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明皓靖

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Learning High Valyrian from English

Level 11 · 3543 XP

Crowns: 79

Skills: 38

Lessons: 132

Lexemes: 823

Strength: 93%

Created: 2016-07-10
Last Goal: 2021-11-27
Daily Goal: 50 XP
Timezone: UTC+1

Last update: 2021-11-28 16:55:26 GMT+3


198304087

High Valyrian Skills by StrengthCrownsNameOriginal Order

  • 23 Solar Class42 @ 100% 0 •••
    belmurza · belmurzi · dāeri · dāez · gevie · gevī · jaehossa · jaes · jenti · jentys · jentyssy · jentī · ojehikis · ojehiksa · raqiros · raqirossa · rōvi · rōvys · rōvyz · rōvī · tubis · tubissa · vandis · vandissa · vokti · voktys · voktyssy · voktī · zaldrīzes · zaldrīzesse · zaldrīzī · ñuhi · ñuhys · ñuhyz · ñuhī · ēza · ēzi
    37 words

    INTRODUCTION TO GENDER

    High Valyrian is a language with genders, much like Spanish, German, or Arabic. Unlike those languages, though, the genders of High Valyrian have nothing to do with biological sex. Instead, the genders are named based on key nouns within each gender that serve as the prototype for the rest of the paradigm. The genders are:

    • Lunar Class (Hūrenkon Qogror) from the word hūra "moon"
    • Solar Class (Vēzenkon Qogror) from the word vēzos "sun"
    • Aquatic Class (Embōñor Qogror) from the word embar "sea"
    • Terrestrial Class (Tegōñor Qogror) from the word tegon "earth"

    Every noun of High Valyrian belongs to one of these four genders and requires its adjectives to agree with that gender. Gender in nouns can most often be recognized by a set of characteristic endings associated with each gender. In the four gender skills you will learn to recognize and manipulate those characteristic endings.

    THE SOLAR CLASS

    The solar class is the probably the most common class found in High Valyrian. Solar nouns all have either an s or a z in their nominative endings. While the accusative endings of solar and lunar nouns are similar, solar nouns typically take a double ss plus their theme vowel in the nominative plural.

    Adjectives agreeing with solar nouns take different endings from those agreeing with lunar, terrestrial or aquatic nouns, as can be expected, but a few endings also display variant behavior depending on whether the adjective precedes or follows the noun it modifies. If one wanted to say "my leaders", for example, one would take the plural of "leader", jentyssy, and put the solar plural form of "my" in front to get ñuhyz jentyssy. Upon reversing the order, though, a vowel that is ordinarily dropped reappears, resulting in jentyssy ñuhyzy.

    There is an additional stipulation if a solar plural adjective precedes a k, p, s, or t. While one would say ñuhyz jentyssy with a z ending, if one wished to say "my days", one would say ñuhys tubissa, with the z becoming an s on account of the following t. The z would, of course, reappear were the order reversed, giving us tubissa ñuhyzy.

  • 23 Lunar Class41 @ 100% 0 •••
    anne · anni · annī · atroksia · atroksie · atroksī · avera · avero · dovaogēdi · dovaogēdy · dovaogēdī · gerpa · gerpe · gerpi · gerpī · ipradan · ipradas · ipradi · ipradis · ipradā · ipradāt · kostōba · kostōbe · kostōbi · kostōbī · kēla · kēli · sylvie · sylvī · zokla · zokle · zokli · zoklī · ñuhe · ñuhī · āeksia · āeksio
    37 words

    INTRODUCTION TO GENDER

    High Valyrian is a language with genders, much like Spanish, German, or Arabic. Unlike those languages, though, the genders of High Valyrian have nothing to do with biological sex. Instead, the genders are named based on key nouns within each gender that serve as the prototype for the rest of the paradigm. The genders are:

    • Lunar Class (Hūrenkon Qogror) from the word hūra "moon"
    • Solar Class (Vēzenkon Qogror) from the word vēzos "sun"
    • Aquatic Class (Embōñor Qogror) from the word embar "sea"
    • Terrestrial Class (Tegōñor Qogror) from the word tegon "earth"

    Every noun of High Valyrian belongs to one of these four genders and requires its adjectives to agree with that gender. Gender in nouns can most often be recognized by a set of characteristic endings associated with each gender. In the four gender skills you will learn to recognize and manipulate those characteristic endings.

    THE LUNAR CLASS

    The lunar class is the most robust High Valyrian noun class. Lunar nouns can take a, e, i, o, or y as theme vowels. Most lunar nouns take some sort of -i suffix in the plural and accusative (though the latter will often coalesce with a final -a producing an -e suffix). Note that while the accusative plural for lunar nouns is always , the accusative singular of some types of lunar nouns (for example those ending in -e) also take in the accusative singular, rendering their singular and plural forms identical in the accusative.

    Many important nouns referring to humans are lunar, so it pays to get a solid handle on lunar endings moving forward.

  • 23 Demonstratives 133 @ 100% 0 •••
    bisi · bisy · boni · bony · kesi · kesy · koni · kony · korze · korzi · zentys · zentyssy
    12 words

    DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

    In this lesson you're going to learn some demonstrative pronouns. Though adjectives agree with nouns in case, number, and gender, it's important to remember that demonstrative pronouns do not. Pronouns take their own plurality, depending on their referent, and make a simple distinction between animate (B-class) and inanimate (K-class). In addition, there are two sets of pronouns depending on distance. Thus:

    • kesy "this (inanimate)"
    • bisy "this (animate)"
    • kony "that (inanimate)"
    • bony "that (animate)"

    Note: It's up to the individual speaker to decide whether animals are animate enough to earn a B-class demonstrative pronoun.

  • 23 Basics 232 @ 100% 0 •••
    azanti · azantī · hontī · jorrāelza · jorrāelzi · kepe · majaqis · majaqsa · muñe · rijas · rijis · riñe · riñī · rȳban · rȳbas · rȳbis · taobe · taobī · urnen · urnes · urnesi · vale · ābre
    23 words

    NOUN CASE

    In High Valyrian, nouns change their form based on their grammatical role in the sentence. In this lesson, you'll be introduced to two cases. One you've been using since the beginning: the nominative case. The nominative case is used with the subject of the sentence. It's considered the basic form of the noun, and is the form you'll learn first when you learn a new noun.

    The second case you're going to learn about in this lesson is called the accusative case. The accusative case is used with the object of the sentence. For example, in the English sentence "The man sees the woman", "the man" is the subject (the seer), and would take the nominative case in Valyrian. "The woman", on the other hand, is the object (the seeee), and would take the accusative case. In English, it's obvious who does what to whom, because a verb stands in between the two nouns. In High Valyrian, though, both of these are licit translations:

    • Vala ābre urnes.
    • Ābre vala urnes.

    Rather than word order, the form of the noun is what tells you who does what to whom. In this case, ābra "woman" changes its ending from its usual -a to -e.

    There are several different strategies for forming the accusative case, all of which you'll learn later. For this lesson, here are the important ones:

    • If the nominative is -a, the accusative is -e.
    • If the nominative is -i, the accusative is .
    • If the nominative is -es, the accusative is .
    • If the nominative is -ys, the accusative is -i.
    • If the nominative is -yssy, the accusative is .

    These generalizations will suffice for this skill. Soon you'll learn more rules regarding the formation of the accusative and other cases.

    VERB ENDINGS

    In this skill you'll notice a few different strategies for marking a verb. High Valyrian verbs agree with their subjects in number and person. For now, you'll see endings for the third person singular (he, she, it) and plural (they), as well as the first person singular (I). Pay special attention to when a verb ends with -sa vs. -za vs. -as in the third person singular, as not all verbs consistently take the same ending.

    Some generalizations you may notice:

    • If the subject is "I", the verb ends in -n.
    • If the subject is "he, she, it", the verb has an -s or -z in its ending.
    • If the subject is "they", the verb has -zi, -si, or -is in its ending.

    Again, these generalizations will suffice for this skill. Soon you'll learn more rules regarding the formation of the all verbal conjugations.

  • 23 Basics 112 @ 100% 0 •••
    azantys · azantyssy · hontes · hontesse · iksan · iksi · iksā · iksāt · issa · issi · kepa · kepi · kepī · kirine · kirini · līris · līrisi · muña · muñi · muñī · nages · nagesi · riña · riñi · sȳri · sȳz · taoba · taobi · taobā · vala · vali · valā · valī · vāedas · vāedis · ñuha · ñuhi · ābra · ābri · ābrā · ābrī · ēdrus · ēdrusi
    43 words

    JIŌRNA!

    Welcome to High Valyrian for English speakers! High Valyrian is the language of the old Valyrian Freehold, a thriving civilization destroyed by a mysterious cataclysm centuries before the action of Game of Thrones begins. It was a language of dragon tamers and warriors, but is now a language of refinement and education—a memory of a bygone era. It's the language of the Mad King Aerys, of Aegon the Conqueror, and of Daenerys Targaryen, Mother of Dragons.

    High Valyrian is an inflectional language, where the form of a noun changes to indicate the role it plays in a sentence, or verbs inflect for their tense, aspect, and voice. Generally, adjectives come before the nouns they modify, and verbs come at the end of the sentence.

    As you begin your study of Valyrian, you may want to know how the Roman letters used to spell the language are pronounced. In Old Valyria, the language was written with a glyphic writing system, but in our world, we use a variant of the Roman alphabet for simplicity's sake. Here's a description of the system:

    CONSONANTS

    • B, D, H, L, M, N, Z are pronounced roughly the same as they are in English.
      • IPA: [b], [d], [h], [l], [m], [n], [z].
    • G is always pronounced hard, as in "get"; never as in "genre" or "gel".
      • IPA: [ɡ]
    • K, P, T are pronounced similar to English, but without aspiration (compare "pie" to "spy". The Valyrian P is pronounced as in "spy").
      • IPA: [p], [t], [k]
    • S is always pronounced voiceless, as in "dose"; never as in "rose".
      • IPA: [s]
    • R is always trilled, as in Spanish "perro".
      • IPA: [r]
    • V is now pronounced as in "vet", but used to be pronounced as the "w" in "wet".
      • IPA: [v] (Modern); [w] (Ancient)
    • J is now pronounced as in "jam", but used to have a slightly more palatal pronunciation.
      • IPA: [dʒ] (Modern); [ɟ] and [j] (Antiquated)
    • Q is pronounced like a "k", but much further back in the mouth, with the back of the tongue touching the uvula. There is no English equivalent.
      • IPA: [q]
    • GH is a voiced guttural sound like a noisier version of the "g" in Spanish "lago". There is no English equivalent.
      • IPA: [ɣ] or [ʁ]
    • LJ is pronounced like the "lli" in "million".
      • IPA: [ʎ]
    • Ñ is pronounced as in Spanish "ñ" or the "ni" in "minion".
      • IPA: [ɲ]
    • RH is pronounced like Valyrian R, but with no voicing.
      • IPA: [r̥]

    VOWELS

    • A is pronounced as in "father".
      • IPA: [a]
    • E is pronounced as in "get", and is never silent.
      • IPA: [ɛ] or [e] (no distinction)
    • I is pronounced as in "machine".
      • IPA: [i]
    • O is pronounced as in "note".
      • IPA: [ɔ] or [o] (no distinction)
    • U is pronounced as in "rude".
      • IPA: [u]
    • Y is pronounced like the "i" in "machine", but with the lips fully rounded as if one is pronouncing U.
      • IPA: [y]
    • Ā, Ē, Ī, Ō, Ū, Ȳ are pronounced exactly as their macron-less counterparts but are held for a longer duration.
      • IPA: [aː], [ɛː]~[eː], [iː], [ɔː]~[oː], [uː], [yː]

    Note: As a shortcut, you can type a double version of the vowel to stand in for a vowel with a macron. Thus, if you type yy it will be understood as ȳ by Duolingo.

    SINGULAR AND PLURAL

    In this lesson you'll be learning the singular and plural pairs for some common words. In High Valyrian there are a number of pluralization strategies, so pay close attention to the ending of each word you learn.

    High Valyrian is a language whose nouns inflect for gender, number, and case. Adjectives will agree with all three of these elements. In this lesson, you'll only be focusing on plural agreement; other types of agreement will come later.

    ADJECTIVE PLACEMENT

    Adjectives most commonly precede the nouns they modify, but they may follow the nouns they modify either for stylistic reasons, or to prevent overcrowding. Thus, if you have sȳz which means "good", then "good man" can be translated as sȳz vala or vala sȳz.

    SIMPLE COORDINATION

    High Valyrian doesn't use a word like "and" when coordinating two non-modifying consecutive elements. Instead, the last word in a pair or trio of nouns, adjectives, or even verbs is modified in some way to indicate that it is participating in a coordinative structure. One common strategy is to lengthen the final vowel of the last word in a list and shift the word's stress to the end. Watch out for word-final long vowels in sentences with coordination!

    PRO-DROP

    You'll be learning some High Valyrian pronouns later. For now, if you see a verb, the subject will either be listed first, or will be a pronoun not present. Take, for example, the sentence Vala issa. Translated simply, it could mean "The man is", but that's not a very useful sentence. A better translation would be "He is a man", where "he" is simply not necessary.

  • 32 Comitative141 @ 100% 0 •••
    dohaeriros · dohaeriroso · dohaerirossi · jollōran · jollōrtas · jollōrza · jollōrās · mentommi · mentomy · mentys · pikīban · pikības · pikīptan · pikīpti · raqiros · raqiroso · raqirossas · teptomy · teptys · tymptan · tymptas · tymptir · tymptis · vala · vali · valoma · vokto · voktomy · voktys · voktyssy · vīlības · vīlīptan · ābra · ābroma · ābrommi
    35 words

    THE COMITATIVE CASE

    The comitative case is assigned to a person with which the subject performs action of the verb. Crucially for Valyrian, the canonical use of the comitative is with an animate object, as shown below:

    • The boy ate a pastry with his sister.
    • The girl attacked the enemy with the knight.

    The form of the comitative, as with the instrumental case, varies. The basic form of the singular ending is formed by adding the consonant m (most nouns) or s (third declension or o theme nouns) to the genitive and then adding the theme vowel (though do note the common io to ȳ change). Below are the forms of the comitative for some noun forms:

    NOUNS ENDING IN -A

    • NOM: vala "man"
    • GEN: valo "of the man"
    • INS: valoma "with the man"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -AR

    • NOM: valonqar “little brother"
    • GEN: valonqro "of the little brother"
    • INS: valanqroma "with the little brother"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -E

    • NOM: Valyre “Valyrian person"
    • GEN: Valyro "of the Valyrian person"
    • INS: Valyrome "with the Valyrian person"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -ES

    • NOM: zaldrīzes "dragon"
    • GEN: zaldrīzo "of the dragon" INS: zaldrīzome "with the dragon”

    NOUNS ENDING IN -O

    • NOM: kyno "silkworm"
    • GEN: kynō "of the silkworm"
    • INS: kynoso "with the silkworm"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -ON

    • NOM: turgon "worm"
    • GEN: turgo "of the worm"
    • INS: turgoso "with the worm"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -OS

    • NOM: raqiros "friend"
    • GEN: raqiro "of the friend"
    • INS: raqiroso "with the friend"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -I

    • NOM: kēli "cat"
    • GEN: kēlio "of the cat"
    • INS: kēlȳmi "with the cat"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -IO

    • NOM: kostio "hero"
    • GEN: kostiō "of the hero"
    • INS: kostȳmi "with the hero"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -IR

    • NOM: qintir "turtle"
    • GEN: qintrio "of the turtle"
    • INS: qintrȳmi "with the turtle"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -Y

    • NOM: tolmīhy "stranger"
    • GEN: tolmīho "of the stranger"
    • INS: tolmīhomy "with the stranger"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -YS

    • NOM: dārys "king"
    • GEN: dāro "of the king"
    • INS: dāromy "with the king"

    In the plural, every single comitative (and comitative) is formed the same. Simply double the consonant and replace the final vowel with i. Thus, if valoma is “with the man”, then valommi is “with the men”. For an S example, if raqiroso is “with the friend”, then raqirossi is “with the friends”.

    ADJECTIVAL CONCORD

    Adjectives in the comitative generally follow the form of their nominal counterparts. Thus, where one expects to see an M comitative in a noun, one will see an M comitative ending in the adjective. Here is a summary of postpositive locative adjectival forms:

    CLASS I

    • Lunar: kastosa (SG), kastossi (PL), kastoma (SG), kastommi (PL)
    • Solar: kastosy (SG), kastossi (PL), kastomy (SG), kastommi (PL)
    • Terrestrial: kastoso (SG), kastossi (PL), kastomo (SG), kastommi (PL)
    • Aquatic: kastroso (SG), kastrossi (PL), kastromo (SG), kastrommi (PL)

    CLASS II

    • Lunar/Solar: aderose (SG), aderossi (PL), aderome (SG), aderommi (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳso (SG), aderȳssi (PL), aderȳmo (SG), aderȳmmi (PL)

    CLASS III

    • Lunar/Solar: gevȳse (SG), gevȳssi (PL), gevȳme (SG), gevȳmmi (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳso (SG), gevȳssi (PL), gevȳmo (SG), gevȳmmi (PL)

    The prepositive forms lose their final vowels or final syllables. In some cases, the internal vowels change as well. Bearing this in mind, here are the prepositive comitative adjectival forms:

    CLASS I

    • Lunar: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
    • Solar: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
    • Terrestrial: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
    • Aquatic: kastros (SG), kastros (PL), kastrom (SG), kastrom (PL)

    CLASS II

    • Lunar/Solar: aderos (SG), aderos (PL), aderom (SG), aderom (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳs (SG), aderȳs (PL), aderȳm (SG), aderȳm (PL)

    CLASS III

    • Lunar/Solar: gevios (SG), gevios (PL), geviom (SG), geviom (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳs (SG), gevȳs (PL), gevȳm (SG), gevȳm (PL)

    PRONOUNS

    First and second person pronouns only have m forms in the comitative and instrumental; third person pronouns have unique comitative and instrumental forms. They are summarized below:

    • First Person Sg.: ynoma
    • Second Person Sg.: aōma
    • Third Person Sg.: zijosy/zijomy, josa/joma
    • First Person Pl.: īloma
    • Second Person Pl.: jemme
    • Third Person Pl.: pōntosa/pōntoma
  • 32 Perfect131 @ 100% 0 •••
    angotas · arghutis · bardutas · idakotis · idakoton · iotāpteti · iotāpteton · iprattan · iprattas · izūgdon · izūgdā · jorrāeltas · kelitis · keliton · līritas · merbutan · merbutos · nagetis · nagetos · nektotas · nektoti · nevetas · pilotas · piloti · ryptas · rypti · sinditan · sinditosy · vūjitas · vūjiton · vūjitos · ēdrutas · ēdruti · ēdrutosy · ūndas · ūndoty
    36 words

    THE PERFECT TENSE

    The High Valyrian perfect is less a tense than an aspect. You use the perfect to indicate that an action has been completed. Often it is used in the past tense, and is translated as such, as shown below:

    Ziry ūndan. "I saw him."

    Sometimes it makes more sense to translate the High Valyrian perfect as an English perfect, as opposed to a simple past tense:

    Issa, iprattan. "Yes, I have eaten."

    In High Valyrian the distinction is unimportant. Any perfect can be translated either way.

    PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE VERB CONJUGATION

    Forming the perfect in High Valyrian is fairly simple. Most of the time, one adds a t to the root and then adds the present tense agreement endings. Here's a regular example below:

    • Jorrāeltan "I loved" root plus -tan
    • Jorrāeltā "you loved" root plus -tā
    • Jorrāeltas "s/he loved" root plus -tas
    • Jorrāelti "we loved" root plus -ti
    • Jorrāeltāt "you (all) loved" root plus -tāt
    • Jorrāeltis "they loved" root plus -tis

    This holds for many verbs whose stems end in a consonant, and almost all verbs whose stems end in a vowel.

    A good number of verbs whose stems end in a consonant have an irregular stem in the perfect. This stem will need to be learned and memorized, although many are somewhat predictable. Here, for example, is the conjugation for the verb rȳbagon, "to hear" in the perfect active indicative:

    • Ryptan "I heard" perfect stem plus -tan
    • Ryptā "you heard" perfect stem plus -tā
    • Ryptas "s/he heard" perfect stem plus -tas
    • Rypti "we heard" perfect stem plus -ti
    • Ryptāt "you (all) heard" perfect stem plus -tāt
    • Ryptis "they heard" perfect stem plus -tis

    Above, the long ȳ shortens, and the b devoices to p before the voiceless t of the perfect. Many irregulars have shortened vowels or devoiced consonants. Some cause the t of the perfect to voice to d.

    PERFECT ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE VERB CONJUGATION

    The subjunctive is formed the same way as the indicative. Here's a regular example:

    • Jorrāelton "I loved" root plus -ton
    • Jorrāeltō "you loved" root plus -tō
    • Jorrāeltos "s/he loved" root plus -tos
    • Jorrāeltoty "we loved" root plus -toty
    • Jorrāeltōt "you (all) loved" root plus -tōt
    • Jorrāeltosy "they loved" root plus -tosy

    And here's an irregular example:

    • Rypton "I heard" perfect stem plus -ton
    • Ryptō "you heard" perfect stem plus -tō
    • Ryptos "s/he heard" perfect stem plus -tos
    • Ryptoty "we heard" perfect stem plus -toty
    • Ryptōt "you (all) heard" perfect stem plus -tōt
    • Ryptosy "they heard" perfect stem plus -tosy

    IRREGULAR VERBS

    The verb urnegon, "to see" is highly irregular. Its perfect stem is ūnd-, to which all agreement endings are added. Its full perfect conjugation is shown below:

    • Ūndan "I saw" perfect stem plus -an
    • Ūndā "you saw" perfect stem plus -ā
    • Ūndas "s/he saw" perfect stem plus -as
    • Ūndi "we saw" perfect stem plus -i
    • Ūndāt "you (all) saw" perfect stem plus -āt
    • Ūndis "they saw" *perfect stem plus -is
    • Ūndon "I saw" perfect stem plus -on
    • Ūndō "you saw" perfect stem plus -ō
    • Ūndos "s/he saw" perfect stem plus -os
    • Ūndoty "we saw" perfect stem plus -oty
    • Ūndōt "you (all) saw" perfect stem plus -ōt
    • Ūndosy "they saw" perfect stem plus -osy

    The verbs emagon, jagon, and sagon are likewise irregular, and conjugate the same way. Their perfect stems are ēd-, ist-, and ist-. (Note: This renders jagon and sagon identical in the perfect.)

    ALREADY

    As a note, the adverb sīr, which you know as "now", translates more accurately as "already" when used in conjunction with a verb in the perfect.

  • 32 Commands123 @ 100% 0 •••
    arghugon · arghūtūs · bardūs · buzdaris · buzdarissis · dārilaros · dēmās · emās · idakōs · ipradātās · jagon · kelītīs · kēli · kēlys · mittot · mittys · nevēs · ozgūroti · pilogon · rūniapos · rūniapossa · rȳbātās · sindīs · sātās · taoba · taobe · taobis · taobus · vūjigon · āeksia · āeksio · āeksios · āeksīs · ēdrūs · ȳdragon · ȳdrātās
    36 words

    VOCATIVE CASE

    In this skill, you'll be introduced to the vocative case. The vocative case is assigned to nouns one is addressing directly. For example:

    • Rytas, taobus! "Hello, boy!"

    The vocative always has an -s associated with it. In the solar, the vocative singular is often identical to the nominative singular. Otherwise, you add an -s to the nominative form, for most gender/number combinations. For example:

    • Āeksios! "Master!"
    • Zaldrīzesses! "Dragons!"
    • Valis! "Men!"
    • Dārīs! "Queens!"
    • Trēsys! "Son!"

    Certain gender/number combinations also feature a vowel change, and sometimes a lengthened vowel. Be sure to note them:

    • Riñus! "Girl!"
    • Zaldrīzys! "Dragon!"
    • Dārȳs! "Queen!"
    • Āeksīs! "Masters!"
    • Annys! "Horse!"

    Care must be taken with aquatic and terrestrial forms, as the characteristic r and n of each gender is lost in the vocative:

    • Blenos! "Mountain!"
    • Lōgos! "Boat!"

    COMMANDS

    In High Valyrian, there are several different ways to issue commands, depending on if the referent is second person or non-second person; if the referent is singular or plural; or if the command is positive or negative. In this skill, you'll be introduced to each type of command in each successive lesson.

    The most basic form of command is the positive command given to a second person referent. In High Valyrian, there are two different verb forms, depending on if the referent is singular or plural. There are also different forms of the verb depending on if the stem ends in a consonant or a vowel. A summary is given below:

    • Singular, C-Final Ipradās! "Eat!"
    • Plural, C-Final Ipradātās! "Eat!"

    • Singular, V-Final Kelīs! "Stop!"

    • Plural, V-Final Kelītīs!! "Stop!"

    In other words, with a final consonant, the endings are -ās and -ātās for singular and plural, respectively. When the verb stem ends in a vowel, though, the ā vowels are replaced with lengthened versions of the final vowel in the stem.

    Negative commands are fairly simple. You simply take the infinitive form of the verb and follow it with daor. Thus:

    • Ipradagon daor! "Don't eat!"
    • Keligon daor! "Don't stop!"

    Finally, commands can be issued to non-second person referents. Such commands are often translated with "let" in English, even if they're not explicitly requests. For example, when your boss says "Let me see what you've been working on", they're not really asking permission. In High Valyrian, while there is a distinction between requesting permission and non-second person commands, the English translations may be unhelpful in distinguishing between the two.

    To form a non-second person command, you use the infinitive form of the verb plus the vocative form of whoever or whatever is being issued a command. The vocative noun phrase occurs directly before the verb. For example:

    • Nykys ipradagon! "Let me eat!"
    • Taobus keligon! "Have the boy stop!"
    • Azanti ābrus rijagon! "Have the woman praise the knight!"

    For negative non-second person commands, simply add daor afterward:

    • Zaldrīzesses ipradagon daor! "Don't let the dragons eat!"
    • Taobus keligon daor! "Don't let the boy stop!"
  • 32 Colors121 @ 100% 0 •••
    drogo · drogon · drogot · kasta · kasto · kastor · kastys · mele · melisandre · melisandro · melo · qeldlie · qeldlior · qeldlī · qībōños · rhaegal · rhaegali · rhaegalo · sȳndrilla · sȳndrilli · sȳndrilloti · sȳndrillī · timpa · timpi · timpon · timpor · timpys · viserion · viseriōn · zōbriar · zōbrie · zōbrior
    32 words

    COLOR TERMS

    High Valyrian's color terminology is not as advanced as that of a modern language. High Valyrian has a small number of color terms that cover a wide ranging spectrum of shades and tints. Perhaps the best way to categorize the main color terms of High Valyrian is as follows:

    • Timpa: Light colors in the blue-pink spectrum.
    • Zōbrie: Dark colors in the blue-purple spectrum.
    • Qeldlie: Light colors in the red-yellow spectrum.
    • Mele: Dark colors in the orange-red spectrum.
    • Kasta: Dark and light colors in the blue-green spectrum.

    As you can see, there's not a perfect mapping, but there's usually broad agreement amongst speakers about what term to use with an actual object being described.

    As a way of helping remember which English term pairs with which Valyrian term, here's a correspondence set for the prototypical values for English's 11 basic color terms:

    • Black: zōbrie
    • Blue: kasta
    • Brown: qeldlie (light) mele (dark)
    • Gray: timpa (light) zōbrie (dark)
    • Green: kasta
    • Orange: qeldlie (light) mele (dark)
    • Pink: timpa
    • Purple: zōbrie
    • Red: mele
    • White: timpa
    • Yellow: qeldlie

    Now here's the High Valyrian to English version of the above list:

    • Timpa: white, pink, gray (light)
    • Zōbrie: black, purple, gray (dark)
    • Qeldlie: yellow, orange (light), brown (light)
    • Mele: red, orange (dark), brown (dark)
    • Kasta: blue, green

    BORROWED WORDS

    Like all languages, High Valyrian has words that originate from other sources. Many words, when borrowed, can be easily slotted into one of Valyrian's many noun declension classes, but some cannot. One of these is the name of Daenerys's dragon Rhaegal. Since High Valyrian no longer has nouns that end in l, names like this one fall under the default borrowed class (always lunar). The declension of this class is a little from the ones you've learned. Please study the partial below:

    • NOM.: Rhaegal (SG) Rhaegali (PL)
    • ACC.: Rhaegali (SG) Rhaegalī (PL)
    • GEN.: Rhaegalo (SG) Rhaegaloti (PL)
    • DAT.: Rhaegalot (SG) Rhaegaloti (PL)
    • LOC.: Rhaegalī (SG) Rhaegaloti (PL)

    You'll learn the other forms when you encounter the other three cases in future skills.

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    arliē · arlȳr · arlȳro · baelza · baelā · biādrot · botan · botas · boto · botē · dāriot · gevie · geviē · glaesan · glaesas · glaesi · hae · ilza · ilzi · iōrāt · kesīr · konīr · mījāeliot · rihot · umbas · umbis · vaoresan · vumbiarzȳ · zenturliot · zoklākon · zoklākō · īlilion · īliliot
    33 words

    THE LOCATIVE CASE

    The locative case is assigned to the location of the action of a verb. The most canonical use of the locative is with generic locations, as follows:

    • The boy ate a pastry on the grass.
    • The girl lived in a house.

    In High Valyrian, the locative case is also used to mark the objects of certain verbs (you'll learn more about these later), and also used to mark the objects of the preposition hae "like, as".

    The locative singular has two basic forms. One type of locative singular is formed by lengthening the theme vowel of the nominal ending. Here are a few examples of this type of locative ending:

    NOUNS ENDING IN -A

    • NOM: vala "man"
    • DAT: valot "to the man"
    • LOC: valā "on the man"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -AR

    • NOM: kisalbar "feast"
    • DAT: kisalbrot "to the feast"
    • LOC: kisalbār "at the feast"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -E

    • NOM: anne "horse"
    • DAT: annot "to the horse"
    • LOC: annē "on the horse"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -ES

    • NOM: zaldrīzes "dragon"
    • DAT: zaldrīzot "to the dragon"
    • LOC: zaldrīzē "on the dragon"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -I

    • NOM: brōzi "name"
    • DAT: brōziot "to the name"
    • LOC: brōzī "in the name"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -IA

    • NOM: Valyria "Valyria"
    • DAT: Valyriot "to Valyria"
    • LOC: Valyriā "in Valyria"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -IEN

    • NOM: Targārien "Targaryen"
    • DAT: Targāriot "to the Targaryen"
    • LOC: Targāriēn "on the Targaryen"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -IR

    • NOM: qintir "turtle"
    • DAT: qintriot "to the turtle"
    • LOC: qintīr "on the turtle"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -IS

    • NOM: tubis "day"
    • DAT: tubiot "to the day"
    • LOC: tubī "on the day (i.e. today)"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -Y

    • NOM: qilōny "whip"
    • DAT: qilōnot "to the whip"
    • LOC: qilōnȳ "on the whip"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -YS

    • NOM: rudirys "hole"
    • DAT: rudirot "to the hole"
    • LOC: rudirȳ "in the hole"

    Nouns with any other ending have a locative that is identical in form to the dative, as shown below:

    • NOM: qurdon "table"
    • DAT: qurdot "to the table"
    • LOC: qurdot "on the table"

    In the plural, almost every single noun has a locative that is identical in form to their plural dative and genitive forms. Only nouns ending in -y and -ys have unique locative plural forms. They are shown below:

    NOUNS ENDING IN -Y

    • LOC (SG): qilōnȳ "on the whip"
    • LOC (PL): qilōnī "on the whip"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -YS

    • LOC (SG): rudirȳ "in the hole"
    • LOC (PL): rudirī "in the holes"

    When used on its own, the context of the sentence will determine the precise definition of the locative case phrase. For example, under ordinary circumstances, Taoba qurdot dēmas will be translated as "The boy sits at the table", since this is how humans usually interact with tables. Kēli qurdot dēmas, though, will likely be translated as "The cat sits on the table", as cats are incorrigible.

    SAGON VS. ILAGON

    When using "to be" with a locative predicate, one uses ilagon rather than sagon. The verb ilagon means "to lie", but is often better translated as "to be". Here's an example:

    • Havon qurdot ilza.
    • The bread is on the table.

    The verb ilagon can also be used for presentational/existential constructions. For example, the sentence above could also be translated as "There is bread on the table".

    ADJECTIVAL CONCORD

    Adjectives in the locative generally follow the form of their nominal counterparts. Thus, where one expects to see a lengthened vowel in a noun, one will see a lengthened vowel in the adjective, and the same holds for dative forms. Here is a summary of postpositive locative adjectival forms:

    CLASS I

    • Lunar: kastā (SG), kastoti (PL)
    • Solar: kastȳ (SG), kastī (PL)
    • Terrestrial: kastot (SG), kastoti (PL)
    • Aquatic: kastrot (SG), kastroti (PL)

    CLASS II

    • Lunar/Solar: aderē (SG), aderoti (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳrot (SG), aderȳti (PL)

    CLASS III

    • Lunar/Solar: geviē (SG), gevȳti (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳrot (SG), gevȳti (PL)

    The exact same rules that applied to dative adjectives apply to locative adjectives. Bearing this in mind, here are the prepositive locative adjectival forms:

    CLASS I

    • Lunar: kastā (SG), kasto (PL)
    • Solar: kastȳ (SG), kastī (PL)
    • Terrestrial: kasto (SG), kasto (PL)
    • Aquatic: kastro (SG), kastro (PL)

    CLASS II

    • Lunar/Solar: aderē (SG), adero (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳr (SG), aderȳ (PL)

    CLASS III

    • Lunar/Solar: geviē (SG), gevio (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳr (SG), gevȳ (PL)

    Again, for singular forms that end in t (excluding those that end in ȳrot) the t reappears when the following word begins with a vowel.

  • 32 Pronouns111 @ 100% 0 •••
    avy · aōhon · aōs · aōt · jeme · jemot · jemī · jeva · jāhon · nyke · pōja · pōjon · pōnta · pōnte · pōntot · tepan · tepas · yne · ynot · ziry · zȳhon · ñuhon · īlot · īlvon · īlōn · ūja · ūī
    27 words

    PERSONAL PRONOUNS

    High Valyrian has seven personal pronouns. Though High Valyrian has four genders, these genders aren't perfectly reified in the pronominal inventory. These are the nominative forms for High Valyrian's personal pronouns:

    • First Person Singular: nyke "I"
    • Second Person Singular: ao "you"
    • Third Person Singular: ziry/ūja "he, she, it"
    • First Person Plural: īlon "we"
    • Second Person Plural: jeme "you (all)"
    • Third Person Plural: pōnta "they"

    Five of these pronouns—those with only one variant—are fairly straightforward in their usage. In the third person singular, there are two pronouns: ziry and ūja. When the intended referent of the third person singular pronoun is a noun whose gender is either lunar or solar, you use the pronoun ziry; when its gender is aquatic or terrestrial, you use the pronoun ūja. When there's some doubt, as to the referent, one generally uses ziry for animate referents, and ūja for inanimate referents, because in general animate nouns are either lunar or solar, and terrestrial or aquatic nouns are usually inanimate.

    That said, it truly does depend on the referent. Consider the semantically similar words hāedar and mandia, which mean "younger sister" and "older sister", respectively. If you wanted to say "I love her", you'd actually translate it two different ways depending on which sister was intended:

    • Ziry jorrāelan. "I love her (the older sister)."
    • Ūī jorrāelan. "I love her (the younger sister)."

    Outside of pōnta "they", which declines like a standard lunar noun ending in -a, the declensions of the personal pronouns are unpredictable. Pay special attention to how they decline in the exercises in this section.

    As a brief note, generally pronouns are not used in the nominative. They certainly may be used, and are often used for emphasis, but otherwise verbal agreement suffices.

    POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

    Possessive pronouns (as opposed to possessive adjectives) are pronouns that stand in for an entire possessive phrase. English speakers would do well to distinguish these two grammatical categories, as they're sometimes identical in English. Consider the following sentences, which are distinct grammatically:

    • Possessive Adjective: That is his book.
    • Possessive Pronoun: That book is his.

    The form is the same, but the meanings are different. In High Valyrian, the forms are always distinct.

    High Valyrian possessive pronouns take the form of a terrestrial noun ending in -on. Their forms are as follows:

    • First Person Singular: ñuhon "mine"
    • Second Person Singular: aōhon "yours"
    • Third Person Singular: zȳhon/jāhon "his, hers, its"
    • First Person Plural: īlvon "we"
    • Second Person Plural: jevon "you (all)"
    • Third Person Plural: pōjon "they"

    Note that the same distinction with respect to gender concord apples to zȳhon and jāhon as applies to ziry and ūja.

  • 32 Negation102 @ 100% 0 •••
    angvon · angvos · arghvōt · bardvos · bardvōt · dēmaon · dēmaos · dēmaosy · emon · emoty · idakvos · idakvosy · ikson · iksos · iksō · iotāptiosy · iotāptiōt · ipradon · ipradoty · izūgon · jorrāelos · jorrāelosy · keliosy · limaos · limāot · līrion · līriosy · merbvosy · merbvoty · merbvō · nagiosy · nektvon · nektvos · nevion · pilvos · ropaosy · rȳbon · rȳboty · rȳbōt · sindion · sosy · soty · urnion · urnioty · urniō · urniōt · vūjion · vūjios · vūjiō · ēdvon · ȳdraosy
    51 words

    NEGATION

    Thus far you've learned how to make positive statements in High Valyrian. In this skill you'll learn how to make negative statements.

    The basic way to negate a verb in High Valyrian is to end the sentence with daor, a word you've seen before. The only trick is that the form of the verb changes when negated. In Valyrian, a verb changes its form from the indicative to the subjunctive when negated (no need to worry about what the subjunctive means yet. For now, just know it's the form of the verb used in negative sentences). By way of comparison, here's a positive sentence and its negative version:

    • Hontī rȳban. "I hear the birds."
    • Hontī rȳbon daor. "I don't hear the birds."

    PRESENT TENSE ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE VERB CONJUGATION

    The agreement pattern for verbs in the subjunctive should be familiar. In addition to their agreement forms, subjunctive verbs take an o theme vowel after the root. Consonant-final stems display the following behavior:

    • Rȳbon "I hear" root plus -on
    • Rȳbō "you hear" root plus -ō
    • Rȳbos "s/he hears" root plus -os
    • Rȳboty "we hear" root plus -oty
    • Rȳbōt "you (all) hear" root plus -ōt
    • Rȳbosy "they hear" root plus -osy

    Vowel-final stems behave a little differently. Those that end in -a take the exact same endings as consonant-final stems, as shown below with the verb ȳdragon:

    • Ȳdraon "I speak" root plus -on
    • Ȳdraō "you speak" root plus -ō
    • Ȳdraos "s/he speaks" root plus -os
    • Ȳdraoty "we speak" root plus -oty
    • Ȳdraōt "you (all) speak" root plus -ōt
    • Ȳdraosy "they speak" root plus -osy

    Verbs whose stems end in other vowels have different forms. For verbs that end in either -e or -i, the final vowel of the root becomes i, and then they take the endings as usual, as show below with the verb nevegon:

    • Nevion "I carry" i-final root plus -on
    • Neviō "you carry" i-final root plus -ō
    • Nevios "s/he carries" i-final root plus -os
    • Nevioty "we carry" i-final root plus -oty
    • Neviōt "you (all) carry" i-final root plus -ōt
    • Neviosy "they carry" i-final root plus -osy

    For verbs that end in either -o or -u, the final vowel of the root becomes v, and then they take the endings as usual, as show below with the verb bardugon:

    • Bardvon "I write" v-final root plus -on
    • Bardvō "you write" v-final root plus -ō
    • Bardvos "s/he writes" v-final root plus -os
    • Bardvoty "we write" v-final root plus -oty
    • Bardvōt "you (all) write" v-final root plus -ōt
    • Bardvosy "they write" v-final root plus -osy

    As with present tense forms, take care to distinguish those verb roots that end in a consonant, and those that end in -a.

    IMPORTANT NOTE: The correct form of the infinitive for "to attack" is idakogon.

  • 32 Dative101 @ 100% 0 •••
    dāria · dāriot · epan · epas · gōvilemāt · hen · irughas · irughis · jā · jī · kisalbri · kisalbrot · lioran · liorza · lōrtot · maghas · oktiot · qurdot · riña · riñe · riñi · riñot · rūkla · sindilia · sindiliot · udekuran · udekurza · udekurzi · umāzisi · umāzīt · va
    31 words

    THE DATIVE CASE

    The dative case is assigned to the indirect object of a verb. The most canonical indirect object is a recipient, as shown below:

    • The girl gave a flower to the boy.
    • The boy tossed the girl a ball.

    In High Valyrian, the dative case can also be used with destinations implied by the action of the verb (e.g. verbs of motion).

    The dative singular is almost always formed by adding a -t to the genitive singular form of a noun. Where the genitive takes a lengthened suffix, the vowel is shortened before the -t is added. Here's a regular example:

    • NOM: vala "man"
    • GEN: valo "man's"
    • DAT: valot "to the man"

    And here's an example with an elongated genitive singular:

    • NOM: āeksio "master"
    • GEN: āeksiō "master's"
    • DAT: āeksiot "to the master"

    The form of the dative plural is always identical to the form of the genitive plural.

    Regarding placement, the dative argument generally comes in between the subject and direct object, but it's not crucial. Both sentences below would be considered rather ordinary in High Valyrian:

    • Taobot rūklon tepan. "I give the boy a flower."
    • Rūklon taobot tepan. "I give the boy a flower."

    Certain verbs will take a dative object, even if they generally don't in English. For example, the verb gōvilemagon, which you'll learn in lesson 2, means "to put under", where the object (the thing that has something put under it) is always in the dative case.

    PREPOSITIONS

    High Valyrian has a small number of prepositions. You will be introduced to two of them in this skill: va "towards" and hen "from". Prepositions in High Valyrian will govern different cases, at times. In this skill, you'll be learning the functions that each of these prepositions has when their associated nouns take the dative case.

    The preposition va means "to" or "towards" or "up to" or "into" when its noun is in the dative. Its interpretation depends on the context. One distinction that might be made, for example, is as follows:

    • Lentot jān. "I go to the house."
    • Va lentot jān. "I go into the house."

    In a different context, though, that second sentence might mean "I go up to the house" or even "I go towards the house".

    The preposition hen generally means "from", but when its associated noun is in the dative case, it means either specifically "out from the inside of" or "on account of" or "because of" or "for". You wouldn't use hen with the dative to describe someone leaving a city, but you would use it to describe someone exiting a room. Even so, one wouldn't be surprised to see a contrast like this:

    • Lentot jān. "I go to the house."
    • Hen lentot jān. "I go out of the house."

    A more common usage of hen with the dative, though, would be something like the following:

    • Hen dāriot oktiot jān. "I am going to the city for the queen."

    ADJECTIVAL CONCORD

    As we move on to non-core cases, an important point about adjectival concord must be raised. As with solar plural nominative adjectives, the form of an adjective for many non-core cases changes forms depending on whether it occurs before or after the noun. Those that follow the noun are fuller in form than those that precede it. Here are the dative forms for an adjective that follows a noun:

    CLASS I

    • Lunar: kastot (SG), kastoti (PL)
    • Solar: kastot (SG), kastoti (PL)
    • Terrestrial: kastot (SG), kastoti (PL)
    • Aquatic: kastrot (SG), kastroti (PL)

    CLASS II

    • Lunar/Solar: aderot (SG), aderoti (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳrot (SG), aderȳti (PL)

    CLASS III

    • Lunar/Solar: geviot (SG), gevȳti (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳrot (SG), gevȳti (PL)

    Now this next part is very important. Here's what happens to these same adjectives when they occur before a noun:

    CLASS I

    • Lunar: kasto (SG), kasto (PL)
    • Solar: kasto (SG), kasto (PL)
    • Terrestrial: kasto (SG), kasto (PL)
    • Aquatic: kastro (SG), kastro (PL)

    CLASS II

    • Lunar/Solar: adero (SG), adero (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳr (SG), aderȳ (PL)

    CLASS III

    • Lunar/Solar: gevio (SG), gevio (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳr (SG), gevȳ (PL)

    There is one important exception. If the word following the adjective begins with a vowel, then those forms that end in t (and just t, so excluding those that end in ȳrot) retain their t. This affects only the singular forms (and in Classes II and III, only the lunar and aquatic genders). Keep this information in mind as you move forward through new skills and learn new adjectives!

    ADVANCED

    Technically the direct object of gōvilemagon should be in the genitive when appearing before the verb, not the dative! For now, the dative is fine.

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    averilla · averille · bāngi · bāngis · bāngā · drōma · elilla · havon · havoso · iēdri · jūlor · korzitī · krēga · lōtinti · lōtinty · lōtintī · melva · mōzun · mōzus · parkla · parklon · parkloso · prūbrī · sylutetan · ykynā · ykynāt · ārille
    27 words

    FOOD

    Food is one of the most important aspects of George R. R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire. This skill will give you some vocabulary to get you started. One brief note. Previously, you've known only sȳz to mean "good". While you can use sȳz with food, it generally refers to the quality (i.e. how well made it was), rather than the taste. To describe food as "good" (meaning that you like the taste of it), you should use the word ēngenka instead.

    MASS VS. COUNT

    Something to keep in mind as you explore this section—and throughout your study of High Valyrian—is the distinction between mass nouns and count nouns. Mass nouns are those that refer to large entities as a single, cohesive unit (like rice), whereas count nouns refer to individuable, countable entities (like apples). In general, lunar and solar nouns tend to be count nouns, while terrestrial and aquatic nouns tend to be mass nouns. As a result, a word like havon is best translated as "bread", whereas a word like onjapos is best translated as "the carrot" or "a carrot".

    One important type of word you'll be encountering for the first time is a common nominal derivation ending in -illa. These words tend to refer to masses or substances, despite ending with a characteristic lunar -a. Because of that, words ending in -illa are aquatic and not lunar.

    As an example, avero you know as the word for "grape". The derivation averilla is the word for "wine". It declines just like vala but takes agreement like lōgor, as shown below:

    • Ēngenkor averilla "good wine" (Nominative)
    • Ēngenkor averille "good wine" (Accusative)

    This is one of the oddities of the High Valyrian lexicon, but as -illa words are quite common, it's important to pay special attention to this distinction.

  • 32 Sizes91 @ 100% 0 •••
    byke · bykon · bōsa · bōse · mība · mībi · mībys · qumblie · qumblior · rōve · rōvon · rōvra · rōvēgrie · rōvēgrior
    14 words

    SIZES

    This skill is going to teach you a series of new adjectives. Not that bōsa can mean "long" or "tall", depending on the context, and also note that harrenka is a word that doesn't have a direct equivalent in English (or not a simple one, at least). Be sure to pay close attention to the gender and number of the noun each of these adjectives is modifying!

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    angon · angos · angō · arghun · arghus · bardun · bardus · dēmā · eman · emi · emā · idakon · idakos · idakō · iksan · iotāpten · iotāptesi · ipradas · ipradis · issa · issi · izūgan · izūgāt · jorrāelan · jorrāelā · kelis · kelisi · liman · limā · līrin · līrī · merbus · merbū · nagē · nektos · neves · pilon · ropas · ropā · rȳban · rȳbas · rȳbi · rȳbā · sindis · sindī · urnen · urnē · urnēt · vūjin · ēdrus · ēdrū · ȳdran · ȳdras
    53 words

    Present Tense Active Indicative Verb Conjugation

    So far you've seen a number of verbs conjugated in their present tense forms. Now you'll learn the full system of present tense conjugation.

    As you know, verbs in High Valyrian agree with their subjects in person and number. In determining what endings a verb will have, it's important to determine what type of segment ends the verb root: a consonant or a vowel. Those that end in consonants have endings which vary, while those that end in a vowel have fairly uniform endings.

    Vowel-final stems display the following behavior:

    • Urnen "I see" root plus -n
    • Urnē "you see" root plus lengthened final vowel
    • Urnes "s/he sees" root plus -s
    • Urnī "we see" root minus vowel plus -ī
    • Urnēt "you (all) see" root plus lengthened final vowel plus -t
    • Urnesi "they see" root plus -si

    For the second person forms, the final lengthened vowel varies based on the final vowel of the root. Thus idakō is "you attack" and līrī is "you smile".

    Regular consonant-final stems display the following behavior:

    • Rȳban "I hear" root plus -an
    • Rȳbā "you hear" root plus -ā
    • Rȳbas "s/he hears" root plus -as
    • Rȳbi "we hear" root plus -i
    • Rȳbāt "you (all) hear" root plus -āt
    • Rȳbis "they hear" root plus -is

    The endings you see above will change on occasion depending on the final consonant of the root. For example, words that end in a voiceless stop (p, t, k, or q) will often (but not always) have a third personal singular ending -sa. Roots that end in r or l will take third person endings of -za in the singular and -zi in the plural. Other changes with other consonants are less regular, and should be memorized.

    As a final note, take care to distinguish those verb roots that end in a consonant, and those that end in -a. Their endings will be similar in many, but not all, cases. For example, ȳdran "I speak" looks like it could be a consonant-final form, or an a-final form, but ȳdrasi "they speak" could only be an a-final form.

  • 32 Animals81 @ 100% 0 •••
    bēgra · bēgro · hontesse · hontī · jaoho · klihossa · klios · qaedar · qaedri · qintir · vōljes · vōlī · zokla · zokle · zokli
    15 words

    Animals

    In the Song of Ice and Fire universe, animals serve as the standard bearers for some of the most famous houses. For example, the wolf is associated with House Stark; the lion with House Lannister; the fish with House Tully; and the dragon with House Targaryen. Often the animal names will be used to stand in for a member or head of that house.

    Pay special attention to certain of the words in this skill, as they instantiate some of the more unusual declension paradigms of High Valyrian.

  • 32 Questions72 @ 100% 0 •••
    skoriot · skorkydoso · skoro syt · skoros · skorverdon · skorī · sparos · sparossa
    8 words

    Questions

    Thus far you've learned how to ask yes/no questions (identical in form to statements, but with question intonation). In this skill you'll learn to ask WH-questions. WH-questions are questions which, in English, have a word with a "WH" in them (i.e. who, what, where, when, why, how).

    In High Valyrian, WH-words begin with s (in fact, either sp, for animate, or sk, for inanimate), and appear uniformly at the beginning of the sentence.

    The words sparos "who" and skoros "what" are pronouns that decline fully (including the genitive form sparo, which we'd translate into English as "whose"), and the adjectives spare "which (animate)" and skore "which (inanimate)" [NOTE: Not yet present in course. Coming soon!] are adjectives that agree with the nouns they modify in case, gender, and number.

    The following WH-words should be learned as phrases, though you'll be able to figure out how they're formed later on:

    • Skorī "when"
    • Skorkydoso "how"
    • Skoriot "where"
    • Skoro syt "why"

    The word skorverdon "how many" is special. Skorverdon is always followed by a noun in the genitive plural. Thus "how many men" would be skorverdon valoti. Remember that skorverdon is the actual argument, though, so in the sentence "How many men are singing?" the verb should be third person singular, since the noun skorverdon is singular.

  • 32 Family71 @ 100% 0 •••
    aerys · daenero · daenerys · daenerȳ · dubys · hāedrī · idaña · kepe · lentor · lēkia · lēkie · mandia · mandī · qȳbra · rūs · trēsy · trēsī · tyrion · valonqar · velmanna · velmannī
    21 words

    KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY

    High Valyrian's kinship system is a bit more detailed than that of English. High Valyrian has what's known as an Iroquois Kinship system, meaning that certain common words cover more ground in High Valyrian than they do in English.

    For example, the word muña "mother", which you've learned, is used with one's mother's sisters as well. Consequently, the word can mean "aunt", depending on the context. The same happens with the words for "brother" and "sister" and one's parallel cousins.

    High Valyrian also distinguishes between siblings of different ages. Thus, valonqar, which means "younger brother", is a different word from lēkia, which means "older brother".

    The vocabulary of each lesson is designed to go together, so that you learn the words for parallel cousins all at once, and cross cousins later. Look for patterns of interpredictability to help you memorize pairs of words. For example, the words for younger siblings/cousins (hāedar and valonqar) are both aquatic, whereas the words for older siblings/cousins (lēkia and mandia) are both lunar. Such subsystems are present throughout the larger kinship system.

  • 32 Possessive Adjectives62 @ 100% 0 •••
    aōha · aōhe · aōhor · aōhī · bisys · bona · bone · bonys · bonī · dāri · dārys · eman · emi · emā · gelti · geltī · jevi · jevon · kesot · kesī · kone · koni · konon · konot · lenton · pōjyz · zȳha · zȳhor · zȳhī · ñuha · ñuhom · ñuhor · ñuhos · ñuhys · ñuhyz · ānogar · īlva · īlvra · īlvyz
    39 words

    AQUATIC DECLENSIONS

    As you move on to learn about possessive adjectives, note that you'll now be expected to decline any adjective in any number, class and case combination you've already seen. For aquatic nouns this can prove challenging. In particular, pay attention to three adjectives and their singular and plural pairs in the aquatic:

    • ñuhor "my" ~ ñurha "my"
    • pōjor "their" ~ pōja "their"
    • konor "that" ~ kōdra "these"

    The first pattern we've seen already in the former Aquatic skill. In the second, notice that the r disappears completely. In fact what happens is the jr sequence is illicit in High Valyrian, and so simplifies to j. A similar simplification happens with sr and zr, both of which become j.

    The last pattern is one that is widespread in High Valyrian and is important to commit to memory. When a nasal consonant (either n or m) is followed immediately by r, the nasal is deleted, and the previous vowel lengthens. In addition, a homorganic voiced nasal (d for n and b for m) appears in between the vowel and the r. Thus, what was originally konra became kondra and then kōdra.

    REMINDER

    In the third person singular, there are two pronouns: ziry and ūja. When they occur as possessive pronouns, they still agree with the possessor—even if the possessor isn't stated. Thus both of the phrases below are correct:

    • jāhon lenton "his/her/its house"
    • zȳhon lenton "his/her/its house"

    The first is used when the possessor of the house is a noun that is in the aquatic or terrestrial gender. The second is used when the possessor of the house is in the lunar or solar gender. Both take -on becomes lenton is terrestrial.

    Because most humans are lunar or solar, zȳh- is more likely to be used when the possessor is animate, but both mean essentially the same thing. In a phrase with no other context (most of the phrases you'll see in Duolingo), you're likely to see either.

  • 32 Genitive61 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    THE GENITIVE CASE

    The genitive case is assigned to the possessor in a possessive phrase. In English, we mark possessor's in two ways:

    • the hill's top
    • the top of the hill

    In learning the genitive case of High Valyrian, it will be most productive for you to liken it to the first strategy above.

    The genitive is uniformly marked with an -o suffix (occasionally , but never a different quality vowel), so the genitive case is easy to identify. To identify a possessor, as in the phrase "the man's horse", one puts the possessor in the genitive. The other noun is in whatever case it is given in the sentence. For example:

    • Valo anne sȳz issa. "The man's horse is good."
    • Valo annī urnen. "I see the man's horse."

    As with adjectives, the order of possessor and possessee may be reversed in High Valyrian. Thus, both valo anne and anne valo mean "the man's horse". The order of possessor-possessee is strongly preferred, however, and should only be reversed in cases of overcrowding, or for honorific transposition. As an example of the latter, Daenerys is referred to as Daenerys Stormborn. In High Valyrian, that is translated as Daenerys Jelmāzmo, where jelmāzmo is the genitive of jelmāzma, the word for a violent storm.

    REMINDER: ADJECTIVAL CONCORD

    In High Valyrian, an adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in gender, number, and case. If one were to translate a simple sentence like "The good boy's mother is sleeping", the Valyrian equivalent of good, sȳz, would need to agree with the gender, number, and case of the noun it modifies. In this sentence, "good" modifies "boy", not "mother". The mother may be good or may be evil; we don't know. All we know for certain is that the boy is good. Thus, the appropriate translation is as follows:

    • Sȳro taobo muña ēdrus. "The good boy's mother is sleeping."

    Above, muña is in the nominative singular because it's the subject of the sentence (it's the mother that's sleeping, not the boy). The adjective, though, modifies taoba. And what's taoba up to? Nothing: Taoba is simply the possessor of muña. It is, therefore, in the genitive case. Consequently, the adjective that modifies it, sȳz, must also be in the genitive case. Hence, sȳro taobo. Translating it as sȳz taobo would be incorrect.

    WARNING: GENITIVE PLURAL ERRORS

    There is a known error on Duolingo with exercises that have card selection and genitive plurals. That is, for something like "Those are the masters' horses" (multiple masters have multiple horses), there will be no possible way to give the correct answer in English. This is not an error I'm able to fix: It's an error with Duolingo's system. I have reported the error, but there's really nothing more I can do aside from completely eliminating exercises featuring the genitive plural.

    SMALL NOTE: DOVAOGĒDY

    In George R. R. Martin's universe, the Unsullied are an army, and the English word is invariant. The Unsullied can refer to one or many Unsullied. One can also say an Unsullied to refer to one. The word is never pluralized. Consequently, Unsullied's can be singular or plural.

  • 41 Nature182 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Impersonal Verbs

    Every so often, you may come across an impersonal verb in High Valyrian. In this skill, there is davābagon, which means "to rain". It doesn't take any subject, and conjugates as if it had a third person singular object. Some weather verbs do take a subject, on the other. Jehikagon "to shine" is one such, and it does take subjects (i.e. things that shine, like vēzos "sun" or qēlos "star".

    Modifying Clauses

    Though we haven't learned full relative clauses yet, there are cases where a clause can be used to modify a noun, and they behave slightly differently from any other type of clause. Consider these two sentences:

    (a) Vala tegot ūndan. "I saw the man on the ground." (b) Tegot vala ūndan. "I saw the man on the ground."

    Though both have the same translation, their interpretations are quite difference. In sentence (a), the man may be on the ground, but he need not be. The subject could have been standing on the ground when he saw the man in a tree.

    On the other hand, in sentence (b), the man must be on the ground. In fact, part of what defines the man in sentence (b) is that he is on the ground. The subject, on the other hand, could be anywhere (perhaps I was in the tree when I saw him).

    These small modifying clauses are not proper relative clauses, because they lack verbs. Their tense is dependent entirely on the matrix verb, and they're not as versatile as relative clauses, which can take their own subjects and objects. Nevertheless, if the intent is to describe a noun as if it were a relative clause, that modifying noun must come directly before the noun it modifies. Placing it after will result in a different interpretation.

    New Collective Nouns

    There are a couple new collective nouns in this skill whose declensions you haven't yet learned: sōnar "winter" (the collective of "snow") and jelmior "weather" (the collective of "wind"). Remember that these trigger singular agreement on the verb. Here are their declensions:

    • Nominative: sōnar
    • Accusative: * sōnari*
    • Genitive: * sōnaro*
    • Dative: * sōnarto*
    • Locative: * sōnarro*
    • Instrumental: * sōnarzo*
    • Comitative: * sōnarmo*
    • Vocative: * sōnarzo*

    Sōnar is from the same paradigm as valar (as in valar morghūlis). Here is jelmior:

    • Nominative: jelmior
    • Accusative: * jelmȳri*
    • Genitive: * jelmȳro*
    • Dative: * jelmȳrto*
    • Locative: * jelmȳrro*
    • Instrumental: * jelmȳrzo*
    • Comitative: * jelmȳrmo*
    • Vocative: * jelmȳrzo*

    Jēda vs. Jēdar vs. Jēdar

    The word for "season" is lunar jēda, and its collective jēdar means "year". You've seen that word in Numerals 1. It so happens that the aquatic word jēdar exists, and it means "sky". Its similarity to jēdar "year" is a coincidence. Be sure not to confuse the two, as they have different declension patterns (as well as meanings!).

    Daenerys Stormborn

    For fans of A Song of Ice and Fire, the way I chose to translate "Stormborn", Daenerys's last name, is with the word Jelmāzmo, the genitive of jelmāzma "storm". Thus, Daenerys Jelmāzmo is "Daenerys of the Storm".

  • 23 Phrases 122 @ 75% 25 •••
    arlī · brōzi · daenerys · daor · drējī · drīvose · geros ilas · issa · iōnos · jiōrna · kirimvose · kostilus · rytsas · se · valar dohaeris · valar morghūlis
    16 words

    YES AND NO

    You may recognize the word for "yes" from the previous lesson. In fact, it's identical to the word for "is". In High Valyrian, what we translate as "yes" is more accurately translated as "it is".

    (Note: Generally you match the tense of the sentence. So if you want to say "Yes, it will be fine," then you say kessa "it will be" instead of issa "it is". As you haven't learned the future tense yet, issa is used exclusively, for the time being.)

    Negation is a bit more complex in High Valyrian than other languages, so you'll be learning about it later.

    STRESS

    High Valyrian words are stressed most commonly on the penultimate (second-to-last) syllable. When the antepenultimate (third-to-last) syllable is heavy (i.e. it contains a long vowel, a diphthong, or ends with a consonant), and the penultimate syllable is light (i.e. it contains a short vowel with no coda consonant), then the antepenultimate syllable is stressed.

    Here are some examples (below, H stands for "heavy" and L stands for "light"):

    • Kepa > ke-pa (L-L) = KE-pa
    • Rytsas > ry-tsas (L-H) = RY-tsas
    • Issa > is-sa (H-L) = IS-sa
    • Vaedas > vae-das (H-H) = VAE-das
    • Azanty > a-zan-ty (L-H-L) = a-ZAN-ty
    • Hontesse > hon-tes-se (H-H-L) = hon-TES-se
    • Urnesi > ur-ne-si (H-L-L) = UR-ne-si
    • Majaqis > ma-ja-qis (L-L-H) = ma-JA-qis
    • Majaqi > ma-ja-qi (L-L-L) = ma-JA-qi
    • Azantyssy > a-zan-tys-sy (L-H-H-L) = a-zan-TYS-sy
    • Kirimvose > ki-rim-vo-se (L-H-L-L) = ki-RIM-vo-se
    • Sylutegon > sy-lu-te-gon (L-L-L-H) = sy-lu-TE-gon
    • Iotāptegon > io-tāp-te-gon (H-H-L-H) = io-TĀP-te-gon

    The only exceptions to this rule occur with commands, both singular and plural, which are uniformly stressed on the final syllable. Additionally, conjunctive lengthening requires the final syllable of the final word to be stressed, as shown below:

    • Vala ābrā > va-la āb-rā (L-L H-H) = VA-la āb-RĀ
  • 32 The Human Body142 @ 75% 25 •••
    dekossa · dekossi · elekossa · elekot · grevion · greviot · iemni · iemny · iemnȳ · krihossa · kris · lurva · mēni · mēny · naejon · naejītsos · ondossa · ondot · onduragon · ondurtas · ondurās · pamas · pamptas · pungoso · pālemia · pālemio · pālemiot · qimos · relgot · renigon · renīs · ybon · yrgos · ñōghybon · ñōghī · ātsia · ātsȳssi · ēngoso · ōdris
    39 words

    BODY PART POSSESSION

    High Valyrian has a number of terms for body parts, and possession works roughly as it would in English. Unlike some languages, where one doesn't use personal possessive pronouns with one's own body parts, it's perfectly natural to use personal possessive pronouns with body parts in High Valyrian, as shown below:

    • Ñuhī ondossa paman. "I rub my hands."

    In general, though, if there is something else in the sentence that suggests possession, one does not need to include a possessive pronoun. Here is an example:

    • Bartos yne ōdras. "My head hurts." (Lit. "The head hurts me.")

    Using ñuhys in the sentence above isn't wrong, per se, it's simply unusual. In some circumstances, one would actually use pronouns for disambiguation:

    • Ondossa taobe ōdris. "The boys' hands are hurting."
    • Zȳhyz ondossa taobe ōdris. "His (some other person's) hands are hurting the boy."

    (Note: The above sentence is exceedingly peculiar.)

    One special note on the use of cases with a body part. When one does something with one's own body part, the instrumental case is used. When one does something with someone else's body part, on the other hand, the dative case is used. Here's a nice example contrasting the two:

    • Taobo bartos ondoso pamptan. "I rubbed the boy's head with my hand."
    • Taobo bartos ondot pamptan. "I rubbed the boy's head with his own hand."

    The use of the instrumental and dative cases in this way is obligatory, and as a result, a possessive pronoun is commonly not used in sentences of this type, as its use is unnecessary.

  • 32 Adverbs143 @ 75% 25 •••
    aderī · daoriot · dāerī · dōrī · geptot · gevī · inkot · kostōbirī · mirriot · mēriot · naejot · olvī · paerī · paktot · pār · qubirī · sīrgō · sȳrī · tolviot · tolī · zān · ēlī
    22 words

    ADVERBS

    An adverb is a word that can stand on its own as a phrase. There are three types of adverbs: temporal adverbs (adverbs having to do with the passage of time); locative adverbs (adverbs having to do with place and location); and manner adverbs (adverbs having to do with how the action of a verb is performed).

    TEMPORAL AND LOCATIVE ADVERBS

    Both temporal and locative adverbs tend to be placed at the very beginning of a sentence. This is there preferred position. That said, both temporal and locative adverbs may be placed elsewhere in the sentence, depending on what part of the sentence is to be emphasized. Even so, after sentence-initial placement, pre-verbal placement is the next most preferable spot. Here's an example:

    • Ēlī vala taobe ūndas. "First the man saw the boy."
    • Vala taobe ēlī ūndas. "The man saw the boy first."
    • Vala ēlī taobe ūndas. "The man saw the boy first."
    • Taobe ēlī vala ūndas. "The man saw the boy first."

    The same rules of placement serve for locative adverbs. In general, locative adverbs are derived from nouns using either the dative or locative cases. Temporal adverbs are either basic, or are derived using a derivational strategy more commonly employed with manner adverbs. These will be described now.

    MANNER ADVERBS

    In English, many manner adverbs are formed by adding "-ly" to an adjective. In High Valyrian, there are a couple different endings depending on the adjective class. Examples are shown below:

    • Class I: lyk- "quiet" + -irī > lykirī "quietly"
    • Class II: ader- "quick" + > aderī "quickly"
    • Class III: arl- "new" + > arlī "again"

    Placement of manner adverbs is a bit less strict. Sentence-initial placement is used to emphasize the adverb; pre-verbal placement is a bit more usual. Equally common is placing the adverb directly after the subject. Here's an example:

    • Taoba havon aderī iprattas. "The boy ate the bread quickly."
    • Taoba aderī havon iprattas. "The boy ate the bread quickly."
    • Aderī taoba havon iprattas. "Quickly the boy ate the bread."

    As a final note, some adverbs have different meanings depending on whether the speaker intends to use them as a manner adverb or a temporal or locative adverb. Aderī, for example, can mean "quickly" or it can mean "soon". Context should help to determine which translation is most appropriate.

  • 32 Instrumental132 @ 75% 25 •••
    brōstas · brōstā · brōzan · brōzās · egrommi · egrī · enkas · enkā · geltose · geltossi · geltī · jomīsas · jomīsos · jomīsā · kisikan · kisikas · kisittoty · korzommi · korzose · korzossi · korzī · mijes · mijesi · mijē · mīsvoso · ohīlvoso · ohīlvossi · qilōnomy · sombi · sombomy · sombomȳ
    31 words

    THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE

    The instrumental case is assigned to the tool by or through which the action of the verb is completed. Crucially for Valyrian, the canonical use of the instrumental is with an inanimate object, as shown below:

    • The boy ate a pastry with a fork.
    • The girl attacked the enemy with a sword.

    In High Valyrian, the instrumental case is also used to mark the object (or one of the objects) of a number of verbs. For example, for the verb kisikagon “to feed”, you use the accusative with the direct object (the one who is fed), but you use the instrumental with the food one is fed. The instrumental is used for the only object of mijegon “to lack”; the name (not the one named) for the verb brōzagon; the thing owed for the verb enkagon “to owe”; and the type of armor or garment worn for the verb jomīsagon “to wear, to carry”.

    The form of the instrumental, as with the comitative case, which you’ll learn soon, varies. The basic form of the singular ending is formed by adding the consonant s (most nouns) or m (nouns ending in -y or -ys) to the genitive and then adding the theme vowel (though do note the common io to ȳ change). Below are the forms of the instrumental for some noun forms:

    NOUNS ENDING IN -A

    • NOM: soljanna "rudder"
    • GEN: soljanno "of the rudder"
    • INS: soljannosa "with the rudder"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -AR

    • NOM: kisalbar "feast"
    • GEN: kisalbro "of the feast"
    • INS: kisalbrosa "with the feast"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -E

    • NOM: gelte "helmet"
    • GEN: gelto "of the helmet"
    • INS: geltose "with the helmet"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -ES

    • NOM: zāeres "crystal"
    • GEN: zāero "of the crystal" INS: zāerose "with the crystal”

    NOUNS ENDING IN -O

    • NOM: krēgo "beet"
    • GEN: krēgō "of the beet"
    • INS: krēgoso "with the beet"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -ON

    • NOM: qurdon "table"
    • GEN: qurdo "of the table"
    • INS: qurdoso "with the table"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -OS

    • NOM: belmos "chain"
    • GEN: belmo "of the chain"
    • INS: belmoso "with the chain"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -I

    • NOM: brōzi "name"
    • GEN: brōzio "of the name"
    • INS: brōzȳsi "with the name"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -IO

    • NOM: ātsio "tooth"
    • GEN: ātsiō "of the tooth"
    • INS: ātsȳsi "with the tooth"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -IR

    • NOM: rōbir "fig"
    • GEN: rōbrio "of the fig"
    • INS: rōbrȳsi "with the fig"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -Y

    • NOM: qilōny "whip"
    • GEN: qilōno "of the whip"
    • INS: qilōnomy "with the whip"

    NOUNS ENDING IN -YS

    • NOM: rudirys "hole"
    • GEN: rudiro "of the hole"
    • INS: rudiromy "with the hole"

    In the plural, every single instrumental (and comitative) is formed the same. Simply double the consonant and replace the final vowel with i. Thus, if qilōnomy is “with the whip”, then qilōnommi is “with the whips”. For an S example, if belmoso is “with the chain”, then belmossi is “with the chains”.

    ADJECTIVAL CONCORD

    Adjectives in the instrumental generally follow the form of their nominal counterparts. Thus, where one expects to see an M instrumental in a noun, one will see an M instrumental ending in the adjective. Here is a summary of postpositive locative adjectival forms:

    CLASS I

    • Lunar: kastosa (SG), kastossi (PL), kastoma (SG), kastommi (PL)
    • Solar: kastosy (SG), kastossi (PL), kastomy (SG), kastommi (PL)
    • Terrestrial: kastoso (SG), kastossi (PL), kastomo (SG), kastommi (PL)
    • Aquatic: kastroso (SG), kastrossi (PL), kastromo (SG), kastrommi (PL)

    CLASS II

    • Lunar/Solar: aderose (SG), aderossi (PL), aderome (SG), aderommi (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳso (SG), aderȳssi (PL), aderȳmo (SG), aderȳmmi (PL)

    CLASS III

    • Lunar/Solar: gevȳse (SG), gevȳssi (PL), gevȳme (SG), gevȳmmi (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳso (SG), gevȳssi (PL), gevȳmo (SG), gevȳmmi (PL)

    The prepositive forms lose their final vowels or final syllables. In some cases, the internal vowels change as well. Bearing this in mind, here are the prepositive instrumental adjectival forms:

    CLASS I

    • Lunar: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
    • Solar: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
    • Terrestrial: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
    • Aquatic: kastros (SG), kastros (PL), kastrom (SG), kastrom (PL)

    CLASS II

    • Lunar/Solar: aderos (SG), aderos (PL), aderom (SG), aderom (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳs (SG), aderȳs (PL), aderȳm (SG), aderȳm (PL)

    CLASS III

    • Lunar/Solar: gevios (SG), gevios (PL), geviom (SG), geviom (PL)
    • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳs (SG), gevȳs (PL), gevȳm (SG), gevȳm (PL)
  • 32 Terrestrial Class53 @ 75% 25 •••
    blēna · blēnon · dēmalia · dēmalion · jemas · jemis · kostōba · kostōbon · rōva · rōvon · sȳriar · sȳrior · targārien · targārī · tēmas · ñuha · ñuhon · āegenka · āegenkon
    19 words

    INTRODUCTION TO GENDER

    High Valyrian is a language with genders, much like Spanish, German, or Arabic. Unlike those languages, though, the genders of High Valyrian have nothing to do with biological sex. Instead, the genders are named based on key nouns within each gender that serve as the prototype for the rest of the paradigm. The genders are:

    • Lunar Class (Hūrenkon Qogror) from the word hūra "moon"
    • Solar Class (Vēzenkon Qogror) from the word vēzos "sun"
    • Aquatic Class (Embōñor Qogror) from the word embar "sea"
    • Terrestrial Class (Tegōñor Qogror) from the word tegon "earth"

    Every noun of High Valyrian belongs to one of these four genders and requires its adjectives to agree with that gender. Gender in nouns can most often be recognized by a set of characteristic endings associated with each gender. In the four gender skills you will learn to recognize and manipulate those characteristic endings.

    THE TERRESTRIAL CLASS

    The terrestrial class is the simplest noun class in High Valyrian. Terrestrial nouns all have an n associated with their endings and typically have a theme vowel in o. Terrestrial nouns take a plural in -a and never make a distinction between the nominative and accusative.

    Most terrestrial nouns refer to places, inanimate objects, or abstract ideas or actions. It's an important class, but probably the simplest one to learn and remember.

    GAME OF THRONES NOTE

    One of the key characters of Game of Thrones is Daenerys Targaryen. You've seen her first name already, but now you'll see her last name in High Valyrian: Targārien. As it is a family name, it will always be preceded by an article, and will not be used on its own the way a first name would. As an analogy, consider how Shakespeare refers to a Montague or a Capulet in Romeo and Juliet. In the examples that use Targārien as a noun, the English translations will do the same thing.

  • 32 Aquatic Class51 @ 75% 25 •••
    biariar · biarior · dārōñar · dārōñor · embar · embri · embrī · iotāptes · iotāptesi · izūgan · izūgas · izūgis · kastor · kastra · lōgor · lōgra · ossȳngas · ossȳngis · qintir · qintra · rōvor · rōvra · sēter · sētera · ñuhor · ñurha
    26 words

    INTRODUCTION TO GENDER

    High Valyrian is a language with genders, much like Spanish, German, or Arabic. Unlike those languages, though, the genders of High Valyrian have nothing to do with biological sex. Instead, the genders are named based on key nouns within each gender that serve as the prototype for the rest of the paradigm. The genders are:

    • Lunar Class (Hūrenkon Qogror) from the word hūra "moon"
    • Solar Class (Vēzenkon Qogror) from the word vēzos "sun"
    • Aquatic Class (Embōñor Qogror) from the word embar "sea"
    • Terrestrial Class (Tegōñor Qogror) from the word tegon "earth"

    Every noun of High Valyrian belongs to one of these four genders and requires its adjectives to agree with that gender. Gender in nouns can most often be recognized by a set of characteristic endings associated with each gender. In the four gender skills you will learn to recognize and manipulate those characteristic endings.

    THE AQUATIC CLASS

    The aquatic class is the smallest High Valyrian noun class. Aquatic nouns all have an r associated with their endings and have a limited number of theme vowels (only a, e, i and o). Unlike other classes, the r rarely disappears in different case and number combinations, making this a challenging class of nouns to decline. Aquatic nouns, like terrestrial nouns, typically take an -a in the plural.

    Take note of a special spelling change that occurs when an r follows an h due to a variety of case and number combinations. In the singular, for example, the word for "my" is ñuhor in the aquatic. In the plural, the o drops out and an -a is suffixed. This should produce ñuhra, but hr is not a licit sequence of High Valyrian. Instead, the word is respelled ñurha and pronounced accordingly.

  • 41 Passive Voice181 @ 75% 25 •••

    0 words

    PASSIVE VOICE

    The passive voice is used to emphasize the direct object of a transitive verb, and deemphasize the subject. Here's a simple example in English:

    "The pear was eaten (by the man)."

    The by-phrase is usually optional. In High Valyrian, a special form of the verb is used to indicate a passive. This form is most commonly associated with a -ks suffix. Here's how the above phrase would be translated into High Valyrian:

    Melvo (valo ondoso) iprattaks.

    Passive phrases are useful if the agent of the verb isn't known, or if the speaker doesn't wish to specify the agent. It can also be helpful to use a passive phrase when chaining clauses together in a discourse, so one doesn't have to switch subjects.

    Not including passive infinitives, there are three forms for each passive verb. Looking at the present tense for a regular C-final verb first, they are as follows:

    • 1st/3rd Person Singular: -aks
    • 2nd Person: -āks
    • 1st/3rd Person Plural: -aksi

    This basic pattern holds for most tenses. Here's how it would look with a real verb:

    • Ipradaks. "I am eaten/She, he, or it is eaten."
    • Ipradāks. "You (all) are eaten."
    • Ipradaksi. "We/they are eaten."

    With a V-final verb, the root vowel participates in the paradigm:

    • Urneks. "I am seen/She, he, or it is seen."
    • Urnēks. "You (all) are seen."
    • Urneksi. "We/they are seen."

    In the subjunctive, the usual pattern holds, with final y replacing final i (only the forms are shown below):

    • 1st/3rd Person Singular: Ipradoks. Urnioks.
    • 2nd Person: Ipradōks. Urniōks.
    • 1st/3rd Person Plural: Ipradoksy. Urnioksy.

    The perfect works as one would expect. Here is the indicative:

    • 1st/3rd Person Singular: Iprattaks. Ūndaks.
    • 2nd Person: Iprattāks. Ūndāks.
    • 1st/3rd Person Plural: Iprattaksi. Ūndaksi.

    And here is the subjunctive:

    • 1st/3rd Person Singular: Iprattoks. Ūndoks.
    • 2nd Person: Iprattōks. Ūndōks.
    • 1st/3rd Person Plural: Iprattoksy. Ūndoksy.

    The future is irregular, based on the patterns you've learned thus far. In the indicative, the first/third person plural is simply -iks, as shown below:

    • 1st/3rd Person Singular: Ipradilaks. Urnīlaks.
    • 2nd Person: Ipradilāks. Urnīlāks.
    • 1st/3rd Person Plural: Ipradiliks. Urnīliks.

    The subjunctive forms keep the u vowel seen elsewhere in the paradigm:

    • 1st/3rd Person Singular: Ipradiluks. Urnīluks.
    • 2nd Person: Ipradilūks. Urnīlūks.
    • 1st/3rd Person Plural: Ipradiluksy. Urnīluksy.

    There is a present and perfect infinitive (e.g. ipradakson and iprattakson), and positive commands are issued with the second person form of the passive.

    REINTRODUCING AGENTS

    There are two different ways to reintroduce an agent. The most common way is to use the instrumental of ondos "hand" as a postposition governing the genitive. Thus:

    Taoba valo ondoso ūndaks. "The boy was seen by the man."

    Literally it's "The boy was seen by the hand of the man", but the "hand" part of it no longer factors into the meaning. If the agent is plural, the postposition is pluralized as well:

    Taoba valoti ondossi ūndaks. "The boy was seen by the men."

    If the agent is indefinite and generic it may be placed directly before the verb in the genitive:

    Taoba valo ūndaks. "The boy was seen by a man."

    If ondoso/ondossi is used, the agent may be definite or indefinite. If a preposed genitival agent is used, the interpretation is always indefinite and generic.

  • 41 Demonstratives 2171 @ 75% 25 •••
    daori · daoro · daorun · daoruni · daorys · dorolvī · dōre · mirri · mirrior · mirror · mirrori · mirros · mirti · mirto · mirtys · olvie · olvior · olvī · olvȳn · toli · tolie · tolot · tolvi · tolvie · tolvys · tolvī · tolvȳn · tolvȳni
    28 words

    INDEFINITE DEMONSTRATIVES

    High Valyrian has a series of indefinite demonstratives that refer to exactly how many of something is being referred to. These are words like "any", "some", "every", "each", "all", etc.

    The basic correspondences are as follows:

    • Mir- = some, any
    • Dōr- = none
    • Tol- = other
    • Olv- = many
    • Tolv- = all

    Various endings are applied to these basic roots to form adjectival and pronominal forms. Take care to distinguish between which forms are adjectival, and which are nominal, as the endings sometimes overlap.

    THE PAUCAL AND COLLECTIVE NUMBERS

    Though you have seen it previously, this is the first time you will need to deal with the paucal and collective numbers of High Valyrian. These numbers are counterparts to singular and plural, in a way. The best way to think of the number system is like this:

    • Singular: Definite Singular (Exactly One)
    • Collective: Definite Plural (All)
    • Paucal: Indefinite Singular (A Small Number)
    • Plural: Indefinite Plural (Many)

    How exactly these numbers are formed and used will be taught in a future skill. The important thing to note for this skill is that four of the five words in lesson 3 are either paucal or collective. Paucals can be identified by a thematic final -n, while collectives can be identified by a thematic final -r.

    For now, it's important to know two things about paucals and collectives:

    1. Paucals trigger plural subject agreement on the verb. Collectives trigger singular subject agreement on the verb.
    2. Paucals and collectives have their own unique case forms.

    For the most part, paucals and collectives decline like borrowings (so they take -i in the accusative), but there are a few differences. Here's a full declension of olvȳn "much, many":

    • Nominative: olvȳn
    • Accusative: olvȳni
    • Genitive: olvȳno
    • Dative: olvȳnto
    • Locative: olvȳnno
    • Instrumental: olvȳsso
    • Comitative: olvȳmmo
    • Vocative: olvȳsso

    Now here's a full declension of mirror "whatever":

    • Nominative: mirror
    • Accusative: mirrori
    • Genitive: mirroro
    • Dative: mirrorto
    • Locative: mirrorro
    • Instrumental: mirrorzo
    • Comitative: mirrormo
    • Vocative: mirrorzo

    These forms are a little tricky, and they change depending on the theme vowel of the declension (so a dative for a lunar noun endings in -a would end in -ta), but given the meanings of the words in this lesson, you'll probably be using the nominative, accusative and genitive more than anything else, and those case forms are relatively simple.

  • 41 Infinitive162 @ 75% 25 •••
    bēviltas · bēvilza · dāeremagon · dōros · dōrossa · dōrot · gīmin · gīmis · gīmitas · gūrogon · gūrōs · hēdo · kostan · koston · kostos · kostā · laodiapos · laodiaposo · laodiapossi · qrīdrughagon · qrīdrūdan · raketan · raketas · rijībagon · rijībis · rijībā · rāenagon · rāenas · rāentas · rāenās · sylutan · sylutas · syluti · sylutis · sylutā · sytilības · sytilīptas · sēnagon · sēntan · sēntos · sēntā · sētan · sētas · sōlutti · sōlutty
    45 words

    THE INFINITIVE

    The infinitive form of the verb is a non-finite form that refers to an action in general, as opposed to an action performed by some specific entity. The infinitive form ends either in -gon (for vowel-final stems) or -agon (for consonant-final stems). Thus far you've seen one use of the infinitive form (issuing jussive commands to non-second person entities). In this skill you'll see others.

    SHARED SUBJECT

    Many verbs allow or require the use of a second verb in the infinitive. Schematically, these phrases with verbs like these look like this:

    • (NOMINAL ARGUMENTS) (INFINITIVE) (MAIN VERB)

    One familiar one will be the verb kostagon, which deals with ability (you've seen this stem in words like kostilus, "please", and kostōba, "powerful"). Here's an example of how it's used:

    • Taoba riñe urnes. "The boy sees the girl."
    • Taoba riñe urnegon kostas. "The boy can see the girl."

    The subjects and objects remain in place, their cases unchanged. In effect, the infinitive form signals that the phrase is not done yet, and one must move on to understand the full intent of the phrase.

    Other verbs like kostagon include sylugon, "to try", and rakegon, "to take part in", both of which you'll see in the first lesson. Another, gīmigon, "to know", is shown in the second lesson. When used in such a way, it has the meaning "to know how to".

    SUBJECT TO PRE-VERBAL OBJECT

    A small number of verbs take the subject of the embedded verb as their object. This is how that looks schematically:

    • (OTHER NOMINALS) (INFINITIVE) (SUBJECT OF INFINITIVE) (MAIN VERB)

    The case of the subject of the infinitive depends on the main verb. The first such verb you'll see is sytilībagon, which is used for weak obligation (e.g. "should"). The verb is generally used in the third person singular with no expressed subject. Its object, which comes directly before it, is in the accusative. Before that is the infinitive (the thing which should be done), and before that are the other arguments of the phrase. Here's an example:

    • Vala ābre ȳdras. "The man is talking to the woman."
    • Ābre ȳdragon vale sytilības. "The man should* talk to the woman."

    Remember that sytilībagon, used in this way, generally does not agree with anything in the sentence:

    • Ābre ȳdrā. "You are talking to the woman."
    • Ābre ȳdragon avy sytilības. "You should* talk to the woman."

    Another way of translating this verb is "to be for". Thus, the last sentence could also be translated as "It is for you to talk to the woman."

    In the third lesson you'll see the verb bēvilagon, which is used for strong obligation (e.g. "must"). It works like sytilībagon, except that the pre-verbal nominal must be in the dative/genitive case (in this case, always the genitive. The dative is used when the following word begins with a vowel; the genitive is used otherwise). Here is an example:

    • Azantys dāri rijas. "The knight praises the king."
    • Dāri rijagon azanto bēvilza. "The knight must* praise the king."

    The last sentence might also be translated "The knight has to praise the king."

    PHRASAL CAUSATIVE

    There are many types of composite causative verbs in High Valyrian, but the verb sahagon can be used for any causative construction. The verb is conjugated normally, with the causer being assigned the nominative case; the causee (the one forced to act) being assigned the dative* case; and the other arguments being assigned their natural cases. Here's an example:

    • *Azantys zaldrīzī idakotas. "The knight attacked the dragon."
    • *Dārys azantot zaldrīzī idakogon sētas. "The king made the knight attack the dragon."

    In the present tense, sahagon has the stem sah-, and in the perfect, it has the stem sēt-.

    MISCELLANEOUS

    In this skill, look out for the following irregular perfect stems:

    • Dāeremagon "to free" > dāerēd-
    • Sytilībagon "to be for" > sytilīpt-
    • Qrīdrughagon "to discard" > qrīdrūd-
    • Rijībagon "to worship" > rijipt-
    • Kostagon "to be able to" > kōtt-
  • 41 Future153 @ 75% 25 •••

    0 words

    THE FUTURE TENSE

    The High Valyrian future is used for distant projections about what will happen, as well as to commit the subject to some future course. Here's a quick example:

    Daenerys dāri ȳdrēlza. "Daenerys will talk to the king."

    You could also translate this with the English "go" future:

    Daenerys dāri ȳdrēlza. "Daenerys is going to talk to the king."

    If a sense of immediacy is desired, though, the present is used, as shown below:

    Tubī Daenerys dāri ȳdras. "Daenerys is going to talk to the king today."

    This latter fact is something to keep in mind. In this course when you see a future tense sentence, assume that the actual marked future tense will be used.

    FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE VERB CONJUGATION

    The future stem in High Valyrian has an l associated with it, but what happens between the root and the l differs depending on the root's termination. For roots ending in a consonant, -il is added, and then the present tense agreement set is added after that, with a small caveat that in the first person, a sound change results in the unique ending -inna. An example is shown below:

    • Jorrāelinna "I will love" root plus -inna
    • Jorrāelilā "you will love" root plus -ilā
    • Jorrāelilza "s/he will love" root plus -ilza
    • Jorrāelili "we will love" root plus -ili
    • Jorrāelilāt "you (all) will love" root plus -ilāt
    • Jorrāelilzi "they will love" root plus -ilzi

    The agreement facts hold for other verbs whose roots end in vowels. What differs is the vowel before the l. In each case, the vowel is long, but the quality differs based on the placement of the vowel. When the root vowel is a or o, the result is -ēl; when the root vowel is otherwise (e, i, or u), the result is -īl. Here's an example (using the third person plural) of each type of vowel ending:

    • Ȳdrēlzi "they will speak" -a becomes -ē
    • Nektēlzi "they will cut" -o becomes -ē
    • Urnīlzi "they will see" -e becomes -ī
    • Sindīlzi "they will buy" -i becomes -ī
    • Bardīlzi "they will write" -u becomes -ī

    FUTURE ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE VERB CONJUGATION

    There are a second set of subjunctive agreement endings in High Valyrian, and the future tense is the first place you'll see them. They are similar to the subjunctive endings you already know, but the o is replaced by u. These endings are added to the future stem, whose formation we've just discussed. Here's an example:

    • Jorrāelilun "I will love" root plus -ilun
    • Jorrāelilū "you will love" root plus -ilū
    • Jorrāelilus "s/he will love" root plus -ilus
    • Jorrāeliluty "we will love" root plus -iluty
    • Jorrāelilūt "you (all) will love" root plus -ilūt
    • Jorrāelilusy "they will love" root plus -ilusy

    Again, these endings are added to the future stem, so be sure to effect the vowel necessary change in vowel final stems, as shown below:

    • Nektēlun "I will cut" future stem plus -un
    • Nektēilū "you will cut" future stem plus -ū
    • Nektēilus "s/he will cut" future stem plus -us
    • Nektēiluty "we will cut" future stem plus -uty
    • Nektēilūt "you (all) will cut" future stem plus -ūt
    • Nektēilusy "they will cut" future stem plus -usy

    IRREGULAR VERBS

    The verb sagon, "to be" is barbarically irregular in the future tense. Using the stem kes-, the verb conjugates as a present tense verb would, but it has future meaning. Here is its full conjugation paradigm:

    • Kesan "I will be" future stem plus -an
    • Kesā "you will be" future stem plus -ā
    • Kessa "s/he will be" future stem plus -sa
    • Kesi "we will be" future stem plus -i
    • Kesāt "you (all) will be" future stem plus -āt
    • Kessi "they will be" *future stem plus -si
    • Keson "I will be" future stem plus -on
    • Kesō "you will be" future stem plus -ō
    • Kesos "s/he will be" future stem plus -os
    • Kessoty "we will be" future stem plus -oty
    • Kesōt "you (all) will be" future stem plus -ōt
    • Kesosy "they will be" future stem plus -osy

    The verb emagon is regular, with a consonant-final stem em, and the verb jagon is lightly irregular, having a future stem īl. This means that the first person form for the future indicative of jagon is īnna, "I will go".

    SAYING YES

    As you know, the third person singular version of the verb sagon is used for "yes" in High Valyrian. Where it makes sense, the tense of this verb matches the tense of the sentence. Thus, in a future tense context, you will see kessa used to mean "yes", though issa will always work as well.

  • 41 Numerals 1151 @ 75% 25 •••
    bȳrgār · gār · hārgār · jēngār · langār · sīgār · tōngār · vōrgār · zūgār
    9 words

    NUMERALS

    High Valyrian uses a base-10 number system like English and many Western languages, meaning that the basic numerals run 0 through 9, and a new digit is added at powers of 10 (so 10, 100, 1,000, etc.). Cardinal numerals in High Valyrian are modifiers, but not all will agree with the nouns they modify. A summary of the system is presented below.

    NUMERALS 1-9

    The cardinal numerals 1 through 9 are standard adjectives that agree with the nouns they modify in case, gender, and number. Given the nature of numerals, the number concord is uniform: The number 1 is always singular, and the numbers 2 through 9 are always plural.

    The numerals 1 through 9 are either Class I or Class II adjectives. They are presented below (assuming Lunar singular concord, for the sake of presentation):

    • 1: mēre (Class II)
    • 2: lanta (Class I)
    • 3: hāre (Class II)
    • 4: izula (Class I)
    • 5: tōma (Class I)
    • 6: bȳre (Class II)
    • 7: sīkuda (Class I)
    • 8: jēnqa (Class I)
    • 9: vōre (Class II)

    Except in rare circumstances, numbers will precede the nouns they modify. Again, they will agree with the nouns they modify in number, and nouns whose number is other than singular should be marked plural when modified by a number. Here are a few examples:

    • mēre zaldrīzes "one dragon"
    • lantyz zaldrīzesse "two dragons"
    • hāri zaldrīzesse "three dragons"

    NUMERALS 10-19

    The formation of numerals above 9 is a bit simpler. First, ampa is used for 10. While this word is an adjective, it does not agree with the noun it modifies in any way. Ampa is invariant.

    Now, having established that ampa is invariant, you do actually have to change it when you move to numbers beyond 10. The numerals 11 through 19 are formed by placing the adjectival form of the numeral 1 through 9 first followed by ampa in its coordinative form—i.e. ampā. The first numeral still agrees with the noun it modifies in case, gender, and number, so it will need to be modified. Again assuming Lunar singular concord, here are the numerals 10 through 19:

    • 10: ampa (Invariant)
    • 11: mēre ampā (Class II)
    • 12: lanta ampā (Class I)
    • 13: hāre ampā (Class II)
    • 14: izula ampā (Class I)
    • 15: tōma ampā (Class I)
    • 16: bȳre ampā (Class II)
    • 17: sīkuda ampā (Class I)
    • 18: jēnqa ampā (Class I)
    • 19: vōre ampā (Class II)

    Here are some examples of how these numbers are used with nouns:

    • ampa zaldrīzesse "ten dragons"
    • mēri ampā zaldrīzesse "eleven dragons"
    • lantyz ampā zaldrīzesse "twelve dragons"

    Notice that when used in the number 11, mēre actually shows plural concord.

    NUMERALS 20-99

    The numerals 20 through 99 work the same way as ampa. Specifically, there are unique words for the multiples of 10, and as with ampa, they are invariant in form. As with the numerals 11 through 19, these words are preposed by the numerals 1 through 9 to get, e.g., 21 through 29, and the multiple of ten is placed in its coordinative form. Here's an example with 20:

    • 20: lantēpsa (Invariant)
    • 21: mēre lantēpsā (Class II)
    • 22: lanta lantēpsā (Class I)
    • 23: hāre lantēpsā (Class II)
    • 24: izula lantēpsā (Class I)
    • 25: tōma lantēpsā (Class I)
    • 26: bȳre lantēpsā (Class II)
    • 27: sīkuda lantēpsā (Class I)
    • 28: jēnqa lantēpsā (Class I)
    • 29: vōre lantēpsā (Class II)

    Now here are all the multiples of 10:

    • 20: lantēpsa (Invariant)
    • 30: hārēpsa (Invariant)
    • 40: izulēpsa (Invariant)
    • 50: tōmēpsa (Invariant)
    • 60: bȳrēpsa (Invariant)
    • 70: sīkudēpsa (Invariant)
    • 80: jēnqēpsa (Invariant)
    • 90: vōrēpsa (Invariant)

    The same rules for nominal concord apply.

    NUMERALS 100-999

    Numerals 100 through 999 work a little differently. There are invariant forms for the multiples of 100, and then for numbers in between, one uses se as a connector followed by the full number (no extra coordinative morphology is used). The multiples of 100 are:

    • 100: gār (Invariant)
    • 200: langār (Invariant)
    • 300: hārgār (Invariant)
    • 400: zūgār (Invariant)
    • 500: tōngār (Invariant)
    • 600: bȳrgār (Invariant)
    • 700: sīgār (Invariant)
    • 800: jēngār (Invariant)
    • 900: vōrgār (Invariant)

    Here's an example of a complex number in the hundreds modifying a noun:

    • zūgār se vōri tōmēpsā zaldrīzesse "four hundred and fifty-nine dragons"

    NUMERALS 1,000+

    The word used for 1,000 is pyrys, and it is a noun. It does not modify a noun as an adjective. Instead, the modified noun is placed in the genitive plural, and the noun pyrys takes the case assigned to it by the verb. For numbers beyond a thousand, the number 1 through 999 modifies pyrys itself. Here are a couple examples:

    • pyrys zaldrīzoti "one thousand dragons"
    • lantyz jēnqēpsā pyryssy zaldrīzoti "eighty-two thousand dragons"
  • 32 Phrases 2113 @ 50% 50 •••
    averilloma · hegnīr · heksīr · iā · mērī · sesīr · sīr · tubī · udrimmi · vamiot · yn · zaldrīzerme · ēngoso
    13 words

    ADJECTIVAL NOUNS

    Certain nouns inflected in certain number/case combinations can be used as adjectives. For example, ēngoso is the instrumental singular declension of the word ēngos, which means "tongue". Declined thus, it means something like "with a tongue" or "with the tongue". When used pre-nominally, though, it takes on the meaning of an adjective, as shown below:

    • Ēngoso hontes vāedas. "The chatty bird is singing."

    Every so often you'll encounter a noun that can be used this way. In this skill, you'll learn four such nouns:

    • Udrimmi "witty, clever"
    • Zaldrīzerme "indestructible, invincible"
    • Averilloma "drunk, tipsy"
    • Ēngoso "talkative, chatty"

    In use, these adjectival nouns are almost always restricted to pre-nominal position, and they are rarely used predicatively. They can be used in different positions, but for now it's best to use them in pre-nominal position only.

    As a final note, even though they have adjectival meanings, these adjectival nouns are still nouns, and so they do not agree in gender or number with the nouns they modify.

  • 41 The Known World173 @ 50% 50 •••

    0 words

    THE WORLD OF ICE AND FIRE

    High Valyrian was spoken by most of the residents of a kingdom, the Valyrian Freehold, that has sense been destroyed in the world of George R. R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire series. At the time of action, the language is still spoken as a language of learning, and by many in Essos as a second language (considered a "formal" variant of their version of Valyrian, which is now, in fact, a different language). Nevertheless, many other languages are more widely spoken, and the action of the series takes us to many different lands.

    In this skill you'll see some of the many places and peoples found in the Song of Ice and Fire universe—many of which you'll likely heard of either from the books or the HBO series Game of Thrones.

    BORROWINGS: SOUNDS

    Like any language, High Valyrian can accommodate borrowings. Some of these borrowings are altered to better fit the language, while some stay more or less the same. In terms of sound, you will see the following digraphs are not normally used in Valyrian proper:

    • KH is used for borrowings that have the "kh" sound, which is like the "ch" sound of German "Buch". Valyrians will render it variously as k, h or gh, depending on the source.
      • IPA: [x] (Borrowed); [k], [h], [ɣ/ʁ] (Valyrian)
    • SH is used for borrowings that have the "sh" sound of "shock". In Valyrian this will most likely come out as s, though some dialects do in fact have this sound for the sequence sr (commonly rendered as j).
      • IPA: [ʃ] (Borrowed); [s], [ʃ] (Valyrian)
    • TH is used for borrowings that have the "th" sound of "think", but Valyrians will most likely render it as a regular Valyrian t.
      • IPA: [θ] (Borrowed); [t] (Valyrian)
    • VH, PH, F will be spelled various ways, depending on the source, this is the "f" sound of English "father". Vh is an old Valyrian spelling of this sound that is no longer present in the language. It will be rendered variously as either [p] or [v].
      • IPA: [f] (Borrowed); [p], [v] (Valyrian)

    Not all of these sequences will be present in this skill, but you may see them in future skills.

    BORROWINGS: DECLENSIONS

    In addition to foreign sounds, you will also see foreign declensions. Most borrowings are shoved into the sixth declension, where they share similar endings to paucals and collectives (for which, see the Determiners 2 skill). Most have a characteristic -i ending in the nominative singular, but some borrowings are allowed to remain unmodified. Additionally, you will see unfamiliar word endings in many borrowed words (for example Qarth and Junkae). It would do well to pay special attention to these forms.

    For the most part, declensions of these -i borrowings will look like this:

    • NOM.: dothraki (sg) dothraki (pl)
    • ACC.: dothraki (sg) dothrakī (pl)
    • GEN.: dothrako (sg) dothrakoti (pl)
    • DAT.: dothrakot (sg) dothrakoti (pl)
    • LOC.: dothrakī (sg) dothrakoti (pl)
    • INS.: dothrakisi (sg) dothrakissi (pl)
    • COM.: dothrakimi (sg) dothrakimmi (pl)
    • VOC.: dothrakis (sg) dothrakissis (pl)

    For different declensions, remember the signs to look for: s in the instrumental; m in the comitative; a long vowel in the locative (or a duplicate dative form); some kind of -i in the plural and/or accusative; epenthetic h in certain paradigms. Some pattern you've already seen will help you to figure out the patterns used for borrowings (after all, that's the source from which they were drawn).

  • 50 Clothing191 100 •••

    0 words

    Vellaros

    Take note of the word vellaros, which means "a pair of pants". The word "pants" by itself is plural in English, and the same goes for trousers. Not so with vellaros. The word is singular, but refers to an entire pair of pants. The plural refers to multiple pairs of pants. Take care when translating!

  • 50 Emotions192 100 •••

    0 words

    New Postposition

    The postposition syt (etymologically related to sȳz "good") can be used to mean "for", "intended for", or "on behalf of" in a benefactive sense. The noun which precedes it must be in the genitive.

    Missing Someone

    The new verb ozmijegon means "to miss" in the metaphorical sense. Its object takes either the instrumental or comitative depending on whether or not the object is animate. If you miss a person (or a turtle), the object takes the comitative. If you miss your favorite book, the object takes the instrumental. Take care to recall which declensions have identical instrumentals and comitatives when reviewing examples!

    The Subjunctive Revisited

    You have already mastered recognizing and forming subjunctives in every tense and voice you've learned up to this point. Until now, you've used those forms for negative sentences. The original intent of the subjunctive, though, was for use in subordinate clauses where the verb has uncertain, hypothetical, or conditional force. In this lesson, you'll learn one verb—jaelagon "to hope"—which requires its subordinate verb to be in the subjunctive. Here are three examples:

    • Avy urnion jaelan. "I hope that I see you."
    • Taoba avy urnios jaelan. "I hope that the boy sees you."
    • Avy urnion taoba jaelza. "The boy hopes that I see you."

    As you can see, there is nothing that is equivalent to the English word "that" in these clauses. Instead, the matrix clause is simply tacked on at the end, even if it has an overt subject.

    Do note that a subordinate clause can be subjunctive and negative. It looks no different from a matrix negative clause, as shown below:

    • Taoba avy urnios daor jaelan. "I hope that the boy doesn't see you."

    There may be additional subtleties required to use the subjunctive effectively, but this should be enough information for you to successfully complete this skill.

    ?@#!%&

    The adjective hobrenka is translated as "idiotic" and only "idiotic". Suffice it to say that it is not a very nice word, and the full range of its definitions will not be given—rather, it will be left to your imagination.

  • 50 Advanced Valence193 100 •••

    0 words

    New Voice Morphology

    Up to this point, these lessons haven't been completely honest. You have seen many verbs beginning with u/v, or i/j, and perhaps a few beginning with h/a/s/z that were not as straightforward as they appeared. This is because in High Valyrian, there is a special voice system which uniquely identifies certain arguments in the sentence and alters the meaning of the clause slightly.

    This system is a very old system, and is on its way out at this stage of the language's evolution. (By the time it has evolved into a language like Astapori Valyrian, it is completely gone.) That said, it is still mostly productive, and knowing how the system works will help you use High Valyrian more effectively.

    The Instrumental Passive

    When a verb takes a subject, it is assumed that that subject has the mental and physical capacity to carry out that action, even if that action is taken unintentionally (as with falling). When the subject of a verb could never undertake an action of its own volition (say, because it's inanimate), a special form of the form is used: the instrumental passive. Here is an instructive example:

    • Vala havon nektos. "The man cuts the bread."
    • Egry havon anektos. "The knife cuts the bread."

    While a man can use a knife to cut bread, a knife can't do anything—ever. High Valyrian makes note of this fact in the grammar.

    This means that sentence you've learned in previous skills aren't necessarily accurate. Any time an inanimate noun is the subject of a sentence, the instrumental passive should be used. That said, as time wore on, Valyrian speakers became less and less inclined to use the instrumental passive consistently.

    To form the instrumental passive…

    • Add s- to verbs beginning with p, t, k, or q.
    • Add z- to verbs beginning with b, d, g, l, or r (note that the sequence zr becomes j).
    • Add h- to verbs beginning with any vowel except e and o.
    • Add a- to verbs beginning with anything else.

    Note that to reintroduce an agent, one uses ondoso the way one would with a passive, and if an instrumental passive is passivized, the old subject is reintroduced with the instrumental.

    The Locative Applicative

    The locative applicative takes a locative argument and makes it the direct object of the verb. This direct object is then marked with the dative, unless it is singular and occurs directly before the verb and the verb begins with a consonant, then it is marked with the genitive. Here is an example:

    • Qaedār dēmatan. "I sat on the whale."
    • Qaedrot udēmatan. "I sat on the whale."

    There is a slight difference in meaning, in that when the applicative is used, the object is assumed to be directly affected by the action of the verb.

    Locative applicatives can take locative postpositions as prefixes to specify their meanings further. These occur directly before the u or v prefix.

    To form the locative applicative…

    • Replace the h at the beginning of a verb with v.
    • Add v- to verbs beginning with any vowel other than e or ē.
    • Add u- to all other verbs.

    The Oblique Applicative

    The oblique applicative takes a non-local argument and makes it the direct object of the verb. This direct object takes the accusative. Here is an example:

    • Zijo syt limatan. "I cried for her."
    • Ziry ilimatan. "I cried for her."

    The meanings of oblique applicative are often idiomatic, and should be memorized.

    Oblique applicatives can take non-local postpositions as prefixes to specify their meanings further. These occur directly before the i or j prefix.

    To form the oblique applicative…

    • Replace the h at the beginning of a verb with j.
    • Add j- to verbs beginning with i, ī, u, ū, y, ȳ, or any diphthong.
    • Add i- to all other verbs.

    Remember

    If an applicative is passivized, its new object becomes the new subject. Thus, Ziry ilimataks means "He was cried for", not "He was cried".

    Word Order

    In ancient times, the promoted argument would always be placed directly before the verb. This ordering was relaxed by Daenerys's time, but preverbal position remains the default ordering for applicatives and instrumental passives.


2019-05-01
0.019

Basics 1 updated 2019-03-06

JIŌRNA!

Welcome to High Valyrian for English speakers! High Valyrian is the language of the old Valyrian Freehold, a thriving civilization destroyed by a mysterious cataclysm centuries before the action of Game of Thrones begins. It was a language of dragon tamers and warriors, but is now a language of refinement and education—a memory of a bygone era. It's the language of the Mad King Aerys, of Aegon the Conqueror, and of Daenerys Targaryen, Mother of Dragons.

High Valyrian is an inflectional language, where the form of a noun changes to indicate the role it plays in a sentence, or verbs inflect for their tense, aspect, and voice. Generally, adjectives come before the nouns they modify, and verbs come at the end of the sentence.

As you begin your study of Valyrian, you may want to know how the Roman letters used to spell the language are pronounced. In Old Valyria, the language was written with a glyphic writing system, but in our world, we use a variant of the Roman alphabet for simplicity's sake. Here's a description of the system:

CONSONANTS

  • B, D, H, L, M, N, Z are pronounced roughly the same as they are in English.
    • IPA: [b], [d], [h], [l], [m], [n], [z].
  • G is always pronounced hard, as in "get"; never as in "genre" or "gel".
    • IPA: [ɡ]
  • K, P, T are pronounced similar to English, but without aspiration (compare "pie" to "spy". The Valyrian P is pronounced as in "spy").
    • IPA: [p], [t], [k]
  • S is always pronounced voiceless, as in "dose"; never as in "rose".
    • IPA: [s]
  • R is always trilled, as in Spanish "perro".
    • IPA: [r]
  • V is now pronounced as in "vet", but used to be pronounced as the "w" in "wet".
    • IPA: [v] (Modern); [w] (Ancient)
  • J is now pronounced as in "jam", but used to have a slightly more palatal pronunciation.
    • IPA: [dʒ] (Modern); [ɟ] and [j] (Antiquated)
  • Q is pronounced like a "k", but much further back in the mouth, with the back of the tongue touching the uvula. There is no English equivalent.
    • IPA: [q]
  • GH is a voiced guttural sound like a noisier version of the "g" in Spanish "lago". There is no English equivalent.
    • IPA: [ɣ] or [ʁ]
  • LJ is pronounced like the "lli" in "million".
    • IPA: [ʎ]
  • Ñ is pronounced as in Spanish "ñ" or the "ni" in "minion".
    • IPA: [ɲ]
  • RH is pronounced like Valyrian R, but with no voicing.
    • IPA: [r̥]

VOWELS

  • A is pronounced as in "father".
    • IPA: [a]
  • E is pronounced as in "get", and is never silent.
    • IPA: [ɛ] or [e] (no distinction)
  • I is pronounced as in "machine".
    • IPA: [i]
  • O is pronounced as in "note".
    • IPA: [ɔ] or [o] (no distinction)
  • U is pronounced as in "rude".
    • IPA: [u]
  • Y is pronounced like the "i" in "machine", but with the lips fully rounded as if one is pronouncing U.
    • IPA: [y]
  • Ā, Ē, Ī, Ō, Ū, Ȳ are pronounced exactly as their macron-less counterparts but are held for a longer duration.
    • IPA: [aː], [ɛː]~[eː], [iː], [ɔː]~[oː], [uː], [yː]

Note: As a shortcut, you can type a double version of the vowel to stand in for a vowel with a macron. Thus, if you type yy it will be understood as ȳ by Duolingo.

SINGULAR AND PLURAL

In this lesson you'll be learning the singular and plural pairs for some common words. In High Valyrian there are a number of pluralization strategies, so pay close attention to the ending of each word you learn.

High Valyrian is a language whose nouns inflect for gender, number, and case. Adjectives will agree with all three of these elements. In this lesson, you'll only be focusing on plural agreement; other types of agreement will come later.

ADJECTIVE PLACEMENT

Adjectives most commonly precede the nouns they modify, but they may follow the nouns they modify either for stylistic reasons, or to prevent overcrowding. Thus, if you have sȳz which means "good", then "good man" can be translated as sȳz vala or vala sȳz.

SIMPLE COORDINATION

High Valyrian doesn't use a word like "and" when coordinating two non-modifying consecutive elements. Instead, the last word in a pair or trio of nouns, adjectives, or even verbs is modified in some way to indicate that it is participating in a coordinative structure. One common strategy is to lengthen the final vowel of the last word in a list and shift the word's stress to the end. Watch out for word-final long vowels in sentences with coordination!

PRO-DROP

You'll be learning some High Valyrian pronouns later. For now, if you see a verb, the subject will either be listed first, or will be a pronoun not present. Take, for example, the sentence Vala issa. Translated simply, it could mean "The man is", but that's not a very useful sentence. A better translation would be "He is a man", where "he" is simply not necessary.

Phrases 1 updated 2019-02-28

YES AND NO

You may recognize the word for "yes" from the previous lesson. In fact, it's identical to the word for "is". In High Valyrian, what we translate as "yes" is more accurately translated as "it is".

(Note: Generally you match the tense of the sentence. So if you want to say "Yes, it will be fine," then you say kessa "it will be" instead of issa "it is". As you haven't learned the future tense yet, issa is used exclusively, for the time being.)

Negation is a bit more complex in High Valyrian than other languages, so you'll be learning about it later.

STRESS

High Valyrian words are stressed most commonly on the penultimate (second-to-last) syllable. When the antepenultimate (third-to-last) syllable is heavy (i.e. it contains a long vowel, a diphthong, or ends with a consonant), and the penultimate syllable is light (i.e. it contains a short vowel with no coda consonant), then the antepenultimate syllable is stressed.

Here are some examples (below, H stands for "heavy" and L stands for "light"):

  • Kepa > ke-pa (L-L) = KE-pa
  • Rytsas > ry-tsas (L-H) = RY-tsas
  • Issa > is-sa (H-L) = IS-sa
  • Vaedas > vae-das (H-H) = VAE-das
  • Azanty > a-zan-ty (L-H-L) = a-ZAN-ty
  • Hontesse > hon-tes-se (H-H-L) = hon-TES-se
  • Urnesi > ur-ne-si (H-L-L) = UR-ne-si
  • Majaqis > ma-ja-qis (L-L-H) = ma-JA-qis
  • Majaqi > ma-ja-qi (L-L-L) = ma-JA-qi
  • Azantyssy > a-zan-tys-sy (L-H-H-L) = a-zan-TYS-sy
  • Kirimvose > ki-rim-vo-se (L-H-L-L) = ki-RIM-vo-se
  • Sylutegon > sy-lu-te-gon (L-L-L-H) = sy-lu-TE-gon
  • Iotāptegon > io-tāp-te-gon (H-H-L-H) = io-TĀP-te-gon

The only exceptions to this rule occur with commands, both singular and plural, which are uniformly stressed on the final syllable. Additionally, conjunctive lengthening requires the final syllable of the final word to be stressed, as shown below:

  • Vala ābrā > va-la āb-rā (L-L H-H) = VA-la āb-RĀ

Basics 2 updated 2019-03-01

NOUN CASE

In High Valyrian, nouns change their form based on their grammatical role in the sentence. In this lesson, you'll be introduced to two cases. One you've been using since the beginning: the nominative case. The nominative case is used with the subject of the sentence. It's considered the basic form of the noun, and is the form you'll learn first when you learn a new noun.

The second case you're going to learn about in this lesson is called the accusative case. The accusative case is used with the object of the sentence. For example, in the English sentence "The man sees the woman", "the man" is the subject (the seer), and would take the nominative case in Valyrian. "The woman", on the other hand, is the object (the seeee), and would take the accusative case. In English, it's obvious who does what to whom, because a verb stands in between the two nouns. In High Valyrian, though, both of these are licit translations:

  • Vala ābre urnes.
  • Ābre vala urnes.

Rather than word order, the form of the noun is what tells you who does what to whom. In this case, ābra "woman" changes its ending from its usual -a to -e.

There are several different strategies for forming the accusative case, all of which you'll learn later. For this lesson, here are the important ones:

  • If the nominative is -a, the accusative is -e.
  • If the nominative is -i, the accusative is .
  • If the nominative is -es, the accusative is .
  • If the nominative is -ys, the accusative is -i.
  • If the nominative is -yssy, the accusative is .

These generalizations will suffice for this skill. Soon you'll learn more rules regarding the formation of the accusative and other cases.

VERB ENDINGS

In this skill you'll notice a few different strategies for marking a verb. High Valyrian verbs agree with their subjects in number and person. For now, you'll see endings for the third person singular (he, she, it) and plural (they), as well as the first person singular (I). Pay special attention to when a verb ends with -sa vs. -za vs. -as in the third person singular, as not all verbs consistently take the same ending.

Some generalizations you may notice:

  • If the subject is "I", the verb ends in -n.
  • If the subject is "he, she, it", the verb has an -s or -z in its ending.
  • If the subject is "they", the verb has -zi, -si, or -is in its ending.

Again, these generalizations will suffice for this skill. Soon you'll learn more rules regarding the formation of the all verbal conjugations.

Demonstratives 1 updated 2019-01-15

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

In this lesson you're going to learn some demonstrative pronouns. Though adjectives agree with nouns in case, number, and gender, it's important to remember that demonstrative pronouns do not. Pronouns take their own plurality, depending on their referent, and make a simple distinction between animate (B-class) and inanimate (K-class). In addition, there are two sets of pronouns depending on distance. Thus:

  • kesy "this (inanimate)"
  • bisy "this (animate)"
  • kony "that (inanimate)"
  • bony "that (animate)"

Note: It's up to the individual speaker to decide whether animals are animate enough to earn a B-class demonstrative pronoun.

Lunar Class updated 2019-01-16

INTRODUCTION TO GENDER

High Valyrian is a language with genders, much like Spanish, German, or Arabic. Unlike those languages, though, the genders of High Valyrian have nothing to do with biological sex. Instead, the genders are named based on key nouns within each gender that serve as the prototype for the rest of the paradigm. The genders are:

  • Lunar Class (Hūrenkon Qogror) from the word hūra "moon"
  • Solar Class (Vēzenkon Qogror) from the word vēzos "sun"
  • Aquatic Class (Embōñor Qogror) from the word embar "sea"
  • Terrestrial Class (Tegōñor Qogror) from the word tegon "earth"

Every noun of High Valyrian belongs to one of these four genders and requires its adjectives to agree with that gender. Gender in nouns can most often be recognized by a set of characteristic endings associated with each gender. In the four gender skills you will learn to recognize and manipulate those characteristic endings.

THE LUNAR CLASS

The lunar class is the most robust High Valyrian noun class. Lunar nouns can take a, e, i, o, or y as theme vowels. Most lunar nouns take some sort of -i suffix in the plural and accusative (though the latter will often coalesce with a final -a producing an -e suffix). Note that while the accusative plural for lunar nouns is always , the accusative singular of some types of lunar nouns (for example those ending in -e) also take in the accusative singular, rendering their singular and plural forms identical in the accusative.

Many important nouns referring to humans are lunar, so it pays to get a solid handle on lunar endings moving forward.

Solar Class updated 2018-10-25

INTRODUCTION TO GENDER

High Valyrian is a language with genders, much like Spanish, German, or Arabic. Unlike those languages, though, the genders of High Valyrian have nothing to do with biological sex. Instead, the genders are named based on key nouns within each gender that serve as the prototype for the rest of the paradigm. The genders are:

  • Lunar Class (Hūrenkon Qogror) from the word hūra "moon"
  • Solar Class (Vēzenkon Qogror) from the word vēzos "sun"
  • Aquatic Class (Embōñor Qogror) from the word embar "sea"
  • Terrestrial Class (Tegōñor Qogror) from the word tegon "earth"

Every noun of High Valyrian belongs to one of these four genders and requires its adjectives to agree with that gender. Gender in nouns can most often be recognized by a set of characteristic endings associated with each gender. In the four gender skills you will learn to recognize and manipulate those characteristic endings.

THE SOLAR CLASS

The solar class is the probably the most common class found in High Valyrian. Solar nouns all have either an s or a z in their nominative endings. While the accusative endings of solar and lunar nouns are similar, solar nouns typically take a double ss plus their theme vowel in the nominative plural.

Adjectives agreeing with solar nouns take different endings from those agreeing with lunar, terrestrial or aquatic nouns, as can be expected, but a few endings also display variant behavior depending on whether the adjective precedes or follows the noun it modifies. If one wanted to say "my leaders", for example, one would take the plural of "leader", jentyssy, and put the solar plural form of "my" in front to get ñuhyz jentyssy. Upon reversing the order, though, a vowel that is ordinarily dropped reappears, resulting in jentyssy ñuhyzy.

There is an additional stipulation if a solar plural adjective precedes a k, p, s, or t. While one would say ñuhyz jentyssy with a z ending, if one wished to say "my days", one would say ñuhys tubissa, with the z becoming an s on account of the following t. The z would, of course, reappear were the order reversed, giving us tubissa ñuhyzy.

Aquatic Class updated 2018-10-25

INTRODUCTION TO GENDER

High Valyrian is a language with genders, much like Spanish, German, or Arabic. Unlike those languages, though, the genders of High Valyrian have nothing to do with biological sex. Instead, the genders are named based on key nouns within each gender that serve as the prototype for the rest of the paradigm. The genders are:

  • Lunar Class (Hūrenkon Qogror) from the word hūra "moon"
  • Solar Class (Vēzenkon Qogror) from the word vēzos "sun"
  • Aquatic Class (Embōñor Qogror) from the word embar "sea"
  • Terrestrial Class (Tegōñor Qogror) from the word tegon "earth"

Every noun of High Valyrian belongs to one of these four genders and requires its adjectives to agree with that gender. Gender in nouns can most often be recognized by a set of characteristic endings associated with each gender. In the four gender skills you will learn to recognize and manipulate those characteristic endings.

THE AQUATIC CLASS

The aquatic class is the smallest High Valyrian noun class. Aquatic nouns all have an r associated with their endings and have a limited number of theme vowels (only a, e, i and o). Unlike other classes, the r rarely disappears in different case and number combinations, making this a challenging class of nouns to decline. Aquatic nouns, like terrestrial nouns, typically take an -a in the plural.

Take note of a special spelling change that occurs when an r follows an h due to a variety of case and number combinations. In the singular, for example, the word for "my" is ñuhor in the aquatic. In the plural, the o drops out and an -a is suffixed. This should produce ñuhra, but hr is not a licit sequence of High Valyrian. Instead, the word is respelled ñurha and pronounced accordingly.

Terrestrial Class updated 2019-03-06

INTRODUCTION TO GENDER

High Valyrian is a language with genders, much like Spanish, German, or Arabic. Unlike those languages, though, the genders of High Valyrian have nothing to do with biological sex. Instead, the genders are named based on key nouns within each gender that serve as the prototype for the rest of the paradigm. The genders are:

  • Lunar Class (Hūrenkon Qogror) from the word hūra "moon"
  • Solar Class (Vēzenkon Qogror) from the word vēzos "sun"
  • Aquatic Class (Embōñor Qogror) from the word embar "sea"
  • Terrestrial Class (Tegōñor Qogror) from the word tegon "earth"

Every noun of High Valyrian belongs to one of these four genders and requires its adjectives to agree with that gender. Gender in nouns can most often be recognized by a set of characteristic endings associated with each gender. In the four gender skills you will learn to recognize and manipulate those characteristic endings.

THE TERRESTRIAL CLASS

The terrestrial class is the simplest noun class in High Valyrian. Terrestrial nouns all have an n associated with their endings and typically have a theme vowel in o. Terrestrial nouns take a plural in -a and never make a distinction between the nominative and accusative.

Most terrestrial nouns refer to places, inanimate objects, or abstract ideas or actions. It's an important class, but probably the simplest one to learn and remember.

GAME OF THRONES NOTE

One of the key characters of Game of Thrones is Daenerys Targaryen. You've seen her first name already, but now you'll see her last name in High Valyrian: Targārien. As it is a family name, it will always be preceded by an article, and will not be used on its own the way a first name would. As an analogy, consider how Shakespeare refers to a Montague or a Capulet in Romeo and Juliet. In the examples that use Targārien as a noun, the English translations will do the same thing.

Genitive updated 2019-04-09

THE GENITIVE CASE

The genitive case is assigned to the possessor in a possessive phrase. In English, we mark possessor's in two ways:

  • the hill's top
  • the top of the hill

In learning the genitive case of High Valyrian, it will be most productive for you to liken it to the first strategy above.

The genitive is uniformly marked with an -o suffix (occasionally , but never a different quality vowel), so the genitive case is easy to identify. To identify a possessor, as in the phrase "the man's horse", one puts the possessor in the genitive. The other noun is in whatever case it is given in the sentence. For example:

  • Valo anne sȳz issa. "The man's horse is good."
  • Valo annī urnen. "I see the man's horse."

As with adjectives, the order of possessor and possessee may be reversed in High Valyrian. Thus, both valo anne and anne valo mean "the man's horse". The order of possessor-possessee is strongly preferred, however, and should only be reversed in cases of overcrowding, or for honorific transposition. As an example of the latter, Daenerys is referred to as Daenerys Stormborn. In High Valyrian, that is translated as Daenerys Jelmāzmo, where jelmāzmo is the genitive of jelmāzma, the word for a violent storm.

REMINDER: ADJECTIVAL CONCORD

In High Valyrian, an adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in gender, number, and case. If one were to translate a simple sentence like "The good boy's mother is sleeping", the Valyrian equivalent of good, sȳz, would need to agree with the gender, number, and case of the noun it modifies. In this sentence, "good" modifies "boy", not "mother". The mother may be good or may be evil; we don't know. All we know for certain is that the boy is good. Thus, the appropriate translation is as follows:

  • Sȳro taobo muña ēdrus. "The good boy's mother is sleeping."

Above, muña is in the nominative singular because it's the subject of the sentence (it's the mother that's sleeping, not the boy). The adjective, though, modifies taoba. And what's taoba up to? Nothing: Taoba is simply the possessor of muña. It is, therefore, in the genitive case. Consequently, the adjective that modifies it, sȳz, must also be in the genitive case. Hence, sȳro taobo. Translating it as sȳz taobo would be incorrect.

WARNING: GENITIVE PLURAL ERRORS

There is a known error on Duolingo with exercises that have card selection and genitive plurals. That is, for something like "Those are the masters' horses" (multiple masters have multiple horses), there will be no possible way to give the correct answer in English. This is not an error I'm able to fix: It's an error with Duolingo's system. I have reported the error, but there's really nothing more I can do aside from completely eliminating exercises featuring the genitive plural.

SMALL NOTE: DOVAOGĒDY

In George R. R. Martin's universe, the Unsullied are an army, and the English word is invariant. The Unsullied can refer to one or many Unsullied. One can also say an Unsullied to refer to one. The word is never pluralized. Consequently, Unsullied's can be singular or plural.

Genitive 1 updated 2018-10-25

THE GENITIVE CASE

The genitive case is assigned to the possessor in a possessive phrase. In English, we mark possessor's in two ways:

  • the hill's top
  • the top of the hill

In learning the genitive case of High Valyrian, it will be most productive for you to liken it to the first strategy above.

The genitive is uniformly marked with an -o suffix (occasionally , but never a different quality vowel), so the genitive case is easy to identify. To identify a possessor, as in the phrase "the man's horse", one puts the possessor in the genitive. The other noun is in whatever case it is given in the sentence. For example:

  • Valo anne sȳz issa. "The man's horse is good."
  • Valo annī urnen. "I see the man's horse."

As with adjectives, the order of possessor and possessee may be reversed in High Valyrian. Thus, both valo anne and anne valo mean "the man's horse". The order of possessor-possessee is strongly preferred, however, and should only be reversed in cases of overcrowding, or for honorific transposition. As an example of the latter, Daenerys is referred to as Daenerys Stormborn. In High Valyrian, that is translated as Daenerys Jelmāzmo, where jelmāzmo is the genitive of jelmāzma, the word for a violent storm.

REMINDER: ADJECTIVAL CONCORD

In High Valyrian, an adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in gender, number, and case. If one were to translate a simple sentence like "The good boy's mother is sleeping", the Valyrian equivalent of good, sȳz, would need to agree with the gender, number, and case of the noun it modifies. In this sentence, "good" modifies "boy", not "mother". The mother may be good or may be evil; we don't know. All we know for certain is that the boy is good. Thus, the appropriate translation is as follows:

  • Sȳro taobo muña ēdrus. "The good boy's mother is sleeping."

Above, muña is in the nominative singular because it's the subject of the sentence (it's the mother that's sleeping, not the boy). The adjective, though, modifies taoba. And what's taoba up to? Nothing: Taoba is simply the possessor of muña. It is, therefore, in the genitive case. Consequently, the adjective that modifies it, sȳz, must also be in the genitive case. Hence, sȳro taobo. Translating it as sȳz taobo would be incorrect.

WARNING: GENITIVE PLURAL ERRORS

There is a known error on Duolingo with exercises that have card selection and genitive plurals. That is, for something like "Those are the masters' horses" (multiple masters have multiple horses), there will be no possible way to give the correct answer in English. This is not an error I'm able to fix: It's an error with Duolingo's system. I have reported the error, but there's really nothing more I can do aside from completely eliminating exercises featuring the genitive plural.

SMALL NOTE: DOVAOGĒDY

In George R. R. Martin's universe, the Unsullied are an army, and the English word is invariant. The Unsullied can refer to one or many Unsullied. One can also say an Unsullied to refer to one. The word is never pluralized. Consequently, Unsullied's can be singular or plural.

Possessive Adjectives updated 2019-01-18

AQUATIC DECLENSIONS

As you move on to learn about possessive adjectives, note that you'll now be expected to decline any adjective in any number, class and case combination you've already seen. For aquatic nouns this can prove challenging. In particular, pay attention to three adjectives and their singular and plural pairs in the aquatic:

  • ñuhor "my" ~ ñurha "my"
  • pōjor "their" ~ pōja "their"
  • konor "that" ~ kōdra "these"

The first pattern we've seen already in the former Aquatic skill. In the second, notice that the r disappears completely. In fact what happens is the jr sequence is illicit in High Valyrian, and so simplifies to j. A similar simplification happens with sr and zr, both of which become j.

The last pattern is one that is widespread in High Valyrian and is important to commit to memory. When a nasal consonant (either n or m) is followed immediately by r, the nasal is deleted, and the previous vowel lengthens. In addition, a homorganic voiced nasal (d for n and b for m) appears in between the vowel and the r. Thus, what was originally konra became kondra and then kōdra.

REMINDER

In the third person singular, there are two pronouns: ziry and ūja. When they occur as possessive pronouns, they still agree with the possessor—even if the possessor isn't stated. Thus both of the phrases below are correct:

  • jāhon lenton "his/her/its house"
  • zȳhon lenton "his/her/its house"

The first is used when the possessor of the house is a noun that is in the aquatic or terrestrial gender. The second is used when the possessor of the house is in the lunar or solar gender. Both take -on becomes lenton is terrestrial.

Because most humans are lunar or solar, zȳh- is more likely to be used when the possessor is animate, but both mean essentially the same thing. In a phrase with no other context (most of the phrases you'll see in Duolingo), you're likely to see either.

Family updated 2018-10-25

KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY

High Valyrian's kinship system is a bit more detailed than that of English. High Valyrian has what's known as an Iroquois Kinship system, meaning that certain common words cover more ground in High Valyrian than they do in English.

For example, the word muña "mother", which you've learned, is used with one's mother's sisters as well. Consequently, the word can mean "aunt", depending on the context. The same happens with the words for "brother" and "sister" and one's parallel cousins.

High Valyrian also distinguishes between siblings of different ages. Thus, valonqar, which means "younger brother", is a different word from lēkia, which means "older brother".

The vocabulary of each lesson is designed to go together, so that you learn the words for parallel cousins all at once, and cross cousins later. Look for patterns of interpredictability to help you memorize pairs of words. For example, the words for younger siblings/cousins (hāedar and valonqar) are both aquatic, whereas the words for older siblings/cousins (lēkia and mandia) are both lunar. Such subsystems are present throughout the larger kinship system.

Questions updated 2018-10-25

Questions

Thus far you've learned how to ask yes/no questions (identical in form to statements, but with question intonation). In this skill you'll learn to ask WH-questions. WH-questions are questions which, in English, have a word with a "WH" in them (i.e. who, what, where, when, why, how).

In High Valyrian, WH-words begin with s (in fact, either sp, for animate, or sk, for inanimate), and appear uniformly at the beginning of the sentence.

The words sparos "who" and skoros "what" are pronouns that decline fully (including the genitive form sparo, which we'd translate into English as "whose"), and the adjectives spare "which (animate)" and skore "which (inanimate)" [NOTE: Not yet present in course. Coming soon!] are adjectives that agree with the nouns they modify in case, gender, and number.

The following WH-words should be learned as phrases, though you'll be able to figure out how they're formed later on:

  • Skorī "when"
  • Skorkydoso "how"
  • Skoriot "where"
  • Skoro syt "why"

The word skorverdon "how many" is special. Skorverdon is always followed by a noun in the genitive plural. Thus "how many men" would be skorverdon valoti. Remember that skorverdon is the actual argument, though, so in the sentence "How many men are singing?" the verb should be third person singular, since the noun skorverdon is singular.

Animals updated 2018-10-25

Animals

In the Song of Ice and Fire universe, animals serve as the standard bearers for some of the most famous houses. For example, the wolf is associated with House Stark; the lion with House Lannister; the fish with House Tully; and the dragon with House Targaryen. Often the animal names will be used to stand in for a member or head of that house.

Pay special attention to certain of the words in this skill, as they instantiate some of the more unusual declension paradigms of High Valyrian.

Present Tense updated 2018-10-25

Present Tense Active Indicative Verb Conjugation

So far you've seen a number of verbs conjugated in their present tense forms. Now you'll learn the full system of present tense conjugation.

As you know, verbs in High Valyrian agree with their subjects in person and number. In determining what endings a verb will have, it's important to determine what type of segment ends the verb root: a consonant or a vowel. Those that end in consonants have endings which vary, while those that end in a vowel have fairly uniform endings.

Vowel-final stems display the following behavior:

  • Urnen "I see" root plus -n
  • Urnē "you see" root plus lengthened final vowel
  • Urnes "s/he sees" root plus -s
  • Urnī "we see" root minus vowel plus -ī
  • Urnēt "you (all) see" root plus lengthened final vowel plus -t
  • Urnesi "they see" root plus -si

For the second person forms, the final lengthened vowel varies based on the final vowel of the root. Thus idakō is "you attack" and līrī is "you smile".

Regular consonant-final stems display the following behavior:

  • Rȳban "I hear" root plus -an
  • Rȳbā "you hear" root plus -ā
  • Rȳbas "s/he hears" root plus -as
  • Rȳbi "we hear" root plus -i
  • Rȳbāt "you (all) hear" root plus -āt
  • Rȳbis "they hear" root plus -is

The endings you see above will change on occasion depending on the final consonant of the root. For example, words that end in a voiceless stop (p, t, k, or q) will often (but not always) have a third personal singular ending -sa. Roots that end in r or l will take third person endings of -za in the singular and -zi in the plural. Other changes with other consonants are less regular, and should be memorized.

As a final note, take care to distinguish those verb roots that end in a consonant, and those that end in -a. Their endings will be similar in many, but not all, cases. For example, ȳdran "I speak" looks like it could be a consonant-final form, or an a-final form, but ȳdrasi "they speak" could only be an a-final form.

Sizes updated 2018-10-25

SIZES

This skill is going to teach you a series of new adjectives. Not that bōsa can mean "long" or "tall", depending on the context, and also note that harrenka is a word that doesn't have a direct equivalent in English (or not a simple one, at least). Be sure to pay close attention to the gender and number of the noun each of these adjectives is modifying!

Food updated 2018-10-25

FOOD

Food is one of the most important aspects of George R. R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire. This skill will give you some vocabulary to get you started. One brief note. Previously, you've known only sȳz to mean "good". While you can use sȳz with food, it generally refers to the quality (i.e. how well made it was), rather than the taste. To describe food as "good" (meaning that you like the taste of it), you should use the word ēngenka instead.

MASS VS. COUNT

Something to keep in mind as you explore this section—and throughout your study of High Valyrian—is the distinction between mass nouns and count nouns. Mass nouns are those that refer to large entities as a single, cohesive unit (like rice), whereas count nouns refer to individuable, countable entities (like apples). In general, lunar and solar nouns tend to be count nouns, while terrestrial and aquatic nouns tend to be mass nouns. As a result, a word like havon is best translated as "bread", whereas a word like onjapos is best translated as "the carrot" or "a carrot".

One important type of word you'll be encountering for the first time is a common nominal derivation ending in -illa. These words tend to refer to masses or substances, despite ending with a characteristic lunar -a. Because of that, words ending in -illa are aquatic and not lunar.

As an example, avero you know as the word for "grape". The derivation averilla is the word for "wine". It declines just like vala but takes agreement like lōgor, as shown below:

  • Ēngenkor averilla "good wine" (Nominative)
  • Ēngenkor averille "good wine" (Accusative)

This is one of the oddities of the High Valyrian lexicon, but as -illa words are quite common, it's important to pay special attention to this distinction.

Dative updated 2021-01-26

THE DATIVE CASE

The dative case is assigned to the indirect object of a verb. The most canonical indirect object is a recipient, as shown below:

  • The girl gave a flower to the boy.
  • The boy tossed the girl a ball.

In High Valyrian, the dative case can also be used with destinations implied by the action of the verb (e.g. verbs of motion).

The dative singular is almost always formed by adding a -t to the genitive singular form of a noun. Where the genitive takes a lengthened suffix, the vowel is shortened before the -t is added. Here's a regular example:

  • NOM: vala "man"
  • GEN: valo "man's"
  • DAT: valot "to the man"

And here's an example with an elongated genitive singular:

  • NOM: āeksio "master"
  • GEN: āeksiō "master's"
  • DAT: āeksiot "to the master"

The form of the dative plural is always identical to the form of the genitive plural.

Regarding placement, the dative argument generally comes in between the subject and direct object, but it's not crucial. Both sentences below would be considered rather ordinary in High Valyrian:

  • Taobot rūklon tepan. "I give the boy a flower."
  • Rūklon taobot tepan. "I give the boy a flower."

Certain verbs will take a dative object, even if they generally don't in English. For example, the verb gōvilemagon, which you'll learn in lesson 2, means "to put under", where the object (the thing that has something put under it) is always in the dative case.

PREPOSITIONS

High Valyrian has a small number of prepositions. You will be introduced to two of them in this skill: va "towards" and hen "from". Prepositions in High Valyrian will govern different cases, at times. In this skill, you'll be learning the functions that each of these prepositions has when their associated nouns take the dative case.

The preposition va means "to" or "towards" or "up to" or "into" when its noun is in the dative. Its interpretation depends on the context. One distinction that might be made, for example, is as follows:

  • Lentot jān. "I go to the house."
  • Va lentot jān. "I go into the house."

In a different context, though, that second sentence might mean "I go up to the house" or even "I go towards the house".

The preposition hen generally means "from", but when its associated noun is in the dative case, it means either specifically "out from the inside of" or "on account of" or "because of" or "for". You wouldn't use hen with the dative to describe someone leaving a city, but you would use it to describe someone exiting a room. Even so, one wouldn't be surprised to see a contrast like this:

  • Lentot jān. "I go to the house."
  • Hen lentot jān. "I go out of the house."

A more common usage of hen with the dative, though, would be something like the following:

  • Hen dāriot oktiot jān. "I am going to the city for the queen."

ADJECTIVAL CONCORD

As we move on to non-core cases, an important point about adjectival concord must be raised. As with solar plural nominative adjectives, the form of an adjective for many non-core cases changes forms depending on whether it occurs before or after the noun. Those that follow the noun are fuller in form than those that precede it. Here are the dative forms for an adjective that follows a noun:

CLASS I

  • Lunar: kastot (SG), kastoti (PL)
  • Solar: kastot (SG), kastoti (PL)
  • Terrestrial: kastot (SG), kastoti (PL)
  • Aquatic: kastrot (SG), kastroti (PL)

CLASS II

  • Lunar/Solar: aderot (SG), aderoti (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳrot (SG), aderȳti (PL)

CLASS III

  • Lunar/Solar: geviot (SG), gevȳti (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳrot (SG), gevȳti (PL)

Now this next part is very important. Here's what happens to these same adjectives when they occur before a noun:

CLASS I

  • Lunar: kasto (SG), kasto (PL)
  • Solar: kasto (SG), kasto (PL)
  • Terrestrial: kasto (SG), kasto (PL)
  • Aquatic: kastro (SG), kastro (PL)

CLASS II

  • Lunar/Solar: adero (SG), adero (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳr (SG), aderȳ (PL)

CLASS III

  • Lunar/Solar: gevio (SG), gevio (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳr (SG), gevȳ (PL)

There is one important exception. If the word following the adjective begins with a vowel, then those forms that end in t (and just t, so excluding those that end in ȳrot) retain their t. This affects only the singular forms (and in Classes II and III, only the lunar and aquatic genders). Keep this information in mind as you move forward through new skills and learn new adjectives!

ADVANCED

Technically the direct object of gōvilemagon should be in the genitive when appearing before the verb, not the dative! For now, the dative is fine.

Negation updated 2019-10-29

NEGATION

Thus far you've learned how to make positive statements in High Valyrian. In this skill you'll learn how to make negative statements.

The basic way to negate a verb in High Valyrian is to end the sentence with daor, a word you've seen before. The only trick is that the form of the verb changes when negated. In Valyrian, a verb changes its form from the indicative to the subjunctive when negated (no need to worry about what the subjunctive means yet. For now, just know it's the form of the verb used in negative sentences). By way of comparison, here's a positive sentence and its negative version:

  • Hontī rȳban. "I hear the birds."
  • Hontī rȳbon daor. "I don't hear the birds."

PRESENT TENSE ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE VERB CONJUGATION

The agreement pattern for verbs in the subjunctive should be familiar. In addition to their agreement forms, subjunctive verbs take an o theme vowel after the root. Consonant-final stems display the following behavior:

  • Rȳbon "I hear" root plus -on
  • Rȳbō "you hear" root plus -ō
  • Rȳbos "s/he hears" root plus -os
  • Rȳboty "we hear" root plus -oty
  • Rȳbōt "you (all) hear" root plus -ōt
  • Rȳbosy "they hear" root plus -osy

Vowel-final stems behave a little differently. Those that end in -a take the exact same endings as consonant-final stems, as shown below with the verb ȳdragon:

  • Ȳdraon "I speak" root plus -on
  • Ȳdraō "you speak" root plus -ō
  • Ȳdraos "s/he speaks" root plus -os
  • Ȳdraoty "we speak" root plus -oty
  • Ȳdraōt "you (all) speak" root plus -ōt
  • Ȳdraosy "they speak" root plus -osy

Verbs whose stems end in other vowels have different forms. For verbs that end in either -e or -i, the final vowel of the root becomes i, and then they take the endings as usual, as show below with the verb nevegon:

  • Nevion "I carry" i-final root plus -on
  • Neviō "you carry" i-final root plus -ō
  • Nevios "s/he carries" i-final root plus -os
  • Nevioty "we carry" i-final root plus -oty
  • Neviōt "you (all) carry" i-final root plus -ōt
  • Neviosy "they carry" i-final root plus -osy

For verbs that end in either -o or -u, the final vowel of the root becomes v, and then they take the endings as usual, as show below with the verb bardugon:

  • Bardvon "I write" v-final root plus -on
  • Bardvō "you write" v-final root plus -ō
  • Bardvos "s/he writes" v-final root plus -os
  • Bardvoty "we write" v-final root plus -oty
  • Bardvōt "you (all) write" v-final root plus -ōt
  • Bardvosy "they write" v-final root plus -osy

As with present tense forms, take care to distinguish those verb roots that end in a consonant, and those that end in -a.

IMPORTANT NOTE: The correct form of the infinitive for "to attack" is idakogon.

Pronouns updated 2018-10-25

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

High Valyrian has seven personal pronouns. Though High Valyrian has four genders, these genders aren't perfectly reified in the pronominal inventory. These are the nominative forms for High Valyrian's personal pronouns:

  • First Person Singular: nyke "I"
  • Second Person Singular: ao "you"
  • Third Person Singular: ziry/ūja "he, she, it"
  • First Person Plural: īlon "we"
  • Second Person Plural: jeme "you (all)"
  • Third Person Plural: pōnta "they"

Five of these pronouns—those with only one variant—are fairly straightforward in their usage. In the third person singular, there are two pronouns: ziry and ūja. When the intended referent of the third person singular pronoun is a noun whose gender is either lunar or solar, you use the pronoun ziry; when its gender is aquatic or terrestrial, you use the pronoun ūja. When there's some doubt, as to the referent, one generally uses ziry for animate referents, and ūja for inanimate referents, because in general animate nouns are either lunar or solar, and terrestrial or aquatic nouns are usually inanimate.

That said, it truly does depend on the referent. Consider the semantically similar words hāedar and mandia, which mean "younger sister" and "older sister", respectively. If you wanted to say "I love her", you'd actually translate it two different ways depending on which sister was intended:

  • Ziry jorrāelan. "I love her (the older sister)."
  • Ūī jorrāelan. "I love her (the younger sister)."

Outside of pōnta "they", which declines like a standard lunar noun ending in -a, the declensions of the personal pronouns are unpredictable. Pay special attention to how they decline in the exercises in this section.

As a brief note, generally pronouns are not used in the nominative. They certainly may be used, and are often used for emphasis, but otherwise verbal agreement suffices.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Possessive pronouns (as opposed to possessive adjectives) are pronouns that stand in for an entire possessive phrase. English speakers would do well to distinguish these two grammatical categories, as they're sometimes identical in English. Consider the following sentences, which are distinct grammatically:

  • Possessive Adjective: That is his book.
  • Possessive Pronoun: That book is his.

The form is the same, but the meanings are different. In High Valyrian, the forms are always distinct.

High Valyrian possessive pronouns take the form of a terrestrial noun ending in -on. Their forms are as follows:

  • First Person Singular: ñuhon "mine"
  • Second Person Singular: aōhon "yours"
  • Third Person Singular: zȳhon/jāhon "his, hers, its"
  • First Person Plural: īlvon "we"
  • Second Person Plural: jevon "you (all)"
  • Third Person Plural: pōjon "they"

Note that the same distinction with respect to gender concord apples to zȳhon and jāhon as applies to ziry and ūja.

Locative updated 2018-10-25

THE LOCATIVE CASE

The locative case is assigned to the location of the action of a verb. The most canonical use of the locative is with generic locations, as follows:

  • The boy ate a pastry on the grass.
  • The girl lived in a house.

In High Valyrian, the locative case is also used to mark the objects of certain verbs (you'll learn more about these later), and also used to mark the objects of the preposition hae "like, as".

The locative singular has two basic forms. One type of locative singular is formed by lengthening the theme vowel of the nominal ending. Here are a few examples of this type of locative ending:

NOUNS ENDING IN -A

  • NOM: vala "man"
  • DAT: valot "to the man"
  • LOC: valā "on the man"

NOUNS ENDING IN -AR

  • NOM: kisalbar "feast"
  • DAT: kisalbrot "to the feast"
  • LOC: kisalbār "at the feast"

NOUNS ENDING IN -E

  • NOM: anne "horse"
  • DAT: annot "to the horse"
  • LOC: annē "on the horse"

NOUNS ENDING IN -ES

  • NOM: zaldrīzes "dragon"
  • DAT: zaldrīzot "to the dragon"
  • LOC: zaldrīzē "on the dragon"

NOUNS ENDING IN -I

  • NOM: brōzi "name"
  • DAT: brōziot "to the name"
  • LOC: brōzī "in the name"

NOUNS ENDING IN -IA

  • NOM: Valyria "Valyria"
  • DAT: Valyriot "to Valyria"
  • LOC: Valyriā "in Valyria"

NOUNS ENDING IN -IEN

  • NOM: Targārien "Targaryen"
  • DAT: Targāriot "to the Targaryen"
  • LOC: Targāriēn "on the Targaryen"

NOUNS ENDING IN -IR

  • NOM: qintir "turtle"
  • DAT: qintriot "to the turtle"
  • LOC: qintīr "on the turtle"

NOUNS ENDING IN -IS

  • NOM: tubis "day"
  • DAT: tubiot "to the day"
  • LOC: tubī "on the day (i.e. today)"

NOUNS ENDING IN -Y

  • NOM: qilōny "whip"
  • DAT: qilōnot "to the whip"
  • LOC: qilōnȳ "on the whip"

NOUNS ENDING IN -YS

  • NOM: rudirys "hole"
  • DAT: rudirot "to the hole"
  • LOC: rudirȳ "in the hole"

Nouns with any other ending have a locative that is identical in form to the dative, as shown below:

  • NOM: qurdon "table"
  • DAT: qurdot "to the table"
  • LOC: qurdot "on the table"

In the plural, almost every single noun has a locative that is identical in form to their plural dative and genitive forms. Only nouns ending in -y and -ys have unique locative plural forms. They are shown below:

NOUNS ENDING IN -Y

  • LOC (SG): qilōnȳ "on the whip"
  • LOC (PL): qilōnī "on the whip"

NOUNS ENDING IN -YS

  • LOC (SG): rudirȳ "in the hole"
  • LOC (PL): rudirī "in the holes"

When used on its own, the context of the sentence will determine the precise definition of the locative case phrase. For example, under ordinary circumstances, Taoba qurdot dēmas will be translated as "The boy sits at the table", since this is how humans usually interact with tables. Kēli qurdot dēmas, though, will likely be translated as "The cat sits on the table", as cats are incorrigible.

SAGON VS. ILAGON

When using "to be" with a locative predicate, one uses ilagon rather than sagon. The verb ilagon means "to lie", but is often better translated as "to be". Here's an example:

  • Havon qurdot ilza.
  • The bread is on the table.

The verb ilagon can also be used for presentational/existential constructions. For example, the sentence above could also be translated as "There is bread on the table".

ADJECTIVAL CONCORD

Adjectives in the locative generally follow the form of their nominal counterparts. Thus, where one expects to see a lengthened vowel in a noun, one will see a lengthened vowel in the adjective, and the same holds for dative forms. Here is a summary of postpositive locative adjectival forms:

CLASS I

  • Lunar: kastā (SG), kastoti (PL)
  • Solar: kastȳ (SG), kastī (PL)
  • Terrestrial: kastot (SG), kastoti (PL)
  • Aquatic: kastrot (SG), kastroti (PL)

CLASS II

  • Lunar/Solar: aderē (SG), aderoti (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳrot (SG), aderȳti (PL)

CLASS III

  • Lunar/Solar: geviē (SG), gevȳti (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳrot (SG), gevȳti (PL)

The exact same rules that applied to dative adjectives apply to locative adjectives. Bearing this in mind, here are the prepositive locative adjectival forms:

CLASS I

  • Lunar: kastā (SG), kasto (PL)
  • Solar: kastȳ (SG), kastī (PL)
  • Terrestrial: kasto (SG), kasto (PL)
  • Aquatic: kastro (SG), kastro (PL)

CLASS II

  • Lunar/Solar: aderē (SG), adero (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳr (SG), aderȳ (PL)

CLASS III

  • Lunar/Solar: geviē (SG), gevio (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳr (SG), gevȳ (PL)

Again, for singular forms that end in t (excluding those that end in ȳrot) the t reappears when the following word begins with a vowel.

Phrases 2 updated 2018-10-25

ADJECTIVAL NOUNS

Certain nouns inflected in certain number/case combinations can be used as adjectives. For example, ēngoso is the instrumental singular declension of the word ēngos, which means "tongue". Declined thus, it means something like "with a tongue" or "with the tongue". When used pre-nominally, though, it takes on the meaning of an adjective, as shown below:

  • Ēngoso hontes vāedas. "The chatty bird is singing."

Every so often you'll encounter a noun that can be used this way. In this skill, you'll learn four such nouns:

  • Udrimmi "witty, clever"
  • Zaldrīzerme "indestructible, invincible"
  • Averilloma "drunk, tipsy"
  • Ēngoso "talkative, chatty"

In use, these adjectival nouns are almost always restricted to pre-nominal position, and they are rarely used predicatively. They can be used in different positions, but for now it's best to use them in pre-nominal position only.

As a final note, even though they have adjectival meanings, these adjectival nouns are still nouns, and so they do not agree in gender or number with the nouns they modify.

Colors updated 2018-10-25

COLOR TERMS

High Valyrian's color terminology is not as advanced as that of a modern language. High Valyrian has a small number of color terms that cover a wide ranging spectrum of shades and tints. Perhaps the best way to categorize the main color terms of High Valyrian is as follows:

  • Timpa: Light colors in the blue-pink spectrum.
  • Zōbrie: Dark colors in the blue-purple spectrum.
  • Qeldlie: Light colors in the red-yellow spectrum.
  • Mele: Dark colors in the orange-red spectrum.
  • Kasta: Dark and light colors in the blue-green spectrum.

As you can see, there's not a perfect mapping, but there's usually broad agreement amongst speakers about what term to use with an actual object being described.

As a way of helping remember which English term pairs with which Valyrian term, here's a correspondence set for the prototypical values for English's 11 basic color terms:

  • Black: zōbrie
  • Blue: kasta
  • Brown: qeldlie (light) mele (dark)
  • Gray: timpa (light) zōbrie (dark)
  • Green: kasta
  • Orange: qeldlie (light) mele (dark)
  • Pink: timpa
  • Purple: zōbrie
  • Red: mele
  • White: timpa
  • Yellow: qeldlie

Now here's the High Valyrian to English version of the above list:

  • Timpa: white, pink, gray (light)
  • Zōbrie: black, purple, gray (dark)
  • Qeldlie: yellow, orange (light), brown (light)
  • Mele: red, orange (dark), brown (dark)
  • Kasta: blue, green

BORROWED WORDS

Like all languages, High Valyrian has words that originate from other sources. Many words, when borrowed, can be easily slotted into one of Valyrian's many noun declension classes, but some cannot. One of these is the name of Daenerys's dragon Rhaegal. Since High Valyrian no longer has nouns that end in l, names like this one fall under the default borrowed class (always lunar). The declension of this class is a little from the ones you've learned. Please study the partial below:

  • NOM.: Rhaegal (SG) Rhaegali (PL)
  • ACC.: Rhaegali (SG) Rhaegalī (PL)
  • GEN.: Rhaegalo (SG) Rhaegaloti (PL)
  • DAT.: Rhaegalot (SG) Rhaegaloti (PL)
  • LOC.: Rhaegalī (SG) Rhaegaloti (PL)

You'll learn the other forms when you encounter the other three cases in future skills.

Commands updated 2018-10-25

VOCATIVE CASE

In this skill, you'll be introduced to the vocative case. The vocative case is assigned to nouns one is addressing directly. For example:

  • Rytas, taobus! "Hello, boy!"

The vocative always has an -s associated with it. In the solar, the vocative singular is often identical to the nominative singular. Otherwise, you add an -s to the nominative form, for most gender/number combinations. For example:

  • Āeksios! "Master!"
  • Zaldrīzesses! "Dragons!"
  • Valis! "Men!"
  • Dārīs! "Queens!"
  • Trēsys! "Son!"

Certain gender/number combinations also feature a vowel change, and sometimes a lengthened vowel. Be sure to note them:

  • Riñus! "Girl!"
  • Zaldrīzys! "Dragon!"
  • Dārȳs! "Queen!"
  • Āeksīs! "Masters!"
  • Annys! "Horse!"

Care must be taken with aquatic and terrestrial forms, as the characteristic r and n of each gender is lost in the vocative:

  • Blenos! "Mountain!"
  • Lōgos! "Boat!"

COMMANDS

In High Valyrian, there are several different ways to issue commands, depending on if the referent is second person or non-second person; if the referent is singular or plural; or if the command is positive or negative. In this skill, you'll be introduced to each type of command in each successive lesson.

The most basic form of command is the positive command given to a second person referent. In High Valyrian, there are two different verb forms, depending on if the referent is singular or plural. There are also different forms of the verb depending on if the stem ends in a consonant or a vowel. A summary is given below:

  • Singular, C-Final Ipradās! "Eat!"
  • Plural, C-Final Ipradātās! "Eat!"

  • Singular, V-Final Kelīs! "Stop!"

  • Plural, V-Final Kelītīs!! "Stop!"

In other words, with a final consonant, the endings are -ās and -ātās for singular and plural, respectively. When the verb stem ends in a vowel, though, the ā vowels are replaced with lengthened versions of the final vowel in the stem.

Negative commands are fairly simple. You simply take the infinitive form of the verb and follow it with daor. Thus:

  • Ipradagon daor! "Don't eat!"
  • Keligon daor! "Don't stop!"

Finally, commands can be issued to non-second person referents. Such commands are often translated with "let" in English, even if they're not explicitly requests. For example, when your boss says "Let me see what you've been working on", they're not really asking permission. In High Valyrian, while there is a distinction between requesting permission and non-second person commands, the English translations may be unhelpful in distinguishing between the two.

To form a non-second person command, you use the infinitive form of the verb plus the vocative form of whoever or whatever is being issued a command. The vocative noun phrase occurs directly before the verb. For example:

  • Nykys ipradagon! "Let me eat!"
  • Taobus keligon! "Have the boy stop!"
  • Azanti ābrus rijagon! "Have the woman praise the knight!"

For negative non-second person commands, simply add daor afterward:

  • Zaldrīzesses ipradagon daor! "Don't let the dragons eat!"
  • Taobus keligon daor! "Don't let the boy stop!"

Perfect updated 2019-03-21

THE PERFECT TENSE

The High Valyrian perfect is less a tense than an aspect. You use the perfect to indicate that an action has been completed. Often it is used in the past tense, and is translated as such, as shown below:

Ziry ūndan. "I saw him."

Sometimes it makes more sense to translate the High Valyrian perfect as an English perfect, as opposed to a simple past tense:

Issa, iprattan. "Yes, I have eaten."

In High Valyrian the distinction is unimportant. Any perfect can be translated either way.

PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE VERB CONJUGATION

Forming the perfect in High Valyrian is fairly simple. Most of the time, one adds a t to the root and then adds the present tense agreement endings. Here's a regular example below:

  • Jorrāeltan "I loved" root plus -tan
  • Jorrāeltā "you loved" root plus -tā
  • Jorrāeltas "s/he loved" root plus -tas
  • Jorrāelti "we loved" root plus -ti
  • Jorrāeltāt "you (all) loved" root plus -tāt
  • Jorrāeltis "they loved" root plus -tis

This holds for many verbs whose stems end in a consonant, and almost all verbs whose stems end in a vowel.

A good number of verbs whose stems end in a consonant have an irregular stem in the perfect. This stem will need to be learned and memorized, although many are somewhat predictable. Here, for example, is the conjugation for the verb rȳbagon, "to hear" in the perfect active indicative:

  • Ryptan "I heard" perfect stem plus -tan
  • Ryptā "you heard" perfect stem plus -tā
  • Ryptas "s/he heard" perfect stem plus -tas
  • Rypti "we heard" perfect stem plus -ti
  • Ryptāt "you (all) heard" perfect stem plus -tāt
  • Ryptis "they heard" perfect stem plus -tis

Above, the long ȳ shortens, and the b devoices to p before the voiceless t of the perfect. Many irregulars have shortened vowels or devoiced consonants. Some cause the t of the perfect to voice to d.

PERFECT ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE VERB CONJUGATION

The subjunctive is formed the same way as the indicative. Here's a regular example:

  • Jorrāelton "I loved" root plus -ton
  • Jorrāeltō "you loved" root plus -tō
  • Jorrāeltos "s/he loved" root plus -tos
  • Jorrāeltoty "we loved" root plus -toty
  • Jorrāeltōt "you (all) loved" root plus -tōt
  • Jorrāeltosy "they loved" root plus -tosy

And here's an irregular example:

  • Rypton "I heard" perfect stem plus -ton
  • Ryptō "you heard" perfect stem plus -tō
  • Ryptos "s/he heard" perfect stem plus -tos
  • Ryptoty "we heard" perfect stem plus -toty
  • Ryptōt "you (all) heard" perfect stem plus -tōt
  • Ryptosy "they heard" perfect stem plus -tosy

IRREGULAR VERBS

The verb urnegon, "to see" is highly irregular. Its perfect stem is ūnd-, to which all agreement endings are added. Its full perfect conjugation is shown below:

  • Ūndan "I saw" perfect stem plus -an
  • Ūndā "you saw" perfect stem plus -ā
  • Ūndas "s/he saw" perfect stem plus -as
  • Ūndi "we saw" perfect stem plus -i
  • Ūndāt "you (all) saw" perfect stem plus -āt
  • Ūndis "they saw" *perfect stem plus -is
  • Ūndon "I saw" perfect stem plus -on
  • Ūndō "you saw" perfect stem plus -ō
  • Ūndos "s/he saw" perfect stem plus -os
  • Ūndoty "we saw" perfect stem plus -oty
  • Ūndōt "you (all) saw" perfect stem plus -ōt
  • Ūndosy "they saw" perfect stem plus -osy

The verbs emagon, jagon, and sagon are likewise irregular, and conjugate the same way. Their perfect stems are ēd-, ist-, and ist-. (Note: This renders jagon and sagon identical in the perfect.)

ALREADY

As a note, the adverb sīr, which you know as "now", translates more accurately as "already" when used in conjunction with a verb in the perfect.

Instrumental updated 2018-10-25

THE INSTRUMENTAL CASE

The instrumental case is assigned to the tool by or through which the action of the verb is completed. Crucially for Valyrian, the canonical use of the instrumental is with an inanimate object, as shown below:

  • The boy ate a pastry with a fork.
  • The girl attacked the enemy with a sword.

In High Valyrian, the instrumental case is also used to mark the object (or one of the objects) of a number of verbs. For example, for the verb kisikagon “to feed”, you use the accusative with the direct object (the one who is fed), but you use the instrumental with the food one is fed. The instrumental is used for the only object of mijegon “to lack”; the name (not the one named) for the verb brōzagon; the thing owed for the verb enkagon “to owe”; and the type of armor or garment worn for the verb jomīsagon “to wear, to carry”.

The form of the instrumental, as with the comitative case, which you’ll learn soon, varies. The basic form of the singular ending is formed by adding the consonant s (most nouns) or m (nouns ending in -y or -ys) to the genitive and then adding the theme vowel (though do note the common io to ȳ change). Below are the forms of the instrumental for some noun forms:

NOUNS ENDING IN -A

  • NOM: soljanna "rudder"
  • GEN: soljanno "of the rudder"
  • INS: soljannosa "with the rudder"

NOUNS ENDING IN -AR

  • NOM: kisalbar "feast"
  • GEN: kisalbro "of the feast"
  • INS: kisalbrosa "with the feast"

NOUNS ENDING IN -E

  • NOM: gelte "helmet"
  • GEN: gelto "of the helmet"
  • INS: geltose "with the helmet"

NOUNS ENDING IN -ES

  • NOM: zāeres "crystal"
  • GEN: zāero "of the crystal" INS: zāerose "with the crystal”

NOUNS ENDING IN -O

  • NOM: krēgo "beet"
  • GEN: krēgō "of the beet"
  • INS: krēgoso "with the beet"

NOUNS ENDING IN -ON

  • NOM: qurdon "table"
  • GEN: qurdo "of the table"
  • INS: qurdoso "with the table"

NOUNS ENDING IN -OS

  • NOM: belmos "chain"
  • GEN: belmo "of the chain"
  • INS: belmoso "with the chain"

NOUNS ENDING IN -I

  • NOM: brōzi "name"
  • GEN: brōzio "of the name"
  • INS: brōzȳsi "with the name"

NOUNS ENDING IN -IO

  • NOM: ātsio "tooth"
  • GEN: ātsiō "of the tooth"
  • INS: ātsȳsi "with the tooth"

NOUNS ENDING IN -IR

  • NOM: rōbir "fig"
  • GEN: rōbrio "of the fig"
  • INS: rōbrȳsi "with the fig"

NOUNS ENDING IN -Y

  • NOM: qilōny "whip"
  • GEN: qilōno "of the whip"
  • INS: qilōnomy "with the whip"

NOUNS ENDING IN -YS

  • NOM: rudirys "hole"
  • GEN: rudiro "of the hole"
  • INS: rudiromy "with the hole"

In the plural, every single instrumental (and comitative) is formed the same. Simply double the consonant and replace the final vowel with i. Thus, if qilōnomy is “with the whip”, then qilōnommi is “with the whips”. For an S example, if belmoso is “with the chain”, then belmossi is “with the chains”.

ADJECTIVAL CONCORD

Adjectives in the instrumental generally follow the form of their nominal counterparts. Thus, where one expects to see an M instrumental in a noun, one will see an M instrumental ending in the adjective. Here is a summary of postpositive locative adjectival forms:

CLASS I

  • Lunar: kastosa (SG), kastossi (PL), kastoma (SG), kastommi (PL)
  • Solar: kastosy (SG), kastossi (PL), kastomy (SG), kastommi (PL)
  • Terrestrial: kastoso (SG), kastossi (PL), kastomo (SG), kastommi (PL)
  • Aquatic: kastroso (SG), kastrossi (PL), kastromo (SG), kastrommi (PL)

CLASS II

  • Lunar/Solar: aderose (SG), aderossi (PL), aderome (SG), aderommi (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳso (SG), aderȳssi (PL), aderȳmo (SG), aderȳmmi (PL)

CLASS III

  • Lunar/Solar: gevȳse (SG), gevȳssi (PL), gevȳme (SG), gevȳmmi (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳso (SG), gevȳssi (PL), gevȳmo (SG), gevȳmmi (PL)

The prepositive forms lose their final vowels or final syllables. In some cases, the internal vowels change as well. Bearing this in mind, here are the prepositive instrumental adjectival forms:

CLASS I

  • Lunar: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
  • Solar: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
  • Terrestrial: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
  • Aquatic: kastros (SG), kastros (PL), kastrom (SG), kastrom (PL)

CLASS II

  • Lunar/Solar: aderos (SG), aderos (PL), aderom (SG), aderom (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳs (SG), aderȳs (PL), aderȳm (SG), aderȳm (PL)

CLASS III

  • Lunar/Solar: gevios (SG), gevios (PL), geviom (SG), geviom (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳs (SG), gevȳs (PL), gevȳm (SG), gevȳm (PL)

Comitative updated 2018-10-25

THE COMITATIVE CASE

The comitative case is assigned to a person with which the subject performs action of the verb. Crucially for Valyrian, the canonical use of the comitative is with an animate object, as shown below:

  • The boy ate a pastry with his sister.
  • The girl attacked the enemy with the knight.

The form of the comitative, as with the instrumental case, varies. The basic form of the singular ending is formed by adding the consonant m (most nouns) or s (third declension or o theme nouns) to the genitive and then adding the theme vowel (though do note the common io to ȳ change). Below are the forms of the comitative for some noun forms:

NOUNS ENDING IN -A

  • NOM: vala "man"
  • GEN: valo "of the man"
  • INS: valoma "with the man"

NOUNS ENDING IN -AR

  • NOM: valonqar “little brother"
  • GEN: valonqro "of the little brother"
  • INS: valanqroma "with the little brother"

NOUNS ENDING IN -E

  • NOM: Valyre “Valyrian person"
  • GEN: Valyro "of the Valyrian person"
  • INS: Valyrome "with the Valyrian person"

NOUNS ENDING IN -ES

  • NOM: zaldrīzes "dragon"
  • GEN: zaldrīzo "of the dragon" INS: zaldrīzome "with the dragon”

NOUNS ENDING IN -O

  • NOM: kyno "silkworm"
  • GEN: kynō "of the silkworm"
  • INS: kynoso "with the silkworm"

NOUNS ENDING IN -ON

  • NOM: turgon "worm"
  • GEN: turgo "of the worm"
  • INS: turgoso "with the worm"

NOUNS ENDING IN -OS

  • NOM: raqiros "friend"
  • GEN: raqiro "of the friend"
  • INS: raqiroso "with the friend"

NOUNS ENDING IN -I

  • NOM: kēli "cat"
  • GEN: kēlio "of the cat"
  • INS: kēlȳmi "with the cat"

NOUNS ENDING IN -IO

  • NOM: kostio "hero"
  • GEN: kostiō "of the hero"
  • INS: kostȳmi "with the hero"

NOUNS ENDING IN -IR

  • NOM: qintir "turtle"
  • GEN: qintrio "of the turtle"
  • INS: qintrȳmi "with the turtle"

NOUNS ENDING IN -Y

  • NOM: tolmīhy "stranger"
  • GEN: tolmīho "of the stranger"
  • INS: tolmīhomy "with the stranger"

NOUNS ENDING IN -YS

  • NOM: dārys "king"
  • GEN: dāro "of the king"
  • INS: dāromy "with the king"

In the plural, every single comitative (and comitative) is formed the same. Simply double the consonant and replace the final vowel with i. Thus, if valoma is “with the man”, then valommi is “with the men”. For an S example, if raqiroso is “with the friend”, then raqirossi is “with the friends”.

ADJECTIVAL CONCORD

Adjectives in the comitative generally follow the form of their nominal counterparts. Thus, where one expects to see an M comitative in a noun, one will see an M comitative ending in the adjective. Here is a summary of postpositive locative adjectival forms:

CLASS I

  • Lunar: kastosa (SG), kastossi (PL), kastoma (SG), kastommi (PL)
  • Solar: kastosy (SG), kastossi (PL), kastomy (SG), kastommi (PL)
  • Terrestrial: kastoso (SG), kastossi (PL), kastomo (SG), kastommi (PL)
  • Aquatic: kastroso (SG), kastrossi (PL), kastromo (SG), kastrommi (PL)

CLASS II

  • Lunar/Solar: aderose (SG), aderossi (PL), aderome (SG), aderommi (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳso (SG), aderȳssi (PL), aderȳmo (SG), aderȳmmi (PL)

CLASS III

  • Lunar/Solar: gevȳse (SG), gevȳssi (PL), gevȳme (SG), gevȳmmi (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳso (SG), gevȳssi (PL), gevȳmo (SG), gevȳmmi (PL)

The prepositive forms lose their final vowels or final syllables. In some cases, the internal vowels change as well. Bearing this in mind, here are the prepositive comitative adjectival forms:

CLASS I

  • Lunar: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
  • Solar: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
  • Terrestrial: kastos (SG), kastos (PL), kastom (SG), kastom (PL)
  • Aquatic: kastros (SG), kastros (PL), kastrom (SG), kastrom (PL)

CLASS II

  • Lunar/Solar: aderos (SG), aderos (PL), aderom (SG), aderom (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: aderȳs (SG), aderȳs (PL), aderȳm (SG), aderȳm (PL)

CLASS III

  • Lunar/Solar: gevios (SG), gevios (PL), geviom (SG), geviom (PL)
  • Terrestrial/Aquatic: gevȳs (SG), gevȳs (PL), gevȳm (SG), gevȳm (PL)

PRONOUNS

First and second person pronouns only have m forms in the comitative and instrumental; third person pronouns have unique comitative and instrumental forms. They are summarized below:

  • First Person Sg.: ynoma
  • Second Person Sg.: aōma
  • Third Person Sg.: zijosy/zijomy, josa/joma
  • First Person Pl.: īloma
  • Second Person Pl.: jemme
  • Third Person Pl.: pōntosa/pōntoma

The Human Body updated 2018-10-25

BODY PART POSSESSION

High Valyrian has a number of terms for body parts, and possession works roughly as it would in English. Unlike some languages, where one doesn't use personal possessive pronouns with one's own body parts, it's perfectly natural to use personal possessive pronouns with body parts in High Valyrian, as shown below:

  • Ñuhī ondossa paman. "I rub my hands."

In general, though, if there is something else in the sentence that suggests possession, one does not need to include a possessive pronoun. Here is an example:

  • Bartos yne ōdras. "My head hurts." (Lit. "The head hurts me.")

Using ñuhys in the sentence above isn't wrong, per se, it's simply unusual. In some circumstances, one would actually use pronouns for disambiguation:

  • Ondossa taobe ōdris. "The boys' hands are hurting."
  • Zȳhyz ondossa taobe ōdris. "His (some other person's) hands are hurting the boy."

(Note: The above sentence is exceedingly peculiar.)

One special note on the use of cases with a body part. When one does something with one's own body part, the instrumental case is used. When one does something with someone else's body part, on the other hand, the dative case is used. Here's a nice example contrasting the two:

  • Taobo bartos ondoso pamptan. "I rubbed the boy's head with my hand."
  • Taobo bartos ondot pamptan. "I rubbed the boy's head with his own hand."

The use of the instrumental and dative cases in this way is obligatory, and as a result, a possessive pronoun is commonly not used in sentences of this type, as its use is unnecessary.

Adverbs updated 2018-10-25

ADVERBS

An adverb is a word that can stand on its own as a phrase. There are three types of adverbs: temporal adverbs (adverbs having to do with the passage of time); locative adverbs (adverbs having to do with place and location); and manner adverbs (adverbs having to do with how the action of a verb is performed).

TEMPORAL AND LOCATIVE ADVERBS

Both temporal and locative adverbs tend to be placed at the very beginning of a sentence. This is there preferred position. That said, both temporal and locative adverbs may be placed elsewhere in the sentence, depending on what part of the sentence is to be emphasized. Even so, after sentence-initial placement, pre-verbal placement is the next most preferable spot. Here's an example:

  • Ēlī vala taobe ūndas. "First the man saw the boy."
  • Vala taobe ēlī ūndas. "The man saw the boy first."
  • Vala ēlī taobe ūndas. "The man saw the boy first."
  • Taobe ēlī vala ūndas. "The man saw the boy first."

The same rules of placement serve for locative adverbs. In general, locative adverbs are derived from nouns using either the dative or locative cases. Temporal adverbs are either basic, or are derived using a derivational strategy more commonly employed with manner adverbs. These will be described now.

MANNER ADVERBS

In English, many manner adverbs are formed by adding "-ly" to an adjective. In High Valyrian, there are a couple different endings depending on the adjective class. Examples are shown below:

  • Class I: lyk- "quiet" + -irī > lykirī "quietly"
  • Class II: ader- "quick" + > aderī "quickly"
  • Class III: arl- "new" + > arlī "again"

Placement of manner adverbs is a bit less strict. Sentence-initial placement is used to emphasize the adverb; pre-verbal placement is a bit more usual. Equally common is placing the adverb directly after the subject. Here's an example:

  • Taoba havon aderī iprattas. "The boy ate the bread quickly."
  • Taoba aderī havon iprattas. "The boy ate the bread quickly."
  • Aderī taoba havon iprattas. "Quickly the boy ate the bread."

As a final note, some adverbs have different meanings depending on whether the speaker intends to use them as a manner adverb or a temporal or locative adverb. Aderī, for example, can mean "quickly" or it can mean "soon". Context should help to determine which translation is most appropriate.

Numerals 1 updated 2018-10-25

NUMERALS

High Valyrian uses a base-10 number system like English and many Western languages, meaning that the basic numerals run 0 through 9, and a new digit is added at powers of 10 (so 10, 100, 1,000, etc.). Cardinal numerals in High Valyrian are modifiers, but not all will agree with the nouns they modify. A summary of the system is presented below.

NUMERALS 1-9

The cardinal numerals 1 through 9 are standard adjectives that agree with the nouns they modify in case, gender, and number. Given the nature of numerals, the number concord is uniform: The number 1 is always singular, and the numbers 2 through 9 are always plural.

The numerals 1 through 9 are either Class I or Class II adjectives. They are presented below (assuming Lunar singular concord, for the sake of presentation):

  • 1: mēre (Class II)
  • 2: lanta (Class I)
  • 3: hāre (Class II)
  • 4: izula (Class I)
  • 5: tōma (Class I)
  • 6: bȳre (Class II)
  • 7: sīkuda (Class I)
  • 8: jēnqa (Class I)
  • 9: vōre (Class II)

Except in rare circumstances, numbers will precede the nouns they modify. Again, they will agree with the nouns they modify in number, and nouns whose number is other than singular should be marked plural when modified by a number. Here are a few examples:

  • mēre zaldrīzes "one dragon"
  • lantyz zaldrīzesse "two dragons"
  • hāri zaldrīzesse "three dragons"

NUMERALS 10-19

The formation of numerals above 9 is a bit simpler. First, ampa is used for 10. While this word is an adjective, it does not agree with the noun it modifies in any way. Ampa is invariant.

Now, having established that ampa is invariant, you do actually have to change it when you move to numbers beyond 10. The numerals 11 through 19 are formed by placing the adjectival form of the numeral 1 through 9 first followed by ampa in its coordinative form—i.e. ampā. The first numeral still agrees with the noun it modifies in case, gender, and number, so it will need to be modified. Again assuming Lunar singular concord, here are the numerals 10 through 19:

  • 10: ampa (Invariant)
  • 11: mēre ampā (Class II)
  • 12: lanta ampā (Class I)
  • 13: hāre ampā (Class II)
  • 14: izula ampā (Class I)
  • 15: tōma ampā (Class I)
  • 16: bȳre ampā (Class II)
  • 17: sīkuda ampā (Class I)
  • 18: jēnqa ampā (Class I)
  • 19: vōre ampā (Class II)

Here are some examples of how these numbers are used with nouns:

  • ampa zaldrīzesse "ten dragons"
  • mēri ampā zaldrīzesse "eleven dragons"
  • lantyz ampā zaldrīzesse "twelve dragons"

Notice that when used in the number 11, mēre actually shows plural concord.

NUMERALS 20-99

The numerals 20 through 99 work the same way as ampa. Specifically, there are unique words for the multiples of 10, and as with ampa, they are invariant in form. As with the numerals 11 through 19, these words are preposed by the numerals 1 through 9 to get, e.g., 21 through 29, and the multiple of ten is placed in its coordinative form. Here's an example with 20:

  • 20: lantēpsa (Invariant)
  • 21: mēre lantēpsā (Class II)
  • 22: lanta lantēpsā (Class I)
  • 23: hāre lantēpsā (Class II)
  • 24: izula lantēpsā (Class I)
  • 25: tōma lantēpsā (Class I)
  • 26: bȳre lantēpsā (Class II)
  • 27: sīkuda lantēpsā (Class I)
  • 28: jēnqa lantēpsā (Class I)
  • 29: vōre lantēpsā (Class II)

Now here are all the multiples of 10:

  • 20: lantēpsa (Invariant)
  • 30: hārēpsa (Invariant)
  • 40: izulēpsa (Invariant)
  • 50: tōmēpsa (Invariant)
  • 60: bȳrēpsa (Invariant)
  • 70: sīkudēpsa (Invariant)
  • 80: jēnqēpsa (Invariant)
  • 90: vōrēpsa (Invariant)

The same rules for nominal concord apply.

NUMERALS 100-999

Numerals 100 through 999 work a little differently. There are invariant forms for the multiples of 100, and then for numbers in between, one uses se as a connector followed by the full number (no extra coordinative morphology is used). The multiples of 100 are:

  • 100: gār (Invariant)
  • 200: langār (Invariant)
  • 300: hārgār (Invariant)
  • 400: zūgār (Invariant)
  • 500: tōngār (Invariant)
  • 600: bȳrgār (Invariant)
  • 700: sīgār (Invariant)
  • 800: jēngār (Invariant)
  • 900: vōrgār (Invariant)

Here's an example of a complex number in the hundreds modifying a noun:

  • zūgār se vōri tōmēpsā zaldrīzesse "four hundred and fifty-nine dragons"

NUMERALS 1,000+

The word used for 1,000 is pyrys, and it is a noun. It does not modify a noun as an adjective. Instead, the modified noun is placed in the genitive plural, and the noun pyrys takes the case assigned to it by the verb. For numbers beyond a thousand, the number 1 through 999 modifies pyrys itself. Here are a couple examples:

  • pyrys zaldrīzoti "one thousand dragons"
  • lantyz jēnqēpsā pyryssy zaldrīzoti "eighty-two thousand dragons"

Future updated 2018-10-25

THE FUTURE TENSE

The High Valyrian future is used for distant projections about what will happen, as well as to commit the subject to some future course. Here's a quick example:

Daenerys dāri ȳdrēlza. "Daenerys will talk to the king."

You could also translate this with the English "go" future:

Daenerys dāri ȳdrēlza. "Daenerys is going to talk to the king."

If a sense of immediacy is desired, though, the present is used, as shown below:

Tubī Daenerys dāri ȳdras. "Daenerys is going to talk to the king today."

This latter fact is something to keep in mind. In this course when you see a future tense sentence, assume that the actual marked future tense will be used.

FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE VERB CONJUGATION

The future stem in High Valyrian has an l associated with it, but what happens between the root and the l differs depending on the root's termination. For roots ending in a consonant, -il is added, and then the present tense agreement set is added after that, with a small caveat that in the first person, a sound change results in the unique ending -inna. An example is shown below:

  • Jorrāelinna "I will love" root plus -inna
  • Jorrāelilā "you will love" root plus -ilā
  • Jorrāelilza "s/he will love" root plus -ilza
  • Jorrāelili "we will love" root plus -ili
  • Jorrāelilāt "you (all) will love" root plus -ilāt
  • Jorrāelilzi "they will love" root plus -ilzi

The agreement facts hold for other verbs whose roots end in vowels. What differs is the vowel before the l. In each case, the vowel is long, but the quality differs based on the placement of the vowel. When the root vowel is a or o, the result is -ēl; when the root vowel is otherwise (e, i, or u), the result is -īl. Here's an example (using the third person plural) of each type of vowel ending:

  • Ȳdrēlzi "they will speak" -a becomes -ē
  • Nektēlzi "they will cut" -o becomes -ē
  • Urnīlzi "they will see" -e becomes -ī
  • Sindīlzi "they will buy" -i becomes -ī
  • Bardīlzi "they will write" -u becomes -ī

FUTURE ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE VERB CONJUGATION

There are a second set of subjunctive agreement endings in High Valyrian, and the future tense is the first place you'll see them. They are similar to the subjunctive endings you already know, but the o is replaced by u. These endings are added to the future stem, whose formation we've just discussed. Here's an example:

  • Jorrāelilun "I will love" root plus -ilun
  • Jorrāelilū "you will love" root plus -ilū
  • Jorrāelilus "s/he will love" root plus -ilus
  • Jorrāeliluty "we will love" root plus -iluty
  • Jorrāelilūt "you (all) will love" root plus -ilūt
  • Jorrāelilusy "they will love" root plus -ilusy

Again, these endings are added to the future stem, so be sure to effect the vowel necessary change in vowel final stems, as shown below:

  • Nektēlun "I will cut" future stem plus -un
  • Nektēilū "you will cut" future stem plus -ū
  • Nektēilus "s/he will cut" future stem plus -us
  • Nektēiluty "we will cut" future stem plus -uty
  • Nektēilūt "you (all) will cut" future stem plus -ūt
  • Nektēilusy "they will cut" future stem plus -usy

IRREGULAR VERBS

The verb sagon, "to be" is barbarically irregular in the future tense. Using the stem kes-, the verb conjugates as a present tense verb would, but it has future meaning. Here is its full conjugation paradigm:

  • Kesan "I will be" future stem plus -an
  • Kesā "you will be" future stem plus -ā
  • Kessa "s/he will be" future stem plus -sa
  • Kesi "we will be" future stem plus -i
  • Kesāt "you (all) will be" future stem plus -āt
  • Kessi "they will be" *future stem plus -si
  • Keson "I will be" future stem plus -on
  • Kesō "you will be" future stem plus -ō
  • Kesos "s/he will be" future stem plus -os
  • Kessoty "we will be" future stem plus -oty
  • Kesōt "you (all) will be" future stem plus -ōt
  • Kesosy "they will be" future stem plus -osy

The verb emagon is regular, with a consonant-final stem em, and the verb jagon is lightly irregular, having a future stem īl. This means that the first person form for the future indicative of jagon is īnna, "I will go".

SAYING YES

As you know, the third person singular version of the verb sagon is used for "yes" in High Valyrian. Where it makes sense, the tense of this verb matches the tense of the sentence. Thus, in a future tense context, you will see kessa used to mean "yes", though issa will always work as well.

Infinitive updated 2018-10-25

THE INFINITIVE

The infinitive form of the verb is a non-finite form that refers to an action in general, as opposed to an action performed by some specific entity. The infinitive form ends either in -gon (for vowel-final stems) or -agon (for consonant-final stems). Thus far you've seen one use of the infinitive form (issuing jussive commands to non-second person entities). In this skill you'll see others.

SHARED SUBJECT

Many verbs allow or require the use of a second verb in the infinitive. Schematically, these phrases with verbs like these look like this:

  • (NOMINAL ARGUMENTS) (INFINITIVE) (MAIN VERB)

One familiar one will be the verb kostagon, which deals with ability (you've seen this stem in words like kostilus, "please", and kostōba, "powerful"). Here's an example of how it's used:

  • Taoba riñe urnes. "The boy sees the girl."
  • Taoba riñe urnegon kostas. "The boy can see the girl."

The subjects and objects remain in place, their cases unchanged. In effect, the infinitive form signals that the phrase is not done yet, and one must move on to understand the full intent of the phrase.

Other verbs like kostagon include sylugon, "to try", and rakegon, "to take part in", both of which you'll see in the first lesson. Another, gīmigon, "to know", is shown in the second lesson. When used in such a way, it has the meaning "to know how to".

SUBJECT TO PRE-VERBAL OBJECT

A small number of verbs take the subject of the embedded verb as their object. This is how that looks schematically:

  • (OTHER NOMINALS) (INFINITIVE) (SUBJECT OF INFINITIVE) (MAIN VERB)

The case of the subject of the infinitive depends on the main verb. The first such verb you'll see is sytilībagon, which is used for weak obligation (e.g. "should"). The verb is generally used in the third person singular with no expressed subject. Its object, which comes directly before it, is in the accusative. Before that is the infinitive (the thing which should be done), and before that are the other arguments of the phrase. Here's an example:

  • Vala ābre ȳdras. "The man is talking to the woman."
  • Ābre ȳdragon vale sytilības. "The man should* talk to the woman."

Remember that sytilībagon, used in this way, generally does not agree with anything in the sentence:

  • Ābre ȳdrā. "You are talking to the woman."
  • Ābre ȳdragon avy sytilības. "You should* talk to the woman."

Another way of translating this verb is "to be for". Thus, the last sentence could also be translated as "It is for you to talk to the woman."

In the third lesson you'll see the verb bēvilagon, which is used for strong obligation (e.g. "must"). It works like sytilībagon, except that the pre-verbal nominal must be in the dative/genitive case (in this case, always the genitive. The dative is used when the following word begins with a vowel; the genitive is used otherwise). Here is an example:

  • Azantys dāri rijas. "The knight praises the king."
  • Dāri rijagon azanto bēvilza. "The knight must* praise the king."

The last sentence might also be translated "The knight has to praise the king."

PHRASAL CAUSATIVE

There are many types of composite causative verbs in High Valyrian, but the verb sahagon can be used for any causative construction. The verb is conjugated normally, with the causer being assigned the nominative case; the causee (the one forced to act) being assigned the dative* case; and the other arguments being assigned their natural cases. Here's an example:

  • *Azantys zaldrīzī idakotas. "The knight attacked the dragon."
  • *Dārys azantot zaldrīzī idakogon sētas. "The king made the knight attack the dragon."

In the present tense, sahagon has the stem sah-, and in the perfect, it has the stem sēt-.

MISCELLANEOUS

In this skill, look out for the following irregular perfect stems:

  • Dāeremagon "to free" > dāerēd-
  • Sytilībagon "to be for" > sytilīpt-
  • Qrīdrughagon "to discard" > qrīdrūd-
  • Rijībagon "to worship" > rijipt-
  • Kostagon "to be able to" > kōtt-

Demonstratives 2 updated 2019-02-08

INDEFINITE DEMONSTRATIVES

High Valyrian has a series of indefinite demonstratives that refer to exactly how many of something is being referred to. These are words like "any", "some", "every", "each", "all", etc.

The basic correspondences are as follows:

  • Mir- = some, any
  • Dōr- = none
  • Tol- = other
  • Olv- = many
  • Tolv- = all

Various endings are applied to these basic roots to form adjectival and pronominal forms. Take care to distinguish between which forms are adjectival, and which are nominal, as the endings sometimes overlap.

THE PAUCAL AND COLLECTIVE NUMBERS

Though you have seen it previously, this is the first time you will need to deal with the paucal and collective numbers of High Valyrian. These numbers are counterparts to singular and plural, in a way. The best way to think of the number system is like this:

  • Singular: Definite Singular (Exactly One)
  • Collective: Definite Plural (All)
  • Paucal: Indefinite Singular (A Small Number)
  • Plural: Indefinite Plural (Many)

How exactly these numbers are formed and used will be taught in a future skill. The important thing to note for this skill is that four of the five words in lesson 3 are either paucal or collective. Paucals can be identified by a thematic final -n, while collectives can be identified by a thematic final -r.

For now, it's important to know two things about paucals and collectives:

  1. Paucals trigger plural subject agreement on the verb. Collectives trigger singular subject agreement on the verb.
  2. Paucals and collectives have their own unique case forms.

For the most part, paucals and collectives decline like borrowings (so they take -i in the accusative), but there are a few differences. Here's a full declension of olvȳn "much, many":

  • Nominative: olvȳn
  • Accusative: olvȳni
  • Genitive: olvȳno
  • Dative: olvȳnto
  • Locative: olvȳnno
  • Instrumental: olvȳsso
  • Comitative: olvȳmmo
  • Vocative: olvȳsso

Now here's a full declension of mirror "whatever":

  • Nominative: mirror
  • Accusative: mirrori
  • Genitive: mirroro
  • Dative: mirrorto
  • Locative: mirrorro
  • Instrumental: mirrorzo
  • Comitative: mirrormo
  • Vocative: mirrorzo

These forms are a little tricky, and they change depending on the theme vowel of the declension (so a dative for a lunar noun endings in -a would end in -ta), but given the meanings of the words in this lesson, you'll probably be using the nominative, accusative and genitive more than anything else, and those case forms are relatively simple.

The Known World updated 2019-03-22

THE WORLD OF ICE AND FIRE

High Valyrian was spoken by most of the residents of a kingdom, the Valyrian Freehold, that has sense been destroyed in the world of George R. R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire series. At the time of action, the language is still spoken as a language of learning, and by many in Essos as a second language (considered a "formal" variant of their version of Valyrian, which is now, in fact, a different language). Nevertheless, many other languages are more widely spoken, and the action of the series takes us to many different lands.

In this skill you'll see some of the many places and peoples found in the Song of Ice and Fire universe—many of which you'll likely heard of either from the books or the HBO series Game of Thrones.

BORROWINGS: SOUNDS

Like any language, High Valyrian can accommodate borrowings. Some of these borrowings are altered to better fit the language, while some stay more or less the same. In terms of sound, you will see the following digraphs are not normally used in Valyrian proper:

  • KH is used for borrowings that have the "kh" sound, which is like the "ch" sound of German "Buch". Valyrians will render it variously as k, h or gh, depending on the source.
    • IPA: [x] (Borrowed); [k], [h], [ɣ/ʁ] (Valyrian)
  • SH is used for borrowings that have the "sh" sound of "shock". In Valyrian this will most likely come out as s, though some dialects do in fact have this sound for the sequence sr (commonly rendered as j).
    • IPA: [ʃ] (Borrowed); [s], [ʃ] (Valyrian)
  • TH is used for borrowings that have the "th" sound of "think", but Valyrians will most likely render it as a regular Valyrian t.
    • IPA: [θ] (Borrowed); [t] (Valyrian)
  • VH, PH, F will be spelled various ways, depending on the source, this is the "f" sound of English "father". Vh is an old Valyrian spelling of this sound that is no longer present in the language. It will be rendered variously as either [p] or [v].
    • IPA: [f] (Borrowed); [p], [v] (Valyrian)

Not all of these sequences will be present in this skill, but you may see them in future skills.

BORROWINGS: DECLENSIONS

In addition to foreign sounds, you will also see foreign declensions. Most borrowings are shoved into the sixth declension, where they share similar endings to paucals and collectives (for which, see the Determiners 2 skill). Most have a characteristic -i ending in the nominative singular, but some borrowings are allowed to remain unmodified. Additionally, you will see unfamiliar word endings in many borrowed words (for example Qarth and Junkae). It would do well to pay special attention to these forms.

For the most part, declensions of these -i borrowings will look like this:

  • NOM.: dothraki (sg) dothraki (pl)
  • ACC.: dothraki (sg) dothrakī (pl)
  • GEN.: dothrako (sg) dothrakoti (pl)
  • DAT.: dothrakot (sg) dothrakoti (pl)
  • LOC.: dothrakī (sg) dothrakoti (pl)
  • INS.: dothrakisi (sg) dothrakissi (pl)
  • COM.: dothrakimi (sg) dothrakimmi (pl)
  • VOC.: dothrakis (sg) dothrakissis (pl)

For different declensions, remember the signs to look for: s in the instrumental; m in the comitative; a long vowel in the locative (or a duplicate dative form); some kind of -i in the plural and/or accusative; epenthetic h in certain paradigms. Some pattern you've already seen will help you to figure out the patterns used for borrowings (after all, that's the source from which they were drawn).

Passive Voice updated 2019-04-17

PASSIVE VOICE

The passive voice is used to emphasize the direct object of a transitive verb, and deemphasize the subject. Here's a simple example in English:

"The pear was eaten (by the man)."

The by-phrase is usually optional. In High Valyrian, a special form of the verb is used to indicate a passive. This form is most commonly associated with a -ks suffix. Here's how the above phrase would be translated into High Valyrian:

Melvo (valo ondoso) iprattaks.

Passive phrases are useful if the agent of the verb isn't known, or if the speaker doesn't wish to specify the agent. It can also be helpful to use a passive phrase when chaining clauses together in a discourse, so one doesn't have to switch subjects.

Not including passive infinitives, there are three forms for each passive verb. Looking at the present tense for a regular C-final verb first, they are as follows:

  • 1st/3rd Person Singular: -aks
  • 2nd Person: -āks
  • 1st/3rd Person Plural: -aksi

This basic pattern holds for most tenses. Here's how it would look with a real verb:

  • Ipradaks. "I am eaten/She, he, or it is eaten."
  • Ipradāks. "You (all) are eaten."
  • Ipradaksi. "We/they are eaten."

With a V-final verb, the root vowel participates in the paradigm:

  • Urneks. "I am seen/She, he, or it is seen."
  • Urnēks. "You (all) are seen."
  • Urneksi. "We/they are seen."

In the subjunctive, the usual pattern holds, with final y replacing final i (only the forms are shown below):

  • 1st/3rd Person Singular: Ipradoks. Urnioks.
  • 2nd Person: Ipradōks. Urniōks.
  • 1st/3rd Person Plural: Ipradoksy. Urnioksy.

The perfect works as one would expect. Here is the indicative:

  • 1st/3rd Person Singular: Iprattaks. Ūndaks.
  • 2nd Person: Iprattāks. Ūndāks.
  • 1st/3rd Person Plural: Iprattaksi. Ūndaksi.

And here is the subjunctive:

  • 1st/3rd Person Singular: Iprattoks. Ūndoks.
  • 2nd Person: Iprattōks. Ūndōks.
  • 1st/3rd Person Plural: Iprattoksy. Ūndoksy.

The future is irregular, based on the patterns you've learned thus far. In the indicative, the first/third person plural is simply -iks, as shown below:

  • 1st/3rd Person Singular: Ipradilaks. Urnīlaks.
  • 2nd Person: Ipradilāks. Urnīlāks.
  • 1st/3rd Person Plural: Ipradiliks. Urnīliks.

The subjunctive forms keep the u vowel seen elsewhere in the paradigm:

  • 1st/3rd Person Singular: Ipradiluks. Urnīluks.
  • 2nd Person: Ipradilūks. Urnīlūks.
  • 1st/3rd Person Plural: Ipradiluksy. Urnīluksy.

There is a present and perfect infinitive (e.g. ipradakson and iprattakson), and positive commands are issued with the second person form of the passive.

REINTRODUCING AGENTS

There are two different ways to reintroduce an agent. The most common way is to use the instrumental of ondos "hand" as a postposition governing the genitive. Thus:

Taoba valo ondoso ūndaks. "The boy was seen by the man."

Literally it's "The boy was seen by the hand of the man", but the "hand" part of it no longer factors into the meaning. If the agent is plural, the postposition is pluralized as well:

Taoba valoti ondossi ūndaks. "The boy was seen by the men."

If the agent is indefinite and generic it may be placed directly before the verb in the genitive:

Taoba valo ūndaks. "The boy was seen by a man."

If ondoso/ondossi is used, the agent may be definite or indefinite. If a preposed genitival agent is used, the interpretation is always indefinite and generic.

Nature updated 2019-10-20

Impersonal Verbs

Every so often, you may come across an impersonal verb in High Valyrian. In this skill, there is davābagon, which means "to rain". It doesn't take any subject, and conjugates as if it had a third person singular object. Some weather verbs do take a subject, on the other. Jehikagon "to shine" is one such, and it does take subjects (i.e. things that shine, like vēzos "sun" or qēlos "star".

Modifying Clauses

Though we haven't learned full relative clauses yet, there are cases where a clause can be used to modify a noun, and they behave slightly differently from any other type of clause. Consider these two sentences:

(a) Vala tegot ūndan. "I saw the man on the ground." (b) Tegot vala ūndan. "I saw the man on the ground."

Though both have the same translation, their interpretations are quite difference. In sentence (a), the man may be on the ground, but he need not be. The subject could have been standing on the ground when he saw the man in a tree.

On the other hand, in sentence (b), the man must be on the ground. In fact, part of what defines the man in sentence (b) is that he is on the ground. The subject, on the other hand, could be anywhere (perhaps I was in the tree when I saw him).

These small modifying clauses are not proper relative clauses, because they lack verbs. Their tense is dependent entirely on the matrix verb, and they're not as versatile as relative clauses, which can take their own subjects and objects. Nevertheless, if the intent is to describe a noun as if it were a relative clause, that modifying noun must come directly before the noun it modifies. Placing it after will result in a different interpretation.

New Collective Nouns

There are a couple new collective nouns in this skill whose declensions you haven't yet learned: sōnar "winter" (the collective of "snow") and jelmior "weather" (the collective of "wind"). Remember that these trigger singular agreement on the verb. Here are their declensions:

  • Nominative: sōnar
  • Accusative: * sōnari*
  • Genitive: * sōnaro*
  • Dative: * sōnarto*
  • Locative: * sōnarro*
  • Instrumental: * sōnarzo*
  • Comitative: * sōnarmo*
  • Vocative: * sōnarzo*

Sōnar is from the same paradigm as valar (as in valar morghūlis). Here is jelmior:

  • Nominative: jelmior
  • Accusative: * jelmȳri*
  • Genitive: * jelmȳro*
  • Dative: * jelmȳrto*
  • Locative: * jelmȳrro*
  • Instrumental: * jelmȳrzo*
  • Comitative: * jelmȳrmo*
  • Vocative: * jelmȳrzo*

Jēda vs. Jēdar vs. Jēdar

The word for "season" is lunar jēda, and its collective jēdar means "year". You've seen that word in Numerals 1. It so happens that the aquatic word jēdar exists, and it means "sky". Its similarity to jēdar "year" is a coincidence. Be sure not to confuse the two, as they have different declension patterns (as well as meanings!).

Daenerys Stormborn

For fans of A Song of Ice and Fire, the way I chose to translate "Stormborn", Daenerys's last name, is with the word Jelmāzmo, the genitive of jelmāzma "storm". Thus, Daenerys Jelmāzmo is "Daenerys of the Storm".

Clothing updated 2019-10-20

Vellaros

Take note of the word vellaros, which means "a pair of pants". The word "pants" by itself is plural in English, and the same goes for trousers. Not so with vellaros. The word is singular, but refers to an entire pair of pants. The plural refers to multiple pairs of pants. Take care when translating!

Emotions updated 2019-10-20

New Postposition

The postposition syt (etymologically related to sȳz "good") can be used to mean "for", "intended for", or "on behalf of" in a benefactive sense. The noun which precedes it must be in the genitive.

Missing Someone

The new verb ozmijegon means "to miss" in the metaphorical sense. Its object takes either the instrumental or comitative depending on whether or not the object is animate. If you miss a person (or a turtle), the object takes the comitative. If you miss your favorite book, the object takes the instrumental. Take care to recall which declensions have identical instrumentals and comitatives when reviewing examples!

The Subjunctive Revisited

You have already mastered recognizing and forming subjunctives in every tense and voice you've learned up to this point. Until now, you've used those forms for negative sentences. The original intent of the subjunctive, though, was for use in subordinate clauses where the verb has uncertain, hypothetical, or conditional force. In this lesson, you'll learn one verb—jaelagon "to hope"—which requires its subordinate verb to be in the subjunctive. Here are three examples:

  • Avy urnion jaelan. "I hope that I see you."
  • Taoba avy urnios jaelan. "I hope that the boy sees you."
  • Avy urnion taoba jaelza. "The boy hopes that I see you."

As you can see, there is nothing that is equivalent to the English word "that" in these clauses. Instead, the matrix clause is simply tacked on at the end, even if it has an overt subject.

Do note that a subordinate clause can be subjunctive and negative. It looks no different from a matrix negative clause, as shown below:

  • Taoba avy urnios daor jaelan. "I hope that the boy doesn't see you."

There may be additional subtleties required to use the subjunctive effectively, but this should be enough information for you to successfully complete this skill.

?@#!%&

The adjective hobrenka is translated as "idiotic" and only "idiotic". Suffice it to say that it is not a very nice word, and the full range of its definitions will not be given—rather, it will be left to your imagination.

Advanced Valence updated 2019-10-20

New Voice Morphology

Up to this point, these lessons haven't been completely honest. You have seen many verbs beginning with u/v, or i/j, and perhaps a few beginning with h/a/s/z that were not as straightforward as they appeared. This is because in High Valyrian, there is a special voice system which uniquely identifies certain arguments in the sentence and alters the meaning of the clause slightly.

This system is a very old system, and is on its way out at this stage of the language's evolution. (By the time it has evolved into a language like Astapori Valyrian, it is completely gone.) That said, it is still mostly productive, and knowing how the system works will help you use High Valyrian more effectively.

The Instrumental Passive

When a verb takes a subject, it is assumed that that subject has the mental and physical capacity to carry out that action, even if that action is taken unintentionally (as with falling). When the subject of a verb could never undertake an action of its own volition (say, because it's inanimate), a special form of the form is used: the instrumental passive. Here is an instructive example:

  • Vala havon nektos. "The man cuts the bread."
  • Egry havon anektos. "The knife cuts the bread."

While a man can use a knife to cut bread, a knife can't do anything—ever. High Valyrian makes note of this fact in the grammar.

This means that sentence you've learned in previous skills aren't necessarily accurate. Any time an inanimate noun is the subject of a sentence, the instrumental passive should be used. That said, as time wore on, Valyrian speakers became less and less inclined to use the instrumental passive consistently.

To form the instrumental passive…

  • Add s- to verbs beginning with p, t, k, or q.
  • Add z- to verbs beginning with b, d, g, l, or r (note that the sequence zr becomes j).
  • Add h- to verbs beginning with any vowel except e and o.
  • Add a- to verbs beginning with anything else.

Note that to reintroduce an agent, one uses ondoso the way one would with a passive, and if an instrumental passive is passivized, the old subject is reintroduced with the instrumental.

The Locative Applicative

The locative applicative takes a locative argument and makes it the direct object of the verb. This direct object is then marked with the dative, unless it is singular and occurs directly before the verb and the verb begins with a consonant, then it is marked with the genitive. Here is an example:

  • Qaedār dēmatan. "I sat on the whale."
  • Qaedrot udēmatan. "I sat on the whale."

There is a slight difference in meaning, in that when the applicative is used, the object is assumed to be directly affected by the action of the verb.

Locative applicatives can take locative postpositions as prefixes to specify their meanings further. These occur directly before the u or v prefix.

To form the locative applicative…

  • Replace the h at the beginning of a verb with v.
  • Add v- to verbs beginning with any vowel other than e or ē.
  • Add u- to all other verbs.

The Oblique Applicative

The oblique applicative takes a non-local argument and makes it the direct object of the verb. This direct object takes the accusative. Here is an example:

  • Zijo syt limatan. "I cried for her."
  • Ziry ilimatan. "I cried for her."

The meanings of oblique applicative are often idiomatic, and should be memorized.

Oblique applicatives can take non-local postpositions as prefixes to specify their meanings further. These occur directly before the i or j prefix.

To form the oblique applicative…

  • Replace the h at the beginning of a verb with j.
  • Add j- to verbs beginning with i, ī, u, ū, y, ȳ, or any diphthong.
  • Add i- to all other verbs.

Remember

If an applicative is passivized, its new object becomes the new subject. Thus, Ziry ilimataks means "He was cried for", not "He was cried".

Word Order

In ancient times, the promoted argument would always be placed directly before the verb. This ordering was relaxed by Daenerys's time, but preverbal position remains the default ordering for applicatives and instrumental passives.


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