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Latin Skills by StrengthCrownsNameOriginal Order


Introduction updated 2019-08-30 ^


Welcome to the Latin course!

No Articles

There are no articles in Latin! The sentence "Ego vir sum." could mean "I am a man." but also "I am the man." However, don't forget to use the correct articles when translating into English!

Personal Pronouns

Personal subject pronouns are used for emphasis and can be left out.

Example: Ego vir sum. = Vir sum

Latin English
ego I
tu you (sg)
is, ea* he, she
nos we
vos you (pl)
ii, eae* they
  • *Forms of the demonstrative pronoun is, ea, id

Word Order

Latin is very flexible. The most common structure is SOV (subject - object - verb), especially in prose, but there are many other possibilities, depending on what you want to emphasize.


Latin has three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. In this first skill you will only encounter masculine and feminine nouns.

First declension nouns are (generally) feminine nouns ending in -a in the nominative case. Examples are femina and puella.

Second declension nouns are (generally) masculine nouns ending in -us and (generally) neuter nouns ending in -um in the nominative case. Examples are the names Stephanus and Marcus. Vir and puer are masculine nouns that follow the second declension as well.

To Be

In this skill you will learn the singular forms of the verb to be (esse, sum).

Latin English
sum I am
es you are
est he, she, it is


This course uses Classical Pronunciation. A few things worth noting:

  • V sounds like the English W
  • C always sounds like a K
  • G is always hard and never J
  • AE sounds like the English word "eye"


Latin uses grammatical cases: words change when they get a different function in a sentence.


The nominative case is the form of a noun you will find a dictionary. It is used for the subject of a sentences and for predicates following a form of "to be".

You can find a subject by asking the question "Who/What + verb?"


  • The man is sleeping. Who is sleeping? -> The man
  • I love you. Who loves you? -> I

The predicate is the second part of a sentence following the "X is Y" pattern.


  • I am a man. -> a man
  • These women are engineers. -> engineers
Declension Ending
1st -a
2nd (masc.) -us
2nd (neut.) -um

Translation of Names

A little convention: we will not accept translations of names as alternatives in this course. Marcus's name is Marcus, not Mark, and Stephanus is not Stephen or Steven.

New Vocabulary

Latin English Additional Info (Declension, gender, etc.)
femina woman 1st, fem.
vir man 2nd, masc.
puer boy 2nd, masc.
puella girl 1st, fem.
pater father 3rd, masc.
mater mother 3rd, fem.
soror sister 3rd, fem.
frater brother 3rd, masc.
non not
et and
sed but
quis who?
dormit he, she sleeps
studet he, she studies
scribit he, she writes
in urbe in the city
domi at home

Greetings updated 2019-08-29 ^


In Latin, we use salve to greet someone. When you want to say hello to more than one person, you use salvete.

Ave and avete are more formal greetings.


Let's have a look at the following sentence.

Salvete, Stephane et Marce!

Stephanus and Marcus are being addressed in this case; you are saying "salvete" to Stephanus and Marcus. Most* masculine words ending in -us (2nd declension) will get the ending -e in this situation. Names ending in -a don't change. (Salve, Livia!)

This is the vocative case, used for people being addressed.

  • *Words ending in -ius, however, change to -i (not -e)

When translating vocatives to English, we keep the nominative/normal form.

Nomen mihi est

This is the most common way to say "my name is". For now, we will not go too deep into the grammar of this construction, but it is a useful phrase to know. Remember that Latin has no strict word order.

Latin English
Nomen mihi est Marcus. My name is Marcus.
Tibi nomen est Livia. Your name is Livia.
Nomen ei Lucius est. His name is Lucius.
Nomen ei est Lesbia. Her name is Lesbia.

How are you?

You will learn two ways to ask how someone is doing in this skill.

1) Quid + ago? -> Quid agis?

Literally, this means "What are you doing?"

Subject Verb
ego ago
tu agis
is, ea agit

2) Quomodo + se + habeo? -> Quomodo te habes?

Literally, this means "How do you have yourself/How do you feel?"

Subject Verb
ego habeo
tu habes
is, ea habet

Se is the reflexive pronoun. (-self in English)

Subject Pronoun Reflexive Pronoun English
ego me myself
tu te yourself
is, ea se himself/herself


Bene (well) and male (badly) are adverbs. Adverbs are words that give more information about verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. In English these forms usually get -ly added, while in Latin adverbs of 1st and 2nd declension adjectives end in -e.

  • Bene dormio. - I sleep well. (and not "I sleep good.")


You stick the suffix -ne to the first word of a sentence to indicate that it is a yes/no question. The -ne is not mandatory and can be omitted.

Latin English Potential answers
Estne Roma in Italia? Is Rome in Italy? (Yes, it is./No, it is not.)
Roma in Italia est? Is Rome in Italy? (Yes, it is./No, it is not.)

First conjugation (-are)

Habitare/habito (to live somewhere, to reside) is a verb that follows the first conjugation. You can recognize these verbs by the -a- in the verb stem. (The -a- merges with the -o for the first person singular.)

Subject Habitare Amare (to love) Stare (to stand)
ego habito amo sto
tu habitas amas stas
is, ea habitat ama t stat

New Vocabulary

Latin English Additional Info
nomen name 3rd, neut.
Italia Italy 1st, fem.
Roma Rome 1st, fem.
Romae in Rome
habito I live, I reside (habitare, 1st conj.)
me habeo I feel, I am doing (well/poorly/...) (se habere, 2nd conj.)
ago I do, I act (agere, 3rd conj.)
salve(te) hello
quid what
quomodo how
ubi where
bene well
male badly, poorly
ita yes, so
minime no, not at all

Places updated 2019-08-28 ^


Just like nouns, adjectives follow declensions. The adjective solus (masc.), sola (fem.), solum (neut.) follow the first and second declension, and get the same endings as nouns: discipulus - femina - Eboracum.

Have a look at how the ending of the adjective changes:

Latin English Gender
discipulus novus a new student masculine
familia nova a new family feminine
civitas nova a new state feminine
Novum Eboracum New York neuter
nomen novum a new name neuter

When using sum, you also need to make sure the adjective agrees with the noun.

Latin English
Marcus est Romanus. Marcus is Roman.
Livia Americana est. Livia is American.
Nomen est novum. The name is new.
Ego solus sum. I am alone. (masculine)
Ego sola sum. I am alone. (feminine)


The locative case is a special case which indicates a location used for cities.

Some general rules:

  • -a (first declension) becomes -ae
  • -us and -um (second declension) become -i
Nominative Locative English (loc.)
Roma Romae in Rome
Novum Eboracum Novi Eboraci in New York
Corinthus Corinthi in Corinth

Other locations will generally get a preposition (in + ablative, we will deal with the ablative later in the course).

Latin English
in Italia in Italy
in urbe in the city

Domi (at home) is an exception!


The particle num indicates that the speaker expects a negative answer; the speaker would be surprised if someone answered yes.

Compare the following sentences.

Latin English Expected Answer
Num Romae habitat? Surely he doesn't live in Rome? Negative
Habitatne Romae? Does he live in Rome? - (neutral)


The suffix -(i)tas is the equivalent of the English -(i)ty. These nouns follow the third declension and are feminine.

Latin English
universitas university
libertas liberty, freedom
difficultas difficulty, trouble

New Vocabulary

Latin English Additional Info
familia family 1st, fem.
Bostonia Boston 1st, fem.
Philadelphia Philadelphia 1st, fem.
Novum Eboracum New York 2nd, neut.
iuvenis young man 3rd, masc.
urbs city 3rd, fem.
civitas state 3rd, fem.
universitas university 3rd, fem.
solus alone -us, -a, -um
novus new -us, -a, -um
natus born -us, -a, -um
meus my -us, -a, -um
Americanus American -us, -a, -um
multi many -i, -ae, -a (plural)
quid what, which 3rd, neut.
quot how many

Plurals updated 2019-08-29 ^

Plural Nouns

Nominative plurals:

Declension Singular Plural
1st filia filiae
2nd (masc.) filius filii
2nd (neut.) donum dona
3rd soror sorores
3rd frater fratres

Note that the stem of 3rd declension nouns can change.

  • words ending in -er generally turn into -r
  • examples are mater -> matres, pater -> patres

Plural verbs

Subject Esse (to be) Habitare
ego sum habito
tu es habita-s
is, ea est habita-t
nos sumus habita-mus
vos estis habita-tis
ii, eae sunt habita-nt

Second conjugation (-ere, -eo)

Studere/studeo (to study) is a verb that follows the second conjugation. You can recognize these verbs by the -e- at the end of the verb stem.

Subject Studere Habere (to have)
ego stude-o habe-o
tu stude-s habe-s
is, ea stude-t habe-t
nos stude-mus habe-mus
vos stude-tis habe-tis
ii, eae stude-nt habe-nt

Fourth conjugation (-ire, -io)

Dormire/dormio (to sleep) is a verb that follows the fourth conjugation. You can recognize these verbs by the -i- at the end of the verb stem.

Subject Dormire
ego dormi-o
tu dormi-s
is, ea dormi-t
nos dormi-mus
vos dormi-tis
ii, eae dormi-u-nt

New Vocabulary

Latin English Additional Info
duo two duo, duae, duo (plural)
tres three tres, tres, tria (plural)
quattuor four indeclinable
quinque five indeclinable
quot how many indeclinable

School updated 2020-11-27 ^


On to the next case! The accusative is the grammatical case used for direct objects.

You can find the direct object of a sentence by asking the question "Who/What + does X + verb?", in which X is the subject.


  • The man has a rose. What does the man have? -> a rose
  • The author writes books. What does the author write? -> books
  • I love you. Who do I love? -> you
Declension Nom. sg. Acc. sg.
1st magistra magistram
2nd masc. discipulus discipulum
2nd neut. Novum Eboracum Novum Eboracum (=)
3rd mater matrem

The plural forms are:

Declension Nom. pl. Acc. pl.
1st magistrae magistras
2nd masc. discipuli discipulos
2nd neut. dona* dona (=)
3rd matres matres (=)

(*donum = gift, present)

-R (second declension)

Not all masculine nouns that follow the second declension end in -us in the nominative, some end in -r or -er.

Nom. sg. Acc. sg. Nom. pl. Acc. pl.
magister magistr-um magistr-i magistr-os
liber libr-um libr-i libr-os
puer puerum pueri pueros
vir virum viri viros

Third conjugation (-ere, -o)

Legere/lego (to read) and discere/disco (to learn) are verbs that follow the third conjugation. You can recognize these verbs by the lack of a vowel at the end of the verb stem. (-i- is used to connect the stem to the endings, -u- for -nt)

Subject Legere Discere Agere
ego lego disco ago
tu leg-i-s disc-i-s ag-i-s
is, ea leg-i-t disc-i-t ag-i-t
nos leg-i-mus disc-i-mus ag-i-mus
vos leg-i-tis disc-i-tis ag-i-tis
ii, eae leg-u-nt disc-u-nt ag-u-nt

New Vocabulary

Latin English Additional Info Stem
discipula female student 1st, fem. discipul-
magistra female teacher 1st, fem. magistr-
lingua language 1st, fem. lingu-
lingua Latina Latin (language) 1st, fem.
litterae literature 1st, fem. (always plural) litter-
discipulus male student 2nd, masc. discipul-
magister male teacher 2nd -er, masc. magistr-
liber book 2nd -er, masc. libr-
ludus school 2nd, masc. lud-
lectio chapter 3rd, fem. lection-
Latinus Latin (adj.) -us, -a, -um Latin-
studeo I study (studere, 2nd conj.) stude-
doceo I teach (docere, 2nd conj.) doce-
disco I learn (discere, 3rd conj.) disc-
lego I read (legere, 3rd. conj.) leg-
scribo I write (scribere, 3rd. conj.) scrib-

Parents updated 2019-08-28 ^

Third Declension (Nouns)

It is time to properly introduce the third declension! You already know quite a few words that follow the third declension. Masculine and feminine nouns follow the same pattern, while neuter nouns are declined differently.

nom. sg. pater soror nomen
acc. sg. patrem sororem nomen (=)
nom. pl. patres sorores nomina
acc. pl. patres sorores nomina (=)

A rule of thumb: accusative neuter words are always the same as their nominative equivalent.

Third Declension (Adjectives)

Many adjectives of the third declension end in -is. These adjectives will get (-is, -is, -e) as additional information in the vocabulary lists.


SENILIS Masculine sg. Feminine sg. Neuter sg.
nominative senilis senilis senile
accusative senilem senilem senile


SENILIS Masculine pl. Feminine pl. Neuter pl.
nominative seniles seniles senilia
accusative seniles seniles senilia

New Vocabulary

Latin English Additional Info Stem
maritus husband 2nd, masc. marit-
sepulchrum grave 2nd, neut. sepulchr-
paterfamilias paterfamilias* 3rd, masc. patr- familias
uxor wife 3rd, fem. uxor-
familiaris relative 3rd, masc. familiar-
servo I save, rescue (servare, 1st conj.) serva-
sacrifico I sacrifice (sacrificare, 1st conj.) sacrifica-
severus strict -us, -a, -um sever-
benignus kind -us, -a, -um benign-
pius dutiful -us, -a, -um pi-
senilis aged, senile -is, -is, -e senil-
quoque also
cotidie daily
  • The paterfamilias was the head of a Roman household. This was usually the oldest man in the family. "Pater familias" literally means "father of the family".

Market updated 2019-08-29 ^

I would like

In English we use the phrase would like when requesting something politely (in a shop, restaurant etc.). In Latin, however, we need a special verb form to express this. You would use velim in such situation.

Subject Verb
ego velim
tu velis
is, ea velit
nos velimus
vos velitis
ii, eae velint

(Velim is the subjunctive of velle, volo, to want. For now, you don't need to remember this information.)

Da mihi vinum!

We have encountered mihi, tibi and ei earlier in the course. (Nomen mihi est...) These words respectively mean to me, to you (sg), and to him/her.

This is the indirect object, which is in the dative case. You can find the indirect object by asking the question "To/For whom?".


  • I give the book to him. To whom ? -> to him
  • I am sending you an email. To whom? -> (to) you
  • Give me the wine! To whom? -> (to) me

Imperative (singular)

Da mihi panem! - Give me the bread!

The verb in this sentence, da, is an imperative. This verb mood is used for commands (when you want to tell someone they must do something). Command sentences do not have a subject.

Imperative Dictionary form Conjugation
Da! (Give!) dare, do 1st
Stude! (Study!) studere, studeo 2nd
Lege! (Read!) legere, lego 3rd
Dormi! (Sleep!) dormire, dormio 4th

New Vocabulary

Latin English Additional Info Stem
oliva olive 1st, fem. oliv-
vinum wine 2nd, neut. vin-
crustulum cookie 2nd, neut. crustul-
forum forum/market 2nd, neut. for-
nummus coin 2nd, masc. numm-
panis bread 3rd, masc. pan-
ruber red ruber, rubra, rubrum rubr-
familiaris relative 3rd, masc. familiar-
do I give (dare, 1st conj.) da-
constat it costs (constare, 1st conj.) consta-
decem ten indeclinable
viginti twenty indeclinable
triginta thirty indeclinable
quanti how many -i, -ae, -a (plural) quant-
... nummis constat it costs ... coins
in foro in the forum/market

Travels updated 2019-08-31 ^

1st-4th Conjugation Review

Time to review!

ego habito stude-o leg-o dormi-o
tu habita-s stude-s leg-i-s dormi-s
is, ea habita-t stude-t leg-i-t dormi-t
nos habita-mus stude-mus leg-i-mus dormi-mus
vos habita-tis stude-tis leg-i-tis dormi-tis
ii, eae habita-nt stude-nt leg-u-nt dormi-u-nt

Third Conjugation (-ere, -io)

Facere/facio (to make, to do) is a verb that follows the third conjugation BUT has a verb stem ending in -i. The two main differences are facio (and not "faco"), and faciunt (and not "facunt").

Subject FACERE
ego faci-o
tu faci-s
is, ea faci-t
nos faci-mus
vos faci-tis
ii, eae faci-u-nt

Ablative: introduction

Let's have a quick look at a new case: the ablative! The ablative has several uses, but for now, we will only use it after prepositions (see below).

We will only use singular 1st declension and 3rd declension words for now.

Nominative sg. Ablative sg. Declension
Italia Itali-a 1st
urbs urb-e 3rd

When using macrons, you can recognise the nom. fem. sg. ending by the -ā at the end. (In contrast with the -a for the nominative.)


The words following prepositions (in English words like in, on, for, through) require certain grammatical cases in Latin.

Preposition + Case Translation
ad + accusative to
in + accusative into
in + ablative in
ab/a + ablative from
cum + ablative with

Pay attention to the difference between "in + accusative" and "in + ablative".

in urbe (in the city) - in urbem (into the city)

A or Ab?

This preposition has two forms: ab and a. Ab is used before words starting with a vowel or an H, while a is used before words starting with any other consonant.

Latin English
ab urbe from the city
ab Italia from Italy
ab Hispanica from Spain
a Germania from Germany
a Graecia from Greece
a Philadelphia from Philadelphia

IRE: to go

Ire/eo (to go) is an irregular verb.

Subject IRE
ego eo
tu is
is, ea it
nos imus
vos itis
ii, eae eunt

New Vocabulary

Latin English Additional Info Stem
iter journey, trip 3rd, neut. itiner-
longus long -us, -a, -um long-
visito I visit (visitare, 1st conj.) visita-
condo I establish, I build (condere, 3rd conj.) cond-
facio I make, I do (facere, 3rd conj. -io) faci-
venio I come (venire, 4th conj.) veni-
eo I go (ire, irregular) i-, e-
nunc now
unde from where
quo to where
domum (to) home
ad to + acc.
in into + acc.
in in + abl.
ab from + abl.
a from + abl.
cum with + abl.

Plurals 2 updated 2019-08-31 ^

Nominative and Accusative (review)

Decl. 1st fem. 2nd masc. 2nd neut. 3rd masc. & fem. 3rd neuter
Nom. sg. magistra discipulus vinum mater nomen
Acc. sg. magistram discipulum vinum (=) matrem nomen (=)
Nom. pl. magistrae discipuli vina matres nomina
Acc. pl. magistras discipulos vina (=) matres nomina (=)

! Nominative singular third declension nouns do not have a particular ending.


This skill mainly focuses on nos and vos (we and you). Vos is the plural you; you use "vos" to talk about more than one person.

Latin English
Marce, tu es vir! Marcus, you are a man!
Marce et Stephane, vos estis viri! Marcus and Stephanus, you are men!
nos habita-mus stude-mus leg-i-mus veni-mus
vos habita-tis stude-tis leg-i-tis veni-tis

The "nos" and "vos" forms for third conjugation verbs like facere, facio (verb stem ending in -i) look the same as other third conjugation verbs. (faci-mus, faci-tis)

ESSE: to be

Subject Verb Translation
ego sum I am
tu es you are (sg.)
is, ea est he, she is
nos sumus we are
vos estis you are (pl.)
ii, eae sunt they are

New Vocabulary

Latin English Additional Info Stem
amo I love (amare, 1st conj.) ama-
noster our noster, nostra, nostrum nostr-

Work updated 2020-12-03 ^

First Declension (Masculine Nouns)

Most first declension nouns are feminine, but there are several masculine words! These few words generally refer to male people.

Nom. sg. agricola poeta
Acc. sg. agricolam poetam
Nom. pl. agricolae poetae
Acc. pl. agricolas poetas

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1

Latin English Additional Info Stem
pecunia money 1st, fem. pecuni-
medica (female) doctor 1st, fem. medic-
medicus (male) doctor 2nd, masc. medic-
professor professor 3rd, masc. professor-
ratiocinator bookkeeper, accountant 3rd, masc. ratiocinator-
numero I count (numerare, 1st decl.) numera-
sano I heal (sanare, 1st conj.) sana-
aeger sick aeger, aegra, aegrum aegr-
sanus healthy -us, -a, -um san-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
scaena stage, scene 1st, fem. scaen-
agricola farmer 1st, masc. agricol-
ager field 2nd, masc. (-er) agr-
architectus architect 2nd, masc. architect-
aedificium building 2nd, neut. aedifici-
theatrum theater 2nd, neut. theatr-
histrio actor 3rd, masc. histrion-
construo I construct, I build (construere, 3st conj.) constru-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3

Latin English Additional Info Stem
epistula letter (written text) 1st, fem. epistul-
pictura picture 1st, fem. pictur-
tabellarius courier 2nd, masc. tabellari-
pictor painter 3rd, masc. pictor-
pistor baker 3rd, masc. pistor-
porto I carry (portare, 1st conj.) porta-
pingo I paint (pingere, 3rd conj.) ping-
coquo I cook (coquere, 3rd conj.) coqu-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 4

Latin English Additional Info Stem
poeta poet 1st, masc. poet-
coquus cook 2nd, masc. coqu-
cibus food 2nd, masc. cib-
miles soldier 3rd, masc. milit-
mercator merchant 3rd, masc. mercator-
carmen poem 3rd, neut. carmin-
pugno I fight (pugnare, 1st conj.) pugna-
emo I buy (emere, 3rd conj.) em-
vendo I sell (vendere, 3rd conj.) vend

Routines updated 2019-09-02 ^

Mihi placet

You use the construction "dative + placet/placent" to say someone likes something in Latin. "Carmen mihi placet." literally means "The poem is pleasing to me.", or "I like the poem.".

Dative Pronouns English
mihi to me
tibi to you
ei to him, to her

Remember that placet needs to be conjugated depending on the subject.

Latin am pleasing to like
Tibi placeo. I am pleasing to you. You like me.
Ei places. You are pleasing to him. He likes you.
Carmen mihi placet. The poem is pleasing to me. I like the poem.
Carmina mihi placent. The poems are pleasing to me. I like the poems.


Conjugation Stem Indicative* Infinitive
1st ama- amo amare
2nd doce- doceo docere
3rd disc- disco discere
3rd (-io) faci- facio facere
4th dormi- dormio dormire

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1

Latin English Additional Info Stem
cena dinner 1st, fem. cen-
lectus bed 2nd, masc. lect-
prandium lunch 2nd, neut. prandi-
placeo I please (placere, 2nd conj.) place-
mihi placet I like + nom.

New Vocabulary - Lesson 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
taberna shop, tavern 1st, fem. tabern-
patronus patron 2nd, masc. patron-
paedagogus tutor-slave 2nd, masc. paedagog-
cliens client 3rd, masc. client-
salutatio salutation, ceremonial visit 3rd, fem. salutation-
dormio I sleep (dormire, 4th conj.) dormi-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3

Latin English Additional Info Stem
templum temple 2nd, neut. templ-
vates bard, soothsayer 3rd, masc. vat-
pulcher pretty pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum pulchr-
noster our noster, nostra, nostrum nostr-
sacer sacred sacer, sacra, sacrum sacr-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 4

Latin English Additional Info Stem
ara altar 1st, fem. ar-
gladiator gladiator 3rd, masc. gladiator-
optimus the best -us, -a, -um optim-
debeo I must, have to (debere, 2nd) debe-
pugno I fight (pugnare, 1st) pugna-
visito I visit (visitare, 1st) visita-
hodie today
interdum sometimes

Emotions updated 2019-08-31 ^

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1

Latin English Additional Info Stem
senex old man 3rd, masc. sen-
vester your (pl.) vester, vestra, vestrum vestr-
fessus tired -us, -a, -um fess-
sollicitus worried -us, -a, -um sollicit-
ebrius drunk -us, -a, -um ebri-
laetus happy -us, -a, -um laet-
miser unhappy miser, misera, miserum miser-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
psittacus parrot 2nd, masc. psittac-
iuvenis young man 3rd, masc. iuven-
iratus angry -us, -a, -um irat-
ignavus lazy -us, -a, -um ignav-
otiosus leisurely -us, -a, -um otios-
negotiosus busy -us, -a, -um negotios-
pulso I hit (pulsare, 1st conj.) pulsa-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3

Latin English Additional Info Stem
socius ally 2nd, masc. soci-
comes comrade 3rd, masc. comit-
contubernalis tent-mate, comrade 3rd, masc. contubernal-
tacitus quiet -us, -a, -um tacit-
placidus calm -us, -a, -um placid-
perfidus deceitful -us, -a, -um perfid-
peritus skilled -us, -a, -um perit-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 4

Latin English Additional Info Stem
sententia opinion 1st, fem. sententi-
impius undutiful -us, -a, -um impi-
scio I know (scire, 4th) sci-
fortasse perhaps
interdum sometimes

Food updated 2020-01-13 ^


Garum was a sauce made from fermented fish intestines, and was widely used in the Classical Roman cuisine.

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1

Latin English Additional Info Stem
pavimentum floor 2nd, neut. paviment-
piscis fish 3rd, masc. pisc-
plurimus very many -us, -a, -um plurim-
pinguis fat -is, -is, -e pingu-
iacio I throw (iacere, 3rd conj. -io) iaci-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
mensa table 1st, fem. mens-
garum garum, fish sauce 2nd, neut. gar-
triclinium dining room 2nd, neut. triclini-
peconiosus rich -us, -a, -um peconios-
salsus salty -us, -a, -um sals-
gusto I taste (gustare, 1st conj.) gusta-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3

Latin English Additional Info Stem
caupona inn 1st, fem. caupon-
caro meat 3rd, fem. carn-
os bone 3rd, neut. oss-
nobis to us dative of nos
vobis to you (pl.) dative of vos

New Vocabulary - Lesson 4

Latin English Additional Info Stem
patella plate 1st, fem. patell-
ovum egg 2nd, neut. ov-
poculum cup 2nd, neut. pocul-
pavo peacock 3rd, masc. pavon-
bibo I drink (bibere, 3rd conj.) bib-

Time updated 2020-12-03 ^

Ordinal Numbers

Latin ordinals follow the -us, -a, -um declension.

Latin English
primus first
secundus second
tertius third
quartus fourth
quintus fifth
sextus sixth
septimus seventh
octavus eighth
nonus ninth
decimus tenth


For us, an hour is always sixty minutes. For Romans, an hour was defined as one twelfth of a day (the time between sunrise and sunset). This means that an hour in winter was much shorter than an hour in summer.

While our starting point is at midnight (00:01 AM) or noon (00:01 PM), Romans started counting their hours at sunrise to tell the time. The "prima hora" was the first hour after sunrise.

Nouns of the 5th declension

Nouns of the fifth declension are generally feminine (dies and meridies are exceptions to this rule), and their nominative singular form ends in -es.

DIES (day) Singular Plural
Nominative dies dies
Accusative diem dies
Ablative die diebus

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1

Latin English Additional Info Stem
hora hour 1st, fem. hor-
primus first -us, -a, -um prim-
secundus second -us, -a, -um secund-
tertius third -us, -a, -um terti-
excito I wake (someone) (excitare, 1st) excita-
mane early adverb
post after + acc.
ante before + acc.

New Vocabulary - Lesson 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
horologium clock 2nd, neut. horologi-
meridies noon 5th, masc. meridi-
quartus fourth -us, -a, -um quart-
quintus fifth -us, -a, -um quint-
sero late adverb
vesperi in the evening adverb

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3

Latin English Additional Info Stem
interdiu during the day adverb
noctu at night adverb
tempori on time adverb
advenio I arrive (advenire, 4th conj.) adveni-
interficio I kill (interficere, 3rd conj. -io) interfici-

Language updated 2020-01-13 ^

Passive and Deponent Verbs (3rd conj.)

Deponent verbs are verbs that are passive in form, but active in meaning. Passive verb endings differ from their active counterparts. In this skill you will encounter the deponent verb loqui. Loqui follows the third conjugation.

LOQUI To Speak
loqu-or I speak
loqu-e-ris You speak
loqu-i-tur He/She speaks
loqu-i-mur We speak
loqu-i-mini You (pl.) speak
loqu-u-ntur They speak

Passive verbs of the third conjugation follow the same pattern. (Note: most forms of "legi" aren't the most useful, but you can apply this pattern to other 3rd conj. verbs.)

LEG-ERE to read LEG-I to be read
leg-o I read leg-or I am read
leg-i-s you read leg-e-ris you are read
leg-i-t he/she reads leg-i-tur it/he/she is read
leg-i-mus we read leg-i-mur we are read
leg-i-tis you (pl.) read leg-i-mini you (pl.) are read
leg-u-nt they read leg-u-ntur they are read

Adverbs of manner

In English, you can recognize many adverbs by the ending -ly. What is the adverb in the following sentence?

"We speak quietly in the library."

This adverb is derived from the adjective quiet. Adjectives give us more information about a noun or a pronoun, while adverbs modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. "Quietly" is the answer to the question "How do we speak?", and modifies the verb speak.

Adverbs derived from adjectives following the -us, -a, -um pattern get the ending -e.

Adjective Adverb
tacitus, -a, -um tacite
novus, -a, -um nove
longus, -a, -um longe

Exception: bonus (good) becomes bene (well)! You learned this word in the Greetings skill. (Livia se bene habet. = Livia feels well.)

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1

Latin English Additional Info Stem
colloquium conversation 2nd, neut. colloqui-
orator orator, speaker 3rd, masc. orator-
exclamo I exclaim, shout (exclamare, 1st conj.) exclama-
loquor I speak (loqui, 3rd conj.) loqu-
in colloquium venio I have a conversation (venire, 4th conj.) veni-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
bibliotheca library 1st, fem. bibliothec-
volumen scroll, book 3rd, neut. volumin-
mitto I send (mittere, 3rd conj.) mitt-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3

Latin English Additional Info Stem
turba crowd 1st, fem. turb-
verbum word 2nd, neut. verb-
volo to want (velle, irr.) vol-
Anglice in English adverb
Hispanice in Spanish adverb
semper always adverb

New Vocabulary - Lesson 4

Latin English Additional Info Stem
inscriptio inscription 3rd, fem. inscription-
proximus nearest, next -us, -a, -um proxim-
laudo I praise (laudare, 1st conj.) lauda-
invenio I find (invenire, 4th conj.) inveni-
Germanice in German adverb
tacite quietly adverb

Home updated 2020-01-14 ^


The Latin word for "this", hic, has its own irregular declension. For now, just remember the nominative singular forms:

Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. hic haec hoc

Infinitive + Solere

In sentences with the verb soleo (solere, 2nd conj.), you will usually see an infinitive (verbs ending in -re, "to ..." in English). Soleo means "I am used to" or "I am accustomed to".

Example: In lecto dormire soleo., which literally means "I am accustomed to sleeping in a bed." or, more fluently, "I usually sleep in a bed."

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1

Latin English Additional Info Stem
sella chair 1st, fem. sell-
villa house, villa 1st, fem. vill-
lararium household shrine 2nd, neut. larari-
tablinum office, study 2nd, neut. tablin-
ambulo I walk (ambulare, 1st) ambula-
sedeo I sit (sedere, 2nd) sede-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
insula apartment building; island 1st, fem. insul-
latrina latrine, toilet 1st, fem. latrin-
via street, road 1st, fem. vi-
cenaculum dining room 2nd, neut. cenacul-
cubiculum bedroom 2nd, neut. cubicul-
sordidus dirty -us, -a, -um sordid-
aut or

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3

Latin English Additional Info Stem
culina kitchen 1st, fem. culin-
mustela weasel 1st, fem. mustel-
canis dog 3rd, masc. can-
mus mouse 3rd, masc. mur-
capto I try to grab (captare, 1st) capta-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 4

Latin English Additional Info Stem
armarium closet 2nd, neut. armari-
atrium atrium, central room 2nd, neut. atri-
vestimentum piece of clothing 2nd, neut. vestiment-
soleo I am accostumed to (solere, 2nd) + inf. sole-
coquo I cook (coquere, 3rd) coqu-

Gods and goddesses updated 2020-01-14 ^

Gods and Goddesses

The Roman Gods and Godesses form the center of Roman mythology. It is difficult to downsize the many beautiful stories and poems about these deities, so we wholeheartedly recommend you to look up these Gods and their stories if you haven't heard about them!

The Romans had many, many deities. The table below shows only a sample of the abundance of gods, but these are some of the best-known and most important ones.

Roman god Greek counterpart God(dess) of ...
Iuppiter Zeus thunder and lightning, king of the gods
Neptunus Poseidon the sea
Bacchus Dionysos wine
Minerva Athena wisdom
Mars Ares war
Mercurius Hermes messengers, thieves, winged sandals
Pluto Hades the underworld
Iuno Hera marriage, wife of Iuppiter
Ceres Demeter harvests, fertility of the Earth
Venus Aphrodite love, beauty
Diana Artemis the hunt, wilderness, the moon
Apollo Apollo art, music, medicine

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1

Latin English Additional Info Stem
unda wave 1st, fem. und-
Bacchus Bacchus 2nd, masc. Bacch-
Neptunus Neptunus 2nd, masc. Neptun-
bubo owl 3rd, masc. bubon-
video I see (videre, 2nd) vide-
rego I reign (regere, 3rd) reg-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
Minerva Minerva 1st, fem. Minerv-
dea goddess 1st, fem. de-
deus god 2nd, masc. de-
bellum war 2nd, neut. bell-
scutum shield 2nd, neut. scut-
hostis enemy 3rd, masc. host-
Mars Mars 3rd, masc. Mart-
sapiens wise -ns, -ns, -ns sapient-
gero I wear (gerere, 3rd) ger-
bellum gero I wage war (gerere, 3rd) ger-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3

Latin English Additional Info Stem
hasta spear 1st, fem. hast-
Mercurius Mercurius 2nd, masc. Mercuri-
fulmen thunderbolt 3rd, masc. fulmin-
Iuppiter Jupiter 3rd, masc. Iov-
iter journey, trip 3rd, neut. itiner-
contorquo I hurl (contorquere, 3rd) contorqu-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 4

Latin English Additional Info Stem
nemo nobody 3rd, masc./fem. nemin-
appropinquo I approach (appropinquare, 1st) appropinqua-
rogo I ask (rogare, 1st) roga-
noli(te) don't ... + infinitive

Shopping updated 2020-08-31 ^

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1

Latin English Additional Info Stem
gemma gem 1st, fem. gemm-
anulus ring 2nd, masc. anul-
fur thief 3rd, masc. fur-
aureus golden -us, -a, -um aure-
tuus your -us, -a, -um tu-
concupisco I am greedy for (concupiscere, 3rd) concupisc-
trado I hand over (tradere, 3rd) trad-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
stola dress 1st, fem. stol-
toga toga 1st, fem. tog-
candidus white -us, -a, -um candid-
novus new -us, -a, -um nov-
celo I hide (celare, 1st) cela-
sub under + ablative

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3

Latin English Additional Info Stem
calceus shoe 2nd, masc. calce-
pretium price 2nd, neut. preti-
emptor buyer, customer 3rd, masc. emptor-
aestimo I estimate (aestimare, 1st) aestima-
emo I buy (emere, 3rd) em-
vendo I sell (vendere, 3rd) vend-
vult (he/she) wants (velle, irregular)

Activities updated 2020-08-31 ^


Posse (can) is an irregular verb. The present tense resembles the present forms of esse (to be), but with the prefix pot- (or pos- before an -s-).

ESSE POSSE English (posse)
sum possum I can
es potes you can
est potest he/she can
sumus possumus we can
estis potestis you (pl.) can
sunt possunt they can

New Vocabulary

Latin English Additional Info Stem
aqua water 1st, fem. aqu-
balneum bathhouse 2nd, neut. balne-
labrum tub 2nd, neut. labr-
donum gift 2nd, neut. don-
sacerdos priest 3rd, masc. sacerdot-
callidus clever -us, -a, -um callid-
lavo I wash (lavare, 1st) lava-
impleo I fill (implere, 2nd) imple-
possum I can (posse, irregular) pot-

Hobbies updated 2020-08-31 ^

Adverbs ending in -iter

While first and second declension adjectives get the ending -e to form an adverb, third declension adjectives get -iter

Adjective Adverb
suavis, -is, -e suaviter
celeris, -is, -e celeriter

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1 & 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
pupa doll 1st, fem. pup-
ambulo I walk (ambulare, 1st) ambula-
canto I sing (cantare, 1st) canta-
salto I dance (saltare, 1st) salta-
soleo I am accustomed to (solere, 2nd) sole-
colligo I collect (colligere, 3rd) collig-
pingo I paint (pingere, 3rd) ping-
saepe often adverb
suaviter softly adverb

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3 & 4

Latin English Additional Info Stem
fabula story 1st, fem. fabul-
piscina pond, pool 1st, fem. piscin-
platea courtyard 1st, fem. plate-
mos custom 3rd, masc. mor-
antiquus ancient -us, -a, -um antiqu-
narro I tell (narrare, 1st) narra-
nato I swim (natare, 1st) nata-
curro I run (currere, 3rd) curr-
ire to go (irregular)
celeriter quickly, fast adverb
lente slowly adverb

Nature updated 2020-08-31 ^

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1

Latin English Additional Info Stem
animal animal 3rd, neut. animal-
ignis fire 3rd, masc. ign-
pons bridge 3rd, masc. pont-
pessimus worst -us, -a, -um pessim-
deleo I destroy (delere, 2nd) dele-
forte by chance adverb
rapide rapidly adverb

New Vocabulary - Lesson 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
arbor tree 3rd, fem. arbor-
flumen river 3rd, neut. flumin-
homo human 3rd, masc. homin-
ascendo I climb, I rise (ascendere, 3rd) ascend-
fluo I flow (fluere, 3rd) flu-
languide sluggishly adverb

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3

Latin English Additional Info Stem
caelum sky 2nd, neut. cael-
ventus wind 2nd, masc. vent-
perflo I blow through (perflare, 1st) perfla-
exeo I exit (exire, ~ ire)
vehementer violently adverb
per through + accusative

New Vocabulary - Lesson 4

Latin English Additional Info Stem
silva forest 1st, fem. silv-
umbra shadow 1st, fem. umbr-
imber rain 3rd, masc. imbr-
mons mountain 3rd, masc. mont-
descendo I descend (descendere, 3rd) descend-
de from + ablative

Banquet updated 2020-08-31 ^

New Vocabulary - Lesson 1

Latin English Additional Info Stem
perna ham 1st, fem. pern-
caseus cheese 2nd, masc. case-
panis bread 3rd, masc. pan-
fartus stuffed -us, -a, -um fart-
esurio I am hungry (esurire, 4th) esuri-

New Vocabulary - Lesson 2

Latin English Additional Info Stem
oleo I smell (of) (olere, 2nd) ole-
comedo I eat (comedere, 3rd) comed-
nimis too much
sine dubio without a doubt
tam so
valde greatly

New Vocabulary - Lesson 3

Latin English Additional Info Stem
aurora dawn 1st, fem. auror-
caffea coffee 1st, fem. caffe-
ientaculum breakfast 2nd, neut. ientacul-
semisomnus half-asleep -us, -a, -um semisomn-
stultus stupid -us, -a, -um stult-
bibo I drink (bibere, 3rd) bib-
exhaurio I drain (exhaurire, 4th) exhauri-

22 skills with tips and notes