jumat, sabtu, minggu, detik, menit, jam, bulan, lalu, depan, pagi, siang, sore, petang, malam, kemarin, besok, lusa, kemarau, hujan, sekarang, musim, saat


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Adverbs 1 updated 2020-11-03

Adverbs 1

Kata Keterangan

Adverbs are used to clarify/modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or an entire sentence.

Examples:

Kamu sangat cantik. = You are very pretty.
Kamu cantik sekali. = You are very pretty.
Saya baru bangun. = I just woke up.
Saya masih di rumah. = I am still at home.
Saya sudah makan. = I have already eaten.
Saya belum mandi. = I have not yet taken a shower.
Saya sudah pernah ke Bali. = I have ever been to Bali.
Saya belum pernah ke Bali. = I have never been to Bali.
Saya jarang ke pantai. = I seldom go to the beach.
Saya sering ke pantai. = I often go to the beach.
Kadang-kadang Tini juga ikut. = Sometimes Tini also comes along.
Tini tentu akan ikut hari ini. = Tini will certainly come along today.
Mungkin Tono juga mau ikut. = Maybe Tono would also like to come along.
Nanti saya pergi ke pantai. = Later I'll go to the beach.
Hanya Tini yang ikut ke pantai. = Only Tini is coming along to the beach.
Biasanya kami naik mobil. = Usually we go by car.
Sopirnya hampir di sini. = The chauffeur is almost here.
Tiba-tiba sopirnya muncul. = Suddenly the chauffeur appears.
Kami langsung pergi. = We immediately go.

Additional info

More info about adverbs :
Click here : Adverbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

juga, akan, sudah, masih, sangat, belum, pernah, langsung, paling, akhirnya, sering, biasanya, mungkin, segera, selalu, hampir, nanti, terlalu, sebaliknya, jangan, tentu, setidaknya, agak, tiba-tiba, lagi-lagi, kadang-kadang, rupanya, hanya, telah


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Di-Verbs updated 2020-09-03

Di- verbs

The di- prefix is used to make a verb passive. In an active sentence the subject does the verb, while in a passive sentence, the verb is done to the subject of the sentence.

Examples:

Active sentence Passive sentence
ID-1 Adikku mengambil dompetku. Dompetku diambil oleh adikku.
EN-1 My little sibling took my wallet. My wallet was taken by my little sibling.
ID-2 Mereka memakan nasi. Nasi dimakan mereka.
EN-2 They ate the rice. The rice was eaten by them”.
ID-3 Banyak orang mengenal Taylor Swift. Taylor Swift dikenal oleh banyak orang.
EN-3 Many people know Taylor Swift. Taylor Swift is known by many people.

Examples:
1) Dompetku diambil (oleh) adikku.
2) Dompetku sudah diambil (oleh) adikku tadi pagi.
3) Dompetku sudah diambil tadi pagi oleh adikku.

In the first two sentences the 'di-' verb is followed directly by the agent/actor (the one performing the action).
'oleh' can be left out in such a sentence.
In the third sentence, the 'di-' verb is not directly followed by the agent/actor.
'oleh' cannot be left out in such a sentence.

Additional info

This skill is about passive verbs and the passive voice.
Translations in the active voice are rejected.

Please have a look here for more info about the 'passive voice' :
Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

oleh, disebut, dianggap, dikenal, dibuat, dirilis, dimulai, diduga, dibangun, diberi, didukung, dipakai, diambil, dilarang, dibawa, ditulis, diterima, ditangkap, dipimpin, diperiksa, diproduksi, dinilai, dilihat, dibentuk, dijual, diangkat, dibuka, dipilih, ditutup, diminta, dibagi, ditambah


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


The Body updated 2020-11-06

Body

Tubuh, Badan

This skill introduces vocabulary about body parts.

Examples :

Wajahmu cantik.
Your face is pretty.

Rambutmu panjang.
Your hair is long.

Matamu biru.
Your eyes are blue.

Bibirmu merah.
Your lips are red.

Gigimu putih.
Your teeth are white.

Hidungmu pesek.
Your nose is flat.

Hidungmu mancung.
Your nose is sharp.

Kakimu panjang.
Your legs are long.

Badanmu langsing.
Your body is slim.

More body parts in the lessons, selamat belajar !

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

tubuh, kepala, wajah, dahi, mata, alis, cium, rambut, telinga, hidung, mulut, bibir, bau, mencium, gigi, lidah, pipi, leher, tenggorokan, dada, perut, bahu, punggung, tangan, sikut, lengan, jari, pergelangan, kaki, paha, lutut, telapak, kuku, otot, kulit, jantung, paru, darah, otak, tulang, organ


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


-an updated 2020-09-03

-an suffix

'-an' suffix is used to create nouns (from verbs, adjectives, nouns, etc...)
The noun has the meaning related to the base word.

Examples:
[base word] + [-an] = noun
[bagi (noun)]+ [-an] = bagian = part.
[bangun (verb)]+ [-an] = bangunan = building.
[bantu (verb)]+ [-an] = bantuan = help.
[catat (verb)] + [-an] = catatan = a note.
[layan (verb)] + [-an] = layanan = service
[lapor (verb)] + [-an] = laporan = report
[pilih (verb)]+ [-an] = pilihan = choice.
[serang (verb)]+ [-an] = serangan = an attack.
[tambah (noun)]+ [-an] = tambahan = addition.
[urut (adjective)]+ [-an] = urutan = sequence, order.

Additional info

Please have look here for more info:
Click here : -an Suffix, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

bagian, catatan, hubungan, bangunan, serangan, lingkungan, tujuan, lapangan, bantuan, laporan, pimpinan, anggaran, layanan, dukungan, urutan, jabatan, dugaan, putaran, tambahan, pilihan, an


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Direction updated 2020-09-03

Direction

Arah

Additional info

Mata angin :

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

kanan, kiri, posisi, dalam, belok, arah, atas, bawah, samping, luar, balik, naik, turun, utara, selatan, timur, barat, menuju, belakang, barat daya, barat laut, timur laut, tenggara, kutub, terbang, lewat, tiba, jarak, kompas


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Command updated 2020-09-03

Command

The example sentences below use transitive me-verbs in the (+) declarative sentences.
When these (+) declarative sentences are converted into the (!) imperative mood, the me- prefix is dropped (the suffix remains in place).
In the imperative mood, '-lah' particle can be attached to soften the tone of the command.
Another way to soften the tone of the command is by using words as 'mohon', 'coba', 'tolong', 'silakan'.
The command will sound more like a polite question asking for help.

Examples:

(+) Kamu mengambil es teh.
(!) Ambil es teh !
(!) Ambillah es teh !
Get an iced tea !

(+) Kamu mengambilkan ibumu segelas es teh.
(!) Ambilkan ibumu segelas es teh !
(!) Ambilkanlah ibumu segelas es teh !
Get your mother an iced tea !

(+) Kamu menyelesaikan pekerjaanmu.
(!) Selesaikan pekerjaanmu !
(!) Selesaikanlah pekerjaanmu !
Finish your work !

(+) Kamu menjawab pertanyaan saya.
(!) Jawab pertanyaan saya !
(!) Jawablah pertanyaan saya !
Answer my question !

(+) Kamu melempar bolanya ke Tini.
(!) Lempar bolanya ke Tini !
(!) Lemparlah bolanya ke Tini !
Throw the ball to Tini !

Words like : 'coba', 'tolong', 'silakan' are often used to soften the tone of the command.

Coba panggil Tini ke sini !
Tolong panggil Tini ke sini !
Please call Tini over here !

Silakan masuk, Pak !
Please come in, Sir !

Silakan makan salju kuning, Pak !
Please eat yellow snow, Sir !

When asking somebody else to participate and join the action, the following words are used : 'ayo', 'mari'.

Ayo kita lompat dari jembatan !
Mari kita lompat dari jembatan !
Let us jump off the bridge !

Ayo makan salju kuning !
Mari makan salju kuning !
Let's eat yellow snow !

When ordering someone NOT to do something, the negation word 'jangan' is used.

Jangan lompat dari jembatan !
Don't jump off a bridge !

Jangan makan salju kuning !
Don't eat yellow snow !

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

lah, mohon, jaga, panggil, tanya, jawab, kan, tolong, serang, tembak, kumpul, lihat, mari, buka, tutup, biar, lakukan, bantu, main, beri, ayo, coba, pasang, lepas, kerja, pikir, gambar, ganti, simpan, sapu, kirim, kejar, potong, nyanyi, sebut, pakai, ambil, bawa, buat, lempar, tulis, baca, jual, beli, angkat, pilih


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Household updated 2020-09-03

House

Rumah

This skill introduces new vocabulary regarding 'house', 'rumah'.

Saya baru membeli furnitur.
I just bought furniture.

Saya perlu kursi dan meja baru.
I needed a new chair and desk.

Saya juga membeli bantal, seprai, tirai dan cermin untuk kamar tidur saya.
I also bought a pillow, a bedsheet, curtains and a mirror for my bedroom.

Gelas, cangkir dan mangkuk disimpan di dapur.
Glasses, cups and bowls are stored in the kitchen.

Biasanya sendok dan garpu dipakai untuk makan.
Usually a spoon and fork are used to eat.

Pisau jarang dipakai untuk makan.
A knife is seldom used for eating.

Handuk, sabun dan sampo disimpan di kamar mandi.
Towels, soap and shampoo are stored in the bath room.

Bak mandi sudah terisi air.
The bath tub is already filled with water.

Langit-langit di kamar saya berwarna biru.
The ceiling in my room is blue.

Dindingnya berwana putih dan lantainya berwarna cokelat.
The walls are white and the floor is brown.

Jendelanya menghadap kolam renang.
The window faces the swimming pool.

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

meja, kursi, sendok, sofa, kamar, furnitur, garpu, gelas, botol, mangkuk, cangkir, langit-langit, jendela, tempat tidur, lampu, spons, kolam, kantor, pintu, dinding, cermin, atap, karpet, televisi, tangga, tirai, bak mandi, bantal, resep, sabun, handuk, pemanas, sampo, membersihkan, balkon, mainan, seprai, tempat sampah, pagar, gerbang


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Animals updated 2020-11-03

Animals

Hewan, binatang

This skill introduces new vocabulary regarding 'animals': 'hewan', 'binatang'.

anjing = dog
babi = pig
bebek = duck
beruang = bear
burung = bird
burung hantu = owl
gajah = elephant
harimau = tiger
ikan = fish
jerapah = giraffe
kucing = cat
kupu-kupu = butterfly
laba-laba = spider
lebah = bee
kuda = horse
kelinci = rabbit
monyet = monkey
semut = ant
serigala = wolf

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

bebek, burung, hewan, lebah, ikan, gajah, beruang, sapi, kuda, babi, serigala, harimau, tikus, kupu-kupu, singa, kelinci, ular, laba-laba, hiu, monyet, lumba-lumba, serangga, semut, paus, jerapah


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Dates and Time 2 updated 2020-09-03

Dates 2

Tanggal dan waktu

This skill introduces more vocabulary about dates and times.

The names of the months do not differ that much from Emglish:
januari, februari, maret, april, mei, juni, juli, agustus, september, oktober, november, desember

jam, hari, minggu, bulan, tahun, dekade, abad
hour, day, week, month, year, decade, century

Examples about time ('waktu'):

Jam berapa sekarang?

10:00 = jam/pukul sepuluh

10:05 = jam/pukul sepuluh lewat/lebih lima (menit)

10:10 = jam/pukul sepuluh lewat/lebih sepuluh (menit)

10:15 = jam/pukul sepuluh lewat/lebih seperempat

10:30 = jam/pukul setengah sebelas

10:45 = jam/pukul sebelas kurang seperempat

10:50 = jam/pukul sebelas kurang sepuluh (menit)

10:55 = jam/pukul sebelas kurang lima (menit)

11:00 = jam/pukul sebelas

'jam' = 'pukul' are interchangeable here ('pukul' is more formal).

'lewat' = 'lebih' are interchangeable here.

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

januari, februari, maret, april, mei, juni, juli, agustus, september, oktober, november, desember, tanggal, akhir, windu, dekade, abad, awal, pertengahan, seperempat, gugur, pukul, setengah, lagi, semi, generasi, kalender, masa, tengah, libur, minggu, dahulu, zaman


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Adverbs 2 updated 2020-11-03

Adverbs 2

Kata Keterangan

Adverbs are used to clarify/modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or an entire sentence. The position of an adverb varies, it depends on the adverb and how the adverb is used in a sentence.

Examples:

Tini sedang mandi sekarang. = Tini is taking a shower.
Tini selalu mandi sebelum ke sekolah. = Tini always take a shower before going to school.
Tini harus berangkat sekitar jam setengah tujuh. = Tini must leave at approximately half past six.
Tini jarang terlambat. = Tini is seldom too late.
Tini boleh mengendarai mobil. = Tini is allowed to drive a car.
Sebenarnya Tini tidak perlu sopir. = Actually Tini does not need a driver.
Akan tetapi, Dimas akan mengantarkan Tini ke sekolah. = However, Dimas will bring Tini to school.
Tini tidak perlu mengendarai mobil. = Tini does not need to drive the car.
Tini bisa santai saja di mobil = Tini can just relax in the car.

"sedang" is an adverb that is used to indicate that the action is still ongoing.


Additional info

More info about adverbs :
Click here : Adverbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

saja, dapat, harus, sedang, jarang, umumnya, sekitar, sendiri, begitu, tak, selamanya, perlu, boleh, tetap


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Pe-an updated 2020-09-03

Pe-an affix

Pe-an affix is used to from nouns.

Examples:
[pe-] + [base word] +[-an] = noun.
[pe-] + [gunung] +[-an] = pegunungan = mountain range.
[pe-] + [pilih] +[-an] = pemilihan = election.
[pe-] + [dengar] +[-an] = pendengaran = sense of hearing.
[pe-] + [lihat] +[-an] = penglihatan = eyesight.

Additional info

More info about 'pe- prefix :
Click here : pe- Prefix, , Tips & Notes, Addendum.'

More info about 'an- suffix :
Click here : -an Suffix, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

pegunungan, pelabuhan, pelayanan, pemanasan, pertemuan, pengalaman, pemandangan, pemasukan, pemerintahan, pemilihan, pertumbuhan, perhatian, penciuman, pendengaran, pengadilan, pertandingan, penginapan, pendidikan, pengeluaran, penglihatan, penulisan, penyerangan, persaingan, perusahaan, pertarungan, peraturan, perbatasan, perbuatan, percakapan, persatuan, peralatan, perkembangan, perlawanan, perlombaan, permainan, persahabatan, pertahanan


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Feelings updated 2020-11-07

Feelings 1

Perasaan

Many of the words introduced in this skill are adjectives.
As a reminder, an adjective can function as a predicate in a sentence.
In other words, such a sentence doesn't use a verb.

Examples:
Saya bosan. = I am bored.
Saya kecewa. = I am disappointed.
Saya takut. = I am scared.


The following sentences use the same base words as above, but now the 'me-kan' affix is used.
(there is another skill that explains the use of this 'me-kan' affix)(see link below).

In the following sentences, the 'me-kan' verb has a 'causative' meaning.

Examples:
FIlm ini membosankan. = This movie is boring.
Film ini mengecewakan. = This movie is disappointing.
Film ini menakutkan. = This movie is scary.


In grammar terms:
[subject] [causes the base word] [to the direct object].
The subject [Film ini] is causing the feeling as expressed by the base word [membosankan] to the [direct opbject].
In the examples above, the [direct object] is implied and omitted:

FIlm ini membosankan [semua orang].
Film ini mengecewakan [semua orang].
Film ini menakutkan [semua orang].

Saya kecewa, karena film ini sangat membosankan.
I am disappointed, because this movie is very boring.


Additional info

Please have a look here for more info about 'me-kan' verbs:

Click here : 'me-kan' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

takut, merasa, menakutkan, senang, aneh, perasaan, berani, mengenang, bosan, membosankan, suasana, hati, damai, keinginan, marah, kaget, kejutan, kecewa, mengecewakan, lelah, iri, emosi, sabar, tegang, menegangkan, lapar, malu, cinta, haus, kalem, adil, memalukan, pikiran, imajinasi, gairah, jijik, menjijikkan


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
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Particles updated 2020-09-03

Particles

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

tentang, kepada, pun, secara, hingga, terhadap, si, sang, antara, serta, aduh, astaga, astagfirullah, bagi, sementara, selain, pula


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
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Ter- Participles updated 2020-11-07

Ter- prefix

The ter- prefix marks a passive verb, almost like the di- prefix.
However, ter- is different in that it is used in situations where the verb is done spontaneously/unintentional (Dia tersenyum), unexpectedly (Adik terjatuh), or denoting the state of an object (Suratnya sudah terkirim).

Example:
Botol ini diisi dengan teh [oleh Tini) = This bottle is filled with tea (by Tini).

Botol ini terisi teh = This bottle is filled with tea.

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

tersenyum, tertawa, terbuka, tertutup, tersebut, tertulis, terjatuh, terjadi, tertentu, terisi, teringat, terkirim, tersimpan, termasuk, terpaksa, terkenal, terletak, terkait, terdapat, terdiri, ternyata, terlibat


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Education updated 2020-09-03

Education

Pendidikan

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

kerjakan, kelas, tugas, siswa, bahasa, indonesia, jelaskan, pelajaran, ujian, teman, matematika, perpustakaan, papan, kantin, jadwal, seragam, fisika, contoh, teknik, mengerjakan, penjelasan, perguruan tinggi, bab, kimia, terlambat, istirahat, dihukum, dipanggil, halaman, kertas, kapur, sejarah, dikeluarkan, peringkat, pindah, wisuda, upacara, gelar, lulus


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Me-kan Verbs 1 updated 2020-11-07

Me-kan verbs 1

The me-kan circumfix has two main functions: benefactive (when it is applied to a verb) and causative (when it is applied to an adjective).

Benefactive

Benefactive means doing something for someone else's benefit. In this case, the subject is doing the verb with the me-kan circumfix for the benefit of someone or something else.

Example:

  • Ibu membacakan dongeng untuk adik. Mother is reading a bedtime story for little sister.
  • Sarah mengantarkan kue untuk Budi. Sarah is delivering cookies for Budi.

Benefactive me-kan verbs are always transitive (needing direct objects!)

Causative

Causative means causing someone or something else to become or feel something. In this case, the me-kan circumfix is applied to an adjective. The subject is causing the object to feel or become the adjective with the me-kan circumfix.

Example:

  • Ani membangunkan Ibu. Ani wakes up Mother. (lit. Ani causes Mother to be awake.)
  • Siti membersihkan kamarnya. Siti cleans her room. (lit. Siti causes her room to be clean)
  • Adi menyusahkan orangtuanya. Adi disappoints his parents. (lit. Adi causes his parents to be disappointed)

In the following examples the object (everyone, everybody) is implied and left out.

  • Pesta ini membosankan. This party is boring.
  • Berita itu sangat menyedihkan. That news is very saddening.
  • Informasi ini membingungkan. This information is confusing.

The direct object (everyone, everybody) is implied and omitted.
In the examples above, the subject is causing everyone in general to feel or become an adjective (i.e. bored, sad, confused).
These verbs are often translated as an adjective.

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info :

Click here : 'me-kan' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

melemparkan, memainkan, melakukan, melanjutkan, melupakan, memasukkan, memunculkan, memasakkan, membicarakan, membawakan, memberikan, membacakan, mendengarkan, mendirikan, menjatuhkan, menjadikan, mendatangkan, mendapatkan, menjelaskan, memutuskan, memecahkan, memisahkan, memuaskan, memerlukan, memerintahkan, memastikan, memikirkan, menemukan, menuliskan, menunjukkan, meninggalkan, menambahkan, menurunkan, menawarkan


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Superlatives and Comparison updated 2020-11-07

Superlatives and Comparison

Let's start with some examples:

Dimas lebih tinggi daripada Tono. = Dimas is taller than Tono.
Tini lebih pendek daripada Tono. = Tini is shorter than Tono.
Di antara mereka, Dimas yang tertinggi = Amongst them, Dimas is the tallest.

'lebih'.......'daripada' literally means 'more'.......'than' :

lebih penting daripada = more important than
lebih besar daripada = larger than
lebih kecil daripada = smaller than
lebih dalam daripada = deeper than

"ter-" prefix is used here to form the superlative ('most' / '-est').

terpenting = paling penting = most important.
terbesar = paling besar = largest
terkecil = paling kecil = smallest
terdalam = paling dalam = deepest


Additional info

'daripada' is often replaced with 'dari' in everyday speech.


Click here : Comparisons and superlatives, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

terbesar, terakhir, terbaik, terutama, terkecil, kurus, gemuk, terkurus, tergemuk, semakin, luas, cepat, lambat, tercepat, terluas, murah, mahal, penting, termurah, terpenting, malas, sepi, ramai, rajin, termalas, tajam, tumpul, terkuat, terkaya, termerah, dalam, dangkal, terdangkal, terdalam, tertua, termuda


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Me-kan Verbs 2 updated 2020-09-03

Me-kan verbs 2

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info :

Click here : 'me-kan' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

mengambilkan, mengajarkan, mengingatkan, mengumumkan, menggantikan, menghilangkan, menggambarkan, menghasilkan, menghentikan, menggunakan, menyimpankan, menyewakan, menyelesaikan, menyambungkan, mengirimkan, mengembalikan, mengeluarkan, mengalahkan, mengatakan, mengembangkan, mengumpulkan, merusakkan, menyalakan, merupakan


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Travel updated 2020-09-03

Travel

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

mobil, taksi, bus, mengemudikan, tiket, penumpang, paspor, hati-hati, pilot, pesawat, bandara, terminal, jalan, motor, sepeda, pengendara, keterlambatan, membatalkan, masinis, kereta, mengendarai, stasiun, turis, kunjungan, mengunjungi, nakhoda, perahu, kapal, kendaraan, menginap, transportasi, alat, mesin, kecelakaan, sampai, ojek, koper


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Measures updated 2020-09-03

Measure

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

mengukur, timbangan, kilogram, gram, satuan, waktu, miligram, kedalaman, meter, ketinggian, diukur, sungai, kilometer, sentimeter, liter, ukuran, hasil, badan, belasan, volume, meteran, ditimbang, rupiah, hektar, lipat, kecepatan, per, inci, mil, ons, sisi, sepertiga, permukaan


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Di-kan updated 2020-09-03

Di-kan verbs

The di-kan circumfix is the passive form of the me-kan. Like me-kan, the function of this circumfix can be benefactive or causative.

While for the me-kan circumfix we interpret benefactive as doing something for someone else's benefit, in this context the verb is being done to the subject for the benefit of someone or something else.

Examples:

Active sentence Passive sentence
ID-1 Ibu membacakan dongeng untuk adik. Dongeng dibacakan oleh Ibu.
EN-1 Mother is reading a bedtime story for little sister. A bedtime story is being read by Mother.
ID-2 Sarah mengantarkan kue untuk Budi. Kue untuk Budi diantarkan oleh Sarah.
EN-2 Sarah is delivering cookies for Budi. Cookies for Budi are delivered by Sarah.

For the causative function, di-kan is applied to an adjective. In this context, the subject is feeling or becoming the adjective thanks to the action of someone or something else.

Examples:

Active sentence Passive sentence
ID-1 Ani membangunkan Ibu. Ibu dibangunkan Ani.
EN-1 Ani wakes Mother up. Mother is being woken up by Ani.
ID-2 Siti membersihkan kamarnya. Kamarnya dibersihkan oleh Siti.
EN-2 Siti cleans her room. Her room is cleaned by Siti.

Examples:

1) Ibu dibangunkan (oleh) Ani.
2) Ibu dibangunkan (oleh) Ani tadi pagi.
3) Ibu sudah dibangunkan tadi pagi oleh Ani.

In the first two sentences the 'di-' verb is followed directly by the agent/actor (the one performing the action).
'oleh' can be left out in such a sentence.
In the third sentence, the 'di-' verb is not directly followed by the agent/actor.
'oleh' cannot be left out in such a sentence.

Additional info

This skill is about passive verbs and the passive voice.
Translations in the active voice are rejected.

Please have a look here for more info :

Click here : 'me-kan' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

dilakukan, digunakan, ditemukan, didirikan, diberikan, dibandingkan, diharapkan, dijadikan, disampaikan, ditetapkan, dilaksanakan, diadakan, disebabkan, dikatakan, dikembangkan, diterbitkan, diselenggarakan, dilaporkan, disebutkan, dinyatakan, dibutuhkan, diluncurkan, diumumkan, dilahirkan, digantikan, dihasilkan


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Feelings 2 updated 2020-09-03

Feelings 2

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

menertawakan, terkejut, mengejutkan, cemburu, sayang, tenang, berbeda, memimpikan, kesal, mimpi, ingin, senyuman, santai, merindukan, mengharapkan, tawa, harapan, mengantuk, kesan, aroma, cemas, humor, puas, ingatan, bebas, selera, dipercaya, karakter, pasti, peka, gugup, murung, respek, menaruh, sampah, benci, penasaran, bangga, kesepian, menangis


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Medical updated 2020-11-07

Medical

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

batuk, pilek, demam, penyakit, semoga, bengkak, sembuh, berobat, rumah sakit, apotek, gatal, klinik, obat, pasien, alergi, memeriksa, hati, patah, imunisasi, disuntik, terkilir, manusia, luka, dibersihkan, diobati, parah, operasi, berdarah


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Nature updated 2020-09-03

Nature

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

tanah, api, udara, angin, sumber, batu, bumi, matahari, laut, alam, bunga, polusi, rumput, mencemari, bulan, bintang, awan, salju, benih, langit, hutan, pohon, gunung, danau, mawar, lumpur, samudera, planet, tumbuhan, puncak, dasar, gempa, cuaca, iklim, asap, temperatur, badai, hidup, petir, gurun, listrik, lubang


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Communication updated 2020-09-03

Communication

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

komunikasi, informasi, pers, pesan, suara, selamat, huruf, media, massa, internet, berkata, kata, kalimat, teriak, merekam, perintah, diam, bertanya, pendapat, arti, pemberitahuan, situs, menjawab, diskusi, debat, argumen, judul, artikel, menerjemahkan, tema, wawancara, unduh, unggah, pengumuman, mengontak, berita, rahasia, komentar


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Me-i updated 2020-09-03

Me-i verbs

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info :

Click here : 'me-i' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

memasuki, meliputi, melayani, mewakili, melewati, melindungi, menikmati, memiliki, melalui, mengakhiri, mengikuti, mengatasi, mengakui, mengalami, menghadapi, menghindari, mengetahui, mengurangi, menguasai, mengenai, mempunyai, memenuhi, mempelajari, menyadari, memahami, menangani, mencapai, menjalani, menempati, menduduki, mendatangi


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Prepositions 2 updated 2020-09-03

Prepositions 2

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

sebagai, pada, kecuali, selama, sebelum, setelah, sejak, kemudian, sesudah, menurut, walau, demi


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Materials updated 2020-09-03

Materials

Bahan

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

bahan, uang, debu, emas, terbuat, tembaga, besi, katun, perak, kain, pasir, karet, wol, kayu, plastik, logam


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Objects updated 2020-09-03

Objects

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

barang, senjata, kotak, palang, kabel, objek, peta, kacamata, radio, dokumen, kartu, nampan, memuat, pengecas, bendera, hadiah, kunci, foto, pedang, komputer, bubuk, album, adaptor, masalah, bentuk, tanda, kamus, majalah, roda, pulpen, robot, layar, jarum, benang, lilin, amplop, korek, halaman, nyala, cahaya, padam


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Science updated 2020-09-03

Science

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

titik, fungsi, material, pencarian, teori, jenis, dampak, energi, ilmu, metode, analisis, rumus, ide, penemuan, batas, suhu, skala, lingkaran, segitiga, atmosfer, sinar, derajat, ilmiah, pengetahuan, daftar, penelitian, membakar, reaksi, cara, teknologi, grafik, proses, perhitungan, persegi, sudut, hal, konsep


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Di-i updated 2020-09-03

Di-i verbs

Di-i verbs are the passive counterpart of the active 'me-i' verbs.

Additional info

This skill is about passive verbs and the passive voice.
Translations in the active voice are rejected.

Please have a look here for more info :

Click here : 'me-i' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

dihubungi, diketahui, diikuti, disertai, diakui, dimiliki, dilengkapi, ditemui, dialami, dihadiri, ditangani, dikelilingi, dinamai, dikurangi, didampingi, dipenuhi, ditandai, dilindungi, dipengaruhi, diyakini, dipahami, dikuasai, dicapai, dijumpai, disukai, disetujui, dimintai, dikunjungi, ditandatangani, diawali, dilayani, dihadapi, dibatasi


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Art updated 2020-09-03

Art

Seni

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

seni, karya, musik, sastra, tari, film, sinetron, teater, lukisan, pertunjukan, bioskop, ritme, puisi, artis, lagu, museum, novel, cerpen, piano, konser, aktor, peran, gitar, musisi, lirik, wayang, aktris, biola, disutradarai, dibintangi


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Spiritual updated 2020-09-03

Spiritual

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

tuhan, berdoa, agama, percaya, malaikat, setan, mati, islam, katolik, hindu, beragama, dewa, dewi, takdir, kristen, buddha, beribadah, masjid, gereja, wihara, pura, ulama, pendeta, pastor, neraka, surga, jiwa, candi, dukun, santet, hantu, sembahyang, khotbah, dosa, pahala, natal, lebaran, paskah, raya, merayakan, amal, sedekah


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Memper- updated 2020-09-03

Memper- verbs

'memper-' verbs are active verbs.
'diper-' verbs are the passive counterpart.

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info :

Click here: 'memper-' verbs , Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

memperkuat, memperlemah, memperpanjang, memperpendek, mempermudah, memperbanyak, memperbesar, mempersulit, memperkecil, mempercepat, memperlambat, memperbaiki, memperburuk, memperkaya, memperketat, memperluas


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Business updated 2020-09-03

Business

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

usaha, saham, produksi, pembelian, rekening, industri, pajak, bos, konsumsi, pariwisata, keuntungan, modal, kontrak, penjualan, kekayaan, kredit, tingkat, investasi, konsumen, pabrik, pengangguran, penawaran, iklan, biaya, sewa, bisnis, ekonomi, pertanian


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Counters updated 2020-09-03

Counters / classifiers

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info :

Click here : The Classifiers: Buah, Orang and Ekor

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

seekor, ekor, seseorang, segelas, sepucuk, secangkir, sepotong, sepiring, beberapa, sesuatu, masing-masing, butir, selembar, sebutir, semangkuk, lembar, semua, sehelai, sebatang, helai, batang, berbagai, sebuah, sejumlah, setiap


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Diper- updated 2020-09-03

Diper- verbs

'diper-' verbs are the apssive counterpart of the active 'memper-' verbs.

Additional info

This skill is about passive verbs and the passive voice.
Translations in the active voice are rejected.

Please have a look here for more info :

Click here: 'memper-' verbs , Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Click here : Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum

Click here : Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

diperkuat, diperoleh, diperlemah, diperpanjang, diperpendek, diperbanyak, dipermudah, dipersulit, diperkecil, dipercepat, diperbesar, diperlambat, diperburuk, diperluas, diperbaiki, diperketat, diperkaya


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Sports updated 2020-09-03

Sports

Olah raga

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

stadion, tim, golf, juara, kompetisi, tenis, menendang, balapan, sepak bola, pelatih, berenang, gol, olahraga, bulu tangkis, aba-aba, senam, kalah, pemenang, latihan, memukul, melompat, menang, memenangkan, memenangi


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Politics updated 2020-09-03

Politics

Politik

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

perang, hak, kekuasaan, hukum, masyarakat, pembangunan, pemerintah, kewajiban, revolusi, kebebasan, partai, tentara, presiden, kesepakatan, keamanan, keadilan, krisis, politik, kementerian, kekerasan, konflik, mayoritas, oposisi, menteri, organisasi, wali kota, calon, hutang, balai kota, strategi, bangsa, suara, majelis, peristiwa, kejahatan, parlemen, negara, demokrasi, berjuang, pemilih, senator, memimpin, sistem, pidato, mendukung, pusat


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Places 2 updated 2020-09-03

Places 2

Tempat

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

tempat, daerah, ruang, alamat, provinsi, tepi, kabupaten, kebun binatang, pantai, desa, bar, gua, taman, kecamatan, wilayah, rute, jawa, pulau, kota, penjara, swalayan, jembatan, apartemen, menara, lantai, lokasi, aula, garasi


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Ke-an Nouns updated 2020-09-03

Ke-an affix

There are few uses of Ke-an but most of them turns adjectives into nouns. Here are some examples:

Root words With confix ke-an
Bebas (Free) Kebebasan (Freedom)
Aman (Secure) Keamanan (Security)
Sedih (Sad) Kesedihan (Sadness)
Beruntung (Lucky) Keberuntungan (Luck)

You will learn a few more examples as you progress.

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

kehidupan, kebutuhan, kematian, kesehatan, kekuatan, kesempatan, kebijakan, keadaan, kebaikan, keberuntungan, kebiasaan, kebenaran, kemajuan, keburukan, keindahan


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
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Reduplication verbs updated 2020-09-03

Reduplicated verbs

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

berjalan-jalan, melihat-lihat, bermain-main, berjaga-jaga, berhati-hati, berpura-pura, bersama-sama, berturut-turut


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People updated 2020-09-03

People

Orang-orang

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

kelompok, penduduk, dewasa, pria, wanita, memperkenalkan, populasi, kerumunan, para, bapak, budaya, kenal, tetangga, rekan, tamu, pacar, mengenali, klien, remaja, gadis, tawanan, nona, pahlawan, nyonya, musuh, anggota, tuan


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Pe- updated 2020-09-03

Pe- prefix

Pe- prefix is used to form nouns.

Additional info

Please have a look here for more info :

Click here : pe- Prefix, , Tips & Notes, Addendum

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

pejalan, pelajar, pelaku, pembaca, penyewa, pendiri, pendengar, pelukis, pemakai, pemberi, pencuci, pendatang, pembantu, pengirim, pengisi, pengunjung, pengembang, penggali, pembicara, pembuat, pembuka, penonton, penutup, pendukung, penerima


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck


Countries updated 2020-09-03

Countries

Additional info

Kosakata (Vocabulary) :

perancis, amerika serikat, jerman, belanda, mesir, rusia, inggris, benua, asia, afrika, amerika, eropa, tiongkok, yunani, brasil, swiss, spanyol, dunia, tionghoa, australia


Anki deck Flashcards with the vocabulary of the Duolingo course:
Click here : Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

Click here to download the Anki deck



69 skills with tips and notes

 
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