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Ali AliAustria

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Learning Norwegian (Bokmål) from English

Level 15 · 8524 XP
1024/1500 XP · 68% complete · 476 XP to next level

Tree: L1
016660000
3.5% complete · 574 sessions to L2 Tree · 217 days to go

Crowns: 178/1032
17% complete · 854 crowns to go

Skills: 172
You finished every skill

Lessons: 590
You finished every lesson

Lexemes: 3600
You have seen every word available

Strength: 31%
65151460

Created: 2015-02-13
Last Goal: 2022-08-12
Daily Goal: 10 XP
Timezone: UTC+2

Last update: 2022-08-11 07:25:03 GMT+3


76643555

XP per Skill (4 weeks)raw

Introduction
44XP
Who? What? Where?
44XP
Greetings
30XP
Actions
55XP
Animals
 
Phrases
 
Food
 
Object Pronouns
 
Definite Forms
 
Plurals
 
Definite Plurals
 
Verbs: Present Tense
 
The Cafe
 
Counting
 
Conversation
 
Possessives
 
That and Those
 
Family
 
Location
 
Clothing
 
The Restaurant
 
Direction and Motion
 
Prepositions
 
This and These
 
Adjectives
 
Location 2
 
Qualities
 
Ownership
 
Colors
 
The Store
 
Leisure
 
Verbs: Present 2
 
Relatives
 
Feelings
 
Work
 
Verbs: Infinitive
 
Vacation
 
Schedule
 
Traits
 
Community
 
Determiners
 
Days
 
Questions
 
Verbs: Present 3
 
The Clock
 
Jobs
 
Conjunctions
 
Adverbs
 
Imperative
 
Places
 
Verbs: Infinitive 2
 
Animals 2
 
Demands and Requests
 
Time
 
Objects
 
The Home
 
Compound Words
 
Body Parts
 
Bedroom
 
Hygiene
 
The Farm
 
Shopping
 
Marriage
 
Determiners 2
 
People
 
Adverbs 2
 
The Office
 
The Year
 
Present 4
 
Nature
 
Verb Endings
 
Simple Past
 
Transport
 
Numbers
 
Relative Pronouns
 
School
 
Prediction
 
Hope
 
Compare
 
Simple Past 2
 
Order
 
The Nordic Countries
 
The Pharmacy
 
Shapes
 
Travel
 
Small Talk
 
Europe
 
Abstract Objects
 
Education
 
Simple Past 3
 
Reactions
 
Numbers 2
 
Computers
 
The News
 
Nightlife
 
Verbs
 
Comparison
 
Verbs: Present Perfect
 
Passive Voice
 
Adjectives 2
 
The World
 
Employment
 
Contrast
 
Present Perfect 2
 
The Garden
 
Industry
 
Thought
 
Theater
 
The Museum
 
Amounts
 
Children
 
Modal Verbs
 
Verbs: Past Perfect
 
Philosophy
 
Verbs Review
 
Space
 
Destiny
 
Passive Voice 2
 
Future
 
Sports
 
Exercise
 
Weather
 
Games
 
Literature
 
Abstract Objects 2
 
Religion
 
Music
 
Emergency
 
Art
 
Politics
 
Health
 
Media & Communication
 
Illness and Injury
 
Government
 
Online
 
Measurements
 
Conflict
 
Law
 
Present Participles
 
Science
 
Crime
 
Conditional
 
Future Perfect
 
Wilderness
 
The City
 
Academics
 
Traffic
 
Style
 
Identity
 
Business
 
Food 2
 
Emotions
 
Adverbs 3
 
Banking
 
The Body
 
Cooking
 
Tools
 
Romance
 
Wildlife
 
Continuous Forms
 
Adjectives 3
 
Passive Participles
 
Dessert
 
The Sea
 
Future Preterite
15XP
Absence
41XP
Materials
45XP
Bugs
28XP
Symbols
28XP
Fantasy
72XP
Language and Linguistics
87XP
Celebrations
43XP

Skills by StrengthCrownsDateNameOriginal Order

  • 160447240204.11.2020 ••• Test out   2.002Introduction0 @ 100%110/3
    du · en · er · gutt · han · hun · hvem · jeg · kvinne · mann
    10 words

    A heartfelt welcome to the Norwegian course!

    Norwegian is a language with simpler grammar than many other European languages, but it is still a gendered language with three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine and neuter.


    Grammatical Gender

    Masculine Feminine Neuter
    en mann ei kvinne or en kvinne et barn
    a man a woman a child

    All feminine gendered nouns can be classified as masculine gender as well. In theory, one could treat all feminine nouns as masculine ones, but most Norwegians still use the feminine form to some degree, especially for certain words.

    The choice really is up to you! Both en kvinne and ei kvinne are grammatically correct, and the tendency to use the feminine gender depends on geography and dialect.

    We have opted to teach it where it is most natural to use it, with words such as jente meaning girl, for example, but in the first couple of skills we'll let you focus on the masculine and neuter noun patterns.


    Pronouns

    Norwegian pronouns are very straightforward and correspond well to English ones:

    Norwegian English
    jeg I
    du you (singular)
    han he
    hun she
    det it

    When referring to a neutral subject, det is used to mean it or that. However, when referring to a masculine or feminine subject, it becomes den instead.


    Verbs

    Conjugation couldn't be simpler. All conjugated verbs have an -r stem in the present, and verbs don't change according to the subject! How easy is that?

    Singular Plural
    jeg er I am vi er we are
    du er you are dere er you are
    han, hun, det er he, she, it is de er they are

    Pronunciation

    As a general rule, words are spelled as they're pronounced in Norwegian. One exception is words beginning with hv, such as hvem, meaning who. In this word, the h is silent.

    In addition, there are several letters and letter combinations that are pronounced differently from English.

    Norwegian IPA, Notes
    A [ɑ], very open
    B [b]
    C [s] or [k] depending on word, very rare, ex. Canada
    D [d], silent in consonant clusters or at the end of certain words like med or ved
    E [e] or [ɛ], [æ] in her and der, [i] in de
    F [f]
    G [g], [j] before an i; silent before a j; silent after an i and sometimes an a or o; often silent in days of the week
    H [h], silent before v
    I [i] like the e in email or ebook, [ɪ] before two consonants, like the i in hit or fit
    J [j], like the y in yes or yellow
    K [k]
    kj, ki, ky [ç], traditionally like the sharp h in human, but more and more people now use [ʃ], like the sh in ship or shell
    L [l]
    M [m]
    N [n]
    O [u] like the oo in soon, but longer, [ʊ] before two consonants or in some exception words like tog
    P [p]
    Q [k], very rare, ex. Qatar
    qu [kv], very rare, ex. quisling
    R [ɾ], tap, like the tt in North American butter; many in Western Norway use [ʁ], the so-called French R
    rs [ʃ], r + s combinations produce sh sound, even between words
    S [s]
    skj, ski, sky, sl [ʃ], like the sh in ship or shell
    T [t], silent after an e sometimes, ex. det
    U [ʉ], like the ew in new, but more closed
    V [v]
    W [v], very rare, ex. show
    X [ks], very rare, ex. taxi
    Y [y] or [ʏ], like the e in email, but more closed
    Z [s], very rare, ex. zen

    Norwegian also has three additional letters that English doesn't have!

    Norwegian IPA, Notes
    Æ [æ], like the a in mad or sad
    Ø [ø], like the o in word, but more open
    Å [o], like the o in go or low

    Special Notes on Common Words

    Norwegian Meaning Pronunciation
    jeg I yai
    det it, that deh, silent t

    Core Vocabulary

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    er am, are, is
    hvem who
    og and
    ikke not
    jeg I
    du you (singular)
    han he
    hun she
    en a, an
    en mann a man
    en/ei kvinne a woman
    en gutt a boy
    en/ei jente a girl
  • 160474305407.11.2020 ••• Test out   2.002Who? What? Where?0 @ 100%210/3
    barn · der · dere · et · har · hva · hvor · i · katt · vi
    10 words

    Who? What? Where?

    Confused yet? We have just the word for you...

    Hva is the word for what, and also happens to be just the right thing to exclaim when you feel like you've been hit in the head with one Norwegian grammar rule too many.

    In this skill, you'll also come across another question word, but you'll have to go look for it yourself, because we're not sure exactly where it went.


    Plural Pronouns

    You're already familiar with the singular pronouns jeg, du, han, hun and det, and now we're adding the plural pronouns into the mix.

    Norwegian English
    vi we
    dere you (plural)
    de they

    Notice how Norwegian has two different pronouns for "you": du is the singular and dere is the plural version. An easy way to keep them apart, is to remember that the word representing more people has more letters in it.


    Question Words

    When you're just starting out learning a new language, few things are more useful than to be able to ask the questions that allow you to find what you need or further your learning. You've already learned one, hvem, and in this skill you'll learn two more of the most common question words.

    Norwegian English
    hvem who
    hva what
    hvor where

    Isn't it neat how they all resemble their English counterparts? You've probably noticed by now that English and Norwegian have many things in common, both when it comes to grammar and vocabulary. This is because they're closely related Germanic languages.

    However, we do need to differentiate ourselves somehow, and so we decided to add some extra letters to our alphabet - just to keep things interesting.


    Knowing

    The verb å vite, to know, is an irregular verb in Norwegian. Its present tense, which you will familiarize yourself with in this skill, is vet. See that vowel change from the infinitive to the present? Cheeky!

    There are actually several verbs for knowing, and you'll get to know them all in due time, but this particular one deals with factual knowledge. Some examples of that is knowing what or where something is, or knowing something about something or someone.

    Vet du hvor det er?
    Do you know where it is?

    Vet du hvem hun er?
    Do you know who she is?


    Three New Vowels

    Norwegian has three extra vowels, Æ, Ø and Å.

    Vowel Similar To IPA
    Æ the a in add or apple [æ]
    Ø no real equivalent, but not far from the vowel sounds in bird or earth [ø] or [œ]
    Å the o in open or old [o] or [ɔ]

    Vocabulary
    har has
    vet knows
    sitter sits
    vi we
    dere you (plural)
    de they
    i in
    hva what
    hvor where
    her here
    der there
    Norge Norway
    et a, an
    et barn a child
    et eple an apple
    en katt a cat
    brød (n) bread
    vann (n) water
  • 160490034909.11.2020 ••• Test out   2.002Greetings0 @ 100%310/2
    bor · dag · god · hei · hete · kveld · morgen · norsk · snakker · velkommen
    10 words
  • 160524731013.11.2020 ••• Test out   2.002Actions0 @ 100%320/4
    bok · brev · drikker · gutten · kvinnen · leser · mannen · noe · ris · spiser
    10 words

    Definite Forms

    The definite form, the man, the woman, et cetera, is formed by attaching the indefinite article onto the end of the noun. This ending is called a postfix or a suffix.

    Indefinite Definite
    en mann a man mannen the man
    et barn a child barnet the child

    Although the t is pronounced as such in the phrase et barn, it turns silent in the definite form, barnet, which is pronounced more like barneh. This is the case with all neuter nouns in the singular definite form. Be sure to drop the t sound, otherwise you might sound rather Swedish.

    For feminine-classified nouns, there is one irregularity in the definite form:

    Indefinite Definite
    ei kvinne or en kvinne a woman kvinna or kvinnen the woman
    ei jente or en jente a girl jenta or jenten the girl

    Both jenta and jenten are appropriate translations for the girl. These same endings apply to all feminine nouns. Please consult the tips and notes section for the first lesson if you would like a review of the Norwegian grammatical genders.


    Present

    The present tense is used to describe things that are happening or are true now:

    Jeg leser nå. I am reading now.

    The present tense is also in general statements that are independent of time:

    Jorda er rund. The earth is round.

    For things that repeat and that are still recurring:

    Jeg sover hver natt. I sleep every night.

    The present tense can be used to talk about the future as well, especially when it is certain:

    Jeg reiser i morgen. I leave tomorrow.

    As a rule of thumb, you can use the present tense where you would use either the present (I leave tomorrow.) or present progressive (I am leaving tomorrow.) tenses in English.

    You do not have to worry about person or number when dealing with verbs in Norwegian, the verb stays the same. This is even simpler than English where you have to remember to add the -s in the third person singular in the present tense.

    Forming the present is extremely easy, just add the suffix -r to the infinitive (the form you'll find in the dictionary).

    The table below shows you how to do it:

    Infinitive Present English Translation
    å spise spiser eat(s), am/are/is eating
    å drikke drikker drink(s), am/are/is drinking
    å se ser see(s), am/are/is seeing

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    spiser eats
    drikker drinks
    leser reads
    liker likes
    ser sees
    kjøper buys
    noe something
    den it
    ei a, an
    en/ei bok a book
    et brev a letter
    ris (m) rice
    melk (m/f) milk
    gutten the boy
    jenta the girl
    mannen the man
    kvinnen the woman
    barnet the child
  • 160551099616.11.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Animals75 @ 25%420/3
    and · bjørn · dyr · elg · elgen · fugl · hest · hesten · hund · katten
    10 words

    Animals

    Many animal names in Norwegian share etymological ties with English ones, but the meaning has drifted over time in one direction or another. Below are some examples.

    Beware these false friends!

    Norwegian Translation Related Word
    hund dog hound
    fugl bird fowl
    elg moose elk*
    dyr animal deer

    *In British English, "elg" and "elk" are actual cognates. In American English, "elk" refers to a different animal.

    The following words are true friends, meaning that the words are similar in both spelling and meaning.

    Norwegian English
    katt cat
    bjørn bear
    krabbe crab
    elefant elephant
    ulv wolf
    mus mouse

    You know more Norwegian than you thought you did!


    Grammatical and Biological Gender

    After being introduced to nouns such as ei jente, en gutt, and et barn, you'd be forgiven for thinking that there was a correlation between a word's grammatical gender and its biological gender, or sex.

    However, this is not the case. Grammatical gender is a completely independent concept. While en hund is a masculine noun, that does not imply that the dog we're referring to is male, that's just the grammatical gender of the word itself.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    et dyr an animal
    en elg a moose
    en/ei and a duck
    en hest a horse
    en hund a dog
    en fugl a bird
    en bjørn a bear
    en edderkopp a spider
    en ulv a wolf
    elgen the moose
    katten the cat
    hesten the horse
    bjørnen the bear
    hunden the dog
    dyret the animal
    fuglen the bird
    anden the duck
    edderkoppen the spider
  • 160578350219.11.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Phrases50 @ 50%440/3
    astrid · bare · beklager · bra · dag · einar · erna · god · ha · hei · helg · heter · hyggelig · ja · jens · kveld · marius · morgen · natt · nei · takk · tur · tusen · unnskyld · velkommen · vær så god · vær så snill
    27 words

    Common Phrases

    We've compiled a list of common phrases in the Norwegian language, for your reference.

    Many of them are idiomatic, meaning that they don't translate word for word to English. You'll have to learn the entire phrase.

    One example is "Ha det bra!", which literally means "Have it good!", but idiomatically translates to "Goodbye!"

    Norwegian English
    Hvordan har du det? How are you?
    Hvordan går det? How is it going?
    Bare bra, takk! Just fine, thanks!
    Jeg har det bra. I'm doing well.
    Ha det bra! Goodbye!
    Vi ses! See you later!

    Norwegian Characters

    By now, you're probably getting used to seeing the Norwegian vowels Æ, Ø and Å around.

    Vowel Similar To IPA
    Æ the a in add or apple [æ]
    Ø no real equivalent, but not far from the vowel sounds in bird or earth [ø] or [œ]
    Å the o in open or old [o] or [ɔ]

    If you're doing your Duolingo lessons on the app, you may need to install a Norwegian or international keyboard to type these. However, before you do so, try holding down A or O and see if they appear as options.

    If you're doing your lessons on the web, you can either install a Norwegian keyboard, or just click the special characters displayed below the input field when you type your response.

    When you have no other option, you can use these replacement characters, but don't get into the habit of relying on them, as it will be a hard one to break.

    Character Replacement
    Æ AE
    Ø OE
    Å AA

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    ha have
    unnskyld sorry, excuse me, pardon
    vær så snill please, be so kind
    takk thank you, thanks
    trenger needs, requires
    elsker loves
    ja yes
    nei no
    eller or
    kanskje maybe, perhaps
    tusen (a) thousand
    bra good, nice
    hyggelig nice, pleasant
    bare only, just
    en tur a trip
    en/ei natt a night
    en/ei helg a weekend
  • 160612873923.11.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Food75 @ 25%510/3
    fisk · frukt · glass · kjøtt · kylling · mat · ost · pasta · suppe · tomat
    10 words

    Cooking

    In this skill, you'll learn the verb lager, which translates to make. There's no separate verb for cooking, instead, we use lager mat, literally make food.

    Han lager mat.
    He is cooking.


    Measure Words

    Remember that in Norwegian, the word for of, av, is omitted where one would normally use it in English to join a measure word with another noun.

    Norwegian English
    en kopp kaffe a cup of coffee
    et glass vann a glass of water

    Neat, huh?


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å lage to make
    å lage mat to cook
    en fisk a fish
    et kjøtt a meat
    en pasta a pasta
    en/ei suppe a soup
    en kylling a chicken
    mat (m) food
    en frokost a breakfast
    en ost a cheese
    en frukt a fruit
    en tomat a tomato
    et glass a glass
    en øl a (unit of) beer
    et salt a salt
    et egg an egg
    et sukker a sugar
    en pepper a pepper (not bell pepper!)
  • 160628297925.11.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Object Pronouns25 @ 75%610/2
    deg · dem · den · dere · det · ham · henne · meg · oss · viser
    10 words

    Object Pronouns

    We were introduced to the Norwegian pronouns in the first skill. Let's have a look at them here:

    Singular Plural
    jeg I vi we
    du you (singular) dere you (plural)
    han, hun, den/det he, she, it de they

    As in English, the pronouns above only pertain to subjects. The pronouns at the receiving end of a verb, in other words the object pronouns, are as follows:

    Singular Plural
    meg me oss us
    deg you (singular) dere you (plural)
    ham, henne, det/den him, her, it dem them

    Den is used to mean it or that when referring back to a masculine or feminine subject.

    Det is used to mean it or that when referring back to a neuter subject, and when introducing a brand new noun that has not yet been mentioned - regardless of the gender of that noun.

    Han is an alternative form of ham, but in this course we will use "han" exclusively as a subject ("he"), and "ham" for the object form ("him").


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    viser show
    meg me
    deg you (singular)
    ham him
    henne her
    den (m/f) it
    det (n) it
    oss us
    dere you (plural)
    dem them
  • 160664545429.11.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Definite Forms75 @ 25%620/4
    appelsinen · avisen · boken · brevet · brødet · bygd · bygda · egget · fisken · frukten · hytta · iskremen · jordbæret · kaffen · kjøttet · kone · kua · kyllingen · maten · måltidet · oljen · osten · pastaen · risen · saltet · sitronen · smørbrødet · sukkeret · suppen · teen · tomaten · vannet · vegetarianeren · vinen · øy · øya
    36 words

    Definite Forms

    The definite form ("the man", "the woman", et cetera) is formed by placing the indefinite article, "a/an", or in Norwegian, "en/et", at the end of the word instead of at the beginning. This is called a postfix or a suffix.

    Indefinite Definite
    en mann a man mannen the man
    et barn a child barnet the child

    For feminine-classified nouns, there is one irregularity:

    Indefinite Definite
    ei kvinne OR en kvinne a woman kvinna OR kvinnen the woman
    ei jente OR en jente a girl jenta OR jenten the girl

    Both jenta and jenten are appropriate translations for the girl. These same endings apply to all feminine nouns.

    It is also normal to use the masculine article "en" for indefinite forms, even when preferring a feminine suffix in definite. This is not considered an error!

    Indefinite Definite
    en jente a girl jenta the girl
    en øy an island øya the island

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    -en definite suffix: the
    en/ei hytte a cabin
    osten the cheese
    egget the egg
    maten the food
    vannet the water
    brødet the bread
    suppen the soup
    pastaen the pasta
    saltet the salt
    fisken the fish
    brevet the letter
    kjøttet the meat
    sukkeret the sugar
    kyllingen the chicken
    eplet the apple
    frukten the fruit
    ølen the beer
    boken the book
    risen the rice
    tomaten the tomato
    avisen the newspaper
  • 160697879803.12.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Plurals75 @ 25%710/4
    aviser · barn · bjørner · brev · bygder · bøker · dyr · elefanter · ender · epler · flere · fugler · gutter · hester · hunder · hytter · jenter · jordbær · katter · koner · kyllinger · lærere · mange · noen · sauer · skilpadder · smørbrød
    27 words

    Plurals

    With few exceptions, most masculine or feminine nouns (most nouns) pluralize with -er or -r.

    Norwegian English
    eple apple
    epler apples
    gutt boy
    gutter boys
    jente girl
    jenter girls

    Single-syllable neuter nouns, such as hus house and dyr animal, often do not change spelling in the indefinite plural.

    Norwegian English
    hus house or houses
    dyr animal or animals
    barn child or children

    How then can you tell the difference between hus meaning house and hus meaning houses? That depends on context and adjective endings, which we will cover a bit later in the course.

    One exception to these rules is the Norwegian word for "man" which pluralizes in an irregular way that's almost identical to English:

    Norwegian English
    mann man
    menn men

    Here are some additional common irregular plurals, a couple of which are also irregular in English.

    Singular Plural English Translation
    and ender duck - ducks
    bok bøker book - books
    fot føtter foot - feet
    hånd hender hand - hands
    natt netter night - nights
    tann tenner tooth - teeth
    tre trær tree - trees

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    noen some, any
    flere several, multiple, more
    mange many
    en sykkel a bicycle
    katter cats
    aviser newspapers
    jenter girls
    fugler birds
    gutter boys
    hunder dogs
    ender ducks
    bøker books
    hester horses
    bjørner bears
    epler apples
    hytter cabins
    kvinner women
    kyllinger chickens
    dyr animals
    brev letters
    barn children
    menn men
    -er indefinite plural suffix
  • 160727027006.12.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Definite Plurals75 @ 25%820/3
    alle · avisene · barna · brevene · bøkene · elefantene · elgene · endene · eplene · fiskene · fuglene · guttene · hestene · hundene · hyttene · jentene · jordbærene · kattene · kokkene · konene · kvinnene · kyllingene · mennene · skilpaddene · smørbrødene · tallerkenene
    26 words

    Definite Plurals

    With very few exceptions, all nouns can be converted to the definite plural form, i.e. the books, the cows, the dogs... by changing the -er ending on the plural form to an -ene ending:

    Norwegian English
    hund dog
    hunden the dog
    hunder dogs
    hundene the dogs

    Many neuter nouns do not have to follow this rule. Instead, they can become definite plurals by adding on an -a ending. The choice is yours, but the -ene ending is somewhat more common.

    Norwegian English
    brev letter or letters
    brevet the letter
    brevene or breva the letters

    Keep in mind that the word "barn" meaning "child" almost always becomes "barna" in the definite plural, although "barnene" is grammatically correct as well.

    Norwegian English
    barn child
    barnet the child
    barn children
    barna the children

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    alle all (of)
    kattene the cats
    fuglene the birds
    endene the ducks
    guttene the boys
    hestene the horses
    kyllingene the chickens
    eplene the apples
    bøkene the books
    hundene the dogs
    mennene the men
    avisene the newspapers
    hyttene the cabins
    kvinnene the women
    dyrene the animals
  • 160757936410.12.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Verbs: Present Tense50 @ 50%830/4
    amerikaner · arbeider · barna · betaler · betyr · bruker · finner · gjør · gråter · ha · hører · kjøper · kjører · lager · leker · ler · lukter · lytter · lærer · man · når · regner · selger · skriver · smiler · sover · støtter · synger · tar · tegner · trenger · vasker · velger · vil · viser
    35 words

    Present

    The present tense is used to describe things that are happening or are true now:

    Jeg leser nå. I am reading now.

    The present tense is also in general statements that are independent of time:

    Jorda er rund. The earth is round.

    For things that repeat and that are still recurring:

    Jeg sover hver natt. I sleep every night.

    The present tense can be used to talk about the future as well, especially when it is certain:

    Jeg reiser i morgen. I leave tomorrow.

    As a rule of thumb, you can use the present tense where you would use either the present (I leave tomorrow.) or present progressive (I am leaving tomorrow.) tenses in English.

    You do not have to worry about person or number when dealing with verbs in Norwegian, the verb stays the same. This is even simpler than English where you have to remember to add the -s in the third person singular in the present tense.

    Forming the present is extremely easy, just add the suffix -r to the infinitive (the form you'll find in the dictionary).

    The table below shows you how to do it:

    Group Suffix Infinitive Present English Translation
    1 -er å vaske vasker wash(es), am/are/is washing
    2 -er å kjøre kjører drive(s), am/are/is driving
    3 -r å bo bor live(s), am/are/is living (as in making one's home somewhere)

    There are three groups of verbs with different patterns for forming tenses in Norwegian, but in the present case they all behave in the same way as you can see.


    The Swiss Army Knife of Prepositions

    In this skill, we introduce the preposition - arguably the most important word in the Norwegian language. has as many uses and translations as there are types of brunost in Norway, but the one you'll learn right now deals with specifying languages.


    Specifying Language

    can be used to specify what language something is said or written in. When used in this meaning, it translates to in in English.

    Hva betyr det på engelsk?
    What does that mean in English?

    Hva heter det på norsk?
    What is that (called) in Norwegian?


    Plurals Ending in -E

    With few exceptions, most masculine or feminine nouns (most nouns) pluralize with -er or -r.

    Norwegian English
    eple apple
    epler apples
    gutt boy
    gutter boys
    jente girl
    jenter girls

    However, words that end in -er already, add an extra -e to signify the plural.

    Norwegian English
    lærer teacher
    lærere teachers
    amerikaner American
    amerikanere Americans

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    gjør does
    sover sleeps
    hører hears
    velger chooses, selects
    leker plays
    selger sells
    arbeider works
    vasker washes, cleans
    skriver writes
    venter waits, expects
    når when
    om about
    in
    en lærer a teacher
    en amerikaner an American
    en/ei mus a mouse
    barna the children
    jentene the girls
    brevene the letters
    -ene the (definite suffix), assorted words
  • 160793774914.12.2020 ••• Test out   1.001The Cafe50 @ 50%920/4
    brus · ha · is · kaffe · med · på · stol · står · te · vil
    10 words

    Getting Your Caffeine Fix

    When ordering coffee at a cafe, you can simply say:

    En kaffe, takk!
    A coffee, thanks!

    Replace kaffe with espresso, americano, cappuccino or latte to get your coffee of choice. Loanword heaven!


    Expressing Desire for Something

    The verb for "want" is "vil" in Norwegian. When what you want is a noun, it needs to be accompanied by its friend "ha" ("have"). Where you in English could say either "I want [noun]" or "I want to have [noun]", it's always "Jeg vil ha [noun]".

    Jeg vil ha et eple.
    I want (to have) an apple.

    Later in the course, you'll come across "vil" followed by a verb in the infinitive, in which case you do not need to add "ha".

    Jeg vil spise et eple.
    I want to eat an apple.


    The Swiss Army Knife of Prepositions

    In this skill, we reintroduce the preposition in a second meaning. has as many uses and translations as there are types of brunost in Norway, but the one you'll learn right now deals with physical location.


    Describing Location

    When used to describe location, can translate to on, at, and sometimes even in, depending on the context. When translating, your best bet is opting for the preposition that sounds the most natural in English.

    Vi sitter på kaféen.
    We are sitting at the cafe.

    Hun sitter på stolen.
    She is sitting on the chair.


    Specifying Language

    can also be used to specify what language something is said or written in. When used in this meaning, it translates to in in English.

    Hva betyr det på engelsk?
    What does that mean in English?

    Hva heter det på norsk?
    What is that (called) in Norwegian?

    So, if you order your coffee på norsk, you're ordering it in Norwegian.


    Vocabulary
    vil wants
    ha (to) have
    står stands
    bestiller orders
    hvordan how
    med with
    on, at
    utenfor outside (of)
    mer more
    en is an ice-cream
    en te a tea
    en kafé a cafe
    en brus a soda, a pop, a fizzy drink
    en drikk a drink, a beverage
    et jordbær a strawberry
    en sitron a lemon
    en stol a chair
    et bord a table
    en kaffe a coffee
    en lunsj a lunch
    en kopp a cup
    en/ei kake a cake
  • 160810870816.12.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Counting25 @ 75%1020/2
    en · ett · fem · fire · ni · seks · sju · ti · til · to · tre · åtte
    12 words

    Counting

    Welcome to Counting! Norwegian numbers are very easy for English speakers to learn in comparison to other languages. There is no tricky system or crazy multiplication weirdness. The numbers sound and work in a similar way as they do in English.

    The most common word for seven is sju, but you may also hear the word syv used, which is decidedly less common. Be careful not to confuse it with the word tjue, which means twenty.


    One and One More

    So far, you've seen the articles en (masculine) ei (feminine) and et (neuter) used to to mean a or an. These also do double duty as numbers, translating to one.

    If you want more of something countable, you can use the adverb til. You then combine it with a number: en til becomes one more or another, to til becomes two more, and so on.

    When specifying exactly what you want, by adding a noun, the number goes before the noun, while til goes after, like so: en kopp til (one more cup).


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    til more
    en one
    to two
    tre three
    fire four
    fem five
    seks six
    sju seven
    åtte eight
    ni nine
    ti ten
  • 160845814920.12.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Conversation50 @ 50%1030/3
    betyr · hallo · hvorfor · kommer · lytter · nå · ofte · sier · snart · til
    10 words

    Til & Fra

    This skill introduces two new prepositions, "til" and "fra". Not to worry, though, as these both act predictably in this context, corresponding to "to" and "from" respectively. These work both for describing direction in a geographical sense, and in other contexts such as when giving a gift, talking to someone, or expressing where someone or something is from.

    "Snakker du til meg?"
    "Are you talking to me?"

    "Vi flyr til Norge."
    "We are flying to Norway."

    "Jeg er fra England."
    "I am from England."

    "Han gir en gave til jenta."
    "He gives a gift to the girl."


    Vocabulary
    tror thinks, believes
    sier says
    lytter listens
    ringer calls, rings
    kommer comes
    betyr means, signifies
    til to
    fra from
    now
    snart soon, shortly
    ofte often
    aldri never
    hallo hello
    hvorfor why
    hvordan går det how is it going, how are you
    det går ... it is going..., I am...
    en mamma a mom
    en pappa a dad
    en nabo a neighbor
    en gjest a guest, a visitor
  • 160888941125.12.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Possessives25 @ 75%1110/3
    deres · di · din · dine · ditt · eier · hans · hennes · hundenes · hunds · katts · kokkenes · kokkens · manns · mi · min · mine · mitt · restaurantens · s · si · sin · sine · sitt · tilhører · vår · våre · vårt
    28 words

    Possessive Pronouns

    Possessive pronouns change depending on the gender and number of the possessor and the possessed.

    My

    The Definite Form

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    faren min mora mi barnet mitt foreldrene mine
    my father my mother my child my parents

    The above form takes the definite form of the noun and places the possessive pronoun after it. This is the more common form in colloquial Norwegian, and the one you will encounter most often.

    • Faren min er fargeblind.

    • My father is colorblind.

    Another form is as follows:

    The Indefinite Form

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    min far mi mor mitt barn mine foreldre
    my father my mother my child my parents

    This form takes the possessive pronoun and places it before the indefinite form of the noun. This form is considered more formal and places special emphasis on the possessor.

    • Mitt barn er perfekt.

    • My child is perfect.


    Your (Singular)

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    faren din mora di barnet ditt foreldrene dine
    din far di mor ditt barn dine foreldre
    your father your mother your child your parents
    • Hvem er foreldrene dine?

    • Who are your parents?


    His

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    faren hans mora hans barnet hans foreldrene hans
    hans far hans mor hans barn hans foreldre
    his father his mother his child his parents
    • Hunden hans er vennlig.

    • His dog is friendly.


    Her

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    faren hennes mora hennes barnet hennes foreldrene hennes
    hennes far hennes mor hennes barn hennes foreldre
    her father her mother her child her parents
    • Hva heter barnet hennes?

    • What is her child's name?


    Our

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    faren vår mora vår barnet vårt foreldrene våre
    vår far vår mor vårt barn våre foreldre
    our father our mother our child our parents
    • Vi elsker døtrene våre.

    • We love our daughters.


    Your (Plural)

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    faren deres mora deres barnet deres foreldrene deres
    deres far deres mor deres barn deres foreldre
    your (pl.) father your (pl.) mother your (pl.) child your (pl.) parents
    • Hvor kommer familien deres fra?

    • Where does your family come from?


    Their

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    faren deres mora deres barnet deres foreldrene deres
    deres far deres mor deres barn deres foreldre
    their father their mother their child their parents
    • Datamaskinen deres fungerer ikke.

    • Their computer does not work.

    Notice how deres can mean your (pl.) or their. You will be able to tell the difference through context.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    eier owns
    tilhører belongs
    mi/min/mitt/mine my, mine
    di/din/ditt/dine your, yours
    vår/vårt/våre our, ours
    hans his
    hennes her, hers
    deres their, theirs
    et rom a room
    et navn a name
    en telefon a telephone
  • 160897458126.12.2020 ••• Test out   1.001That and Those0 @ 100%1210/1
    de · den · det
    3 words

    That and Those

    We learned early on how to describe definite nouns with the appropriate gender- and number-specific suffixes.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine stolen the chair
    Feminine boka the book
    Neuter bordet the table
    Plural husene the houses

    In order to specify further with the word that or those, all we do is add one gender- and number-specific word to the mix: den, det, or de.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den stolen that chair
    Feminine den boka that book
    Neuter det bordet that table
    Plural de husene those houses
  • 160923370229.12.2020 ••• Test out   1.001Family50 @ 50%1220/2
    baby · bror · datter · familie · far · mor · sønn · søsken · søster · tvilling
    10 words

    Family

    Welcome to the family skill! Family words are some of the most common in Norwegian, but also some of the most irregular. Pay attention to how the following words pluralize.

    English Indef. Sing. Def. Sing. Indef. Plur. Def. Plur.
    father far faren fedre fedrene
    mother mor moren mødre mødrene
    brother bror broren brødre brødrene
    sister søster søsteren søstre søstrene
    daughter datter datteren døtre døtrene

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    en baby a baby
    en sønn a son
    en/ei datter a daughter
    en familie a family
    en forelder a parent
    en far a father
    en/ei mor a mother
    en bror a brother
    en/ei søster a sister
    en tvilling a twin
    et søsken a sibling

    Grammar focus
    possession possessive pronouns
    nouns all declensions
    verbs present
  • 160967145303.01.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Location50 @ 50%1310/4
    gulv · hjemme · hus · ligger · mellom · seng · under · ute · ved · øy
    10 words

    Location

    To describe where something is, Norwegian often forgoes the verb to be in favor of to stand or to lie. Most often, upright objects with legs, such as beds, stand, while other objects, especially those on their side, tend to lie, just like in English.

    Norwegian English
    Sengen står på gulvet. The bed [stands/is] on the floor.
    Hunden ligger på gulvet. The dog [lies/is] on the floor.

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    ligger lies
    mellom between
    ved by
    hjemme (at) home
    bak behind
    over over, above
    foran in front of
    under under, below, underneath
    ute outside
    inne inside
    nede downstairs, down
    blant among
    oppe upstairs, up
    et gulv a floor
    en butikk a store, a shop
    en/ei seng a bed
    en/ei øy an island
    et hus a house
    en bil a car
    et tre a tree
    en/ei bro a bridge
    et gjerde a fence
    en lekeplass a playground
  • 161018563609.01.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Clothing75 @ 25%1410/4
    briller · bukse · frakk · hatt · jakke · klær · seg · skjorte · sko · sokk
    10 words

    Clothing

    This lesson introduces you to clothing as well as the Norwegian word seg. This word is the reflexive pronoun for all third-person nouns, himself, herself, themselves, etc. It is used in many verbs. In fact, the reflexive is far more common in Norwegian than in English.

    For clothing, one uses har på seg to describe what someone is wearing. It literally means, have on oneself and is the equivalent of the English, have on.

    • Hun har på seg en hatt.
    • She has on (herself) a hat.
    • She's wearing a hat.

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    har på seg wears, has on
    bruker uses, wears
    klær (n) clothes, clothing
    en sko a shoe
    en/ei jakke a jacket
    briller (m) (eye)glasses
    en genser a sweater
    en/ei skjorte a shirt
    en hatt a hat
    et slips a tie
    en sokk a sock
    en frakk a coat
    en kjole a dress
    en/ei bukse a pair of pants
    et belte a belt
    en knapp a button
    en/ei lomme a pocket
    en hanske a glove
    et skjerf a scarf
    en støvel a (rain)boot
    undertøy underwear
  • 161052044613.01.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The Restaurant75 @ 25%1430/4
    forrett · kokk · meny · nok · pizza · restaurant · salat · til · vin · vær så god
    10 words

    The Restaurant

    Hungry already, are we? Nothing like a bit of language learning to work up an appetite.

    Ordering

    If you're visiting Norway as a tourist, ordering food at a restaurant is a good way to practice a little Norwegian.

    After having a look at the menu and working up your courage, give the waiter your most charming smile, and say any of the following:

    Jeg vil (gjerne) ha X.
    I would like X.

    Jeg har lyst på X.
    I would like X.

    X, takk.
    X, please/thanks.

    Remember, snapping your fingers or yelling to get a waiter's attention is rude. Try to make eye contact instead. If that fails, you can say unnskyld (excuse me), perhaps accompanied by a wave.


    Courses & Drinks

    If you want to order a standard three-course meal, you can look at the menu and locate these three headings:

    Norwegian English
    forrett appetizer
    hovedrett main course
    dessert dessert

    Water is usually free, but if you want anything else to drink you'll find the drinking menu either as the last section of the main menu or as a separate menu. The drinking age in Norway is 18 for beer and wine, but 21 for hard liquor, and it's strictly enforced.


    Receiving Your Food

    When your food is ready, it will likely be delivered to you with a vær så god, which is the Norwegian equivalent of here you go or dig in.

    The appropriate response is either takk, tusen takk, or takk skal du ha.

    Later, the waiter may stop by and ask you how your food was, but apart from that you shouldn't expect much small talk or attention. Norwegians like to be left alone to enjoy their food, so the waiter isn't ignoring you to be rude, they're just treating you like Norwegians tend to prefer being treated.


    Tipping Culture

    Both kitchen and waitstaff are paid decent wages in Norway, so you should never feel like you have to tip anyone. However, it's a nice gesture if you feel the meal or service was good and would like to show your appreciation. Norwegians will often round up to the nearest 100 or 50 kr, depending on how large the total was.

    Tips are registered and taxed along with the rest of people's income, so whenever you tip someone you're actually also tipping the Norwegian welfare state, contributing to better healthcare, education, and infrastructure. Having dinner and saving lives - not bad for an evening's work!


    Vocabulary
    vær så god here you are/go, dig in
    smaker tastes
    betaler pays
    serverer serves
    til with
    nok enough
    en vin a wine
    en salat a salad
    salat (m) lettuce
    en meny a menu
    en/ei flaske a bottle
    en forrett an appetizer
    en restaurant a restaurant
    en kokk a cook, a chef
    et måltid a meal
    en pizza a pizza
    en grønnsak a vegetable
    en servitør a waiter
    en middag a dinner
    en tallerken a plate
    en olje an oil
    en/ei skje a spoon
    en kniv a knife
    en gaffel a fork
    en hovedrett a main course
  • 161104656419.01.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Direction and Motion50 @ 50%1510/5
    bassenget · derfra · dit · drar · dør · etter · flyr · forbi · fra · frem · gjennom · går · herfra · hit · hjem · hopper · inn · kommer · langs · legger · løper · mot · ned · omkring · opp · rett · rundt · setter · svømmer · til · tilbake · ut
    32 words

    Direction and Motion

    In Norwegian, adverbs of place that describe where something is change when they become adverbs of motion and describe where something moves. Below are some examples:

    Existence Translation Motion Translation
    er hjemme is at home går hjem goes home
    er inne is inside går inn goes in
    er ute is outside går ut goes out
    er oppe is up går opp goes up
    er nede is down below går ned goes down

    Be careful to use the proper adverb for each situation. For most of the words above, the endings fall off when in motion. Think of them like a pocket book on top of a car. The car moves, so the pocket book falls off.

    Existence Translation Motion Translation
    er her is here går hit goes here
    er der is there går dit goes there

    The words hit and dit are related to the antiquated English words hither and thither, which used to describe here and there in motion. Note that it has to be motion toward a location - not in or at a location.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    går walks, goes
    drar goes, leaves
    løper runs
    legger lays, puts, places
    flyr flies
    svømmer swims
    hopper jumps
    hjem home
    til to (physical direction)
    hit (to) here, hither
    dit (to) there, thither
    mot toward, against
    etter after
    frem forward
    forbi past
    tilbake back
    inn in
    opp up
    ned down
    gjennom through
    ut out
    rett straight, directly
    rundt around
    et basseng a (swimming) pool
    en/ei dør a door
    et vindu a window
  • 161129250522.01.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Prepositions25 @ 75%1610/1
    av · for · i stedet for · med · overfor · til · unntatt · uten
    8 words

    Prepositions

    As in English, all prepositions in Norwegian stand before the noun. Below is a reference sheet for the prepositions introduced in this chapter. "Av" and "for" are notoriously versatile prepositions, with several other definitions in addition to the ones mentioned.

    Norwegian English Notes
    av of, off Used with fractions or two-part verbs.
    for for, to Often does not translate directly.
    uten without
    unntatt except Literally "taken out."
    i stedet for instead of

    Of course, you've already familiarized yourself with some key prepositions in earlier skills as well. Here comes a quick refresher:

    Norwegian English Notes
    i in, inside Used to express location
    on, at, in Used to express location or indicate language
    til to, for Used to express direction and purpose
    med with Said like meh, but in a neutral tone.

    Phrasal verbs

    While we won't mix them into this skill, both separable verbs and phrasal verbs are important parts of the Norwegian language.

    Often, they'll use prepositions in ways that are unfamiliar, so if you ever come across a preposition you don't understand the function of, it is worth considering whether it actually forms part of the verb.

  • 161139311123.01.2021 ••• Test out   1.001This and These0 @ 100%1620/1
    denne · dette · disse
    3 words

    This and These

    We learned early on how to describe definite nouns with the appropriate gender- and number-specific suffixes.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine stolen the chair
    Feminine boka the book
    Neuter bordet the table
    Plural husene the houses

    And how to specify further with the word that or those.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den stolen that chair
    Feminine den boka that book
    Neuter det bordet that table
    Plural de husene those houses

    Now, we're introducing how to say this and these in Norwegian.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine denne stolen this chair
    Feminine denne boka this book
    Neuter dette bordet this table
    Plural disse husene these houses
  • 161208197831.01.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Adjectives50 @ 50%1710/4
    altfor · billig · dyrt · enkelt · fin · forferdelig · forskjellige · full · fulle · gode · godt · helt · kald · kort · lang · lett · mye · ny · ren · riktig · skitten · små · stor · utrolige · varm · veldig
    26 words

    Adjectives

    Norwegian adjectives change for gender, number, indefinite and definite forms. Let's take a look at adjectives joined to nouns by the phrase to be, starting with the adjective stor, which means big or great.


    The Indefinite Form

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine En stol er stor. A chair is big.
    Feminine Ei bok er stor. A book is big.

    So far, so good. There is no change to the adjective in either masculine or feminine form.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Neuter Et bord er stort. A table is big.
    Plural Hus er store. Houses are big.

    As you can see above, the neuter noun changes the spelling of stor to include a -t ending, and the plural noun changes stor to include an -e ending. This pattern applies to most adjectives in the indefinite form, as shown below.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine en stor stol a big chair
    Feminine ei stor bok a big book
    Neuter et stort bord a big table
    Plural store hus big houses

    Many adjectives ending in -ig or -sk, like viktig and norsk, do not sound pleasant with a -t ending. This is why we do not add a -t to these specific adjectives in the neuter form.

    Norwegian English
    et viktig brev an important letter
    et norsk hus a Norwegian house

    We do still add the -e ending in the plural form, however!

    Norwegian English
    viktige brev important letters
    norske hus Norwegian houses

    Adjectives in the Definite Form

    The simple thing about adjectives in the definite form is that the endings are almost all the same.

    Most adjectives in the definite form end in -e.

    In addition to the noun transitioning into the definite form, we place an additional word before the adjective in the definite form. This word changes depending on gender and number, as you see below.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den store stolen the big chair
    Feminine den store boka the big book
    Neuter det store bordet the big table
    Plural de store husene the big houses

    Combining Possessive Pronouns with Adjectives

    There are two ways to combine possessive pronouns with adjectives. The possessive pronoun can either follow the noun in the definite form or precede the adjective. Let's take a look at how this works.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den store stolen min my big chair
    Feminine den store boka mi my big book
    Neuter det store bordet mitt my big table
    Plural de store husene mine my big houses
    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine min store stol my big chair
    Feminine mi store bok my big book
    Neuter mitt store bord my big table
    Plural mine store hus my big houses

    In the second set of examples, notice how the adjective endings are all -e, just like in the definite form, but the nouns have no endings, just like in the indefinite form. In a sense, this second method of combining possessive pronouns and adjectives is a blending of grammar rules.

    Pay special attention to context, and in time, these adjective endings become second nature.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    hvor how (degree)
    god good, nice
    ny new
    stor big
    kort short
    varm warm, hot
    åpen open
    vanskelig difficult
    veldig very
    fin nice
    kald cold
    lang long
    trygg safe, secure
    dårlig bad, poor
    mye much
    tung heavy
    viktig important
    skitten dirty
    ganske rather, pretty, somewhat
    ren clean
    lett light
    mulig possible
    vanlig common, usual
    forferdelig terrible, awful
    hel whole
    flott great
    hard hard
  • 161260719906.02.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Location 275 @ 25%1810/4
    bakke · bilde · grense · henger · langs · lever · speil · ved siden av · vegg · vei
    10 words

    Bor & Lever

    In Norwegian, there are two verbs that translate to "to live", "å bo" and "å leve". However, they are rarely interchangeable with each other.

    When talking about someone's place of residence, you should use the verb "bor".

    When expressing that someone or something is alive, or describing their way of life, you use "lever".


    Ute & Utenfor

    There are several of these pairs, but the ones we'll concentrate on is "ute" (adverb) and "utenfor" (preposition).

    "Ute" (out; outside; outdoors) is an adverb, and can be used without a point of reference. If you ever want to refer to the great outdoors in Norwegian, you can say "ute".

    Vi liker å være ute i naturen.
    We like being out in nature.

    "Utenfor" is a preposition, which means that it always needs a point of reference. What makes it a little confusing is that the point of reference can be implied; it doesn't have to be explicitly present in the sentence.

    In the sentence below, there's an explicit reference point, "gjerdet".

    De er utenfor gjerdet.
    They are outside (of) the fence.

    In the next sentence, there's no explicit reference point. However, we can imagine that the person uttering the sentence is inside a house, and that the subject of the sentence is sitting outside said house.

    Hun sitter utenfor.
    She is sitting outside.

    In the last example, you could use "ute" as well. Either would be correct.


    Same, Same, but Different

    Some of the prepositions and prepositional phrases you're learning have rather similar meanings, but there are still nuances to them, and you should strive to translate them precisely.

    Norwegian English
    ved by
    ved siden av next to
    nær near, close to
    i nærheten av near, close to

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    lever lives
    henger hangs
    leter looks, searches
    setter sets, puts, places
    det er there is, there are
    nær near, close to
    langs along
    ved siden av next to
    innenfor inside (of)
    bortenfor past, beyond
    herfra from here
    derfra from there
    en vei a road
    en bakke a slope, a hill(side)
    et speil a mirror
    et bilde a picture
    en vegg a wall
    en/ei lampe a lamp
    en/ei innside an inside
    en/ei grense a border, a limit, a boundary
    en utgang an exit
    en inngang an entrance
    et kjøleskap a refrigerator
  • 161286644909.02.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Qualities75 @ 25%1910/3
    alvorlige · berømt · berømte · egenskaper · farlig · fattig · fattige · felles · gammel · glad · glade · kjekk · kjekke · liten · nordmenn · pen · perfekt · perfekte · rar · rart · rik · rike · slem · slemme · snill · snille · spesiell · spesielt · stolt · stolte · streng · u · ung · unge · ungt · uvanlig · uvanlige · vennlig
    38 words

    Adjectives in the Definite Form

    The simple thing about adjectives in the definite form is that the endings are almost all the same.

    Most adjectives in the definite form end in -e.

    In addition to the noun transitioning into the definite form, we place an additional word before the adjective in the definite form. This word changes depending on gender and number, as you see below.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den store stolen the big chair
    Feminine den store boka the big book
    Neuter det store bordet the big table
    Plural de store husene the big houses

    Combining Possessive Pronouns with Adjectives

    There are two ways to combine possessive pronouns with adjectives. The possessive pronoun can either follow the noun in the definite form or precede the adjective. Let's take a look at how this works.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den store stolen min my big chair
    Feminine den store boka mi my big book
    Neuter det store bordet mitt my big table
    Plural de store husene mine my big houses
    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine min store stol my big chair
    Feminine mi store bok my big book
    Neuter mitt store bord my big table
    Plural mine store hus my big houses

    In the second set of examples, notice how the adjective endings are all -e, just like in the definite form, but the nouns have no endings, just like in the indefinite form. In a sense, this second method of combining possessive pronouns and adjectives is a blending of grammar rules.

    Pay special attention to context, and in time, these adjective endings become second nature.


    Liten

    The adjective liten, meaning little or small, is the most highly irregular adjective in the Norwegian language. Take a look at how it declines. Commit this table to memory, because as in English, the word small is used a lot.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine en liten stol a small chair
    den lille stolen the small chair
    Feminine ei lita bok a small book
    den lille boka the small book
    Neuter et lite bord a small table
    det lille bordet the small table
    Plural små hus small houses
    de små husene the small houses

    Missing Endings in Old and Famous Names

    As students of Danish may be aware, the postfixes after the nouns above are absent in Danish, and as a legacy of Danish colonialism, some Norwegian phrases lack the noun endings shown in the table above. These words are generally famous titles or institutions, such as The White House or The French Academy. See how they operate below.

    Norwegian English
    Det franske akademi The French Academy
    Det hvite hus The White House

    Note that det hvite huset can also mean the white house, just not the one the US President lives inside.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    det (n.) the
    den (m./f.) the
    de (pl.) the
    so, that
    kjempe- very (prefix)
    rar strange
    ung young
    pen pretty
    snill kind, nice
    liten little, small
    fattig poor
    berømt famous
    rik rich
    slem mean, unkind
    kjekk handsome
    farlig dangerous
    perfekt perfect
    spesiell special
    gammel old
  • 161311478312.02.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Ownership50 @ 50%1920/3
    barn · gutt · hund · jente · katt · s · si · sin · sitt · til
    10 words

    Ownership

    Possessive pronouns change depending on the gender and number of the possessor and the possessed. Be sure to pay special attention to "sin, si, sitt, & sine," which do not have equivalents in English.


    Sin, Si, Sitt, & Sine

    The above are an interesting set of possessive pronouns in Norwegian. They all translate to his, her, its, or their and can only be attached to objects in a sentence. Sin, si, sitt, & sine describe something that the subject has or owns, not somebody else. This distinction does not exist in English, so it may take some getting used to, but it's actually a useful distinction to be able to make; many sentences that would be ambiguous in English are perfectly clear in Norwegian.

    Norwegian English
    Hun elsker faren sin. She loves her (own) father.
    Hun elsker faren hennes. She loves her (another woman's) father.
    Faren hennes elsker henne. Her father loves her.

    In the last sentence, we use faren hennes instead of faren sin because her father is the subject, not the object, of the sentence.


    His, Her, or Their (Own)

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    faren sin mora si barnet sitt foreldrene sine
    sin far si mor sitt barn sine foreldre
    his/her/their (own) father his/her/their (own) mother his/her/their (own) child his/her/their (own) parents

    Please note that you should not add "own" to your translations of si/sin/sitt/sine, it's just used here to explain the concept as clearly as possible.


    Expressing Possession with a Genitive "-s"

    Sometimes you don't have a possessive pronoun to express the ownership with, as you may be talking about "the woman's car" rather than "her car". Just like in English, you can do this by adding a genitive -s at the end of the possessing noun.

    • Kvinnens bil er rød.
    • The woman's car is red.*

    As you can see, you don't need to add an apostrophe in Norwegian. The only exception is when the noun itself ends in an -s, -x or -z already, in which case we add an apostrophe and forego the extra -s.


    Expressing Possession with "Til"

    Another way of achieving the same thing, is using the preposition "til". It's the equivalent of expressing ownership with the preposition "of" in English. While this can sound stilted in English, it's perfectly natural in Norwegian.

    • Bilen til kvinnen er rød.
    • The car of the woman is red.
    • The woman's car is red.

    Garpegenitiv

    A final way to express possession is the so-called garpegenitiv. It's a format that saw some use in English in the 1600s, often referred to as his-genitive. What it does is link the possessing noun to the possessed noun with a possessive pronoun.

    • Kvinnen sin bil er rød.
    • The woman's car is red.

    Literally, "The woman her car is red".

    While this format is common in many dialects and recognized by Språkrådet as acceptable in Bokmål, it is considered informal and should not be what you turn to in formal writing.


    Combining Possessive Pronouns with Adjectives

    There are two ways to combine possessive pronouns with adjectives. The possessive pronoun can either follow the noun in the definite form or precede the adjective. Let's take a look at how this works.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den store stolen min my big chair
    Feminine den store boka mi my big book
    Neuter det store bordet mitt my big table
    Plural de store husene mine my big houses
    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine min store stol my big chair
    Feminine mi store bok my big book
    Neuter mitt store bord my big table
    Plural mine store hus my big houses

    In the second set of examples, notice how the adjective endings are all -e, just like in the definite form, but the nouns have no endings, just like in the indefinite form. In a sense, this second method of combining possessive pronouns and adjectives is a blending of grammar rules.


    Vocabulary
    si/sin/sitt/sine his, her, its, their
    til of
    -s possessive s (suffix)
    guttens the boy's
    jentas the girl's
    barnets the child's
    kattens the cat's
    hundens the dog's
    mannens the man's
    kvinnens the woman's
  • 161345429716.02.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Colors75 @ 25%2020/3
    brun · farge · gul · hvit · hvitt · lys · mørk · rød · svart · svarte
    10 words

    Colors as adjectives

    Below is a reference chart for all of the most basic Norwegian colors.

    Norwegian English
    hvit white
    grå gray
    svart black
    brun brown
    rød red
    rosa pink
    oransje orange
    gul yellow
    grønn green
    blå blue
    lilla purple

    Most colors change their endings for gender and number, like most other adjectives in Norwegian.

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    en brun stol ei brun bok et brunt bord brune hus
    en gul stol ei gul bok et gult bord gule hus
    en grønn stol ei grønn bok et grønt bord grønne hus

    Certain colors are irregular, however, in certain situations.

    The words hvit, grå and blå have an extra -t in their neuter forms, and grå and blå also have the option of omitting the plural ending.

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    en hvit stol ei hvit bok et hvitt bord hvite hus
    en grå stol ei grå bok et grått bord grå(e) hus
    en blå stol ei blå bok et blått bord blå(e) hus

    Unlike most adjectives, the words rosa, oransje, and lilla never change for gender or number. They always remain the same.

    Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
    en rosa stol ei rosa bok et rosa bord rosa hus
    en oransje stol ei oransje bok et oransje bord oransje hus
    en lilla stol ei lilla bok et lilla bord lilla hus

    Colors as nouns

    Colors can also be nouns. In that case they look a lot like the neuter form of the adjective:

    Norwegian English
    hvitt white
    grått gray
    svart black
    brunt brown
    rødt red
    rosa pink
    oransje orange
    gult yellow
    grønt green
    blått blue
    lilla purple

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    hvit white
    rosa pink
    svart black
    blå blue
    rød red
    lys light
    gul yellow
    grønn green
    fargerik colorful
    lilla purple
    oransje orange
    brun brown
    mørk dark
    en farge a color
    en blomst a flower
  • 161381065420.02.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The Store75 @ 25%2110/3
    banan · dyr · gratis · koste · krone · kurv · kvittering · penger · pose · pære
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    koster costs
    ser ut looks
    dyr expensive
    hundre (a) hundred
    en pose a bag (plastic/paper)
    en kunde a customer
    en/ei krone a krone, a crown
    penger (m) money
    en/ei kvittering a receipt
    en matbutikk a grocery store
    en kurv a basket
    en banan a banana
    en/ei pære a pear
    en appelsin an orange
    et skjørt a skirt
    en dress a suit
    en klesbutikk a clothing store
    en sjokolade a chocolate
  • 161423159325.02.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Leisure75 @ 25%2120/4
    ball · gitar · hage · park · spill · spiller · sport · synger · taper · vinner
    10 words

    Hos

    "Hos" can be a tricky preposition to translate, as it does not have an equivalent in English. However, those of you who are familiar with French can liken it to "chez".

    It's mainly used to express that you're at someone's place; in a person's home, at a company's office, etc.

    De er hos oss.
    They are at our place.


    Vocabulary
    spiller plays
    vinner wins
    taper loses
    tegner draws
    synger sings
    hviler rests
    hos at (X's place)
    fantastisk fantastic
    en hage a garden, a yard
    en gitar a guitar
    et besøk a visit
    en sport a sport
    en ball a ball
    en park a park
    en hobby a hobby
    fotball (m) football, soccer
    et spill a game
    musikk (m) music
    et band a band
    et piano a piano
    en sang a song
    et kor a choir
    en film a movie, a film
    en radio a radio
    en TV a TV
  • 161474830303.03.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Verbs: Present 250 @ 50%2210/4
    alltid · bare · begge · finner · finnes · gir · hjemmefra · klemmer · kysser · langt · leter · lærer · orker · sier · slutter · tar · til · virker
    18 words

    Just One, Please!

    As you may have noticed in previous lessons, we have yet to introduce a solid distinction between indefinite articles such as a or an in English, and the number one. So far, you've been using en (m), ei (f), and et (n) for both functions, and that's also what natives will do when they feel no need to specify.

    In cases where you want to emphasize the number, you can use the following descriptors:

    Masculine Feminine Neuter
    én gutt éi jente ett barn
    one boy one girl one child

    These will always translate to either one or a single (one). Translating them to a or an would be incorrect.

    In speech, you make the distinction by putting stress on the number. The TTS voice used for this course is not great about doing that, so you need to exaggerate it a little more than she does.

    Norwegian English
    Vi har bare én katt. We have only one cat.
    Jeg ser bare éi and. I see only one duck.
    Det er bare ett stykke igjen. There is only one piece left.

    Både & Begge

    There are two words for both in Norwegian, både and begge. Både is a conjunction and is used in constructions such as både ... og, ie. both ... and . In this case it is possible to list more than two elements. Begge is a quantifier and is used instead of alle when there are only two of something. If you need to use the word both on its own, you may use the phrase begge to, which literally means, both two.


    Liten

    The adjective liten, meaning little or small, is the most highly irregular adjective in the Norwegian language. Take a look at how it declines. Commit this table to memory, because as in English, the word small is used a lot.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine en liten stol a small chair
    den lille stolen the small chair
    Feminine ei lita bok a small book
    den lille boka the small book
    Neuter et lite bord a small table
    det lille bordet the small table
    Plural små hus small houses
    de små husene the small houses

    Present

    The present tense is used to describe things that are happening or are true now:

    Jeg leser nå. I am reading now.

    The present tense is also used in general statements that are independent of time:

    Jorda er rund. The earth is round.

    For things that repeat and that are still recurring:

    Jeg sover hver natt. I sleep every night.

    The present tense can be used to talk about the future as well, especially when it is certain:

    Jeg reiser i morgen. I leave tomorrow.

    As a rule of thumb, you can use the present tense where you would use either the present (I leave tomorrow.) or present progressive (I am leaving tomorrow.) tenses in English.

    You do not have to worry about person or number when dealing with verbs in Norwegian, the verb stays the same. This is even simpler than English where you have to remember to add the -s in the third person singular in the present tense.

    Forming the present is extremely easy, just add the suffix -r to the infinitive (the form you'll find in the dictionary).

    The table below shows you how to do it:

    Group Suffix Infinitive Present English Translation
    1 -er å vaske vasker wash(es), am/are/is washing
    2 -er å kjøre kjører drive(s), am/are/is driving
    3 -r å bo bor live(s), am/are/is living (as in making one's home somewhere)

    There are three groups of verbs with different patterns for forming tenses in Norwegian, but in the present case they all behave in the same way as you can see.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    lukter smells
    gir gives
    venter waits, expects
    husker remembers
    tar takes
    finner finds
    åpner opens
    takker thanks
    dør dies
    regner rains
    beklager apologizes
    leier rents, holds hands with
    kysser kisses
    én/éi/ett one (not a/an!)
    begge both
    men but
    også also, too, as well
    til for
    alltid always
    hvordan how
    langt far
    hjemmefra from home
    bare just, only
    for too
    lite little, small
  • 161519022308.03.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Relatives75 @ 25%2310/4
    barnebarn · beste- · lille- · morfar · mormor · onkel · slekt · slektning · svoger · tante
    10 words

    Relatives

    In Norwegian, each grandparent has a unique name that's very intuitive.

    Norwegian English
    mormor mother's mother
    morfar mother's father
    farmor father's mother
    farfar father's father

    Bestemor is the generic term for grandmother.

    Bestefar is in turn the generic term for grandfather.


    Vocabulary
    en onkel an uncle
    en/ei tante an aunt
    beste- grand- (prefix)
    en slektning a relative
    et barnebarn a grandchild
    lille- little, younger, baby (prefix)
    en/ei slekt an extended family
    en svoger a brother-in-law
    en morfar a (maternal) grandfather
    en/ei mormor a (maternal) grandmother
    et søskenbarn a cousin (gender neutral)
    store- big, older (prefix)
    en farfar a (paternal) grandfather
    en/ei farmor a (paternal) grandmother
    en/ei kusine a (female) cousin
    et enebarn an only child
    en/ei svigerinne a sister-in-law
    ste- step- (prefix)
    olde- great-grand- (prefix)
    en nevø a nephew
    en/ei niese a niece
    en fetter a (male) cousin
  • 161544816811.03.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Feelings75 @ 25%2330/3
    følelse · glad · gråter · ler · redd · sint · stakkars · stolt · trist · trøtt
    10 words

    Feelings

    To prepare you for the emotional roller-coaster that is the Norwegian course, this skill will supply you with vocabulary to express your basic feelings.


    Irregular Adjectives

    While most of the words follow patterns you've already learned, there are a couple of irregularities among the adjectives.

    Glad and redd do not take a -t ending in their neuter forms.

    Stakkars stays the same in all forms, no matter the gender or number of the noun it modifies.


    Fixed Expressions - Love Them or Fear Them

    When expressing emotions, you're going to come across a couple of fixed expressions.

    å være glad i
    to be fond of, to love

    å være redd for
    to be afraid of

    Because these are fixed expressions, their adjectives, glad and redd, do not change to the plural form when used with a plural subject.

    Vi er glad i deg.
    We love you.

    Vi er redd for ulver.
    We are afraid of wolves.

    Using the plural adjective is by no means a grave error, and actually quite common among natives, but if you want to impress your Norwegian teacher or ace that exam, you'll stick to the singular.


    Expressing Emotions in the Cold North

    Norwegians tend to be a little reserved, and, as an extension of that, rather economical with their emotions. That doesn't mean that they don't feel as strongly about things, it's just not as readily expressed. Unless we're drunk, of course.


    Vocabulary
    gråter cries
    ler laughs
    smiler smiles
    føler feels
    gjør makes
    hater hates
    sint angry
    glad glad, happy
    stakkars poor
    trøtt sleepy, tired
    redd scared, afraid
    sulten hungry
    trist sad
    stolt proud
    ensom lonely
    en følelse a feeling, an emotion
  • 161587803116.03.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Work75 @ 25%2420/4
    arbeidet · attest · attester · brannmann · brannmannen · brannmenn · bussjåfør · byrået · cv-ene · dagpenger · elektriker · elektrikeren · fleksitid · forfatter · forfatteren · fritid · ingeniør · jobb · konferanse · lege · legene · overtid · referanser · rørleggeren · sekretær · sjef · skuespillerinnen · student · studenter · studerer · søker · søknad · telefonselger · telefonselgere · tid · vikar · vikaren
    37 words

    Work

    Unlike in English, Norwegian usually drops the indefinite article when describing someone's profession.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg er student. I am a student.
    Hun er lege. She is a doctor.
    Han er forfatter. He is a writer.

    Be mindful that constructions such as jeg er en student are also grammatical, but they are far less common.


    Finding Your Voice

    Now that you're becoming familiar with the sound of the Norwegian language, listening exercises are probably starting to become a little easier. However, speaking can still be a hurdle!

    It's perfectly natural to feel shy about speaking a new language, but it's something that becomes more comfortable the more you practice it. The good news is that you don't have to run out and find a native speaker to practice. Saying the Duolingo sentences out loud is a great start, and will get your tongue used to making those unfamiliar twists and turns. And yes, we do mean every sentence - not just the listening exercises!


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    studerer study
    tid (m/f) time
    overtid (m/f) overtime
    en lege a doctor, a physician
    en jobb a job
    et kontor an office
    en student a student (uni level)
    en forfatter an author
    et møte a meeting
    en konferanse a conference
    en sjef a boss
    fritid (m/f) free time, leisure
    et arbeid a work, a job
    en elektriker an electrician
    en rørlegger a plumber
    en brannmann a fireman, a firefighter
    en prest a priest
    en ingeniør an engineer
    en bussjåfør a bus driver
    en telefonselger a telemarketer, a telephone salesman
  • 161623248720.03.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Verbs: Infinitive50 @ 50%2510/4
    betale · bli · gi · kan · lage · må · sove · spise · være · å
    10 words

    Infinitives

    To infinitives, and beyond!

    Most infinitive verbs in Norwegian end in the stem -e. There are many, many exceptions, however. A few modal constructions exist that link to infinitive verbs directly, such as kan and vil.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg kan spise. I can eat.
    Hun vil finne katten. She wants to find the cat.

    Many infinitives link with other parts of the sentence with the word å, which translates to to, as in, å se or to see. This applies to all situations where an infinitive is present without a modal verb.

    Norwegian English
    Det er viktig å lese. It is important to read.
    Han liker å lage mat. He likes to cook.

    You may have noticed that in the final sentence above, the verb å lage mat could have easily translated to cooking, and you would be correct. Sometimes an infinitive beginning with an å can act like a gerund, which is nerd for a noun ending in -ing.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å to
    kan can, am able to
    must
    å bli to become, to get, to be
    å lage to make
    å spise to eat
    å betale to pay
    å gi to give
    å sove to sleep
    å være to be
    å gjøre to do, to make
    å danse to dance
    å kjøpe to buy
    å se to see
    å ta to take
    å få to get, to receive
    å lese to read
    å vise to show
    å synge to sing
    å si to say
    å leie to rent, to hold hands
    å høre to hear
    å velge to choose
    å tenke to think
    å prøve to try, to test, to attempt
    å fortsette to continue
  • 161648514523.03.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Vacation75 @ 25%2520/3
    bagasje · billett · ferie · fly · flyplass · land · lande · pass · reiser · turist
    10 words
  • 161716555131.03.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Schedule50 @ 50%2610/4
    dag · gang · hver · i dag · i kveld · kveld · morgen · om · plan · time
    10 words

    Times of Day

    Norwegian English
    morgen morning
    formiddag late morning (9-12 am)
    ettermiddag afternoon
    kveld evening; night (before bed)
    natt night

    Familiar Prepositions, New Contexts

    You're already familiar with the prepositions i, om and from previous skills. Here, you'll meet them again, but in new contexts and with different translations.


    Norwegian English
    i dag today
    i natt tonight
    i morgen tomorrow
    om dagen at day; during the day
    om morgenen in the morning; during the morning
    om en time in an hour (from now)
    på dagen at day
    på morgenen in the morning

    As you can see, both and om can be used to express that something happens at day or in the morning.

    If you're referring to a specific point in time, like five in the morning, you would use fem på morgenen. If you're just referring to the morning in general, you may use either or om. Some dialects have a preference for one over the other, but that's nothing you need to worry about here.


    Two Verbs - One Job

    In Norwegian, there are two very common verbs for to work, å arbeide and å jobbe.

    While these are largely interchangeable, there are cases where one will be preferred to the other.

    Å arbeide is the old workhorse, of Old Norse origin, and thus features in more compounds and fixed expressions.

    Å jobbe is the young English apprentice, which has been adopted by the younger generations.

    Both verbs are used extensively, and Norwegians will happily switch between the two within the same text or conversation.


    Vocabulary
    å møte to meet, to encounter
    å jobbe to work
    å komme to come
    om in, at
    hver every, each
    sjelden seldom, rarely
    før before, prior to
    i dag today
    i kveld this evening, tonight
    i morgen tomorrow
    senere later
    daglig daily
    ferdig done, finished, complete
    en gang once, one time, a time
    en morgen a morning
    en ettermiddag an afternoon
    en kveld an evening, a night
    en plan a plan
    et skift a shift
    fleksitid (m/f) flexible hours, flextime
  • 161742627503.04.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Traits75 @ 25%2630/3
    alvorlig · enkel · fri · helt · lille · små · streng · umulig · vakker · vennlig
    10 words

    Liten

    The adjective liten, meaning little or small, is the most highly irregular adjective in the Norwegian language. Take a look at how it declines. Commit this table to memory, because as in English, the word small is used a lot.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine en liten stol a small chair
    den lille stolen the small chair
    Feminine ei lita bok a small book
    den lille boka the small book
    Neuter et lite bord a small table
    det lille bordet the small table
    Plural små hus small houses
    de små husene the small houses

    Pay special attention to context, and in time, these adjective endings become second nature.


    Negative Prefixes

    Just as in English, there are a few different negative prefixes that can be used to negate an adjective. In this skill you'll learn to use u-, but there are a few others as well such as a-, in-, dis-, and mis-, so we'll give examples for all of them while we're at it.

    Norwegian English
    atypisk atypical
    uvanlig unusual
    umulig impossible
    utrolig incredible
    intolerant intolerant
    inkompatibel incompatible
    disharmoni disharmony
    misfornøyd dissatisfied; unhappy

    As you can see, there are plenty of cognates going around, but sometimes the choice of prefix does change from language to language, as is the case for "utrolig", which turns into "incredible".


    Altfor

    You've already learned the intensifying adverb "for", which translates to "too". However, in cases where you feel like that isn't quite strong enough, you can intensify the meaning further by adding the prefix alt-.

    "Altfor" translates to "all too", "far too", "way too", or "much too". Note that it cannot be translated to just "too".

    "Denne kjolen er altfor dyr!"
    "This dress is far too expensive!"


    Declining Adjectives

    Need a refresher on how to decline adjectives? Have a look at the Tips & Notes for the Adjectives skill.


    Vocabulary
    virker seems
    altfor all too, far too
    helt wholly, completely, totally
    den lille the little, the small
    enkel simple
    streng strict
    vakker beautiful
    umulig impossible
    u- un-, im-, a- (negative prefix)
    små small, little
    lik like, alike
    alvorlig serious
    kjedelig boring, dull
    interessant interesting
    fri free
    søt sweet, cute
    vennlig friendly
    forskjellig different
  • 161777153307.04.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Community50 @ 50%2710/4
    alene · kjæreste · klemmer · liv · noen · redder · sammen · spille · tenker · venn
    10 words

    Community

    Since you're here learning a language, you probably already know the importance of community and connecting with other people. Now, you'll learn the vocabulary for it as well!


    Boyfriend/Girlfriend - It's All the Same to Us

    The Norwegian word for boyfriend or girlfriend is kjæreste, which literally means dearest. This is gender neutral in the sense that it does not say anything about the gender of one's partner.

    So, if you're queer and in the closet, you can still talk about your significant other in public.


    There Are People, and Then There Are People

    As in German, Norwegian has a few words that translate to the English word people. Below is a brief overview.

    Norwegian English
    mennesker most generic term
    personer emphasizes the individual
    folk emphasizes the collective

    Making Friends in Norway

    While Norwegians are notorious for avoiding conversation on the bus and in the elevator, you'll find them more receptive in other contexts.

    If you don't have the luxury of already knowing someone who can introduce you to new people, or the option of mingling at the workplace, your best bet is to find a shared activity to bond over. This could be a hobby or interest, or just taking a walk in the woods. Norwegians actually greet strangers in the woods, true story.

    Why this need for a shared activity? Well, it bypasses the need for small talk, as you'll already have something to talk about that interests both parties. You can liken it to dating: On a coffee date, you may have to work to keep the conversation going, but take your date to do some sort of activity that you both enjoy, and the hours will fly by.

    So, sign up for some classes! Learn new things, enjoy nature's offerings, have fun and connect. Build your own little community. :)


    Vocabulary
    klemmer hugs
    å være enig to agree
    støtter supports
    å snakke to speak, to talk
    redder saves, rescues
    kjenner knows, is familiar with
    tenker thinks
    deler shares
    å hjelpe to help
    noen someone, anyone
    sammen together
    alene alone
    hjelpsom helpful
    en kjæreste a girlfriend, a boyfriend, a significant other
    et liv a life
    en venn a friend
    et ansvar a responsibility
    et menneske a human
    en/ei gruppe a group
    et medlem a member
    folk (n) people
    et språk a language
    internet (n) internet
    et kallenavn a nickname
    en nordmann a Norwegian (person)
  • 161794987109.04.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Determiners25 @ 75%2810/2
    alt · andre · anna · annen · annet · både · denne · dens · dets · dette · disse · egen · eget · egne · eneste · hverandre · hverandres · ingen · ingenting · noen ting · ord · samme · selv · slik · slike · sånne · sånt · verken · viss · visst
    30 words

    This and These

    We learned early on how to describe definite nouns with the appropriate gender- and number-specific suffixes.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine stolen the chair
    Feminine boka the book
    Neuter bordet the table
    Plural husene the houses

    And how to specify further with the word that or those.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den stolen that chair
    Feminine den boka that book
    Neuter det bordet that table
    Plural de husene those houses

    Now, we're introducing how to say this and these in Norwegian.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine denne stolen this chair
    Feminine denne boka this book
    Neuter dette bordet this table
    Plural disse husene these houses

    Other & Second

    There is only one word for other and second in Norwegian, annen. It declines irregularly, so watch out.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine en annen stol another chair
    den andre stolen the other chair
    Feminine ei anna bok another book
    den andre boka the other book
    Neuter et annet bord another table
    det andre bordet the other table
    Plural andre hus other houses
    de andre husene the other houses

    Både & Begge

    There are two words for both in Norwegian, både and begge. Både is a conjunction and is used in constructions such as både ... og, ie. both ... and . In this case it is possible to list more than two elements. Begge is a quantifier and is used instead of alle when there are only two of something. If you need to use the word both on its own, you may use the phrase begge to, which literally means, both two.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    alt all, everything
    andre other, others, second
    ingenting nothing
    selv myself, yourself, herself...
    egen own
    ingen no, nobody, no-one
    både both (X and X)
    annet other, second
    hverandre each other, one another
    annen other, second
    annenhver every other, every second
    et ord a word
  • 161812168511.04.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Days75 @ 25%2820/2
    fredag · helg · hverdag · lørdag · mandag · onsdag · søndag · tirsdag · torsdag · uke
    10 words

    Weekdays

    Below are the days of the week. The reason they're so similar to English is because English gets most of the words for the days of the week from the names of Norse gods. "Thursday" is Thor's day, and so on.

    Keep in mind that the days of the week, unlike in English, are only capitalized at the beginning of the sentence. The g at the end of these words may or may not be pronounced, depending on dialect, register, and stress. Even when pronounced, it should be quite soft.

    Norwegian English
    mandag Monday
    tirsdag Tuesday
    onsdag Wednesday
    torsdag Thursday
    fredag Friday
    lørdag Saturday
    søndag Sunday

    Monday through Friday are referred to as hverdager, while Saturday and Sunday are helgedager.

    Since all of the days are compound nouns ending in the masculine noun en dag, they too are treated as masculine nouns.


    Preposition Use

    When you want to express that something's happening on a specific day, you say på mandag, on Monday.

    However, if you want to say that something's happening on the weekend, it's i helgen.


    Present Tense, Future Meaning

    As you already know, you can make some statements about the future using the present tense in English. An example would be "We are going to Norway next month." We still understand that the sentence must be about the future, as a future point in time has been specified.

    In Norwegian, you can do exactly the same. In fact, it's even more common to do so.

    Vi drar på onsdag.
    We are leaving on Wednesday.

    Prøven er fredag.
    The test is on Friday.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    mandag Monday
    tirsdag Tuesday
    onsdag Wednesday
    torsdag Thursday
    fredag Friday
    lørdag Saturday
    søndag Sunday
    en hverdag a weekday
    en/ei uke a week
    en/ei helg a weekend
  • 161846238015.04.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Questions75 @ 25%2900/4
    feil · forstår · hva slags · hvem sine · hvem sitt · hvilke · hvilken · hvilket · hvor mange · hvor mye · hvordan · hvorfor · jo · når · riktig · spørre · spørsmål · spørsmålet · svar · svare · vet · vite · være så snill å
    23 words
  • 161880977119.04.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Verbs: Present 375 @ 25%3010/4
    antar · bestilte · blander · bygger · deler · finnes · forlater · forsøker · forteller · fremfor · får · følger · gjelder · glemmer · godt · handler · husker · håper · lover · lærer · mener · overrasker · sender · skjer · skjønner · slipper · stenger · stoler · tilbringer · tyv · underviser · ønsker
    32 words

    Indefinite Pronouns

    When we're not referring to a specific person, but are making a general statement, we often use an indefinite or impersonal pronoun.

    English has two such pronouns, the rather formal "one", which one imagines the queen uses a fair bit more than the general population, and the less formal general "you".

    In Norwegian, there are also two of these pronouns, "man" and "en". However, there is no difference in formality; they can be used freely in both the formal and informal register.

    "Man kan aldri være helt sikker."
    "One can never be completely certain."

    Note that "man" can only be used as a subject pronoun, while "en" can be used as both a subject pronoun and an object pronoun. "Ens" is the possessive pronoun, corresponding to "one's" or the general "your".


    Learning and Teaching

    In this skill, you'll learn the verb lærer, which changes meaning depending on whether it has an indirect object or not.

    If it lacks an indirect object, it translates to learn/learns/am learning/are learning/is learning.

    Jeg lærer norsk.
    I am learning Norwegian.

    However, if it has an indirect object, it becomes teach/teaches/am teaching/are teaching/is teaching. You can see how it works in the sentence below, where meg is the indirect object and the person being taught something.

    Hun lærer meg norsk.
    She is teaching me Norwegian.

    What about when you want to say "teach", and you don't have an indirect object? Well, then you can add the adverb "bort" to "lærer", like so:

    De lærer bort norsk.
    They are teaching Norwegian.

    You can also use a whole other verb, which you will learn in a later skill. "Underviser" is used for teaching in a school or university context - classroom teaching.

    Professoren underviser i norsk.
    The professor teaches Norwegian.


    To Exist or Just to Be, That is the Question

    The verb finnes is an interesting one. Not only does it have the passive ending -s, but it's used much more extensively than its English counterpart, exist.

    Finnes is the passive version of finner, find, so anything that finnes is something that is to be found. Depending on what sounds more natural, you should translate it to either is/are or exist(s) in English.


    Present

    The present tense is used to describe things that are happening or are true now:

    Jeg leser nå. I am reading now.

    The present tense is also used in general statements that are independent of time:

    Jorda er rund. The earth is round.

    For things that repeat and that are still recurring:

    Jeg sover hver natt. I sleep every night.

    The present tense can be used to talk about the future as well, especially when it is certain:

    Jeg reiser i morgen. I leave tomorrow.

    As a rule of thumb, you can use the present tense where you would use either the present (I leave tomorrow.) or present progressive (I am leaving tomorrow.) tenses in English.

    You do not have to worry about person or number when dealing with verbs in Norwegian, the verb stays the same. This is even simpler than English where you have to remember to add the -s in the third person singular in the present tense.

    Forming the present is extremely easy, just add the suffix -r to the infinitive (the form you'll find in the dictionary).

    The table below shows you how to do it:

    Group Suffix Infinitive Present English Translation
    1 -er å vaske vasker wash(es), am/are/is washing
    2 -er å kjøre kjører drive(s), am/are/is driving
    3 -r å bo bor live(s), am/are/is living (as in making one's home somewhere)

    There are three groups of verbs with different patterns for forming tenses in Norwegian, but in the present case they all behave in the same way as you can see.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    lærer learns, teaches
    får gets, receives
    skjer happens, occurs, takes place
    holder holds, is enough
    foretrekker prefers
    stoler trusts
    følger follows
    ønsker wishes
    forsøker tries, attempts
    slutter stops, quits
    å fryse to freeze, to be cold
    begynner begins, starts
    finnes exists, is
    bærer carries
    stemmer is right
    kler på seg gets dressed, puts on
    man one, you (impersonal)
    godt well
    igjen again
    en tyv a thief, a burglar
    en vane a habit
  • 161898332221.04.2021 ••• Test out   2.002The Clock75 @ 25%3020/2
    ... over · allerede · fort · halv · klokke · kvart over · kvart på · minutt · sen · tidlig
    10 words

    Telling Time

    In order to ask what time it is, you may ask,

    Hva er klokka?

    or literally, What is the clock?

    The response will be something like,

    Klokka er to.

    which means the clock is two, or in other words,

    It's two o'clock.


    AM, PM & Military Time

    Norwegians are used to seamlessly jumping between using 12-hour and 24-hour time, depending on what the situation requires.

    When the intended point of time should be obvious from the context, they'll use 12-hour time without specifying AM or PM.

    When there is room for confusion, they will either use 12-hour time in conjunction with a time of day to specify, or they'll switch to 24-hour time, also known as military time.

    12 hour 12 hour + specification 24 hour military
    to to på/om dagen fjorten 14:00
    ni ni på/om kvelden tjueen 21:00

    The Confusing Half Hours

    When someone says halv to in Norwegian, it actually means half past one. The half hour relates to the next whole hour, rather than the previous one, which may take a little getting used to.

    Norwegian English
    halv fire half past three
    halv åtte half past seven
    halv elleve half past ten

    Vocabulary
    allerede already
    halv half
    kvart på a quarter to
    kvart over a quarter past
    X på X to
    X over X past
    sen late
    tidlig early
    fort fast, quickly
    en/ei klokke a clock, a watch, (a time)
    et minutt a minute
    et sekund a second
  • 161915676223.04.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Jobs75 @ 25%3110/2
    advokat · arbeide · arkitekt · fisker · fotograf · karriere · pilot · selge · utdanning · yrke
    10 words

    Jobs

    Unlike in English, Norwegian usually drops the indefinite article when describing someone's profession.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg er student. I am a student.
    Hun er lege. She is a doctor.
    Han er forfatter. He is a writer.

    Be mindful that constructions such as jeg er en student are also grammatical, but they are far less common.


    Two Verbs - One Job

    In Norwegian, there are two very common verbs for to work, å arbeide and å jobbe.

    While these are largely interchangeable, there are cases where one will be preferred to the other.

    Å arbeide is the old workhorse, of Old Norse origin, and thus features in more compounds and fixed expressions.

    Å jobbe is the young English apprentice, which has been adopted by the younger generations.

    Both verbs are used extensively, and Norwegians will happily switch between the two within the same text or conversation.


    Spelling Words of Greek Origin

    Like English, Norwegian borrows heavily from Greek and Latin, especially for more technical terms. In this skill, you'll come across the noun fotograf, photographer, which stems from the words φῶς (phos), meaning light, and γραφή (graphê), meaning drawing or writing. That's what photographers do, right? They draw with light.

    Whenever you come across a word of Greek origin that is spelled with a "ph" combination in English, it will be spelled with an "f" in Norwegian. Another example of this is elefant, which of course is elephant in English.

    The same pattern holds true in Greek words with a "th" combination in English; the "h" disappears in Norwegian, leaving only the "t". An example from this skill is therapist, which becomes terapeut.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å arbeide to work
    å selge to sell
    profesjonell professional
    et yrke a profession
    en pilot a pilot
    en arkitekt an architect
    en fotograf a photographer
    en/ei utdanning an education
    en fisker a fisherman, a fisher
    en advokat a lawyer
    en terapeut a therapist
    en politibetjent a police officer, a policeman, a policewoman
  • 161941922226.04.2021 ••• Test out   2.002Conjunctions50 @ 50%3130/2
    at · eller · for · fordi · hvis · inntil · men · mens · når · om · selv om · som · så · uten at
    14 words

    Conjunctions

    Below is a short list of some of the most common conjunctions in the Norwegian language. Four of them, og, men, fordi, and eller, you're already familiar with.

    Norwegian English
    og and
    men but
    eller or
    fordi because
    at that
    om whether, if (binary plausibility)
    hvis if (cause and effect)

    Norwegian conjunctions act very similarly to English ones, with a couple of special rules.


    Ikke

    Keep in mind that in dependent clauses, the negation ikke gets pulled to a position in-between the subject and the main verb. This occurs with several other constructions as well. This is one weird quirk with Norwegian grammar, but it will sound natural after a while.

    Norwegian English
    Hun er ikke her. She is not here.
    Jeg vet at hun ikke er her. I know that she is not here.

    Isn't that interesting?


    V-2 Word Order

    The V-2 Rule is a linguistic law that applies to all Germanic languages... except English. You can see a rare instance of it in English in the expression here comes the bus. This rule states that all sentences that are statements, in other words not questions, must have a verb in the second position. This allows for some flexibility in the word order for emphasis. What it essentially means is that Norwegian verbs refuse to move from the second position in statements.

    The V-2 Rule applies to dependent clauses that begin sentences. In this specific situation, the whole dependent clause is treated as being in the first position, so the verb in the independent clause comes immediately after it, in the second position, followed by the subject in the independent clause.

    Norwegian English
    Du (1) må (2) støtte meg. You must support me.
    Hvis du vil hjelpe meg (1) , (2) du støtte meg. If you want to help me, you must support me.

    This may sound jarring, but this rule of inversion becomes easy enough after some exposure.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg (1) snakker (2) ikke norsk. I do not speak Norwegian.
    Selv om jeg er nordmann (1) , snakker (2) jeg ikke norsk. Even though I am Norwegian, I do not speak Norwegian.

    If you think this word order is weird, try German.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    om if, whether
    at that
    so
    når when
    mens while
    for for, because
    hvis if
    som like, which
    selv om even if, even though, despite
  • 161967113229.04.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Adverbs75 @ 25%3210/3
    borte · dessverre · egentlig · ennå · heller · kun · litt · nesten · vanligvis · åpenbart
    10 words

    Adverbs

    In Norwegian, adverbs usually follow the verb.

    Norwegian English
    Du snakker godt norsk! You speak Norwegian well!

    One exception is that adverbs of time often appear at the end of the sentence or clause.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg har tid . I have time now.

    Another exception is related to the V-2 Rule in Germanic linguistics, which applies to all Germanic languages... besides English. You can see a rare instance of it in English in the expression here comes the bus. This rule states that all sentences that are statements, in other words not questions, must have a verb in the second position. This allows for some flexibility in the word order for emphasis, but don't get crazy.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg har tid . I have time now.
    Jeg har tid. I now have time.
    har jeg tid. Now I have time.

    The final example is a demonstration of the V-2 Rule. When the adverb moved to the front of the statement, the subject moved to the other side of the verb har. This is because Norwegian verbs refuse to move from the second position in statements.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    litt a little
    godt well
    igjen again
    ennå still
    borte gone, away, missing
    dessverre unfortunately, regrettably, sadly
    til og med even, up to and including
    enn than
    heller rather
    nesten nearly, almost
    egentlig actually, in fact
    vanligvis usually
    kun only, exclusively
    svært very
    gjerne gladly, happily, (not translated, adds politeness/willingness)
    i stedet instead
    akkurat right, just, exactly, precisely
    åpenbart obviously
  • 162010364004.05.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Imperative75 @ 25%3310/4
    avbryt · bekymre · betal · bruk · forlat · fortsett · følg · gi · gjør · · hjelp · hold · kjøp · kom · kyss · la · legg · lek · les · lukk · lytt · løp · møt · pass · ring · se · selg · si · skriv · slapp av · slutt · spis · spør · svar · syng · ta · tenk · tro · vask · vennligst · vent · vær · vær så snill og · åpne
    44 words

    The Imperative

    Forming the imperative in Norwegian is quite simple. Take the base form of the verb, such as spise and drop the -e to form the word spis. Congratulations! You have successfully created the imperative in Norwegian!

    English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
    eat spise spis
    read lese les
    be være vær

    You may be wondering about how we handle verbs that do not end in -e in their base form, such as tro and ta, which mean believe and take. The answer is, we don't change the verb at all in the imperative.

    English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
    believe tro tro
    take ta ta
    have ha ha

    Some verbs that do end in -e end in a string of consonants that may sound strange without the -e. This is why you are given the option to keep the -e ending in the imperative if you so desire, but only in these specific verbs.

    English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
    open åpne åpne or åpn
    trade handle handle or handl

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    si say
    les read
    løp run
    spis eat
    ring call, ring, phone
    tenk think
    ta take
    tro believe
    lytt listen
    gjør do
    kyss kiss
    bruk use
    syng sing
    la let, allow, permit
    gi give
    vær be
    husk remember
    betal pay
    fortsett continue
    se see, look
    lek play
    pass (på) watch out, look out, make sure
    skriv write
    tegn draw
    bekymre worry
  • 162062087910.05.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Places75 @ 25%3330/5
    adresse · adressen · alléene · avdeling · bank · bankene · baren · barer · borte · by · bygningen · fabrikker · flyplassen · forsiden · gården · innsjøen · kirke · nærhet · nærheten · omkring · området · overalt · overfor · palass · park · parken · regionen · sentrum · skogkatt · slott · slottet · sonen · sted · stuer · tidssone · tårn · tårnene · vei · venstre
    39 words

    Oh the Places You'll Go...

    Norway is a country of fjords and valleys, of babbling brooks and scenic waterfalls, and it's all topped off with a coastline longer than the polar night. If you ever get a chance to visit, you're in for a treat!


    Rural Communities

    When describing rural communities in Norway, you can use either en/ei bygd or et tettsted.

    Ei bygd is a small town or hamlet. It can have a defined center, but often it's more like a handful of farms strewn about the countryside, with a local store and not much more. Some even have to drive to another bygd to do their grocery shopping.

    Et tettsted is a very vague term, as it can refer to any congregation of houses with a number of inhabitants of 200 and upward. So, it could be a tiny village, or one of Norway's largest cities.

    When talking about villages outside of Norway, or in a historic context, we use the noun en landsby instead. There's a quaintness to it.

    Larger towns and cities are referred to as en by.


    Gate & Vei

    We observe the same distinction as in English, where en gate, a street, is bordered by houses, while en vei, a road, just has to take you from A to B.

    You can use vei when referring to a street as well, but it doesn't work the other way around; gate would never be used for a country road or a highway.


    Left & Right

    When something is to the left of you, you can say that it's either på venstre side, på venstre hånd, or til venstre.

    It works the same way for høyre, right. Take care not to get the noun for the direction, høyre, mixed up with the noun for straight or correct, rett.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    omkring around
    overfor opposite, across from, facing
    venstre left
    høyre right
    borte ved over by
    der borte over there
    en by a town, a city
    et sted a place
    et tårn a tower
    et slott a castle
    en/ei kirke a church
    jorden (m/f) the earth
    en/ei bygd a village, a small town, a hamlet
    en/ei adresse an address
    et område an area
    en/ei bygning a building
    en eiendom a property
    en/ei gate a street
    en/ei sone a zone
    en innsjø a lake, a pond
    en/ei forside a front
    en/ei side a side
    en bank a bank
    en plass a place
    nærhet (m/f) proximity, vicinity
    en hovedstad a capital city
    en planet a planet
    en måne a moon
    en/ei stjerne a star
  • 162096798314.05.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Verbs: Infinitive 275 @ 25%3410/4
    begynne · endre · for å · forsøke · holde · le · miste · pleier · tro · åpne
    10 words

    Infinitives

    To infinitives, and beyond!

    Most infinitive verbs in Norwegian end in the stem -e. There are many, many exceptions, however. A few modal constructions exist that link to infinitive verbs directly, such as kan and vil.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg kan spise. I can eat.
    Hun vil finne katten. She wants to find the cat.

    Many infinitives link with other parts of the sentence with the word å, which translates to to, as in, å se or to see. This applies to all situations where an infinitive is present without a modal verb.

    Norwegian English
    Det er viktig å lese. It is important to read.
    Han liker å lage mat. He likes to cook.

    You may have noticed that in the final sentence above, the verb å lage mat could have easily translated to cooking, and you would be correct. Sometimes an infinitive beginning with an å can act like a gerund, which is nerd for a noun ending in -ing.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    for å (in order) to
    å le to laugh
    å finne to find
    pleier tend to, usually do
    å holde to hold
    å forsøke to try, to attempt
    å begynne to begin, to start
    å tro to believe
    å åpne to open
    å endre to alter, to change, to edit
    å bruke to use
    å bestemme to decide
    å gå to walk, to go
    å dø to die
    å sitte to sit
    å leke to play
    å miste to lose, to drop
    å huske to remember
    å stenge to close, to shut
    å drikke to drink
    å bo to live, to reside
    å stå to stand, to be
    å vinne to win
    å regne to rain, to calculate, to count (on)
    å få X til å to make X, to get X to
  • 162123019017.05.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Animals 275 @ 25%3420/3
    ape · apen · arten · artene · artenes · arter · bite · bjeffe · bjeffer · bur · buret · ekorn · elefant · elg · fange · fanget · fjær · flaggermus · flaggermusen · flue · fluenes · frosker · griser · hale · hjortene · insekt · insekter · jager · jakte · jakter · kanin · kaninen · kaniner · kattungene · kjæledyr · kjæledyrene · kjæledyret · lam · løve · pattedyr · pingvinene · reven · sau · sauen · skilpadde · skog · slange · slangen · slapp av · tigeren · tigerens · ugle · uglen · uglene · valper · vinger · øgle · øglen
    58 words
  • 162157904521.05.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Demands and Requests75 @ 25%3430/4
    gå · hjelp · hold · kom · sette · spør · svar · vask · vennligst · åpne
    10 words

    Saying Please

    There are a number of ways to say please in Norwegian. Some go at the beginning of the sentence, while others are more comfortable at the very end of the sentence.

    Note that vær så snill is a plea or request, while vennligst is more of a polite demand. You'll often see vennligst used on signs in stores, restaurants, and other public areas.

    Norwegian English Placement
    vær så snill (å) please, be so kind as to beginning
    vær snill og please, kindly beginning
    vennligst please, kindly beginning
    takk please, thanks end
    er du snill please, if you please end

    The Imperative

    Forming the imperative in Norwegian is quite simple. Take the base form of the verb, such as spise and drop the -e to form the word spis. Congratulations! You have successfully created the imperative in Norwegian!

    English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
    eat spise spis
    read lese les
    be være vær

    You may be wondering about how we handle verbs that do not end in -e in their base form, such as tro and ta, which mean believe and take. The answer is that we don't change the verb at all in the imperative.

    English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
    believe tro tro
    take ta ta
    have ha ha

    Some verbs that do end in -e end in a string of consonants that may sound strange without the -e. This is why you are given the option to keep the -e ending in the imperative if you so desire, but only in these specific verbs. The versions with the -e suffix is generally preferred, so those are the ones we'll teach you in this course.

    English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
    open åpne åpne or åpn
    trade handle handle or handl

    Vocabulary
    svar answer, reply, respond
    spør ask
    kom come
    hjelp help
    sett put, place, set
    vær så snill å please
    walk, go
    lukk close, shut
    slutt stop, quit
    vask wash, clean
    åpne open
    vennligst please, kindly
    følg follow
    møt meet
    vent wait
    hold hold
    forlat leave, abandon
    avbryt interrupt
    send send
    er du snill please, if you please
  • 162200462426.05.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Time75 @ 25%3510/5
    døgn · fortid · fortsatt · i løpet av · klar · lenge · nåtid · siden · var · år
    10 words

    Time

    While we're not quite as obsessed with timeliness as the Germans, being reasonably punctual is important both at work and in private. If you want to make a good impression, you should always strive to be on time.

    Of course, sometimes you're late because of things out of your control, in which case it's good to notify the people waiting for you that you're running late, giving some indication of when you're expecting to arrive.

    Public transport in Norway tends to be pretty punctual as well. City buses may be late during rush hour, but trains and coaches are usually on time, as are ferries unless the weather's acting up.


    Døgn

    Et døgn is a really neat noun, which allows you to make a distinction that doesn't exist in everyday English. It translates to a day, but specifically refers to the full 24-hour period. So it's not day as opposed to night, but the day and the night all wrapped up in one unambiguous package.


    For ... Siden

    When translating the English word ago, you need two words in Norwegian, for ... siden. You should place for in front of the time expression and siden after.

    For fem år siden
    Five years ago


    Prepositions

    Several Norwegian expressions of time use the preposition i in combination with a noun. These must be learned independently and treated as completely separate from the nouns they're used with. For example:

    Norwegian English
    i dag today
    i kveld tonight
    i morgen tomorrow
    i morgen tidlig tomorrow morning
    i går yesterday
    i år this year
    i fjor last year

    Wrestling With the Past

    Your first encounter with the past tense will be made in this skill, in the form of var (was), hadde (had), and kom (came).

    As in many other languages, some of the most important verbs have highly irregular conjugations. No need to despair, though: We're introducing them early so that you'll get plenty of practice using them. By the time you're halfway through the course, these will have become second nature to you.

    Infinitive Present Past English
    å være er var was
    å ha har hadde had
    å komme kommer kom came

    Regular Past Tense Verbs

    The majority of regular verbs end in either -te or -et, such as spiste and snakket, which mean ate and spoke, respectively.

    Infinitive Present Past English
    å spise spiser spiste ate
    å snakke snakker snakket spoke

    Some also end in -de or -dde.

    Infinitive Present Past English
    å prøve prøver prøvde tried
    å bo bor bodde lived

    Ordinal Numbers

    With one notable exception, all adjectival ordinal numbers have the same spelling regardless of gender or number, ending in -e across the board.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine en første stol a first chair
    den første stolen the first chair
    Feminine ei første bok a first book
    den første boka the first book
    Neuter et første bord a first table
    det første bordet the first table
    Plural første hus first houses
    de første husene the first houses

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    var was
    kom came
    hadde had
    fortsatt still
    i løpet av in the course of, during
    iblant occasionally
    lenger anymore, any longer
    i mellomtiden in the meantime
    siden since
    for ... siden ago
    inntil until, up to
    lenge long
    første (the) first
    neste (the) next
    siste (the) last
    klar ready
    rask swift, quick
    langsom slow
    et år a year
    et døgn a day, a 24h period of time
    et øyeblikk a moment
    en fest a party
    fortid (m/f) past
    nåtid (m/f) present
    fremtid (m/f) future
    en alder an age
    en bursdag a birthday
  • 162236497830.05.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Objects75 @ 25%3520/4
    bilen · bilene · bit · ekstra · esker · etasjen · etasjer · film · full · gjenstand · gjenstandene · hjulene · hjulet · hyllene · ingenting · kjeler · kjeller · kjelleren · kort · legg · leiligheten · maskin · mattene · mobil · motoren · motorer · nøkkel · radio · radiobiler · sak · selg · skap · stoffet · søppelet · ting · tom · veske
    37 words
  • 162271118303.06.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The Home75 @ 25%3620/4
    duk · dørmatte · eske · gang · hjem · møbel · peis · sofa · stue · teppe
    10 words

    Home, Sweet Home

    Or hjem, kjære hjem, as it goes in Norwegian. Of course, it's difficult to make generalizations about people's homes, but don't think for a second that we're going to let that stop us from trying.

    If you're Norwegian, chances are that you either live in a wooden house or in a condo building in one of the larger cities. Most households consist of either a single person or a small family; it's rare to see more than two generations living together.

    For the past couple of decades, people have been very busy painting their walls white, which admittedly makes sense in a country with such dark winters. Scandinavian interior design tends to emphasize materials, wood in particular, and there's a certain minimalism to it.

    Many Norwegian homes have a fireplace or an oven, to make sure everything's suitably koselig (cozy). What you won't see a lot of are wall-to-wall carpets; wooden floors with the odd rug is where it's at.

    With Janteloven, the Law of Jante, still going strong, there aren't many huge or flashy houses around. Mansions are few and far between.


    Mind Your Manners

    When invited into someone's home, it's customary to take off your shoes as soon as you've made it inside the front door. Norwegians wear socks or slippers indoors.

    If you're wearing a hat of some sort, you should leave that in the entryway with your coat and shoes as well, at least if you're visiting someone of the older generation.

    So far, so good, right? From here on out, you should get by on basic courtesy, but do remember to thank your host for the food or drink if any is served. Leaving a dinner table without thanking the host or hostess for feeding you is tantamount to treason. It doesn't even matter if the food was bad - your manners have to be better.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å stryke to iron
    å låse to lock
    å rydde to tidy (up)
    å støvsuge to vacuum
    en peis a fireplace
    en/ei stue a living room
    en/ei eske a box
    et hjem a home
    en gang a hallway, an entryway
    et møbel a piece of furniture
    en/ei dørmatte a doormat
    en duk a tablecloth
    en sofa a sofa, a couch
    et teppe a rug, a carpet
    en/ei badstu a sauna
    en fjernkontroll a remote control
    et hull a hole
    en/ei hylle a shelf
    et kjøkken a kitchen
    en stikkontakt a power socket
    en fryser a freezer
    et loft an attic
    et tak a roof, a ceiling
    støv (n) dust
    en/ei trapp a staircase
    en etasje a floor, a story, a storey
    en kjeller a cellar, a basement
    en/ei leilighet an apartment, a flat

    *The vocabulary lists are not exhaustive. What you see listed are the main lexemes of each skill, but each lexeme can contain several forms of a word.

    For example, a verb lexeme may contain all its conjugations, while a noun lexeme may contain all its declensions. Sometimes, a single lexeme may even comprise several word classes, provided they share the same root and translate predictably into English.

  • 162297010206.06.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Compound Words75 @ 25%3710/3
    arbeidsgiveren · arbeidsplassen · arbeidstid · arbeidstiden · bilnøkkel · compounds · dagbok · dagboken · e · fornøyelsesparken · leketøy · lesebriller · motorvei · motorveien · rullestol · s · stavkirken · stekepanne · stekepannene · svømmebassenget · teskje · årstid
    22 words
  • 162321449409.06.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Body Parts75 @ 25%3720/3
    arm · bein · blod · finger · fot · hode · hånd · hår · tå · øre
    10 words

    Body Parts

    When it comes to body parts, there are plenty of cognates to go around. Have a quick look at the vocabulary list at the bottom of the tips before you get started, and see how many of the Norwegian words resemble their English counterparts.

    There are a few irregular nouns to watch out for as well: en tann, en tå, en hånd and en fot all get a vowel change in their plural forms. In the table below, you'll see their full declensions.

    indefinite sl. definite sl. indefinite pl. definite pl.
    en tann tannen tenner tennene
    en tå tåen tær tærne
    en hånd hånden hender hendene
    en fot foten føtter føttene

    Implied Possessives

    In Norwegian, as in many other languages, body parts generally do not carry possessive pronouns. Instead, we use the definite form for all pronouns. Øyet can mean the eye, my eye, or your eye, etc. The person's body in question should be intuited from context.

    This is especially common when speaking about one's own body parts.


    Vocabulary
    blod (n) blood
    en/ei tå a toe
    en fot a foot
    et bein a leg
    en/ei arm an arm
    en/ei hånd a hand
    en finger a finger
    et øre an ear
    et hår a hair
    et hode a head
    et hjerte a heart
    en kropp a body
    et øye an eye
    en/ei tann a tooth
    en/ei nese a nose
    en munn a mouth
    et ansikt a face
    en/ei tunge a tongue

    *The vocabulary lists are not exhaustive. What you see listed are the main lexemes of each skill, but each lexeme can contain several forms of a word.

    For example, a verb lexeme may contain all its conjugations, while a noun lexeme may contain all its declensions. Sometimes, a single lexeme may even comprise several word classes, provided they share the same root and translate predictably into English.

  • 162347872812.06.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Bedroom75 @ 25%3810/3
    av · drøm · dyne · i søvne · kommoden · laken · pute · skuffer · snorke · soverom · søvn · ta av seg · våken
    13 words
  • 162391842917.06.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Hygiene75 @ 25%3820/5
    bad · bader · balsam · barbere · barbermaskin · børste · dusj · fuktig · føne · føner · gre · grer · håndkle · hårføner · hårfønerne · kam · krem · kropp · maskin · pusse · sjampo · slags · såpe · tannbørste · tannkrem · tennene · toalettene · tørker · vaske · vasken
    30 words
  • 162408733919.06.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The Farm75 @ 25%3830/2
    bonde · geit · gris · gård · ku · mate · potet · på landet · sau · åker
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    å mate to feed
    å dyrke to grow
    på landet in the country(side)
    en/ei ku a cow
    en sau a sheep
    en gris a pig
    en gård a farm
    en bonde a farmer
    en låve a barn
    en/ei geit a goat
    en åker a field
    en potet a potato
    en/ei gulrot a carrot

    *The vocabulary lists are not exhaustive. What you see listed are the main lexemes of each skill, but each lexeme can contain several forms of a word.

    For example, a verb lexeme may contain all its conjugations, while a noun lexeme may contain all its declensions. Sometimes, a single lexeme may even comprise several word classes, provided they share the same root.

  • 162435158322.06.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Shopping75 @ 25%3910/3
    billig · bruker · kjøp · kontant · passer · prøverom · salg · stenger · størrelse · veske
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    å bruke to spend
    kjøp buy
    passer fits
    stenger closes
    billig inexpensive, cheap
    kontant (in) cash
    til salgs for sale
    et salg a sale
    en/ei veske a (hand)bag
    en størrelse a size
    et prøverom a fitting room, a changing room
    en minibank an ATM
    et kjøpesenter a shopping mall
    en blomsterbutikk a flower shop, a florist
    en pris a price
    et gull a gold
    en regning a bill, a check, an invoice
    et kredittkort a credit card
    en/ei lommebok a wallet
  • 162451079324.06.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Marriage75 @ 25%3920/2
    bryllup · ekte- · forelsket · gift · kjære · kone · løfte · par · ring · sviger-
    10 words
  • 162468841326.06.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Determiners 275 @ 25%4020/2
    dets · eneste · enhver · enten ... eller · få · samme · samtlige · slik · sånn · viss
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    dets its
    viss certain
    sånn so, such, like this, like that, that way
    enhver any, anyone, everyone
    enten ... eller either ... or
    few
    eneste (the) only
    samme (the) same
    samtlige all
    slik so, such, like this, like that, that way, thus
    verken ... eller neither ... nor
  • 162502875830.06.2021 ••• Test out   1.001People75 @ 25%4110/4
    dame · eks · elske · fiende · folk flest · folket · herre · herrer · kronprinsen · kultur · menneskelig · menneskelige · noens · offer · person · personlige · prins · prinsesse · tenåringer · vennskap · vennskapet · viking · voksen
    23 words

    People

    As in German, Norwegian has a few words that translate to the English word people. Below is a brief overview.

    Norwegian English
    mennesker most generic term
    personer emphasizes the individual
    folk emphasizes the collective

    Honorifics

    Titles such as "Mr", "Mrs" and "Miss" have almost completely gone out of use since the 1960s. We'll list them regardless, as you might see them on airline tickets and they are sometimes used in a joking manner, just as in English a husband may refer to his wife as "the missus".

    Norwegian English
    Herr (Hr) Mister (Mr)
    Fru (Fr) Mrs
    Frøken (Frk) Miss

    Pupils used to refer to female teacher as "Frøken", but this has also gone out of use.

    Herre also means Lord, so in Norway all men are lords. Perhaps it's only fair, with the word kvinne sharing the same root as queen.


    All Ladies are Women, But...

    Remember how the saying goes in English? Well, in Norwegian it's more like "All ladies are women, and all women are ladies too", because we don't have the same clear distinction between the words en/ei dame and en/ei kvinne.

    Yes, en/ei dame can refer to a lady of noble birth or demeanor, but it can just as well be used to refer to women in general. Different dialects tend to prefer one word over the other, and use that almost exclusively.


    Love, Just Not Too Strongly

    You've already encountered the two verbs å elske and å være glad i, which both can translate to to love in English.

    When referring to people, å elske is used sparingly. It's what you say to your significant other, and possibly your children, but it's not something to throw around lightly. Teenage girls tend to use it a little more broadly, but in general you don't want to overdo it.

    The phrasal verb å være glad i can mean anything from I'm fond of you to I really, really love you. It can be said to your lover, your family, your friends, your dog, etc. It can carry as much weight as å elske, but it can also be closer to å like, to like, depending on the context.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å elske to love
    menneskelig human, humane
    hemmelig secret
    voksen grown, grown-up, adult
    sjenert shy
    personlig personal
    folk flest most people
    en eks an ex
    en herre a gentleman, a lord, a master
    en dame a lady, a woman
    en fiende an enemy, a foe
    en person a person
    et offer a victim, a sacrifice
    et forhold a relationship
    en skuespiller an actor, an actress
    en/ei befolkning a population
    allmennheten (m/f) the (general) public
    en prins a prince
    en viking a Viking
    en konge a king
    en tenåring a teenager
    en/ei dronning a queen
    en/ei prinsesse a princess
    en kronprins a crown prince
    en ungdom a youth, a young person
    et vennskap a friendship
    en pensjonist a pensioner
  • 165466123208.06.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Adverbs 275 @ 25%4120/3
    absolutt · av · fremdeles · først · helst · hva som helst · hvem som helst · hvor som helst · lenge · mest · midt · når som helst · nær · nøyaktig · sannsynligvis · siden · unna
    17 words
  • 162573159708.07.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The Office75 @ 25%4200/4
    blyant · heis · klippe · kopi · mappe · papir · penn · saks · sende · skrivebord
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å klippe to cut (with scissors)
    å sende to send
    å kopiere to copy
    en penn a pen
    et papir a paper
    en blyant a pencil
    en/ei mappe a folder
    et skrivebord a desk
    en/ei saks a pair of scissors
    en heis an elevator, a lift
    et batteri a battery
    et nettbrett a tablet
    en kopi a copy
    en skjerm a screen, a monitor
    en skriver a printer
    en rapport a report
    en kopimaskin a copy machine, a xerox machine, a photocopier
    en datamaskin a computer
    en teip a tape
    plast (m) plastic
    en e-post an email
    en linjal a ruler
    en binders a paperclip
    et viskelær an eraser, a rubber
    en/ei avdeling a department
  • 162608692512.07.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The Year75 @ 25%4220/3
    april · dato · februar · i år · januar · kalender · mai · mars · måned · vinter
    10 words

    A Full Year of Cognates

    In the table below, you'll find the twelve months of the year listed. Notice how they all share the same etymology as their English counterparts? That's right, this skill is going to be a breeze!

    Just like weekdays, months are not capitalized in Norwegian. Unless they begin a sentence, of course. If you ever need to abbreviate them, just take the first three letters of any month and stick a period at the end.

    Keep in mind the RS sound in mars makes it sound like marsh. This RS letter combination creates an SH sound in the Norwegian language.

    Norwegian English
    januar January
    februar February
    mars March
    april April
    mai May
    juni June
    juli July
    august August
    september September
    oktober October
    november November
    desember December

    For grammatical purposes, all of the months are treated as masculine nouns.


    Two Types of Seasons

    While English tends to use the same word for both, Norwegian has one word for the four seasons of the year, en/ei årstid, and another one for any other type of season, like the hunting season or the skiing season, en sesong.


    Preposition Use

    As you already know, we use the preposition when referring to days or times of day.

    Norwegian English
    på mandag on Monday
    på morgenen in the morning

    When talking about months and seasons, we switch things up a bit and use the preposition i instead. This is also the preposition of choice when it comes to describing how many times a week/month/year something happens.

    Norwegian English
    i januar in January, this January
    i vinter this winter
    i uken a week
    i måneden a month
    i året a year

    If you're talking about something that isn't happening this winter in particular, but just generally happens in the wintertime, you would say om vinteren.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    i år this year
    januar January
    februar February
    en dato a date
    en vinter a winter
    en måned a month
    en kalender a calendar
    mars March
    april April
    mai May
    juni June
    juli July
    en vår a spring
    en sommer a summer
    august August
    september September
    oktober October
    november November
    desember December
    en høst an autumn, a fall
    en/ei årstid a season, a time of year
  • 162753365629.07.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Present 475 @ 25%4230/4
    ber · blir · fremfor · inneholder · klarer · knuser · lite · sender · slag · som
    10 words

    Present

    The present tense is used to describe things that are happening or are true now:

    Jeg leser nå. I am reading now.

    The present tense is also used in general statements that are independent of time:

    Jorda er rund. The earth is round.

    For things that repeat and that are still recurring:

    Jeg sover hver natt. I sleep every night.

    The present tense can be used to talk about the future as well, especially when it is certain:

    Jeg reiser i morgen. I leave tomorrow.

    As a rule of thumb, you can use the present tense where you would use either the present (I leave tomorrow.) or present progressive (I am leaving tomorrow.) tenses in English.

    You do not have to worry about person or number when dealing with verbs in Norwegian, the verb stays the same. This is even simpler than English where you have to remember to add the -s in the third person singular in the present tense.

    Forming the present is extremely easy, just add the suffix -r to the infinitive (the form you'll find in the dictionary).

    The table below shows you how to do it:

    Group Suffix Infinitive Present English
    1 -er å vaske vasker wash(es), am/are/is washing
    2 -er å kjøre kjører drive(s), am/are/is driving
    3 -r å bo bor live(s), am/are/is living (as in making one's home somewhere)

    There are three groups of verbs with different patterns for forming tenses in Norwegian, but in the present case they all behave in the same way as you can see.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    blir becomes
    klarer is able, manages
    inneholder contains
    ber asks
    antar assumes, presumes
    knuser crushes, breaks, smashes
    blander mixes, blends
    glemmer forgets
    fortsetter continues
    slår beats, hits, strikes
    håper hopes
    behøver needs, requires
    gjelder pertains to, is about, is valid
    skjærer cuts, carves
    forlater leaves, abandons
    orker has the energy to/for
    slipper doesn't have to, is spared
    sender sends
    stanser stops, halts
    handler is about, acts
    forteller tells
    tilbringer spends (time)
    overrasker surprises
    lite little
    som that, which
    fremfor over
    en/et/ei slags a sort of, a kind of
  • 162790632602.08.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Nature75 @ 25%4320/4
    elv · fjell · gress · hav · himmel · ild · is · natur · plante · røyk
    10 words

    Nature

    Norwegians love being out in nature, and who can blame them? Wherever you turn, it's like you're in the middle of a beautiful landscape painting.


    Allemannsretten

    In Norway, everyone enjoys the right of access to uncultivated land in the countryside. Yes, that privilege extends to you as a tourist as well.

    Of course, this means that it's also everyone's responsibility to show consideration to landowners and to respect nature. Littering in the city might earn you some angry glares, but littering in nature might just earn you a spot on someone's hit list. Whenever you leave the great outdoors, it should look as if you were never there.


    Playing With Fire

    In this skill, you'll learn the general term for fire as a concept and fire as a controlled resource, ild.

    Later in the tree, you'll come to know two other terms for fire as well. There's en brann, which is an uncontrolled, destructive fire. Hopefully, you'll never need to, but the fire department's number is 110 in Norway.

    You can also call 112 (police) or 113 (medical assistance), and they'll patch you through to the right department. 112 is actually a standard emergency number used throughout the EU states, so you might as well commit it to memory if you're planning to travel in Europe. Most mobile phones will now patch you through if you use 911 as well, so if you blank on the number, just call the one that comes to mind.

    The third term for a fire is for bonfires specifically, et bål. Note that you may only make bonfires out in the woods between September 15. and April 15. This is a precaution against forest fires during the drier summer months.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å ødelegge to destroy, to ruin, to break
    å stige to rise, to increase
    å resirkulere to recycle
    å vokse to grow, to increase
    naturlig natural
    tørr dry
    et sted somewhere
    en/ei elv a river
    et hav an ocean, a sea
    en natur a nature
    et gress a grass
    en/ei plante a plant
    en himmel a sky, a heaven
    en is an ice
    et fjell a mountain
    en ild a fire (general/controlled)
    en røyk a smoke
    en vulkan a volcano
    en fjord a fjord
    en bølge a wave
    et landskap a landscape, a scenery
    et tre a (type of) wood
    en/ei luft an air
    et miljø an environment
    en ørken a desert
  • 162832673007.08.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Verb Endings75 @ 25%4330/4
    an · fungerer · føles · i ferd med · importerer · lyst på · lyst til · mislykkes · møtes · opp · passerer · presenterer · produserer · reparerer · respekterer · ses · synes · trives · under
    19 words

    Special Endings


    This Verb Looks Familiar...

    Many Norwegian verbs that end in -erer in the present tense, such as importerer and produserer, are loan words from Latin. As such, they are especially easy to learn for an English speaker. Be sure to recognize them when you can.


    Why Does This Verb End in S?

    There are a very special set of verbs and expressions that exclusively end in the letter "s" in Norwegian. Usually, this construction is reserved for the passive form, but not here. These verbs represent very abstract concepts and must be learned individually.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg synes du er pen. I think you are pretty. (Synes is used exclusively for personal opinions.)
    Vi ses! See you!
    Du mislykkes. You are failing.
    Det føles forferdelig. It feels terrible.

    I Would Like...

    You already know how to say that you want something using vil+[bare infinitive] and vil ha+[noun]. In this skill, you'll learn a slightly more polite way of expressing desire, using the phrasal verbs å ha lyst til+[infinitive] and å ha lyst på+[noun].


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    fungerer functions, works
    passerer passes
    reparerer repairs
    respekterer respects
    presenterer presents
    ses see (each other)
    føles feels
    trives is enjoying X, thrives
    synes thinks, is of the opinion
    møtes meet (each other)
    mislykkes fails
    har lyst til would like to, wants to
    gifter seg gets married
    skynder seg hurries
    oppfører seg behaves
    forbereder seg prepares
    har lyst på would like, wants
    er i ferd med is about to, is in the process of
    spiser opp eats up
    går glipp av misses out on
    skriver under signs
    kommer an på depends on
  • 162866069111.08.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Simple Past75 @ 25%4410/4
    brukte · elsket · fikk · kysset · lekte · spiste · så · tok · trodde · visste
    10 words

    Simple Past

    The simple past is used in a nearly identical way to how it is used in English. The vast majority of verbs in the simple past end in either -te or -et, such as spiste and snakket, which mean ate and spoke, respectively.

    Infinitive Present Past English
    å spise spiser spiste ate
    å snakke snakker snakket spoke

    There are several irregular past forms, but, thankfully, these are often similar to the ones that exist in English. You've already encountered the two most common ones, var and hadde, in the Time skill, so you even have a head start!

    Infinitive Present Past English
    å være er var was
    å ha har hadde had
    å drikke drikker drakk drank
    å finne finner fant found
    å ta tar tok took
    å le ler lo laughed
    å gi gir ga gave

    Notice how some of the irregular verb only get a vowel change in the past tense, with no added ending?

    Watch out for two verbs in particular, å se and å si, as they are ridiculously easy to confuse in the past tense. Here they are in the present tense, as a review.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg ser noe. I see something.
    Jeg sier noe. I am saying something.

    The past tense forms of these verbs are tricky for many reasons. They are each very, very common and they only have a circle above the a to distinguish them! If you imagine this circle to be an eyeball, it will go a long way to remembering that means saw and that sa means said.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg så noe. I saw something.
    Jeg sa noe. I said something.

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    ga gave
    fikk got, received
    spiste ate
    kysset kissed
    brukte used
    trodde thought
    saw
    tok took
    visste knew
    elsket loved
    snakket spoke, talked
    lo laughed
    gikk walked, went
    ville wanted
    lekte played
    skrev wrote
    kjøpte bought
    valgte chose
    sov slept
    fant found
    fylte filled, turned
    kjørte drove
    takket thanked
    gjorde did
    et minne a memory
  • 162892549014.08.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Transport75 @ 25%4510/3
    buss · båt · ferge · hente · kollektivtrafikk · reiste · skip · t-bane · tog · trikk
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    å kjøre to drive
    å hente to pick up, to fetch
    med by
    et tog a train
    en trikk a tram
    en buss a bus
    en/ei reise a travel
    en t-bane an underground train, a subway, a metro
    kollektivtrafikk (m) public transport
    en båt a boat
    et skip a ship
    en/ei ferge a ferry
    en avgang a departure
    en ankomst an arrival
    en holdeplass a stop
    et hjul a wheel
    en motor a motor, an engine
    et kjøretøy a vehicle
    en motorsykkel a motorcycle
  • 162918304817.08.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Numbers75 @ 25%4520/3
    atten · begge · elleve · femten · femti · femtitre · fjorten · førti · førtito · førtiåtte · gang · ganger · hundre · mengder · milliarder · millioner · minus · nitten · nitti · nittifem · nittiseks · null · pluss · samtlige · seksten · seksti · sekstien · sekstifire · summen · sytten · sytti · syttito · tall · tjue · tjuefem · tjuefire · tjueåtte · tolv · tretten · tretti · trettien · trettito · trettitre · åtti · åttifire
    45 words
  • 162926310818.08.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Relative Pronouns75 @ 25%4610/1
    der · det · hva · som
    4 words
    Vocabulary
    der where
    hva what
    som that, who
    det (som) what, that (which)
  • 162970298023.08.2021 ••• Test out   1.001School75 @ 25%4620/4
    elev · forklare · hysj · lære · prøve · skole · skolegård · stave · tavle · time
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å lære to learn
    å forklare to explain
    å stave to spell
    å gjenta to repeat
    å fortjene to deserve
    å skrive to write
    forklarer explains
    skjønner understands, gets
    lærte learned
    klarte managed, was able to
    hysj hush, shh
    interessert interested
    en elev a pupil, a (young) student
    en time a class
    en skole a school
    en/ei tavle a (black)board
    en/ei setning a sentence
    en skolegård a schoolyard
    et klasserom a classroom
    et fag a subject
    en sjanger a genre
    en/ei lekse homework (plurale tantum)
    geografi (m) geography
    en/ei prøve a test, an exam
    en/ei klasse a class
    en/ei ordbok a dictionary
  • 162978594424.08.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Prediction75 @ 25%4640/1
    glemme · komme til å · ordne seg · savne · trenge
    5 words

    Prediction

    One way to talk about the future in Norwegian, is to use kommer til with the infinitve of the verb. Kommer til is a bit hard to translate directly, but the closest equivalent would be going to. Sometimes, it can also be translated as will, but never as shall, as it does not carry that degree of control and certainty.

    It is often used when making predictions about what is probably going to happen. In other words, often about things that you can't control.

    Jeg tror at det kommer til å regne i morgen.
    I think it is going to rain tomorrow.

    Hun kommer nok ikke til å like gaven. She is probably not going to like the gift.


    Vocabulary
    å savne to miss
    å glemme to forget
    å ordne seg to work (itself) out , to be okay
    å trenge to need, to require
    å komme til å to be going to
  • 163014293728.08.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Hope75 @ 25%4710/4
    be · begynnelse · due · forbedre · frihet · glede seg · gud · håpte · tro · ønske
    10 words
  • 163047107101.09.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Compare75 @ 25%4720/4
    dum · egenskap · ekte · kul · lat · ligner · smart · stygg · typisk · tålmodig
    10 words

    Traits & Comparisons

    In this skill, you'll be getting a taste of how comparisons are formed in Norwegian.

    Comparisons, in the grammatical sense, are adjectives that express a relationship between two nouns. Some of them are irregular, just like in English. Luckily, irregular comparisons in Norwegian are mostly cognates with English ones.

    For example:

    god bedre best
    good better best

    Just like in English, there are two ways to form comparisons in Norwegian:

    A special ending is added to the adjective.

    kald kaldere kaldest
    cold colder coldest

    The word "more" or "most" is added, particularly for longer adjectives.

    religiøs mer religiøs mest religiøs
    religious more religious most religious

    Be careful, though, since sometimes one language has a special ending where the other language does not.

    viktig viktigere viktigst
    important more important most important

    Keep in mind that all these comparison adjectives still behave like adjectives. This means they'll usually take an -e ending in the definite or plural forms.

    • Boka er viktig.
    • Denne boka er viktigere.
    • Den boka er viktigst.
    • Det er den viktigste boka.

    Vocabulary
    å ligne to resemble
    å kalle to call
    kul cool
    lat lazy
    rolig calm
    stygg ugly
    typisk typical
    tålmodig patient
    lav short, low
    høy tall, high
    dum dumb, stupid
    smart smart, clever, bright
    utrolig incredible
    ekte real, genuine, true
    bedre better
    snillere kinder, nicer
    best best
    en egenskap a trait, a characteristic
    en/ei personlighet a personality
  • 163403871412.10.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Simple Past 275 @ 25%4810/4
    betydde · bodde · døde · het · holdt · kjente · mistet · så · tenkte · virket
    10 words

    Simple Past

    The simple past is used in a nearly identical way to how it is used in English. The vast majority of verbs in the simple past end in either -te or -et, such as spiste and snakket, which mean ate and spoke, respectively.

    Although there is no conjugation in the simple past, or anywhere in Norwegian, there are several irregular past forms, but they are similar to the ones that exist in English.

    Norwegian English
    var was, were
    hadde had
    drakk drank

    Watch out for two verbs in particular, å se and å si, as they are ridiculously easy to confuse in the past tense. Here they are in the present tense, as a review.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg ser noe. I see something.
    Jeg sier noe. I am saying something.

    The past tense forms of these verbs are tricky for many reasons. They are each very, very common and they only have a circle above the a to distinguish them! If you imagine this circle to be an eyeball, it will go a long way to remembering that means saw and that sa means said.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg så noe. I saw something.
    Jeg sa noe. I said something.

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    het was named
    døde died
    mistet lost, dropped
    tenkte thought
    bodde lived, resided
    betydde meant, signified
    så på watched
    holdt held
    virket seemed
    kjente knew
    solgte sold
    trengte needed
    forklarte explained
    lette looked, searched
    stolte trusted
    støttet supported
    betalte paid
    inneholdt contained, held
    oppførte seg behaved
    kunne could
    stengte closed, shut
    beholdt kept
    åpnet opened
    prøvde tried, attempted, tested
    dukket opp turned up, appeared
    then
    i tide in time
    i fjor last year
  • 163471071320.10.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Order75 @ 25%4910/3
    andre · attende · ellevte · ende · femte · femtende · fjerde · fjortende · forrige · første · hundrede · neste · niende · nittende · sekstende · siste · sjette · sjuende · syttende · tiende · tjuende · tolvte · tredje · trettende · åttende
    25 words

    Ordinal Numbers

    With one notable exception, all adjectival ordinal numbers have the same spelling regardless of gender or number. All but one of them have an -e ending.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine en første stol a first chair
    den første stolen the first chair
    Feminine ei første bok a first book
    den første boka the first book
    Neuter et første bord a first table
    det første bordet the first table
    Plural første hus first houses
    de første husene the first houses

    The one exception is annen, which we introduced in the Determiners chapter as meaning second or other. Watch how it operates below.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine en annen stol a second chair
    den andre stolen the second chair
    Feminine ei anna bok a second book
    den andre boka the second book
    Neuter et annet bord a second table
    det andre bordet the second table
    Plural andre hus second houses
    de andre husene the second houses

    Keep in mind that annet is pronounced like the British or Boston pronunciation of the word aunt. It can also mean else, as in noe annet or something else.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    andre (the) second
    tredje (the) third
    fjerde (the) fourth
    femte (the) fifth
    sjette (the) sixth
    sjuende (the) seventh
    åttende (the) eight
    niende (the) ninth
    tiende (the) tenth
    ellevte (the) eleventh
    tolvte (the) twelfth
    trettende (the) thirteenth
    fjortende (the) fourteenth
    femtende (the) fifteenth
    sekstende (the) sixteenth
    syttende (the) seventeenth
    attende (the) eighteenth
    nittende (the) nineteenth
    tjuende (the) twentieth
    forrige (the) previous, (the) last
    et århundre a century
    en rekkefølge an order
  • 163135463011.09.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The Nordic Countries75 @ 25%4920/3
    brunost · danmark · dansk · norske · rein · skandinavia · snø · stavkirke · sverige · troll
    10 words
  • 163161161214.09.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The Pharmacy75 @ 25%5010/3
    alternativ · apotek · blø · feber · forkjølet · frisk · kaste opp · syk · sår · vond
    10 words
  • 163185031717.09.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Shapes75 @ 25%5020/3
    bredden · dimensjonen · dimensjoner · dybde · dybden · flat · form · formen · hjørne · hjørner · hjørnet · høyden · kanten · kulas · kule · kurve · kurver · kvadrat · lengden · linje · linjer · midtpunkt · pyramiden · pyramidene · rund · runde · sirkel · sirkler · størrelse · topp · toppen · trekant · vinkel · vinkelen
    34 words
  • 163220417621.09.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Travel75 @ 25%5030/4
    besøke · bort · fly · koffert · kontinent · region · reise · ryggsekk · utland · verden
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å besøke to visit
    å fly to fly
    viste showed, displayed
    bort away
    øst east
    vest west
    sør south
    nord north
    utenlands abroad
    internasjonal international
    fremmed foreign, alien, strange
    en/ei reise a trip, a travel
    en region a region
    en koffert a suitcase
    en/ei verden a world
    en ryggsekk a backpack, a rucksack
    et kontinent a continent
    en/ei gjestfrihet a hospitality
    utland (n) abroad
    en/ei retning a direction
    en aksent an accent
    en kontakt a contact
  • 163256059325.09.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Small Talk75 @ 25%5120/4
    antok · ba · dro · i sted · likte · møtte · presenterte · ringte · spurte · vurdere
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    dro left, went
    likte liked
    møtte met
    spurte asked
    svarte responded
    presenterte presented, introduced
    ba asked
    antok assumed
    ringte called
    sa said
    traff met, hit
    hørte heard
    forsto understood
    skjedde happened, occurred, took place
    da then
    i sted earlier, a little while ago
    etterpå afterwards
    nettopp just, just now, exactly
    i går yesterday
    i morges this morning
    sist last, last time
    deretter thereafter, afterwards
    en samtale a conversation
    et problem a problem
    et vær a weather
    et rykte a rumor
    et tema a topic, a subject, a theme
  • 163288895329.09.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Europe75 @ 25%5130/4
    engelske · europa · frankrike · kultur · nederland · polen · russland · skikk · tysk · østerrike
    10 words
  • 163332984604.10.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Abstract Objects75 @ 25%5220/4
    beskrivelse · grunn · liste · måte · periode · regel · signal · sort · tilfelle · type
    10 words

    Abstract Nouns

    One can often recognize an abstract noun through one of several endings. Below is a sampling of them.

    Ending Grammar Notes Example
    -ing usually feminine regjering government
    -het usually feminine kjærlighet love
    -sjon usually masculine versjon version
    -else usually masculine beskrivelse description
    -tet usually masculine aktivitet activity
    -skap usually neuter vennskap friendship

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    en sort a sort, a kind, a variety
    en/ei liste a list
    en måte a way, a manner
    et signal a signal
    en grunn a reason
    en beskrivelse a description
    en type a type
    en regel a rule
    et tilfelle a case, an occurrence
    en versjon a version
    et innhold a content
    en kategori a category
    en del a piece, a part
    et sett a set
    et råd a piece of advice
    et resultat a result, an outcome
    en forskjell a difference
    en/ei blanding a blend, a mix, a mixture
    et utgangspunkt a point of origin, a beginning
    et lys a light
    en slutt an end
    en utsikt a view
    et mørke a darkness, a dark
    en stemme a voice
  • 163367995708.10.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Education75 @ 25%5310/4
    diskusjon · eksempel · essay · forklaring · idé · jukse · kurs · notat · studie · tross
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    å jukse to cheat
    å misforstå to misunderstand
    å oversette to translate
    å påstå to claim, to allege, to say
    å undervise to teach, to instruct
    (til) tross (for) in spite of, despite
    ifølge according to
    et kurs a course, a class
    et notat a note
    et essay an essay
    en studie a study
    en diskusjon a discussion
    en/ei forklaring an explanation
    et eksempel an example
    en idé an idea
    en karakter a grade, a mark
    en vanske a difficulty
    en/ei oppgave an exercise, a task
    en kalkulator a calculator
    et mål a goal, a target
    en professor a (full) professor
    et universitet a university
    en/ei forelesning a lecture
    en presentasjon a presentation
    en/ei side a page
    kunnskap (m) knowledge
    et dokument a document
    en romkamerat a roommate
  • 163403871412.10.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Simple Past 375 @ 25%5320/4
    begynte · hang · hjalp · husket · la · laget · lå · satt · satte · sto
    10 words

    Simple Past

    The simple past is used in a nearly identical way to how it is used in English. The vast majority of verbs in the simple past end in either -te or -et, such as spiste and snakket, which mean ate and spoke, respectively.

    Although there is no conjugation in the simple past, or anywhere in Norwegian, there are several irregular past forms, but they are similar to the ones that exist in English.

    Norwegian English
    var was, were
    hadde had
    drakk drank

    Watch out for two verbs in particular, å se and å si, as they are ridiculously easy to confuse in the past tense. Here they are in the present tense, as a review.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg ser noe. I see something.
    Jeg sier noe. I am saying something.

    The past tense forms of these verbs are tricky for many reasons. They are each very, very common and they only have a circle above the a to distinguish them! If you imagine this circle to be an eyeball, it will go a long way to remembering that means saw and that sa means said.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg så noe. I saw something.
    Jeg sa noe. I said something.

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    lay (intransitive)
    sto stood
    satt sat (intransitive)
    laget made
    hang hung (intransitive)
    husket remembered
    begynte begun, started
    la laid (transitive)
    satte sat, placed, put (transitive)
    hjalp helped
    levde lived
    glemte forgot
    hengte hung (transitive)
    bestemte decided
    ble became
    fløy flew
    leide rented
    føltes felt
    tørket dried
    sluttet stopped, quit, ceased
    forsøkte tried
    lot let, allowed, permitted
    falt fell
    rakk was enough
    fulgte followed
    pleide used to
    fantes was, existed
    spilte played
    havnet ended up
  • 163445787517.10.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Reactions75 @ 25%5410/5
    au · bry · fornærme · glede · gråte · hate · skremme · smil · sorg · tilgi
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    å motstå to resist
    å reagere to react
    å skremme to scare
    å fornærme to insult
    å bry to care, to bother
    å tilgi to forgive
    å gråte to cry
    å krangle to argue, to fight
    å kaste to throw
    å angre to regret
    å hate to hate
    å bryte to break
    å nøle to hesitate
    å riste to shake
    au ouch, ow
    for what, such
    fryktelig terribly, awfully
    nervøs nervous
    lei tired
    fornøyd content, pleased
    vellykket successful
    sur sour, grumpy
    merkelig peculiar
    forståelig understandable
    en/ei sorg a sorrow
    en frykt a fear
    en tåre a tear
    en/ei glede a joy, a happiness
    et smil a smile
    en/ei forventning an expectation
    gråt (m) crying
    en latter a laughter
    en effekt an effect
    en/ei endring a change, an alteration
    en reaksjon a reaction
  • 1691875700 ••• Test out   1.001Numbers 275 @ 25%5420/3
    femti · førti · førtien · nitti · seksti · sytti · tjueen · tretti · trettien · åtti
    10 words

    Compound Numbers

    In Norwegian, the numbers from 20 to 99 are formed in a way that will be familiar to English speakers. Essentially, you take the name of the nearest 10, like "tjue" (20) or "tretti" (30), and then tag on one of the basic numbers (1-9) to get the number you're looking for.

    The only difference is that you don't need to add a hyphen like you would in English; it's all just one word.

    Norwegian English
    tjue twenty
    tjueto twenty-two
    tjuefem twenty-five

    Big Numbers

    While larger numbers are usually expressed numerically in text, it's good to know how to write them out, as that corresponds to how they're pronounced.

    Here are a few examples:

    Norwegian Numeral
    (ett) hundre og femtitre 153
    tre hundre og førtito 342
    fem tusen seks hundre og åtti 5 680

    Really Big Numbers

    There are a couple of things to pay attention to when expressing large numbers. Firstly, when translating "five million" or "eight billion" to Norwegian, you need to use the plural: fem millioner and åtte milliarder respectively.

    Another thing to note, is that a comma is used to separate decimals in Norwegian, 5.2 becomes 5,2. So, if you're looking to make large numerals more easily readable, you need to use spacing for that instead.

    Norwegian 10^X Numeral
    million 10^6 1 000 000
    milliard 10^9 1 000 000 000
    billion 10^12 1 000 000 000 000
    billiard 10^15 1 000 000 000 000 000

    Years

    When referring to the year of X, you can pronounce them as shown above, but they're often shortened like so:

    Long Short Numeral
    atten hundre og fjorten attenfjorten 1814
    to tusen og nitten tjuenitten 2019

    The Number Reform of 1951

    We mentioned this number reform briefly in the first Numbers skill, but here we'll outline the actual changes.

    Please note that the old way of counting will still be heard in speech, which is why we mention it here, but it is not accepted in Bokmål and thus not accepted in this course.

    As you will be illustrated in the table below, this reform didn't just change the spelling of some of the numbers, but it changed how the compound numbers are expressed. Instead of placing the ones first and the tens second, bound together by an og (21 = enogtyve = oneandtwenty), we now place the tens first and the ones second, with nothing in-between (21 = tjueen = twentyone). Pretty drastic!

    Current Old Numeral
    tjue tyve 20
    tjueen enogtyve 21
    tretti tredve 30
    trettito toogtredve 32
    femti femti 50
    femtiseks seksogfemti 56

    Vocabulary

    Norwegian English
    tretti thirty
    førti forty
    femti fifty
    seksti sixty
    sytti seventy
    åtti eighty
    nitti ninety
    tjueen(-ni) twenty-one through nine
    trettien(-ni) thirty-one through nine
    førtien(-ni) forty-one through nine
    femtien(-ni) fifty-one through nine
    sekstien(-ni) sixty-one through nine
    syttien(-ni) seventy-one through nine
    åttien(-ni) eighty-one through nine
    nittien(-ni) ninety-one through nine
    tusen (a) thousand
    -ende ordinal ending
    hundrede 100th
    [compound ordinals] ordinals 21st through 99th
  • 163497156223.10.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Computers75 @ 25%5430/3
    abonnere · abonnerer · abonnerte · automatisk · avbryter · avbrøt · bloggen · bruker · brukere · e-post · e-posten · e-postene · e-poster · fil · filene · gyldig · hodetelefonene · hodetelefoner · innlegg · innlegget · innstillingene · installere · internett · klikker · kommenterer · kommenterte · kontoen · kontoer · lagre · laste ned · laster ned · lastet · lenken · logge · logger · logget · lukke · lukket · maskinvare · maskinvaren · nettside · nettsiden · nettverk · passord · passordet · program · programmeringsspråk · programmeringsspråket · programmet · robot · roboten · slette · slettet · slo av · slå av · slå på · slår av · slår du av · slår på · tastatur · tilgjengelig · trykk · trykker · ugyldig · uhell · utgave · utgaven · vedlegg
    68 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å installere to install
    å oppdatere to update
    å lukke to close
    å slette to delete
    å klikke to click
    å slå på to turn on, to switch on
    å lagre to save
    å slå av to turn off, to switch off
    å trykke to press, to push
    tilgjengelig accessible, available
    en/ei fil a file
    en bruker a user
    en/ei utgave a version, an edition
    et tastatur a keyboard
    et program a program
    en konto an account
    et uhell an accident
    en/ei innstilling a setting
    hodetelefoner (m) headphones
    programmering (m/f) programming
  • 163530927227.10.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The News75 @ 25%5510/4
    debatt · journalist · kilde · krig · krise · leste · nyhet · politiker · president · sak
    10 words
  • 163557575730.10.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Nightlife75 @ 25%5520/3
    alkohol · bar · drakk · drink · flørte · full · fyr · kø · sang · smilte
    10 words
  • 163600697804.11.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Verbs75 @ 25%5610/5
    bygge · bytte · få til å · følge · gjette · låne · passe · rulle · starte · vekke
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    å eie to own
    å låne to borrow
    å følge to accompany
    å bytte to change, to exchange, to swap
    å starte to start, to begin
    å passe to fit, to suit
    å vekke to wake up
    å forstå to understand
    å rulle to roll
    å gjette to guess
    å bygge to build
    å kunne to be able, to know
    å stoppe to stop, to quit, to cease, to halt
    å få til to make (something happen)
    å kjenne igjen to recognize
    å bære to carry
    å legge to lay
    å tvinge to force
    å forlate to abandon, to leave
    å advare to warn
    å stjele to steal
    å utsette to postpone
    å tømme to empty
    å dytte to push
    å forbli to remain, to stay
    å spille to play
    å stå på spill to be at stake
    å oppleve to experience
    å gjemme to hide
    å anbefale to recommend
    å være nødt til to have to, to need to, to be required to
  • 163627839307.11.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Comparison75 @ 25%5710/3
    aller · bedre · best · eldre · eldst · eldste · enda · fleste · fremst · færre · færrest · jo · kaldere · kaldeste · lengre · lettere · lignet · like · mer · mindre · minst · nyere · oftere · oftest · penere · penest · relativt · snillere · større · største · tidligere · varmere · varmeste · verre · verste · yngre · yngst
    37 words

    Comparison

    Comparisons, in the grammatical sense, are adjectives that express a relationship between two nouns. Some of them are irregular, just like in English. Luckily, irregular comparisons in Norwegian are mostly cognates with English ones.

    For example:

    god bedre best
    good better best

    Just like in English, there are two ways to form comparisons in Norwegian:

    A special ending is added to the adjective.

    kald kaldere kaldest
    cold colder coldest

    The word "more" or "most" is added, particularly for longer adjectives.

    religiøs mer religiøs mest religiøs
    religious more religious most religious

    Be careful, though, since sometimes one language has a special ending where the other language does not.

    viktig viktigere viktigst
    important more important most important

    Keep in mind that all these comparison adjectives still behave like adjectives. This means they'll usually take an -e ending in the definite or plural forms.

    • Boka er viktig.
    • Denne boka er viktigere.
    • Den boka er viktigst.
    • Det er den viktigste boka.

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    lignet resembled, was alike
    mer more
    enda even
    jo ... jo ... the [comparative] the [comparative]
    like alike, similar
    yngre younger
    større bigger
    lettere lighter
    varmere warmer
    færre fewer
    nyere newer
    lengre longer
    mindre smaller
    kaldere colder
    verre worse
    eldre older, elder
    penere prettier
    tidligere earlier, previously
    -ere comparative suffix
  • 163661037111.11.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Verbs: Present Perfect75 @ 25%5720/4
    arbeidet · begynt · blitt · bodd · dratt · fått · gitt · gjort · gått · har · hatt · hengt · hørt · kommet · lest · ligget · mistet · presentert · regnet · ringt · sagt · satt · sendt · sett · skrevet · snakket · sovet · spist · spurt · stengt · stilt · tatt · vært
    33 words

    Present Perfect

    Present perfect is used to talk about the past when the time is uncertain.

    • Jeg har bodd i Oslo.
    • I have lived in Oslo.

    It is also used to talk about actions or states that started in the past, that have not completed and that stretch into the present and/or the future.

    • Jeg har bodd her i tre år.
    • I have lived here for three years.

    Finally, it is used when talking about the future when one action ends before another begins.

    • Når jeg har spist, skal jeg ringe deg.
    • When I have eaten, I will call you.

    What we have to do to express present perfect in Norwegian, is to create a form of the verb, called the past participle. Then we combine this with the present form of ha, which is har.

    • Du har vasket hendene. (You have washed your hands.)
    • De har kjørt bil. (They have driven a car.)
    • Hun har levd lenge. (She has lived a long time.)
    • Jeg har solgt henne en avis. (I have sold her a newspaper.)
    • Jeg har bodd i et hus i Oslo. (I have lived in a house in Oslo.)

    This probably looks complicated, and to be perfectly honest, it is. There are three different basic ways to construct present perfect in Norwegian, and they look like this:

    Group Suffix Infinitive Present Perfect English Translation
    1 -et/-a å vaske har vasket/vaska have washed
    2 -t å kjøre har kjørt have driven
    -d å leve har levd have lived (as in being alive)
    3 -dd å bo har bodd have lived (as in making one's home somewhere

    Group 1

    This group is easy which is good since most of the verbs in Norwegian belong to it. The past participle is the same as the simple past.

    We use the suffix -et in this course, since it is the most common form in writing and there are a few cases where it is also the only allowed form. In speech, the suffix -a is common and in some dialects the only one used.

    Group 2

    This is the other big group. The past participle is formed by adding a -t. If the stem ends in v, g or a diphthong (ai, au, ei, oi, øy) we use a -d.

    Group 3

    In this group we find single syllable words such as tro, , , bry og spå. They get the ending -dd or -tt such as ha.

    Keep in mind when forming the present perfect that there are no built-in progressive forms in Norwegian. The present perfect covers both the progressive and non-progressive meanings of the verb.

    Norwegian Eng. Non-Progressive Eng. Progressive
    Jeg har lest boken. I have read the book. I have been reading the book.
    Han har spist for mye. He has eaten too much. He has been eating too much.

    All the difficulties aside, good luck learning the Norwegian present perfect skill!


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    har have
    tatt taken
    fått received
    hatt had
    blitt become
    hørt heard
    gitt given
    lest read
    sett seen
    ringt called, phoned, ringed
    spist eaten
    dratt gone, left
    bodd lived, resided
    gått walked, gone
    sagt said
    vært been
    gjort done
    sendt sent
    begynt begun, started
    skrevet written
    satt set, put, placed
    spurt asked
    ligget lain
    mistet lost, dropped
    stengt closed, shut
    snakket talked, spoken
    kommet come
  • 163695855715.11.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Passive Voice75 @ 25%5810/4
    avhørt · behandlet · brukes · bygges · elskes · elsket · erstattet · fjernet · flyttes · født · kalles · kritiseres · leses · mottatt · nektes · oppleves · produsert · påkjørt · ranet · repareres · s · ses · skadet · stoppes · stoppet · tegnet · trykkes · trykket · velges · økes
    30 words
  • 163731683219.11.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Adjectives 275 @ 25%5820/4
    dum · død · flink · forsiktige · frisk · friske · · gyldig · høye · kjempesterk · kjent · klar · kompliserte · kule · kuleste · lavere · lavt · ledig · lur · mest · mett · mette · midlertidige · mykt · rolig · ryddig · sann · sant · sjeldnere · skarp · stille · stygg · stygt · svak · tørst · tørste · ulikt · vant
    38 words

    Adjectives

    Norwegian adjectives change for gender, number, indefinite and definite forms. Let's take a look at adjectives joined to nouns by the phrase to be, starting with the adjective stor, which means big or great.


    The Indefinite Form

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine En stol er stor. A chair is big.
    Feminine Ei bok er stor. A book is big.

    So far, so good. There is no change to the adjective in either masculine or feminine form.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Neuter Et bord er stort. A table is big.
    Plural Hus er store. Houses are big.

    As you can see above, the neuter noun changes the spelling of stor to include a -t ending, and the plural noun changes stor to include an -e ending. This pattern applies to most adjectives in the indefinite form, as shown below.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine en stor stol a big chair
    Feminine ei stor bok a big book
    Neuter et stort bord a big table
    Plural store hus big houses

    Many adjectives ending in -ig or -sk, like viktig and norsk, do not sound pleasant with a -t ending. This is why we do not add a -t to these specific adjectives in the neuter form.

    Norwegian English
    et viktig brev an important letter
    et norsk hus a Norwegian house

    We do still add the -e ending in the plural form, however!

    Norwegian English
    viktige brev important letters
    norske hus Norwegian houses

    The Definite Form

    The simple thing about adjectives in the definite form is that the endings are almost all the same.

    Most adjectives in the definite form end in -e.

    In addition to the noun transitioning into the definite form, we place an additional word before the adjective in the definite form. This word changes depending on gender and number, as you see below.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den store stolen the big chair
    Feminine den store boka the big book
    Neuter det store bordet the big table
    Plural de store husene the big houses

    Missing Endings in Old and Famous Names

    As students of Danish may be aware, the postfixes after the nouns above are absent in Danish, and as a legacy of Danish colonialism, some Norwegian phrases lack the noun endings shown in the table above. These words are generally famous titles or institutions, such as The White House or The French Academy. See how they operate below.

    Norwegian English
    Det franske akademi The French Academy
    Det hvite hus The White House

    Note that det hvite huset can also mean the white house, just not the one the US President lives inside.


    Combining Possessive Pronouns with Adjectives

    There are two ways to combine possessive pronouns with adjectives. The possessive pronoun can either follow the noun in the definite form or precede the adjective. Let's take a look at how this works.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den store stolen min my big chair
    Feminine den store boka mi my big book
    Neuter det store bordet mitt my big table
    Plural de store husene mine my big houses
    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine min store stol my big chair
    Feminine mi store bok my big book
    Neuter mitt store bord my big table
    Plural mine store hus my big houses

    In the second set of examples, notice how the adjective endings are all -e, just like in the definite form, but the nouns have no endings, just like in the indefinite form. In a sense, this second method of combining possessive pronouns and adjectives is a blending of grammar rules.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    lur clever
    sann true
    kjent famous, (well-)known
    klar clear
    forsiktig careful
    død dead
    stille silent
    gyldig valid
    ordentlig proper
    sjelden rare, uncommon
    nødvendig necessary
    gal crazy
    flink good (at something)
    mett full, satiated
    skarp sharp
    rotete messy, untidy
    populær popular
    våt wet
    myk soft
    vant used (to something)
    tørst thirsty
    ryddig tidy
    favoritt favorite
    u- assorted negative adjectives
  • 163764719723.11.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The World75 @ 25%5830/4
    asia · egypt · iran · israel · japan · kina · korea · palestina · pyramide · saudi-arabia
    10 words
  • 163790608126.11.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Employment75 @ 25%5920/3
    annonse · arbeidsledig · byrå · cv · evne · midlertidig · referanse · søke · søker · vikar
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å søke to apply
    å tjene to earn, to serve
    å forfremme to promote
    jobbet worked
    midlertidig temporary
    arbeidsledig unemployed
    komplisert complicated
    et byrå a bureau
    en vikar a temporary worker
    en referanse a reference
    en/et CV a CV, a résumé
    en evne an ability
    en søker an applicant
    en attest a letter of recommendation
    et forslag a suggestion
    en søknad an application
    et intervju an interview
    en ordre an order, a command
    en pause a pause, a break
    en/ei stilling a position
  • 163816326329.11.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Contrast75 @ 25%5940/3
    -est · flest · forholdsvis · færrest · minst · penest · sammenligne · størst · ulik · varmest
    10 words

    Comparison

    Comparisons, in the grammatical sense, are adjectives that express a relationship between two nouns. Some of them are irregular, just like in English. Luckily, irregular comparisons in Norwegian are mostly cognates with English ones.

    For example:

    god bedre best
    good better best

    Just like in English, there are two ways to form comparisons in Norwegian:

    A special ending is added to the adjective.

    kald kaldere kaldest
    cold colder coldest

    The word "more" or "most" is added, particularly for longer adjectives.

    religiøs mer religiøs mest religiøs
    religious more religious most religious

    Be careful, though, since sometimes one language has a special ending where the other language does not.

    viktig viktigere viktigst
    important more important most important

    Keep in mind that all these comparison adjectives still behave like adjectives. This means they'll usually take an -e ending in the definite or plural forms.

    • Boka er viktig.
    • Denne boka er viktigere.
    • Den boka er viktigst.
    • Det er den viktigste boka.

    Vocabulary
    å sammenligne to compare
    aller (the) very (superlative adjective)
    nest (the) second (superlative adjective)
    forholdsvis relatively
    ulik unlike, different
    størst biggest, largest
    færrest fewest
    varmest warmest, hottest
    -est -est, most (superlative suffix)
    flest most (countable nouns)
    minst least
    penest prettiest
    kaldest coldest
    eldst oldest, eldest
    yngst youngest
    fremst foremost, in the front
    annerledes different
    en/ei sammenligning a comparison
  • 163861663304.12.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Present Perfect 275 @ 25%6020/5
    antatt · bestilt · betalt · burde · drukket · forlatt · forsøkt · fortalt · fulgt · hoppet · kjent · kjøpt · laget · lagt · lekt · savnet · sittet · skjedd · sluttet · smakt · solgt · stanset · stått · sunget · svømt · tenkt · tillatt · truffet · tvunget · utviklet · valgt · vasket · villet · vunnet · åpnet
    35 words

    Present Perfect

    Present perfect is used to talk about the past when the time is uncertain.

    • Jeg har bodd i Oslo.
    • I have lived in Oslo.

    It is also used to talk about actions or states that started in the past, that have not completed and that stretch into the present and/or the future.

    • Jeg har bodd her i tre år.
    • I have lived here for three years.

    Finally, it is used when talking about the future when one action ends before another begins.

    • Når jeg har spist, skal jeg ringe deg.
    • When I have eaten, I will call you.

    What we have to do to express present perfect in Norwegian, is to create a form of the verb, called the past participle. Then we combine this with the present form of ha, which is har.

    • Du har vasket hendene. (You have washed your hands.)
    • De har kjørt bil. (They have driven a car.)
    • Hun har levd lenge. (She has lived a long time.)
    • Jeg har solgt henne en avis. (I have sold her a newspaper.)
    • Jeg har bodd i et hus i Oslo. (I have lived in a house in Oslo.)

    This probably looks complicated, and to be perfectly honest, it is. There are three different basic ways to construct present perfect in Norwegian, and they look like this:

    Group Suffix Infinitive Present Perfect English Translation
    1 -et/-a å vaske har vasket/vaska have washed
    2 -t å kjøre har kjørt have driven
    -d å leve har levd have lived (as in being alive)
    3 -dd å bo har bodd have lived (as in making one's home somewhere

    Group 1

    This group is easy which is good since most of the verbs in Norwegian belong to it. The past participle is the same as the simple past.

    We use the suffix -et in this course, since it is the most common form in writing and there are a few cases where it is also the only allowed form. In speech, the suffix -a is common and in some dialects the only one used.

    Group 2

    This is the other big group. The past participle is formed by adding a -t. If the stem ends in v, g or a diphthong (ai, au, ei, oi, øy) we use a -d.

    Group 3

    In this group we find single syllable words such as tro, , , bry og spå. They get the ending -dd or -tt such as ha.

    Keep in mind when forming the present perfect that there are no built-in progressive forms in Norwegian. The present perfect covers both the progressive and non-progressive meanings of the verb.

    Norwegian Eng. Non-Progressive Eng. Progressive
    Jeg har lest boken. I have read the book. I have been reading the book.
    Han har spist for mye. He has eaten too much. He has been eating too much.

    All the difficulties aside, good luck learning the Norwegian present perfect skill!


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    sittet sat
    laget made
    tenkt thought
    smakt tasted
    truffet met, hit
    forsøkt tried, attempted
    lagt laid
    stått stood
    fulgt followed
    kjøpt bought
    betalt paid
    forlatt left, abandoned
    valgt chosen
    villet wanted
    hengt hung, hanged
    fortalt told, said
    hoppet jumped
    tvunget forced
    solgt sold
    tillatt permitted, allowed
    åpnet opened
    bestilt ordered
    skjedd happened, occurred
    stanset stopped, halted
    presentert presented
    stilt put, set, placed, asked
    kjent known
    burde should
    antatt assumed, presumed
    sluttet quit, stopped, ceased
    vasket washed, cleaned
    drukket drunk
  • 163885851107.12.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The Garden75 @ 25%6110/3
    bie · blomsterbed · busk · bær · frø · kompost · plante · port · rose · vanne
    10 words
  • 163920982711.12.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Industry75 @ 25%6130/4
    arbeider · bygger · elektrisk · energi · fabrikk · industri · kraftverk · produkt · produserer · vindmølle
    10 words

    Oljeeventyret

    Oljeeventyret, literally the petroleum fairy tale, is a word used to describe how we struck oil and the fairy-tale-like effect it had on what was then a country still rebuilding its economy after wartime. 1969, the year when the first oil well was found in Norwegian territory, is but a generation ago.


    Important Industries

    While it's been in decline for a few years already, the oil and gas industry is still Norway's most lucrative industry by far. Another important industry is the fishing industry, closely followed by the metal industry. All told, a little over 230,000 people work in the industry sector. Not a huge number, at less than 10% of the country's total workforce, but the value created is substantial.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    bygger build
    produserer produce
    arbeidet worked
    å øke to increase
    å utvikle to develop
    elektrisk electric, electrical
    automatisk automatic
    fornybar renewable
    et metall a metal
    en fabrikk a factory, a plant
    en ressurs a resource
    en industri an industry
    en arbeider a worker
    en energi an energy
    et produkt a product
    et kraftverk a power plant
    en leverandør a supplier
    en fase a phase
    et system a system
    en prosess a process
  • 163954950715.12.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Thought75 @ 25%6210/4
    ansvar · beslutning · blikk · blikkene · drøm · emne · emner · emnet · enighet · feil · foreslå · formål · formålet · forslag · forslaget · forståelse · fred · fremgang · håpet · illustrerer · kjærlighet · kjærligheten · later · latt · lot · lyve · løsning · løy · mareritt · mening · meningen · minne · minner · mulighet · mystisk · mystiske · ombestemt · ombestemte · omtenksomme · omtenksomt · oppfant · oppfunnet · opplysning · opplysningen · opplysninger · opplysningstiden · problem · problemer · problemet · samhold · samtale · syn · synet · tanke · tro · tåle · tåler · tålte · utenkelig · uvitende · valg · vare på · verdi · våkne · våkner · våknet · årsak · årsaken · årsaker · ønsker
    70 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å illustrere to illustrate
    å lyve to lie
    å foreslå to suggest
    å oppfinne to invent
    å ombestemme seg to change one's mind
    å tåle to tolerate, to bear, to put up with
    å late som to pretend
    å våkne to wake up
    utenkelig unthinkable
    omtenksom considerate
    mystisk mysterious, mystical
    uvitende ignorant
    en tanke a thought
    et minne a memory
    en/ei mening a meaning
    en verdi a value
    en årsak a reason
    en/ei mulighet an opportunity
    en forståelse an understanding
    et formål a purpose
    en/ei enighet an agreement
    et samhold a unity, a togetherness, a camaraderie
    en fremgang a step forward, a success
    en/ei beslutning a decision
    et emne a topic, a subject
    en hjerne a brain
    en opplysning a piece of information
  • 163981381218.12.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Theater75 @ 25%6220/3
    drama · dramatiker · opera · oppmerksomhet · rolle · scene · skuespill · teater · tragedie · underholdning
    10 words
  • 164006641021.12.2021 ••• Test out   1.001The Museum75 @ 25%6240/3
    galleri · historisk · høre til · maleri · museum · opprinnelse · samle · samling · statue · vakt
    10 words
  • 164033415924.12.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Amounts75 @ 25%6310/3
    antall · delvis · dobbel · flertall · gjenstå · halv · hundrevis · million · per · verdt
    10 words

    Amounts

    Since the words relating to numbers and amounts are often confused, we've compiled a small list for you:

    tall = the generic word for (cardinal) numbers
    siffer = digit, not the kind you have on your hands
    antall = number of something; quantity of countable noun
    mengde = an amount of something; a quantity of an uncountable noun,
    nummer = used for a number in an order, and for identification numbers, phone numbers, etc.
    ordenstall = ordinal number with ordinal ending

    Context Examples

    Hva er yndlingstallet ditt?
    What is your favorite number?

    Tallet hadde fem siffer.
    The number had five digits.
    It was a five-digit number.

    Et firesifret tall
    A four-digit number

    Et stort antall studenter
    A large number of students

    Antallet må økes.
    The number must be increased.

    Nedbørsmengden er stabil.
    The amount of precipitation is stable.

    Han er nummer fire.
    He is number four.

    Husnummeret vårt er 86.
    Our house number is 86.

    Vi trenger ditt fødselsnummer.
    We need your social security number.

    Hun kom på fjerdeplass.
    She came in fourth place.

    "Fjerde" er et ordenstall.
    "Fourth" is an ordinal number.


    Large Numbers

    There are a couple of things to pay attention to when expressing large numbers. Firstly, when translating "five million" or "eight billion" to Norwegian, you need to use the plural: fem millioner and åtte milliarder respectively.

    Another thing to note, is that a comma is used to separate decimals in Norwegian, 5.2 becomes 5,2. So, if you're looking to make large numerals more easily readable, you need to use spacing for that instead.

    Norwegian 10^X Numeral
    million 10^6 1 000 000
    milliard 10^9 1 000 000 000
    billion 10^12 1 000 000 000 000
    billiard 10^15 1 000 000 000 000 000

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å begrense to limit
    å gjenstå to remain
    å legge til to add
    å trekke fra to subtract
    per per
    delvis partially, in part
    hundrevis hundreds
    tusenvis thousands
    halv half
    dobbel double
    verdt worth
    halvveis halfway
    til sammen in total
    et antall a number (of something)
    en million a million
    en milliard a billion
    et flertall a majority
    en halvpart a half
    et mindretall a minority
    et gjennomsnitt an average
    en rest a rest, a leftover, a remainder
  • 164058178827.12.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Children75 @ 25%6320/3
    -åring · adoptere · barnevakt · barnevogn · bleie · gravid · lam · lekt · sovet · valp
    10 words
  • 164067013728.12.2021 ••• Test out   1.001Verbs: Modal Verbs75 @ 25%6410/1
    bør · får · la · måtte · skal · tør · tørre
    7 words

    Modal Verbs

    Below are four modals from previous lessons:

    Norwegian English
    kan can, be able to
    vil want to, will (willing to)
    have to, need to, must
    la let, allow

    And here are the new modals introduced in this chapter:

    Norwegian English
    skal shall, will (regardless of willingness)
    bør should, ought to
    får may, get to, be allowed to
    tør dare to

    All of the modal verbs above also have forms in the simple past, as shown below:

    Norwegian English
    kunne could, was able to
    ville wanted to, was going to (willing to)
    måtte had to, needed to
    skulle should, was going to (regardless of willingness)
    burde should have, ought to have
    fikk got to, was allowed to
    lot let, allowed
    turte dared to

    One of These Verbs Is Not Like the Other...

    The first rule of Modal Club is that a modal is followed by a bare infinitive, i.e. an infinitive without the infinitive marker "å".

    Jeg vil danse.
    Hun må dra.
    Vi skal gifte oss.

    However, the verb tør is the exception to that rule. The infinitive marker is optional following tør.

    Han tør ikke (å) bli med.

  • 164102435401.01.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Verbs: Past Perfect75 @ 25%6510/3
    dødd · funnet · gitt · glemt · gått · hadde · hørt · klart · kommet · levd · oppdaget · ringt · skrevet · skåret · tatt · trodd · visst
    17 words

    Past Perfect (aka Pluperfect)

    Oh dear, yet another tense. But do not worry! There is no new form of the verb to learn. The past perfect is identical to the present perfect, except for one small thing. The auxillary verb ha is in the past tense, hadde rather than in the present tense, har.

    The challenge is to know when to use it. The past perfect is used to talk things that happened before some other thing in the past.

    • Da jeg hadde spist, gikk jeg på skolen.
    • When I had eaten, I went to school.

    The past perfect is also used in indirect speech, when someone said something about the past in the past. That sounds confusing, but hopefully the following example will help:

    • Hun sa at hun hadde gått på skolen.
    • She said that she had gone to school.

    What we have to do to express past perfect in Norwegian, is to create a form of the verb, called the past participle, our friend from the present perfect. Then we combine this with the past form of ha, which is hadde.

    • Du sa at du hadde vasket hendene. (You said that you had washed your hands.)

    • Hun visste at de hadde kjørt bil. (She knew that they had driven a car.)

    • Da hun døde, hadde hun levd lenge. (When she died, she had lived for a long time.)

    • Da jeg hadde solgt henne en avis, gikk hun. (When I had sold her a newspaper, she left.)

    • Før det hadde jeg bodd i Oslo. (Before that, I had lived in Oslo.)


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    hadde had
    gått walked, gone
    hørt heard
    ringt called
    kommet come
    gitt given
    tatt taken
    klart managed, been able to
    skåret cut, carved
    funnet found
    skrevet written
    visst known
    levd lived
    dødd died
    trodd believed
    glemt forgot, forgotten
    oppdaget discovered
  • 164136190205.01.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Philosophy75 @ 25%6520/4
    ansvarlig · ansvarlige · diskutere · erfaring · faktum · filosof · filosofene · filosofi · fornuft · handling · illusjon · illusjons · klok · livsløgn · løgn · makten · menneskeheten · menneskehetens · påminnelsen · regel · sannhet · sannheten · sinn · teori · tvil · vilje · virkeligheten · virkeligheter · ærlig
    29 words

    Philosophy


    Livsløgn

    A livsløgn is a personal favorite untranslatable philosophical concept, invented by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen in the play Vildanden, or The Wild Duck. A løgn is a lie or an untruth, and the prefix livs- means of life. Therefore, a livsløgn is commonly translated as a life-lie. Ibsen defined a livsløgn as the central delusion we have in life that keeps us happy. It could be anything ranging from the conviction that you will become a famous Hollywood actor to the belief that your ex-spouse will change his/her mind and remarry you. Once the lie is exposed as such, a person is left without hope for the future, and becomes only a shell of a human being.

    Philosophy is not a science for the faint of heart.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å diskutere to discuss
    å innse to realize
    å misbruke to abuse
    å lure to wonder, to trick
    klok wise
    ærlig honest
    fornuftig reasonable
    vis wise (a little more profoundly than "klok")
    ærlig talt honestly
    en teori a theory
    en filosofi a philosophy
    en erfaring an experience
    en/ei løgn a lie
    en filosof a philosopher
    en fornuft a reason, a common sense
    en/ei sannhet a truth
    en eksistens an existence
    menneskeheten (m/f) humanity
    en/ei makt a power, a might
    et faktum a fact
    en/ei virkelighet a reality
    en/ei samvittighet a conscience
    en vilje a will
    et sinn a mind
    en kraft a power
    en bevissthet a consciousness
  • 164180738510.01.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Verbs Review75 @ 25%6620/5
    anbefalte · anta · bytte · bytter · erstatte · forandrer · forberede · forlate · forstå · importert · innføre · innfører · kjenne · like · på grunn av · sitte · sjekke · skifte · snu · spare · stoppe · tillate · tillater · treffer · unngå · øke
    26 words

    What is Verbs Review?

    Verbs Review is a set of action words using all the constructions and tenses introduced thus far. It is a grammatical review for the intermediate learner.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    da then
    den the one, (impersonal) he
    under during, in
    uten at without (that)
    noen gang ever
    på grunn av because of, due to
    å snu to turn around
    å treffe to meet, to hit
    å skifte to change
    å kjenne to know, to feel, to be familiar with
    å innføre to introduce, to put into place, to import
    å erstatte to replace
    å like to like
    å anta to assume, to presume
    å tillate to allow, to permit
    å sjekke to check
    å unngå to avoid
    å avbryte to interrupt
    å forvente to expect
    å lytte to listen
    å vare to last
    å spare to save
    å godta to accept
    å bevege (seg) to move
    å mangle to lack, to miss
    å senke to lower
    å dekke to cover, to deck
    å blande to blend, to mix
    å forberede to prepare
    å distrahere to distract
    å inneholde to contain
    å gjøre ferdig to finish, to complete
  • 164215492214.01.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Space75 @ 25%6710/4
    astronauten · astronautene · astronomen · astronomi · bane · basen · basene · beboelige · energi · enorm · etablert · etablerte · galakse · galakser · lyser · lyste · mysterium · månen · observerte · planet · planetens · romstasjonen · satellitt · satellitten · satellitter · smell · smellet · solsystem · solsystemet · solsystemets · stjerne · teleskop · teleskopet · tyngdekraft · ubeboelig · uendelig · univers · universer · universet · utenomjordisk · utforsker · verdensrommet · ytre
    43 words
  • 164249775118.01.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Destiny75 @ 25%6720/4
    avslutte · avslutter · begravelsen · bringe · drap · drepe · druknet · · død · døden · dødt · ende · endelig · evig · grav · graven · heldig · leve · lide · lykkelig · lykken · overleve · selvmord · sjel · skjebne · sørger · sørget · tapet · ære
    29 words
  • 164267372020.01.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Passive Voice 275 @ 25%6820/2
    avhørt · bli · elskes · elsket · født · kritiseres · nektes · s · trykkes · økes
    10 words

    The Passive Voice

    There are two ways to form the passive voice in Norwegian.

    You can form the passive with the verb bli, which usually means to become. You combine the conjugated verb with the past participle, just like in English. This is the more usual, less formal way of forming the passive, and the most likely to be spoken.

    Norwegian English
    Eplet blir spist. The apple is eaten.

    The other way to form the passive is with an -s ending on a verb. This method is more abstract, more formal, and more likely to appear in written texts.

    Norwegian English
    Eplet spises. The apple is eaten.

    Either passive form can be combined with future constructions (and the bli-form with past constructions) to change the tense of the passive verb.

    Norwegian English
    Eplet ble spist. The apple was eaten.
    Eplet skal bli spist. The apple will be eaten.
    Eplet skal spises. The apple will be eaten.

    Vocabulary
    å økes to be increased
    å elskes to be loved
    å nektes to be denied
    å trykkes to be printed
    å kritiseres to be criticized
    [s] assorted passive verbs
    født born
    elsket loved
    avhørt questioned
    trykket printed
    produsert produced
  • 164293432723.01.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Future75 @ 25%6910/3
    bestille · drikke · fungere · følge · gifte · glemme · henge · hindre · hvile · invitere · kommer · kommer til å · lete · miste · oppnå · ordne seg · overmorgen · påvirke · savne · skal · skje · skynde · slutte · stund · undervise · vil
    26 words

    Future

    Let's talk about the future. There are three different ways to express future in Norwegian.


    The Present Tense

    The present tense can be used to talk about the future, especially when it is certain. To make sure it is about the future we include some adverb specifying the time. For example:

    Jeg reiser i morgen.

    I am leaving tomorrow.

    Although the same kind of constructions exist in English they are a bit more common in casual Norwegian.


    Skal & Vil

    It is also possible to use the auxillary verbs skal and vil and the infinitve. In Norwegian, skal and vil are the equivalent of the English verbs shall and will, as in I shall or I will. Note that skal does not sound anyway near as formal as shall in English.

    Jeg skal ta eksamen til våren.

    I shall take the examination this spring.

    Det vil snø i fjellet.

    It will snow in the mountains.

    This construction can be used "modally" as well to express desire and obligation.

    Du skal gjøre leksene dine først.

    You shall do your homework first.

    Jeg vil ikke gå!

    I do not want to go!


    Kommer til

    The third way is to use kommer til with the infinitve of the verb. Kommer til is a bit hard to translate directly, but the closest equivalent would be going to. It is often used when making predictions about what is probably going to happen. In other words, often about things that you can't control.

    Jeg tror at det kommer til å regne i morgen.

    I think it is going to rain tomorrow.

    Hun kommer nok ikke til å like gaven.

    She is probably not going to like the gift.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    skal shall, am going to
    vil will, am going to
    å følge to follow
    å bestille to order
    å skynde seg to hurry
    å skje to happen
    å lete to search, to look
    å henge to hang
    å fungere to work, to function
    å hvile to rest
    å gifte (seg) to marry, to get married
    å slutte to stop, to quit
    å oppnå to achieve
    å påvirke to influence, to impact, to affect
    å invitere to invite
    overmorgen the day after tomorrow
    en/ei stund a while
  • 164326354027.01.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Sports75 @ 25%6930/4
    aktiv · ballen · bane · delta · idrett · kamp · lag · slalåm · sparke · spill · spiller · trener · treneren · vant · verdensmester · verdensmestere · vinner · volleyball · volleyballen
    19 words
  • 164360974531.01.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Exercise75 @ 25%7010/3
    aktiv · løfte · løpe · sliten · sterk · svett · svette · svømt · trene · trening
    10 words
  • 164405378305.02.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Weather75 @ 25%7020/5
    blåse · kulde · regn · regnbue · regnet · sky · termometer · tåke · vind · værvarsel
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    regnet rained
    å blåse to blow
    å varsle to forecast
    å skinne to shine
    å snø to snow
    mild mild
    ekstrem extreme
    solbrent sunburned
    glatt slippery, smooth
    en sky a cloud
    en vind a wind
    et regn a rain
    en regnbue a rainbow
    kulde (m/f) cold
    varme (m) warmth
    et værvarsel a weather forecast
    et termometer a thermometer
    en meteorolog a meteorologist
    et lyn a lightning
    hagl (n) hail
    en/ei tåke a fog
    nedbør (m) precipitation
    et uvær a storm, a bad weather
    en torden a thunder
    en frost a frost
    en/ei tørke a drought
    en/ei hetebølge a heatwave
    en temperatur a temperature
    en istapp an icicle
    et snøskred an avalanche
    en snøstorm a snow storm
  • 164438825309.02.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Games75 @ 25%7030/4
    alven · alvene · brettspill · dvergene · dverger · flaks · nivå · nå · riddere · ridderen · sjakk · skjold · slå · spillene · sverd · tape · terning · tur · vunnet · øksa
    20 words
  • 164474251513.02.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Literature75 @ 25%7110/4
    bestselger · figur · fortelling · helt · helten · leser · litteratur · metaforer · myte · novellene · rime · rimer · serie · sitat · skurk · tittel
    16 words
  • 164516656918.02.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Abstract Objects 275 @ 25%7120/5
    fordel · handling · hensikt · konsekvens · mangel · orden · respekt · tillegg · ulempe · unntak
    10 words
  • 164551410122.02.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Religion75 @ 25%7210/4
    bønn · gudinne · hellig · jødisk · moské · muslimsk · religion · religiøs · synagoge · tempel
    10 words

    Religion

    Norway is a country with an interesting religious history. It is a society that was Christianized relatively late in comparison to the rest of Western Europe, beginning in the 11th century with the martyrdom of St. Olaf.

    Along with Denmark, Sweden, and large swaths of Northern Germany, Lutheranism became the state religion of Norway in the first half of the 16th century, and most Norwegians remain nominally Lutheran to this day.

    Even though Lutheranism dominates Norwegian religious history, most Norwegians are somewhat if not entirely secular, with a sizable percentage of the population subscribing to atheism or agnosticism. The unaffiliated make up the second largest religious group after Lutheran Protestants.

    Islam and Roman Catholicism each are practiced by about 2.5% of the Norwegian population. There are many houses of worship for these religions and for several smaller communities as well, including from the Buddhist, Hindu, Sikh, Bahá'í, and Jewish religious traditions.


    Capitalization

    Yep, you guessed it, we don't capitalize religions either, nor are the adjectives derived from them capitalized.

    Norwegian English
    kristendom Christianity
    en kristen a Christian
    kristen Christian

    Gud will be capitalized when referring directly to God in the Abrahamic religions, such as in passages of the Bible or Quran, as it's then used as a proper noun, a name. However, gud should not be capitalized when referring to gods in general or to god as a concept.


    The Other Feminine Ending

    By now, you're well aware that Norwegian nouns have grammatical gender, and also that grammatical gender is unrelated to biological gender.

    However, certain nouns, typically profession names, do have an optional feminine ending which takes its cue from biological gender.

    We teach very few of the feminine versions in the course, as they're quickly disappearing from contemporary Norwegian in favour of their neutral (previously masculine) counterparts. In this skill, you get to learn one of the few pairs whose gendered forms still stand strong: "gud" (gender neutral, previously reserved for male deities) and "gudinne" (strictly for female deities).

    The "-inne" ending present in "gudinne" is one you will recognise in other word pairs with the option to differentiate based on biological gender, and we will list a few below. The split is still observed for titles of nobility, but becoming obsolete for profession titles.

    bestyrer - bestyrerinne
    beundrer - beundrerinne
    gud - gudinne (still common)
    greve - grevinne (still observed)
    hertug - hertuginne (still observed)
    keiser - keiserinne (still observed)
    maler - malerinne
    sanger - sangerinne
    skuespiller - skuespillerinne
    venn - venninne (still common)

    The ending persists through all declensions of the noun:

    en sangerinne - sangerinnen - sangerinner - sangerinnene


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    Tor Thor
    Odin Odin
    Frøya Freyja
    hellig holy
    jødisk Jewish
    religiøs religious
    muslimsk Muslim
    hinduistisk Hindu
    buddhistisk Buddhist
    kristen Christian
    katolsk Catholic
    protestantisk Protestant
    åndelig spiritual
    ateistisk atheist
    en/ei bønn a prayer
    et tempel a temple
    en religion a religion
    en/ei gudinne a goddess
    en moské a mosque
    en synagoge a synagogue
    en pave a pope
    en synd a sin
    et helvete a hell
    en kirkegård a graveyard, a churchyard
    en djevel a devil
    en mytologi a mythology
  • 164594109927.02.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Music75 @ 25%7310/5
    begeistring · begeistringen · fiolin · fløyte · genres · instrument · konserten · lyd · lytter · lyttere · piano · publikum · salen · sanger · taushet · tausheten · tromme · trommene · volum · øve
    20 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å øve to practice
    å inspirere to inspire
    å begeistre to thrill, to excite, to enthuse
    å imponere to impress
    sunget sung
    musikalsk musical
    en lyd a sound
    en fiolin a violin
    et instrument an instrument
    en/ei fløyte a flute
    en sanger a singer
    en/ei tromme a drum
    et publikum an audience
    et verk a piece, a work, an opus
    et bidrag a contribution
    en melodi a melody
    en rytme a rhythm
    et vers a verse
    et refreng a refrain
    en komponist a composer
    en sal a hall
    en symfoni a symphony
    et orkester an orchestra
    et volum a volume
    en tilhører a listener
    en musiker a musician
    en/ei begeistring an excitement, an enthusiasm
    [assorted genres] jazz, rock, opera, funk, blues...
  • 164628617003.03.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Emergency75 @ 25%7320/4
    behov · brann · brannbil · brannbilen · brems · bremsene · galt · hjelp · hjelpen · iverksetter · kontroll · krasje · legevakten · legevaktene · nød · nødbremsen · nødutgangene · nødutganger · nødvendig · nødvendige · omstendigheter · rope · skade · sykebil · sykehus · sykehuset · tiltak · ulykke · ulykken
    29 words
  • 164663054907.03.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Art75 @ 25%7410/4
    dans · detalj · drama · geni · hendelse · hendelsen · komedier · komikeren · komikerne · kreative · kunst · kunstner · mønster · prikk · regissøren · samler · samling · sjokkerte · skape · skaper · tegne · tusj · vitser
    23 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å skape to create
    å tegne to draw
    å male to paint
    kunstig artificial, fake
    talentfull talented
    briljant brilliant
    kunstnerisk artistic
    en kunst an art
    en kunstner an artist
    håndverk (n) handiwork, crafts
    en tusj a marker
    en prikk a dot
    en/ei tegning a drawing
    et mønster a pattern
    en detalj a detail
    en pensel a paint brush
    et design a design
    et geni a genius
    en dans a dance
    en/ei maling a paint
    et kamera a camera
    en/ei ramme a frame
    en bakgrunn a background
  • 164697647911.03.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Politics75 @ 25%7520/4
    bidra · motstander · parti · politisk · samarbeide · samfunn · strategi · streik · støtte · tale
    10 words

    Politics

    Norway is a centrally governed constitutional monarchy with a unicameral legislature in Oslo. The Norwegian Constitution was signed and dated on May 17, 1814. For this reason, Norwegians celebrate May 17th as their national holiday. The Constitution itself, which is still in use today, ranks among the oldest in the world.


    Parliamentary Parties of Norway

    The following is a list of parties that are currently represented in the Storting, also called the Norwegian Parliament.

    Norwegian English Ideology
    Arbeiderpartiet Labour Party Social Democracy
    Høyre Conservative Party (lit. Right) Liberal Conservatism
    Fremskrittspartiet Progress Party Right-Wing Populism
    Kristelig Folkeparti Christian Democratic Party Christian Democracy
    Senterpartiet Centre Party Centrism
    Venstre Liberal Party (lit. Left) Social Liberalism
    Sosialistisk Venstreparti Socialist Left Party Democratic Socialism
    Miljøpartiet De Grønne Green Party Green Politics
    Rødt Communist Party (lit. Red) Marxism & Socialism

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å fatte to get, to make (a decision)
    å bidra to contribute
    å representere to represent
    å føre to lead
    å samarbeide to cooperate, to collaborate
    å styre to steer, to govern
    å forsvare to defend
    å planlegge to plan
    politisk political
    ansvarlig responsible
    en tale a speech
    et parti a party
    et valg an election
    en stemme a vote
    et samfunn a community
    en motstander an opponent
    en streik a strike
    en strategi a strategy
    et fremskritt a progress
    et hat a hate
    et mangfold a diversity
    en nasjon a nation
    politikk (m) politics
  • 164732921715.03.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Health75 @ 25%7530/4
    blind · døv · hals · linse · nyse · pasient · reise seg · spytte · syn · tannlege
    10 words

    Implied Possessives

    In Norwegian, as in many other languages, body parts generally do not carry possessive pronouns. Instead, we use the definite form for all pronouns. Øyet can mean the eye, my eye, or your eye, etc. The person's body in question should be intuited from context.

    This is especially common when speaking about one's own body parts


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å nyse to sneeze
    å spytte to spit
    å kutte to cut
    å svelge to swallow
    å puste to breathe
    å reise seg to stand up, to get up, to rise
    døv deaf
    blind blind
    tykk thick, fat
    sunn healthy
    tynn thin, skinny
    fysisk physical, physically
    en hals a throat, a neck (front)
    en/ei helse a health
    en tannlege a dentist
    et syn a sight, a vision
    et kne a knee
    en/ei linse a (contact) lens
    en pasient a patient
    en sykepleier a nurse
    en mage a belly, a stomach
    en rygg a back
    en operasjon an operation
    en menstruasjon a period, a menstruation
  • 164775860020.03.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Media & Communication75 @ 25%7610/5
    artikkel · artikkelen · artikler · bekrefte · bekreftet · beskjed · brosjyre · brosjyren · dekning · fjern · fjernet · foregår · foregått · frimerke · frimerker · fylle · inntrykk · kildene · kontroversiell · kontroversielle · media · mottatt · mottok · nyheter · nyhetskanal · nyhetskanalen · overvåke · overvåker · overvåket · post · postkortet · ropte · skjema · skjemaer · skjemaet · spalte · spalten · søk · talskvinne · talsmann · talsmannen · talsperson · tekstmelding · tekstmeldinger · tilstand
    45 words
  • 164818669725.03.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Illness and Injury75 @ 25%7620/5
    behandling · blåmerke · brukket · gift · gro · hovne · kreft · røyke · smerte · sykdom
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å gro to heal, to grow
    å hovne to swell
    å røyke to smoke
    å slite to suffer, to struggle
    å forårsake to cause
    å besvime to pass out, to faint
    sårbar vulnerable
    kvalm nauseous, sick
    smittsom contagious, catching
    brukket broken
    smertefull painful
    giftig poisonous, venomous, toxic
    dødelig deadly, lethal
    skadelig harmful
    psykisk mental, psychological
    kronisk chronic
    en sykdom a disease, an illness
    en smerte a pain
    et blåmerke a bruise
    en kur a cure, a remedy
    en kreft a cancer
    en/ei behandling a treatment
    en/ei gift a poison, a venom, a toxin
    en/ei motgift an antidote
    en medisin a medicine
    et rusmiddel a drug, a narcotic, an intoxicant
    en angst an anxiety, an angst
    en lidelse an illness, a suffering
    en/ei bedring an improvement
    en depresjon a depression
    en infeksjon an infection
    et virus a virus
    en bakterie a bacterium
    et hjerteinfarkt a heart attack
  • 164844361328.03.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Government75 @ 25%7640/3
    demokrati · diktatur · kongerike · leder · myndighet · republikk · statsminister · stemme · storting · styreform
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    å stemme to vote
    Stortinget the Norwegian Parliament
    en/ei regjering a government
    en/ei styreform a form of government
    et demokrati a democracy
    en statsminister a prime minister
    en leder a leader
    en kandidat a candidate
    et diktatur a dictatorship
    en diktator a dictator
    en republikk a republic
    et kongerike a kingdom
    et parlament a parliament
    en myndighet an authority
    en/ei grunnlov a constitution
  • 164870151331.03.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Online75 @ 25%7710/3
    blogg · forum · innlegg · laste ned · lenke · nettadresse · nettside · profil · redigere · vedlegg
    10 words
  • 164896674203.04.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Measurements75 @ 25%7730/3
    avstand · hastighet · kilo · masse · mål · måle · omtrent · overflate · veie · vekt
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    å måle to measure
    å veie to weigh
    omtrent around, roughly
    overfladisk superficial
    et mål a measurement
    en avstand a distance
    en/ei hastighet a speed
    et kilo a kilo
    en/ei vekt a weight
    en masse a mass
    en/ei overflate a surface
    en grad a degree
    en dybde a depth
    en bredde a width, a breadth
    en/ei virkning an effect, an influence, an impact
    en centimeter a centimeter
  • 164939174908.04.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Conflict75 @ 25%7810/5
    angripe · falle · hjel · hær · kjempe · kreve · seier · sikkerhet · skyte · våpen
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å kreve to demand
    å kjempe to fight, to battle, to struggle
    å falle to fall
    å hindre to hinder, to prevent, to obstruct
    å skyte to shoot
    å herske to rule
    å nekte to deny
    å bombe to bomb
    å beskytte to protect
    å spionere to spy
    å undertrykke to oppress
    å frigjøre to liberate
    å angripe to attack
    å invadere to invade
    å gjennomføre to carry out, to go through with, to implement
    i hjel to death
    modig brave
    kynisk cynical
    motsatt opposite
    et våpen a weapon
    sikkerhet (m/f) security, safety
    en hær an army
    en seier a victory
    en soldat a soldier
    en hevn a revenge
    en kriger a warrior
    et gevær a rifle
    et skytevåpen a firearm
    en flyktning a refugee
    en borgerkrig a civil war
    en revolusjon a revolution
  • 164982565213.04.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Law75 @ 25%7910/4
    anklage · dommer · lov · rett · rettighet · selvstendig · skyld · trussel · ulovlig · vitne
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å dømme to judge
    å anklage to accuse
    å mistenke to suspect
    å grunnlegge to found
    å skjule to hide
    å innrømme to admit
    å få/ha lov til to be allowed, to have permission
    i etterkant av after, in the wake of
    ulovlig illegal
    selvstendig independent
    uskyldig innocent
    troverdig credible, believable
    en lov a law
    en/ei rettighet a right
    en dommer a judge
    en/ei skyld a blame, a guilt
    en trussel a threat
    en rett a right
    et bevis a proof, a piece of evidence
    en tillatelse a permission
    en dom a verdict, a judgement
    en domstol a court
    en/ei unnskyldning an apology
    en/ei straff a punishment
    et vitne a witness
  • 165018186917.04.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Present Participles75 @ 25%7920/4
    avgjørende · blivende · deprimerende · døende · fengende · flygende · flytende · forvirrende · fungerende · givende · gjenværende · grunnleggende · gående · hengende · imponerende · irriterende · kommende · lekende · levende · liggende · lignende · løpende · nåværende · overraskende · passende · rasende · sittende · sjokkerende · skuffende · snakkende · sovende · spennende · svømmende · tilsynelatende · underholdende · utelukkende
    36 words
  • 165051620621.04.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Science75 @ 25%8000/4
    alkoholen · avstanden · beholdere · beholderen · består · bevege · bevegelse · beveget · centimeter · detalj · ekspert · ekspertene · elektrisitet · elektrisk · elektriske · enhet · enheter · forbindelsen · forbindelser · forsker · forskerne · fysikk · hastighet · kilo · konklusjon · konklusjonen · kraftverk · kraftverket · laboratorium · løftet · mangler · masse · matematikk · merkelig · metode · mål · måler · nobelprisen · oppdage · oppdagelse · oppdagelsen · oppdaget · oppfinnelse · oppfinnelsen · overfladisk · overflaten · prikk · rister · ristet · senket · skifte · skiftende · skifter · stikkontakt · teknikk · teknikken · teknikker · teknologi · temperaturer · teste · undersøker · undersøkt · undersøkte · utvikle · utvikler · veier · vekt · vitenskap · volum
    69 words
    Vocabulary Tree 4
    å utvikle to develop
    å teste to test
    å undersøke to examine, to research
    å bestå to consist of, to comprise
    å oppdage to discover
    effektiv effective, efficient
    en ekspert an expert
    en forsker a scientist, a researcher
    en vitenskap a science
    en teknologi a technology
    matematikk (m) mathematics
    fysikk (m) physics
    en teknikk a technique
    en konklusjon a conclusion
    en/ei oppdagelse a discovery
    et laboratorium a laboratory
    en enhet a unit
    biologi (m) biology
    en metode a method
    en beholder a container, a canister
    en forbindelse a connection
    en gass a gas
    en/ei væske a liquid, a fluid
    forskning (m/f) research
    kjemi (m) chemistry
    elektrisitet (m) electricity
    en oppfinnelse an invention
  • 165078757024.04.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Crime75 @ 25%8020/3
    begå · gissel · kriminalitet · kriminell · morder · politi · pågripe · sjokkere · skade · true
    10 words

    Passive Participles

    Passive participles are past participles that act like adjectives. That means that unlike past participles, they are declined for gender, number, and definite or indefinite form.

    Norwegian English
    en stengt dør a closed door
    den stengte døren the closed door
    stengte dører closed doors
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å true to threaten
    å skade to hurt, to harm, to injure
    å begå to commit
    å pågripe to arrest
    å sjokkere to shock
    å overvåke to surveil
    å straffe to punish, to discipline
    å merke to notice
    å rømme to escape
    kriminell criminal
    et politi a police
    en forbrytelse a crime
    kriminalitet (m) criminality
    et gissel a hostage
    en morder a murderer
    vold (m) violence
    en fange a prisoner, a captive
    et fengsel a prison
  • 165094877226.04.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Conditional75 @ 25%8030/2
    blitt · endret · gitt · gjort · gått · kjøpt · kunne · lest · ringt · skadet · skrevet · spist · svart · var · ville · vært
    16 words
  • 165103403627.04.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Future Perfect75 @ 25%8110/1
    bestemt · funnet · innen · lært · ringt
    5 words

    The Future Perfect

    The Norwegian future perfect is formed by combining the helping verb vil or kommer til å with the present perfect, which is ha in addition to the past participle. Take a look at some examples, which translate directly word-for-word.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg vil ha spist. I will have eaten.
    Du vil ha lest. You will have read.
    Hun vil ha funnet boken. She will have found the book.
  • 165146537802.05.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Wilderness75 @ 25%8120/5
    blad · dal · eik · eng · foss · gren · rot · sti · vill · villmark
    10 words

    Wilderness

    One seldom has to walk very far to reach what feels like untouched wilderness in Norway. However, unless you're high up in the mountains, chances are that you're actually standing on what was once someone's field, pasture, hunting grounds, or source of peat or firewood.

    Originally, most of the woods in Norway consisted either of pine trees or of deciduous trees. The large areas of spruce that now dominate, and look like they've always been there, were actually planted by humans just a few generations back.


    Come Warm Yourself by the Fire

    By now, you've already learned the general term for fire as a concept and a controlled resource, ild. You're also familiar en brann, which is an uncontrolled, destructive fire, as well as with the number for the fire department in Norway, 110.

    The third term for a fire is for bonfires specifically, et bål. Note that you may only make bonfires out in the woods between September 15. and April 15. This is a precaution against forest fires during the drier summer months.


    Camping

    As mentioned in the Nature skill, everyone enjoys the right of access to uncultivated land in the countryside. This means that you can also camp pretty much anywhere you want to in the woods and mountains. Just leave the spot like you found it.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å grave to dig
    å kartlegge to map
    å klatre to climb
    vill wild
    dyp deep
    underjordisk underground, subterranean
    en dal a valley, a dale
    en/ei eng a field
    en foss a waterfall
    et blad a leaf, a blade
    en/ei gren a branch
    en/ei villmark a wilderness
    en sti a path
    en/ei eik an oak tree
    en/ei rot a root
    en/ei furu a pine tree
    et ekorn a squirrel
    en stamme a trunk
    en/ei felle a trap
    et spor a track
    en hjort a deer
    en jeger a hunter
    en/ei stillhet a silence
    en rev a fox
    en/ei søle a mud
    en/ei hule a cave
    et nordlys polar lights (plurale tantum)
    en leir a camp
    et bål a bonfire
    ved (m) firewood
    en fyrstikk a match
    en solnedgang a sunset
  • 165181258806.05.2022 ••• Test out   1.001The City75 @ 25%8210/4
    beliggenhet · benker · bensinstasjonen · bensinstasjonens · bergen · brannstasjon · brannstasjonen · fontene · fontenen · fortauene · fotgjengeren · fotgjengerfeltet · fotgjengerne · garasjen · gatelyset · innbyggere · innbyggerne · jernbanestasjonen · kjøpesenteret · klubbens · krysser · krysset · kvartalet · leverer · levert · leverte · marked · minnesmerke · minnesmerket · nabolag · offentlig · offentlige · oslo · parkere · parkeringsplass · parkerte · passasjer · passasjerene · politistasjonen · rulletrapp · rulletrappen · rulletrapper · rådhus · rådhuset · sentrum · statuer · stavangers · syklistene · syklister · torg · trafikklysene · trondheim · tunneler · vandrerhjemmet · vandrerhjemmets
    55 words
  • 165215986410.05.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Academics75 @ 25%8310/4
    akademi · analyse · begrep · definere · formel · forske · grunnleggende · løse · prosjekt · studere
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å forske to research
    å studere to study
    å definere to define
    å løse to solve
    å analysere to analyze
    å fokusere to focus
    grunnleggende fundamental, basic
    akademisk academic
    obligatorisk obligatory, mandatory
    et begrep a concept, a term
    en analyse an analysis
    et prosjekt a project
    et akademi an academy
    en formel a formula
    et semester a semester, a term
    en definisjon a definition
    en suksess a success
    et seminar a seminar
    en eksamen an exam
    psykologi (m) psychology
  • 165250855614.05.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Traffic75 @ 25%8320/4
    bensin · fart · flygende · gående · krysse · rundkjøring · sete · svinge · trafikklys · tunnel
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    å gå to run (used about engines etc.)
    å svinge to swing, to turn
    å krysse to cross
    å rekke to make in time, to reach
    flygende flying
    gående walking, pedestrian
    bensin (m) gas, petrol
    et dekk a tyre
    et drivstoff a fuel
    en fart a speed
    en tunnel a tunnel
    en/ei rundkjøring a roundabout, a rotary
    forurensning (m/f) pollution
    et sete a seat
    et trafikklys a traffic light
    en passasjer a passenger
    en overgang a transition
    en bensinstasjon a gas station
    en/ei fartsgrense a speed limit
    et fortau a sidewalk
    en syklist a cyclist
    en snarvei a shortcut
    et gatelys a streetlight
    en fotjenger a pedestrian
    et førerkort a driver's license
    et fotgjengerfelt a pedestrian crossing
  • 165276346517.05.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Style75 @ 25%8410/3
    frisør · hårklipp · krympe · krølle · kvalitet · mote · sminke · smykke · trang · utseende
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å krympe to shrink
    løs loose
    trang tight
    rutete checkered
    stripete striped, stripy
    elegant elegant
    en mote a fashion
    en frisør a hairdresser
    en/ei krølle a curl
    sminke (m/f) make-up
    et utseende a look
    en hårklipp a haircut
    en stil a style
    en kvalitet a quality
    et smykke a piece of jewelry
    en/ei skjønnhet a beauty
    en bart a mustache
    skinn (n) leather, hide
  • 165312181221.05.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Identity75 @ 25%8420/4
    -fil · borger · dialekt · etternavn · identitet · legitimasjon · maske · morsmål · press · same
    10 words
  • 165354628526.05.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Business75 @ 25%8430/5
    budsjett · disk · gjeld · handel · kjede · kjøp · prosent · selskap · skatt · tilbud
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å avlyse to cancel
    å minke to reduce
    å importere to import
    å avslå to reject
    travel busy
    frivillig voluntary
    verdifull valuable
    en skatt a tax
    en/ei gjeld a debt
    et tilbud an offer
    en prosent a percent, a percentage
    et selskap a company
    et budsjett a budget
    en disk a counter, a till
    et kjøp a purchase
    en/et kjede a chain
    en handel a transaction
    en tjeneste a service
    et varemerke a brand
    en konkurranse a contest
    en/ei lønn a salary, a wage
    en kontrakt a contract
    en etterspørsel a demand
    forretningsfolk (n) businesspeople
    et skilt a sign
    en ansatt an employee
    et samarbeid a cooperation, a collaboration
    en rabatt a discount
    en kostnad a cost
    et monopol a monopoly
    korrupsjon (m) corruption
  • 165388384930.05.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Food 275 @ 25%8510/4
    agurk · allergisk · bananer · bringebær · bringebærsyltetøyet · brødskivene · brødskiver · bær · deilig · drue · ekkel · ekkelt · favorittpålegg · fløte · frokostblanding · frokostblandingen · gryterett · gryteretten · gulrot · gulrøttene · gulrøtter · kjøleskapet · kjøttkakene · knekkebrød · kålen · løk · løker · mais · matpakken · ostehøvel · poteter · pølser · rest · salat · salaten · saus · sennep · serviett · serviettene · skinke · smak · smakte · smør · smørepålegg · storfekjøtt · svinekjøtt · syltetøy · vaffel · vaflene · vårruller
    50 words
  • 165423111703.06.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Emotions75 @ 25%8520/4
    anelse · behagelig · hatefull · moro · nyte · rasende · savnet · sinne · sjokkerende · trøste
    10 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    savnet missed
    å nyte to enjoy
    å trøste to comfort
    å skuffe to disappoint
    sjokkerende shocking
    behagelig comfortable
    rasende furious
    hatefull hateful
    engstelig anxious, worried
    ubeskrivelig indescribable
    irriterende annoying
    koselig cozy
    fredelig peaceful
    skuffende disappointing
    gøy fun, funny
    pinlig embarrassing, awkward
    følsom sensitive
    takknemlig thankful, grateful
    et sinne an anger
    moro (m/f) fun
    en anelse an inkling, an idea
    en/ei stemning a mood, an atmosphere
    en klem a hug
  • 165466123208.06.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Adverbs 375 @ 25%8620/5
    altså · an · daglig · deretter · derfor · derimot · ellers · engang · etterpå · faktisk · forholdsvis · forresten · fort · heldigvis · hittil · i alle fall · knapt · lenger · like · likevel · midt · nettopp · noensinne · nylig · omtrent · opprinnelig · plutselig · på forhånd · rett og slett · riktig · samtidig · selv · simpelthen · sist · stadig · straks · særlig · temmelig · tidsnok · uansett · vekk · videre
    42 words

    Adverbs

    In Norwegian, adverbs usually follow the verb.

    Norwegian English
    Du snakker godt norsk! You speak Norwegian well!

    One exception is that adverbs of time often appear at the end of the sentence or clause.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg har tid . I have time now.

    Another exception is related to the V-2 Rule in Germanic linguistics, which applies to all Germanic languages... besides English. You can see a rare instance of it in English in the expression here comes the bus. This rule states that all sentences that are statements, in other words not questions, must have a verb in the second position. This allows for some flexibility in the word order for emphasis, but don't get crazy.

    Norwegian English
    Jeg har tid . I have time now.
    Jeg har tid. I now have time.
    har jeg tid. Now I have time.

    The final example is a demonstration of the V-2 Rule. When the adverb moved to the front of the statement, the subject moved to the other side of the verb har. This is because Norwegian verbs refuse to move from the second position in statements.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å gå an to be possible
    å legge an på to hit on, to flirt with
    ellers else, otherwise
    riktig really, properly, correctly
    faktisk actually, in fact
    derimot on the other hand
    i alle fall at least
    rett og slett simply, plain and simple
    plutselig suddenly
    knapt barely
    hittil thus far, so far
    tydelig clearly, clear
    straks (very) soon, shortly, straight away
    stadig constantly, ever more, more and more
    videre further, on(ward)
    samtidig simultaneously, at the same time
    altså therefore, then
    særlig especially
    likevel still, after all
    tidsnok in time
    fremover forward, forth
    temmelig rather
    på forhånd in advance
    vekk away, gone
    nylig recently
    derfor therefore, why
    engang even
    noensinne ever
    forresten by the way
    opprinnelig originally
  • 165500925712.06.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Banking75 @ 25%8710/4
    akseptere · aksepterer · akseptert · aksepterte · aksjer · avgift · avgiften · avtale · bilindustri · bilindustrien · børs · børsen · børsene · fattigdom · finansierer · finansiert · finansierte · forfremmet · formue · formuen · forsikring · global · grådig · grådige · inntekt · inntekter · investering · investeringer · konkurs · kredittkortet · leverandør · leverandører · lån · lånet · lås · låst · låste · organisasjon · overskudd · privat · regnskapsføreren · rente · renten · sløs · sløse · sløste · styre · styret · tjene · tjener · tjente · underskudd · undervurder · undervurderte · varemerke · veksler · vekslet · økonomi · økonomiene · økonomisk
    60 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å undervurdere to underestimate
    å anslå to estimate
    å akseptere to accept
    å sløse to waste, to squander
    å veksle to exchange
    å finansiere to finance
    grådig greedy
    privat private
    konkurs bankrupt
    et styre a board
    en/ei rente an interest
    en formue a fortune
    en økonomi an economy
    en/ei forsikring an insurance
    en fattigdom a poverty
    en investering an investment
    et lån a loan
    en avtale a deal, an agreement, an appointment
    en organisasjon an organization
    en regnskapsfører a bookkeeper
    en børs a stock exchange
    en aksje a stock
    et overskudd a surplus, a profit
    et underskudd a deficit, a loss
    en/ei avgift a fee, a tax
    en valuta a currency
  • 1691875700 ••• Test out   1.001The Body75 @ 25%8720/4
    albue · albuen · albuer · arret · bart · bein · brystene · brystet · fregner · håndledd · håndleddene · håndleddet · hælene · kinn · ledd · leddet · leppe · lever · lungene · muskler · negl · neglene · nervene · nerver · nyrene · ryggrad · ryggraden · rynke · rynker · skjeletter · skulder · tannkjøtt · tannkjøttet · tomler · tommel · øyelokk · øyelokket
    37 words

    Implied Possessives

    In Norwegian, as in many other languages, body parts generally do not carry possessive pronouns. Instead, we use the definite form for all pronouns. Øyet can mean the eye, my eye, or your eye, etc. The person's body in question should be intuited from context.

    This is especially common when speaking about one's own body parts


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    naken naked
    et bein a bone
    et ledd a joint
    en negl a nail
    en albue an elbow
    en/ei skulder a shoulder
    en tommel a thumb
    et håndledd a wrist
    et kinn a cheek
    en/ei rynke a wrinkle
    en/ei leppe a lip
    en/ei panne a forehead
    en/ei fregne a freckle
    et øyelokk an eyelid
    et øyenbryn an eyebrow
    et lår a thigh
    et arr a scar
    en hæl a heel
    en nerve a nerve
    et ribbein a rib
    et skjelett a skeleton
    en ryggrad a spine
    en/ei/et nyre a kidney
    en/ei lever a liver
    et bryst a chest, a breast
    en/ei lunge a lung
    tannkjøtt (n) gums
  • 165569927320.06.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Cooking75 @ 25%8810/3
    basilikum · bønnene · eddik · fersk · honning · hvitløk · ingrediens · ingredienser · kaffebønner · koke · kokebok · kokende · kokes · krydder · krydre · krydrer · mel · melet · mikrobølgeovn · mikrobølgeovnen · nøtt · olivenene · olivenolje · oppskrift · oppskriften · ovn · riseddik · smeltet · smule · smuler · sopp · soppen · soppene · spiselig · steke · stekt · urt
    37 words
    Vocabulary
    å koke to boil
    å steke to fry
    å krydre to season, to spice (up)
    å smelte to melt
    fersk fresh
    smakfull tasty, delicious, tasteful
    spiselig edible, eatable
    raw, uncooked
    et mel a flour
    en smule a crumb
    en sopp a mushroom
    en/ei kokebok a cookbook
    en/ei oppskrift a recipe
    en ingrediens an ingredient
    en ovn an oven
    en/ei bønne a bean
    en mikrobølgeovn a microwave oven
    en/ei nøtt a nut
    en eddik a vinegar
    en hvitløk a garlic
    et krydder a spice, a seasoning
  • 165595909723.06.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Tools75 @ 25%8820/3
    drill · drillen · driller · hammer · hammere · hammeren · kasse · kassen · kassene · praktisk · redskap · redskaper · sag · skrue · skruen · skrutrekkere · snekkere · snekkeren · snekkerne · spiker · stige · verksted · verkstedet · verktøy · verktøyet
    25 words
  • 165622677126.06.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Romance75 @ 25%8830/3
    attraktiv · attraktive · avvist · blikk · ekteskap · flørt · flørtet · forelsket · forlove · forlovet · giftet · gjengjelde · gjengjeldte · intens · kjær · kjære · kjært · kose · koser · kysse · lengte · lengtet · lidenskap · lidenskapen · overnatte · overnatter · overnattet · partner · partnere · romantisk · romantiske · samboeren · samboerskap · skilles · tiltrekning · ugift · ugifte
    37 words
  • 1691875700 ••• Test out   1.001Wildlife75 @ 25%8910/2
    art · fange · fjær · flaggermus · frosk · jage · jakte · pingvin · tiger · vinge
    10 words
    Vocabulary
    å jage to chase, to hunt
    å fange to catch
    å jakte to hunt
    en/ei fjær a feather
    en vinge a wing
    en pingvin a penguin
    en/ei flaggermus a bat
    en art a species
    en tiger a tiger
    en frosk a frog
    en/ei padde a toad
    et pattedyr a mammal
  • 165647706529.06.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Continuous Forms75 @ 25%8920/1
    driver · holder på · ligger · sitter · sto · står
    6 words
  • 165683621803.07.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Adjectives 375 @ 25%9020/4
    annerledes · avhengig · barnslig · beskjedne · bred · brukket · ekte · fjern · frekt · gammeldags · gift · grei · greit · grusom · grusomme · hemmelig · hemmelige · høflige · ille · interessert · kraftig · mandig · middelmådig · moderne · nysgjerrig · nyttig · nær · opptatt · selvfølgelig · sjenert · smal · smaleste · smalt · stille · stillere · tradisjonelle · troverdig · tydelig · tålmodig · utmerket · våken · våt
    42 words

    Adjectives

    Norwegian adjectives change for gender, number, indefinite and definite forms. Let's take a look at adjectives joined to nouns by the phrase to be, starting with the adjective stor, which means big or great.


    The Indefinite Form

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine En stol er stor. A chair is big.
    Feminine Ei bok er stor. A book is big.

    So far, so good. There is no change to the adjective in either masculine or feminine form.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Neuter Et bord er stort. A table is big.
    Plural Hus er store. Houses are big.

    As you can see above, the neuter noun changes the spelling of stor to include a -t ending, and the plural noun changes stor to include an -e ending. This pattern applies to most adjectives in the indefinite form, as shown below.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine en stor stol a big chair
    Feminine ei stor bok a big book
    Neuter et stort bord a big table
    Plural store hus big houses

    Many adjectives ending in -ig or -sk, like viktig and norsk, do not sound pleasant with a -t ending. This is why we do not add a -t to these specific adjectives in the neuter form.

    Norwegian English
    et viktig brev an important letter
    et norsk hus a Norwegian house

    We do still add the -e ending in the plural form, however!

    Norwegian English
    viktige brev important letters
    norske hus Norwegian houses

    The Definite Form

    The simple thing about adjectives in the definite form is that the endings are almost all the same.

    Most adjectives in the definite form end in -e.

    In addition to the noun transitioning into the definite form, we place an additional word before the adjective in the definite form. This word changes depending on gender and number, as you see below.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den store stolen the big chair
    Feminine den store boka the big book
    Neuter det store bordet the big table
    Plural de store husene the big houses

    Missing Endings in Old and Famous Names

    As students of Danish may be aware, the postfixes after the nouns above are absent in Danish, and as a legacy of Danish colonialism, some Norwegian phrases lack the noun endings shown in the table above. These words are generally famous titles or institutions, such as The White House or The French Academy. See how they operate below.

    Norwegian English
    Det franske akademi The French Academy
    Det hvite hus The White House

    Note that det hvite huset can also mean the white house, just not the one the US President lives inside.


    Combining Possessive Pronouns with Adjectives

    There are two ways to combine possessive pronouns with adjectives. The possessive pronoun can either follow the noun in the definite form or precede the adjective. Let's take a look at how this works.

    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine den store stolen min my big chair
    Feminine den store boka mi my big book
    Neuter det store bordet mitt my big table
    Plural de store husene mine my big houses
    Gender Norwegian English
    Masculine min store stol my big chair
    Feminine mi store bok my big book
    Neuter mitt store bord my big table
    Plural mine store hus my big houses

    In the second set of examples, notice how the adjective endings are all -e, just like in the definite form, but the nouns have no endings, just like in the indefinite form. In a sense, this second method of combining possessive pronouns and adjectives is a blending of grammar rules.


    Vocabulary Tree 4
    nær near, close
    smal narrow
    kraftig strong, powerful
    grusom gruesome, terrible
    selvfølgelig obvious, of course
    bred wide
    fjern far
    barnslig childish, immature
    grei okay, passable
    opptatt occupied, taken, busy
    avhengig dependent
    utmerket exquisite, remarkable
    ytre outer
    høflig polite
    nysgjerrig curious
    beskjeden modest, reserved, shy
    [-lig] adjective ending + assorted adjectives
    frekk rude
    indre inner
    sosial social
    nyttig useful
    middelmådig mediocre, middling
  • 165699679505.07.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Passive Participles75 @ 25%9110/2
    forbudt · forbudte · forsinket · forvirret · imponert · invitert · involvert · overrasket · spist · stengt · stengte · stjålet · åpnet
    13 words

    Passive Participles

    Welcome to another lesson in the magical world of participles!

    Passive participles are past participles that act like adjectives. That means that unlike past participles, they are declined for gender, number, and definite or indefinite form.

    Norwegian English
    en stengt dør a closed door
    den stengte døren the closed door
    stengte dører closed doors

    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    spist eaten
    åpnet opened
    stjålet stolen
    forsinket delayed
    involvert involved
    overrasket surprised
    stengt closed, shut
    invitert invited
    forbudt illegal
    forvirret confused
    imponert impressed
  • 165725464008.07.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Dessert75 @ 25%9120/3
    bake · baker · baker · bakeren · bakeri · bakerier · bolle · bollene · boller · dessert · eplepai · fløte · godteri · kaken · kakene · kaker · kanel · kjeks · kjeksene · krem · lefsa · lefse · pai · sjokolade · sjokoladen · smultringer
    26 words
  • 165768580813.07.2022 ••• Test out   1.001The Sea75 @ 25%9210/5
    akkar · akkaren · akvariet · atlanterhavet · blekkspruten · blåskjell · finne · finner · fiske · fisker · hai · haien · hval · hvalen · hvalrossen · isfjell · isfjellet · kamskjell · kapteinen · laks · laksen · lugar · lugarene · manet · maneten · mannskap · mannskapet · måken · måkene · måker · om bord · omkom · reker · rekesmørbrød · saltvann · sank · seiler · seilte · sel · selen · selene · sild · sjøstjerne · sjøstjernen · sjøstjernene · skalldyr · skjell · stillehavet · sunket · sursild · torsk
    51 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å fiske to fish
    å svømme to swim
    å seile to sail
    å drukne to drown
    å synke to sink
    å omkomme to perish, to die
    ombord on board, aboard
    en hai a shark
    en laks a salmon
    en hval a whale
    en torsk a cod
    en manet a jellyfish
    en/ei sjøstjerne a starfish
    en sel a seal
    en finne a fin
    en/ei gjelle a gill
    en/ei måke a seagull
    en/ei krabbe a crab
    saltvann (n) saltwater
    en blekksprut an octopus
    en/ei sild a herring
    en/ei reke a shrimp
    et skjell a shell
    et blåskjell a (blue) mussel
    et akvarium an aquarium
    et kamskjell a scallop
    en kyst a coast
    en/ei havn a port
    en marine a navy
    en lugar a cabin
    et isfjell an iceberg
    en kaptein a captain
    et mannskap a crew
    Stillehavet the Pacific Ocean
    Atlanterhavet the Atlantic ocean
  • 165777047514.07.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Future Preterite75 @ 25%9310/1
    gjort · gått · skulle · spist
    4 words

    Future Preterite

    The future preterite is used about time and also modally.

    About time it is used about something in the past that is going to happen after something else also in the past.

    Etter at de hadde stått opp, skulle de spise frokost. After they had woken up, they were going to eat breakfast.

    Similarly, it is used modally in hypothetical statements:

    Hvis han vant, ville han reise jorden rundt. If he won, he would travel around the world.

    And also when expressing wishes and polite speech:

    Jeg skulle ønske det virket I should wish it worked.

    The future preterite is expressed using the auxiliary verbs skulle and ville and the infinitive. That's right, the same as in the future tense except our friends skal og vil are in the past.


    Vocabulary
    skulle should
    gått gone, walked
    spist eaten
    gjort done, made
  • 165803447817.07.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Absence75 @ 25%9320/3
    fargeløs · fargeløse · fargeløst · forsvarsløs · grenseløs · grenseløse · hjelpeløs · hjelpeløse · hjemløs · håpløs · maktesløs · maktesløse · målløs · smakløs · smakløse · søvnløse · tankeløse · tankeløst · tidløs · trådløs · verdiløs · verdiløse
    22 words

    Adjectives of Absence

    You've already learned the adjective ending -full, used to indicate the presence of a quality or thing. It's a component of words like smakfull, tasty, håpefull, hopeful, and verdifull, valuable.

    In this skill, you'll be introduced to the ending -løs, which is used to the opposite effect: to indicated the absence of a quality or thing. In the vast majority of cases, it translates directly to -less in English. One example would be håpløs, which translates to hopeless.

    While many of these adjectives have negative connotations, as is the case for hjelpeløs, helpless, and verdiløs, worthless, that's not a requirement. Take the adjective tidløs, timeless, for example.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    håpløs hopeless
    hjelpeløs helpless
    grenseløs boundless, limitless
    maktesløs powerless
    forsvarsløs defenseless
    tidløs timeless
    trådløs wireless, threadless
    verdiløs worthless
    fargeløs colorless
    smakløs tasteless, bland
    målløs speechless
    søvnløs sleepless
    hjemløs homeless
    tankeløs thoughtless
    bevisstløs unconscious
  • 165829240120.07.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Materials75 @ 25%9410/3
    bomull · bomullsstoff · diamant · diamanten · diamantene · diamanter · grunnstoff · grunnstoffer · jern · kobber · kvikksølv · leire · materiale · mineral · mineraler · papp · pappeska · pappeske · silke · silkekjole · smi · smidde · stoff · strikke · strikker · stål · stålbrua · stålull · sy · sølv · sølvmynt · ull · ulla · ullgenser
    34 words
  • 165846395822.07.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Bugs75 @ 25%9420/2
    bien · bille · billene · flue · flått · flåtten · flåtter · humla · humle · humler · insekt · kryper · loppene · lus · lusa · marihøne · marihøner · mygg · sommerfugl · sommerfuglene · sommerfugler · stikke · stikker · stukket · veps · øyenstikker · øyenstikkere
    27 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å stikke to sting
    en/ei flue a fly
    en/ei bille a beetle
    et insekt an insect
    en/ei humle a bumblebee
    en/ei marihøne a ladybug, a ladybird
    en øyenstikker a dragonfly
    en/ei lus a louse
    en flått a tick
    en veps a wasp
    en mygg a mosquito
    en/ei loppe a flea
  • 165864903324.07.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Symbols75 @ 25%9430/2
    alfabet · bokstav · bokstaver · halvmåne · kors · korset · metafor · mur · murene · parentes · pil · pilene · punktum · skrift · spørsmålstegn · symbol · tegn
    17 words

    Punctuation

    While the punctuation system in Norwegian is, thankfully, very similar to that of English, there are a few notable exceptions.

    Firstly, Oxford commas are not used. If you're genuinely afraid you'll be misunderstood, you're free to add one, but if it's just a stylistic choice you have to let it go.

    Norwegian Oxford English
    Hun brukte et spørsmålstegn, et utropstegn og et punktum. She used a question mark, an exclamation mark, and a period.

    Punctuation in Numbers

    Norwegian uses a comma ("et komma") rather than a decimal point to separate a whole number from a decimal.

    Norwegian Pronunciation English
    25,3 tjuefemkommatre 25.3

    The Golden Rule

    Punctuation is there to make the text more easily readable. It either separates distinct units of text or represents a pause that would be present in speech. Use it in a way that serves the text.


    Parenthesis or Parentheses?

    In Norwegian, one would say that (this word) står i parantes, using the singular noun, as we think of the two brackets as forming one parenthesis.

    In English, one would say that (this word) is in parentheses, using a plural noun, as English counts each bracket as one separate parenthesis.

    Keep this in mind when translating from Norwegian to English and vice versa.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    en/ei pil an arrow
    en mur a wall
    et kors a cross
    et tegn a sign
    et symbol a symbol
    en metafor a metaphor
    en bokstav a letter
    en/ei skrift a writing
    et alfabet an alphabet
    en parentes a parenthesis, parentheses
    et punktum a period, a full stop, a point
    et utropstegn an exclamation mark
    et spørsmålstegn a question mark
  • 165916884430.07.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Fantasy75 @ 25%9510/5
    drage · drager · enhjørning · enhjørninger · fantasi · fantasien · fe · forestill · forsvant · forsvinne · forutse · forutsett · forvandlet · havfrua · havfrue · havfruen · heks · heksen · hekser · kjempe · kjempen · kjempene · kjemper · lyssabel · lyssabelen · magi · mektige · mektigere · nettroll · ond · onde · overnaturlig · overnaturlige · romskip · romskipet · romvesener · skapning · skapninger · skurk · spøkelser · svevde · svever · tidsmaskinen · tidsreise · troll · trollmenn · tryllestav · udødelig · udødelige · umenneskelig · umenneskelige · usynlig · vampyr · varulven · varulver · vesener · ånd · ånden
    58 words
    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å forsvinne to disappear, to vanish
    å sveve to levitate, to float (in air)
    å forestille (seg) to imagine
    å forvandle (seg) to transform, to turn into
    å forutse to predict
    ond evil, wicked
    usynlig invisible
    mektig mighty, powerful
    udødelig immortal
    en/ei heks a witch
    en magi a magic
    en tryllestav a wand
    en fe a fairy
    en ånd a spirit
    en drage a dragon
    en vampyr a vampire
    et spøkelse a ghost
    et vesen a being
    et uhyre a monster
    en lyssabel a lightsaber
    en varulv a werewolf
    en fantasi a fantasy, an imagination
    en kjempe a giant
    en/ei havfrue a mermaid
    en skapning a creature
  • 165941975902.08.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Language and Linguistics75 @ 25%9520/5
    fremmedspråk · greie · hilse · kroppsspråk · motsi · overdrive · prate · tegnspråk · tolke · uttrykke
    10 words

    We Heard You Like Languages, So...

    Finally! Now you can geek out about languages in your learning language. It doesn't get much better than that.


    Mixed Messages

    You've already learned two words that translate to a message, en beskjed and en/ei melding.

    Et budskap is the actual message you're trying to communicate - the point you want to get across. For example, a film might seemingly be about a budding romance in 18th century France, but the message the director is trying to get across could be deeper and more universal. Perhaps the film is really about how we project our own insecurities onto others?

    En beskjed is the more mundane sort of message. On a train, you may hear Dette er en beskjed til alle passasjerer, this is a message/notice for all passengers, over the calling system. It can also be written down, on a post-it note you leave for your spouse on the kitchen counter, for example. Å gi beskjed is to give notice - to let someone know.

    En/ei melding holds more or less the same meaning as en beskjed, but it's also the word we use specifically for text messages. Send meg en melding means text me.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å greie to manage, to be able to
    å motsi to contradict
    å uttrykke to express
    å overdrive to exaggerate
    å hilse to greet, to say hi
    å tolke to interpret
    å prate to chat, to talk
    å klage to complain
    å uttale to pronounce
    å nevne to mention, to name
    å mestre to master
    å kommunisere to communicate
    formell formal
    tospråklig bilingual
    bokstavelig literal
    skriftlig written
    muntlig oral, verbal
    offisiell official
    tvetydig ambiguous, equivocal
    gjensidig mutual
    et tegnspråk a sign language
    et kroppsspråk a body language
    et fremmedspråk a foreign language
    en forkortelse an abbreviation
    en vokal a vowel
    en skrivefeil a writing error, a typo
    en kontekst a context
    et ordforråd a vocabulary
    en grammatikk a grammar
    et uttrykk an expression
    et budskap a message
    en kommunikasjon a communication
    en kode a code
    et synonym a synonym
    en oversettelse a translation
  • 165967365905.08.2022 ••• Test out   1.001Celebrations50 @ 50%9610/3
    edru · feire · festival · gave · invitere · jul · nasjonal · nyttår · pynte · påske
    10 words

    Gratulerer!

    You have reached the summit of our course mountain. We hope the view from here is wonderful, and we wish you a pleasant trip skiing down.

    Please keep learning!

    Med vennlig hilsen,

    Aleksander, Andreas, Andrew, Gry, Leon, Linn, and Madeline


    Uppercase Letters Get No Holidays

    Holidays such as jul, Christmas, and påske, Easter are not capitalized in Norwegian. This also holds true for other days of note or celebration, like morsdag, Mother's Day, farsdag, Father's Day, and kvinnedagen, Women's Day.

    That's right, the lowercase letters get all the fun.


    Vocabulary (Tree 4)
    å feire to celebrate
    å invitere to invite
    å pynte to decorate
    å gratulere to congratulate
    å underholde to entertain
    nasjonal national
    gyllen golden
    edru sober
    en/ei jul a Christmas
    en/ei påske an Easter
    et nyttår a New Year
    en/ei gave a present
    en ballong a balloon
    en festival a festival
    et fyrverkeri a firework, fireworks
    en invitasjon an invitation
    et arrangement an event
    en skål a toast
    et hurra a hooray, a hurrah, a yay
    en sjampanje a champagne
0.136

Introduction updated 2022-05-18 ^

A heartfelt welcome to the Norwegian course!

Norwegian is a language with simpler grammar than many other European languages, but it is still a gendered language with three grammatical genders: masculine, feminine and neuter.


Grammatical Gender

Masculine Feminine Neuter
en mann ei kvinne or en kvinne et barn
a man a woman a child

All feminine gendered nouns can be classified as masculine gender as well. In theory, one could treat all feminine nouns as masculine ones, but most Norwegians still use the feminine form to some degree, especially for certain words.

The choice really is up to you! Both en kvinne and ei kvinne are grammatically correct, and the tendency to use the feminine gender depends on geography and dialect.

We have opted to teach it where it is most natural to use it, with words such as jente meaning girl, for example, but in the first couple of skills we'll let you focus on the masculine and neuter noun patterns.


Pronouns

Norwegian pronouns are very straightforward and correspond well to English ones:

Norwegian English
jeg I
du you (singular)
han he
hun she
det it

When referring to a neutral subject, det is used to mean it or that. However, when referring to a masculine or feminine subject, it becomes den instead.


Verbs

Conjugation couldn't be simpler. All conjugated verbs have an -r stem in the present, and verbs don't change according to the subject! How easy is that?

Singular Plural
jeg er I am vi er we are
du er you are dere er you are
han, hun, det er he, she, it is de er they are

Pronunciation

As a general rule, words are spelled as they're pronounced in Norwegian. One exception is words beginning with hv, such as hvem, meaning who. In this word, the h is silent.

In addition, there are several letters and letter combinations that are pronounced differently from English.

Norwegian IPA, Notes
A [ɑ], very open
B [b]
C [s] or [k] depending on word, very rare, ex. Canada
D [d], silent in consonant clusters or at the end of certain words like med or ved
E [e] or [ɛ], [æ] in her and der, [i] in de
F [f]
G [g], [j] before an i; silent before a j; silent after an i and sometimes an a or o; often silent in days of the week
H [h], silent before v
I [i] like the e in email or ebook, [ɪ] before two consonants, like the i in hit or fit
J [j], like the y in yes or yellow
K [k]
kj, ki, ky [ç], traditionally like the sharp h in human, but more and more people now use [ʃ], like the sh in ship or shell
L [l]
M [m]
N [n]
O [u] like the oo in soon, but longer, [ʊ] before two consonants or in some exception words like tog
P [p]
Q [k], very rare, ex. Qatar
qu [kv], very rare, ex. quisling
R [ɾ], tap, like the tt in North American butter; many in Western Norway use [ʁ], the so-called French R
rs [ʃ], r + s combinations produce sh sound, even between words
S [s]
skj, ski, sky, sl [ʃ], like the sh in ship or shell
T [t], silent after an e sometimes, ex. det
U [ʉ], like the ew in new, but more closed
V [v]
W [v], very rare, ex. show
X [ks], very rare, ex. taxi
Y [y] or [ʏ], like the e in email, but more closed
Z [s], very rare, ex. zen

Norwegian also has three additional letters that English doesn't have!

Norwegian IPA, Notes
Æ [æ], like the a in mad or sad
Ø [ø], like the o in word, but more open
Å [o], like the o in go or low

Special Notes on Common Words

Norwegian Meaning Pronunciation
jeg I yai
det it, that deh, silent t

Core Vocabulary

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
er am, are, is
hvem who
og and
ikke not
jeg I
du you (singular)
han he
hun she
en a, an
en mann a man
en/ei kvinne a woman
en gutt a boy
en/ei jente a girl

Who? What? Where? updated 2019-09-01 ^

Who? What? Where?

Confused yet? We have just the word for you...

Hva is the word for what, and also happens to be just the right thing to exclaim when you feel like you've been hit in the head with one Norwegian grammar rule too many.

In this skill, you'll also come across another question word, but you'll have to go look for it yourself, because we're not sure exactly where it went.


Plural Pronouns

You're already familiar with the singular pronouns jeg, du, han, hun and det, and now we're adding the plural pronouns into the mix.

Norwegian English
vi we
dere you (plural)
de they

Notice how Norwegian has two different pronouns for "you": du is the singular and dere is the plural version. An easy way to keep them apart, is to remember that the word representing more people has more letters in it.


Question Words

When you're just starting out learning a new language, few things are more useful than to be able to ask the questions that allow you to find what you need or further your learning. You've already learned one, hvem, and in this skill you'll learn two more of the most common question words.

Norwegian English
hvem who
hva what
hvor where

Isn't it neat how they all resemble their English counterparts? You've probably noticed by now that English and Norwegian have many things in common, both when it comes to grammar and vocabulary. This is because they're closely related Germanic languages.

However, we do need to differentiate ourselves somehow, and so we decided to add some extra letters to our alphabet - just to keep things interesting.


Knowing

The verb å vite, to know, is an irregular verb in Norwegian. Its present tense, which you will familiarize yourself with in this skill, is vet. See that vowel change from the infinitive to the present? Cheeky!

There are actually several verbs for knowing, and you'll get to know them all in due time, but this particular one deals with factual knowledge. Some examples of that is knowing what or where something is, or knowing something about something or someone.

Vet du hvor det er?
Do you know where it is?

Vet du hvem hun er?
Do you know who she is?


Three New Vowels

Norwegian has three extra vowels, Æ, Ø and Å.

Vowel Similar To IPA
Æ the a in add or apple [æ]
Ø no real equivalent, but not far from the vowel sounds in bird or earth [ø] or [œ]
Å the o in open or old [o] or [ɔ]

Vocabulary
har has
vet knows
sitter sits
vi we
dere you (plural)
de they
i in
hva what
hvor where
her here
der there
Norge Norway
et a, an
et barn a child
et eple an apple
en katt a cat
brød (n) bread
vann (n) water

Actions updated 2019-09-01 ^

Definite Forms

The definite form, the man, the woman, et cetera, is formed by attaching the indefinite article onto the end of the noun. This ending is called a postfix or a suffix.

Indefinite Definite
en mann a man mannen the man
et barn a child barnet the child

Although the t is pronounced as such in the phrase et barn, it turns silent in the definite form, barnet, which is pronounced more like barneh. This is the case with all neuter nouns in the singular definite form. Be sure to drop the t sound, otherwise you might sound rather Swedish.

For feminine-classified nouns, there is one irregularity in the definite form:

Indefinite Definite
ei kvinne or en kvinne a woman kvinna or kvinnen the woman
ei jente or en jente a girl jenta or jenten the girl

Both jenta and jenten are appropriate translations for the girl. These same endings apply to all feminine nouns. Please consult the tips and notes section for the first lesson if you would like a review of the Norwegian grammatical genders.


Present

The present tense is used to describe things that are happening or are true now:

Jeg leser nå. I am reading now.

The present tense is also in general statements that are independent of time:

Jorda er rund. The earth is round.

For things that repeat and that are still recurring:

Jeg sover hver natt. I sleep every night.

The present tense can be used to talk about the future as well, especially when it is certain:

Jeg reiser i morgen. I leave tomorrow.

As a rule of thumb, you can use the present tense where you would use either the present (I leave tomorrow.) or present progressive (I am leaving tomorrow.) tenses in English.

You do not have to worry about person or number when dealing with verbs in Norwegian, the verb stays the same. This is even simpler than English where you have to remember to add the -s in the third person singular in the present tense.

Forming the present is extremely easy, just add the suffix -r to the infinitive (the form you'll find in the dictionary).

The table below shows you how to do it:

Infinitive Present English Translation
å spise spiser eat(s), am/are/is eating
å drikke drikker drink(s), am/are/is drinking
å se ser see(s), am/are/is seeing

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
spiser eats
drikker drinks
leser reads
liker likes
ser sees
kjøper buys
noe something
den it
ei a, an
en/ei bok a book
et brev a letter
ris (m) rice
melk (m/f) milk
gutten the boy
jenta the girl
mannen the man
kvinnen the woman
barnet the child

Animals updated 2021-09-03 ^

Animals

Many animal names in Norwegian share etymological ties with English ones, but the meaning has drifted over time in one direction or another. Below are some examples.

Beware these false friends!

Norwegian Translation Related Word
hund dog hound
fugl bird fowl
elg moose elk*
dyr animal deer

*In British English, "elg" and "elk" are actual cognates. In American English, "elk" refers to a different animal.

The following words are true friends, meaning that the words are similar in both spelling and meaning.

Norwegian English
katt cat
bjørn bear
krabbe crab
elefant elephant
ulv wolf
mus mouse

You know more Norwegian than you thought you did!


Grammatical and Biological Gender

After being introduced to nouns such as ei jente, en gutt, and et barn, you'd be forgiven for thinking that there was a correlation between a word's grammatical gender and its biological gender, or sex.

However, this is not the case. Grammatical gender is a completely independent concept. While en hund is a masculine noun, that does not imply that the dog we're referring to is male, that's just the grammatical gender of the word itself.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
et dyr an animal
en elg a moose
en/ei and a duck
en hest a horse
en hund a dog
en fugl a bird
en bjørn a bear
en edderkopp a spider
en ulv a wolf
elgen the moose
katten the cat
hesten the horse
bjørnen the bear
hunden the dog
dyret the animal
fuglen the bird
anden the duck
edderkoppen the spider

Phrases updated 2020-06-12 ^

Common Phrases

We've compiled a list of common phrases in the Norwegian language, for your reference.

Many of them are idiomatic, meaning that they don't translate word for word to English. You'll have to learn the entire phrase.

One example is "Ha det bra!", which literally means "Have it good!", but idiomatically translates to "Goodbye!"

Norwegian English
Hvordan har du det? How are you?
Hvordan går det? How is it going?
Bare bra, takk! Just fine, thanks!
Jeg har det bra. I'm doing well.
Ha det bra! Goodbye!
Vi ses! See you later!

Norwegian Characters

By now, you're probably getting used to seeing the Norwegian vowels Æ, Ø and Å around.

Vowel Similar To IPA
Æ the a in add or apple [æ]
Ø no real equivalent, but not far from the vowel sounds in bird or earth [ø] or [œ]
Å the o in open or old [o] or [ɔ]

If you're doing your Duolingo lessons on the app, you may need to install a Norwegian or international keyboard to type these. However, before you do so, try holding down A or O and see if they appear as options.

If you're doing your lessons on the web, you can either install a Norwegian keyboard, or just click the special characters displayed below the input field when you type your response.

When you have no other option, you can use these replacement characters, but don't get into the habit of relying on them, as it will be a hard one to break.

Character Replacement
Æ AE
Ø OE
Å AA

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
ha have
unnskyld sorry, excuse me, pardon
vær så snill please, be so kind
takk thank you, thanks
trenger needs, requires
elsker loves
ja yes
nei no
eller or
kanskje maybe, perhaps
tusen (a) thousand
bra good, nice
hyggelig nice, pleasant
bare only, just
en tur a trip
en/ei natt a night
en/ei helg a weekend

Food updated 2021-09-03 ^

Cooking

In this skill, you'll learn the verb lager, which translates to make. There's no separate verb for cooking, instead, we use lager mat, literally make food.

Han lager mat.
He is cooking.


Measure Words

Remember that in Norwegian, the word for of, av, is omitted where one would normally use it in English to join a measure word with another noun.

Norwegian English
en kopp kaffe a cup of coffee
et glass vann a glass of water

Neat, huh?


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å lage to make
å lage mat to cook
en fisk a fish
et kjøtt a meat
en pasta a pasta
en/ei suppe a soup
en kylling a chicken
mat (m) food
en frokost a breakfast
en ost a cheese
en frukt a fruit
en tomat a tomato
et glass a glass
en øl a (unit of) beer
et salt a salt
et egg an egg
et sukker a sugar
en pepper a pepper (not bell pepper!)

Object Pronouns updated 2020-07-09 ^

Object Pronouns

We were introduced to the Norwegian pronouns in the first skill. Let's have a look at them here:

Singular Plural
jeg I vi we
du you (singular) dere you (plural)
han, hun, den/det he, she, it de they

As in English, the pronouns above only pertain to subjects. The pronouns at the receiving end of a verb, in other words the object pronouns, are as follows:

Singular Plural
meg me oss us
deg you (singular) dere you (plural)
ham, henne, det/den him, her, it dem them

Den is used to mean it or that when referring back to a masculine or feminine subject.

Det is used to mean it or that when referring back to a neuter subject, and when introducing a brand new noun that has not yet been mentioned - regardless of the gender of that noun.

Han is an alternative form of ham, but in this course we will use "han" exclusively as a subject ("he"), and "ham" for the object form ("him").


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
viser show
meg me
deg you (singular)
ham him
henne her
den (m/f) it
det (n) it
oss us
dere you (plural)
dem them

Definite Forms updated 2019-08-29 ^

Definite Forms

The definite form ("the man", "the woman", et cetera) is formed by placing the indefinite article, "a/an", or in Norwegian, "en/et", at the end of the word instead of at the beginning. This is called a postfix or a suffix.

Indefinite Definite
en mann a man mannen the man
et barn a child barnet the child

For feminine-classified nouns, there is one irregularity:

Indefinite Definite
ei kvinne OR en kvinne a woman kvinna OR kvinnen the woman
ei jente OR en jente a girl jenta OR jenten the girl

Both jenta and jenten are appropriate translations for the girl. These same endings apply to all feminine nouns.

It is also normal to use the masculine article "en" for indefinite forms, even when preferring a feminine suffix in definite. This is not considered an error!

Indefinite Definite
en jente a girl jenta the girl
en øy an island øya the island

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
-en definite suffix: the
en/ei hytte a cabin
osten the cheese
egget the egg
maten the food
vannet the water
brødet the bread
suppen the soup
pastaen the pasta
saltet the salt
fisken the fish
brevet the letter
kjøttet the meat
sukkeret the sugar
kyllingen the chicken
eplet the apple
frukten the fruit
ølen the beer
boken the book
risen the rice
tomaten the tomato
avisen the newspaper

Plurals updated 2019-08-29 ^

Plurals

With few exceptions, most masculine or feminine nouns (most nouns) pluralize with -er or -r.

Norwegian English
eple apple
epler apples
gutt boy
gutter boys
jente girl
jenter girls

Single-syllable neuter nouns, such as hus house and dyr animal, often do not change spelling in the indefinite plural.

Norwegian English
hus house or houses
dyr animal or animals
barn child or children

How then can you tell the difference between hus meaning house and hus meaning houses? That depends on context and adjective endings, which we will cover a bit later in the course.

One exception to these rules is the Norwegian word for "man" which pluralizes in an irregular way that's almost identical to English:

Norwegian English
mann man
menn men

Here are some additional common irregular plurals, a couple of which are also irregular in English.

Singular Plural English Translation
and ender duck - ducks
bok bøker book - books
fot føtter foot - feet
hånd hender hand - hands
natt netter night - nights
tann tenner tooth - teeth
tre trær tree - trees

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
noen some, any
flere several, multiple, more
mange many
en sykkel a bicycle
katter cats
aviser newspapers
jenter girls
fugler birds
gutter boys
hunder dogs
ender ducks
bøker books
hester horses
bjørner bears
epler apples
hytter cabins
kvinner women
kyllinger chickens
dyr animals
brev letters
barn children
menn men
-er indefinite plural suffix

Definite Plurals updated 2019-05-26 ^

Definite Plurals

With very few exceptions, all nouns can be converted to the definite plural form, i.e. the books, the cows, the dogs... by changing the -er ending on the plural form to an -ene ending:

Norwegian English
hund dog
hunden the dog
hunder dogs
hundene the dogs

Many neuter nouns do not have to follow this rule. Instead, they can become definite plurals by adding on an -a ending. The choice is yours, but the -ene ending is somewhat more common.

Norwegian English
brev letter or letters
brevet the letter
brevene or breva the letters

Keep in mind that the word "barn" meaning "child" almost always becomes "barna" in the definite plural, although "barnene" is grammatically correct as well.

Norwegian English
barn child
barnet the child
barn children
barna the children

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
alle all (of)
kattene the cats
fuglene the birds
endene the ducks
guttene the boys
hestene the horses
kyllingene the chickens
eplene the apples
bøkene the books
hundene the dogs
mennene the men
avisene the newspapers
hyttene the cabins
kvinnene the women
dyrene the animals

Verbs: Present Tense updated 2020-03-09 ^

Present

The present tense is used to describe things that are happening or are true now:

Jeg leser nå. I am reading now.

The present tense is also in general statements that are independent of time:

Jorda er rund. The earth is round.

For things that repeat and that are still recurring:

Jeg sover hver natt. I sleep every night.

The present tense can be used to talk about the future as well, especially when it is certain:

Jeg reiser i morgen. I leave tomorrow.

As a rule of thumb, you can use the present tense where you would use either the present (I leave tomorrow.) or present progressive (I am leaving tomorrow.) tenses in English.

You do not have to worry about person or number when dealing with verbs in Norwegian, the verb stays the same. This is even simpler than English where you have to remember to add the -s in the third person singular in the present tense.

Forming the present is extremely easy, just add the suffix -r to the infinitive (the form you'll find in the dictionary).

The table below shows you how to do it:

Group Suffix Infinitive Present English Translation
1 -er å vaske vasker wash(es), am/are/is washing
2 -er å kjøre kjører drive(s), am/are/is driving
3 -r å bo bor live(s), am/are/is living (as in making one's home somewhere)

There are three groups of verbs with different patterns for forming tenses in Norwegian, but in the present case they all behave in the same way as you can see.


The Swizz Army Knife of Prepositions

In this skill, we introduce the preposition - arguably the most important word in the Norwegian language. has as many uses and translations as there are types of brunost in Norway, but the one you'll learn right now deals with specifying languages.


Specifying Language

can be used to specify what language something is said or written in. When used in this meaning, it translates to in in English.

Hva betyr det på engelsk?
What does that mean in English?

Hva heter det på norsk?
What is that (called) in Norwegian?


Plurals Ending in -E

With few exceptions, most masculine or feminine nouns (most nouns) pluralize with -er or -r.

Norwegian English
eple apple
epler apples
gutt boy
gutter boys
jente girl
jenter girls

However, words that end in -er already, add an extra -e to signify the plural.

Norwegian English
lærer teacher
lærere teachers
amerikaner American
amerikanere Americans

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
gjør does
sover sleeps
hører hears
velger chooses, selects
leker plays
selger sells
arbeider works
vasker washes, cleans
skriver writes
venter waits, expects
når when
om about
in
en lærer a teacher
en amerikaner an American
en/ei mus a mouse
barna the children
jentene the girls
brevene the letters
-ene the (definite suffix), assorted words

The Cafe updated 2019-09-22 ^

Getting Your Caffeine Fix

When ordering coffee at a cafe, you can simply say:

En kaffe, takk!
A coffee, thanks!

Replace kaffe with espresso, americano, cappuccino or latte to get your coffee of choice. Loanword heaven!


Expressing Desire for Something

The verb for "want" is "vil" in Norwegian. When what you want is a noun, it needs to be accompanied by its friend "ha" ("have"). Where you in English could say either "I want [noun]" or "I want to have [noun]", it's always "Jeg vil ha [noun]".

Jeg vil ha et eple.
I want (to have) an apple.

Later in the course, you'll come across "vil" followed by a verb in the infinitive, in which case you do not need to add "ha".

Jeg vil spise et eple.
I want to eat an apple.


The Swizz Army Knife of Prepositions

In this skill, we reintroduce the preposition in a second meaning. has as many uses and translations as there are types of brunost in Norway, but the one you'll learn right now deals with physical location.


Describing Location

When used to describe location, can translate to on, at, and sometimes even in, depending on the context. When translating, your best bet is opting for the preposition that sounds the most natural in English.

Vi sitter på kaféen.
We are sitting at the cafe.

Hun sitter på stolen.
She is sitting on the chair.


Specifying Language

can also be used to specify what language something is said or written in. When used in this meaning, it translates to in in English.

Hva betyr det på engelsk?
What does that mean in English?

Hva heter det på norsk?
What is that (called) in Norwegian?

So, if you order your coffee på norsk, you're ordering it in Norwegian.


Vocabulary
vil wants
ha (to) have
står stands
bestiller orders
hvordan how
med with
on, at
utenfor outside (of)
mer more
en is an ice-cream
en te a tea
en kafé a cafe
en brus a soda, a pop, a fizzy drink
en drikk a drink, a beverage
et jordbær a strawberry
en sitron a lemon
en stol a chair
et bord a table
en kaffe a coffee
en lunsj a lunch
en kopp a cup
en/ei kake a cake

Counting updated 2020-05-09 ^

Counting

Welcome to Counting! Norwegian numbers are very easy for English speakers to learn in comparison to other languages. There is no tricky system or crazy multiplication weirdness. The numbers sound and work in a similar way as they do in English.

The most common word for seven is sju, but you may also hear the word syv used, which is decidedly less common. Be careful not to confuse it with the word tjue, which means twenty.


One and One More

So far, you've seen the articles en (masculine) ei (feminine) and et (neuter) used to to mean a or an. These also do double duty as numbers, translating to one.

If you want more of something countable, you can use the adverb til. You then combine it with a number: en til becomes one more or another, to til becomes two more, and so on.

When specifying exactly what you want, by adding a noun, the number goes before the noun, while til goes after, like so: en kopp til (one more cup).


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
til more
en one
to two
tre three
fire four
fem five
seks six
sju seven
åtte eight
ni nine
ti ten

Conversation updated 2021-06-13 ^

Til & Fra

This skill introduces two new prepositions, "til" and "fra". Not to worry, though, as these both act predictably in this context, corresponding to "to" and "from" respectively. These work both for describing direction in a geographical sense, and in other contexts such as when giving a gift, talking to someone, or expressing where someone or something is from.

"Snakker du til meg?"
"Are you talking to me?"

"Vi flyr til Norge."
"We are flying to Norway."

"Jeg er fra England."
"I am from England."

"Han gir en gave til jenta."
"He gives a gift to the girl."


Vocabulary
tror thinks, believes
sier says
lytter listens
ringer calls, rings
kommer comes
betyr means, signifies
til to
fra from
now
snart soon, shortly
ofte often
aldri never
hallo hello
hvorfor why
hvordan går det how is it going, how are you
det går ... it is going..., I am...
en mamma a mom
en pappa a dad
en nabo a neighbor
en gjest a guest, a visitor

Possessives updated 2019-08-29 ^

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns change depending on the gender and number of the possessor and the possessed.

My

The Definite Form

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
faren min mora mi barnet mitt foreldrene mine
my father my mother my child my parents

The above form takes the definite form of the noun and places the possessive pronoun after it. This is the more common form in colloquial Norwegian, and the one you will encounter most often.

  • Faren min er fargeblind.

  • My father is colorblind.

Another form is as follows:

The Indefinite Form

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
min far mi mor mitt barn mine foreldre
my father my mother my child my parents

This form takes the possessive pronoun and places it before the indefinite form of the noun. This form is considered more formal and places special emphasis on the possessor.

  • Mitt barn er perfekt.

  • My child is perfect.


Your (Singular)

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
faren din mora di barnet ditt foreldrene dine
din far di mor ditt barn dine foreldre
your father your mother your child your parents
  • Hvem er foreldrene dine?

  • Who are your parents?


His

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
faren hans mora hans barnet hans foreldrene hans
hans far hans mor hans barn hans foreldre
his father his mother his child his parents
  • Hunden hans er vennlig.

  • His dog is friendly.


Her

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
faren hennes mora hennes barnet hennes foreldrene hennes
hennes far hennes mor hennes barn hennes foreldre
her father her mother her child her parents
  • Hva heter barnet hennes?

  • What is her child's name?


Our

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
faren vår mora vår barnet vårt foreldrene våre
vår far vår mor vårt barn våre foreldre
our father our mother our child our parents
  • Vi elsker døtrene våre.

  • We love our daughters.


Your (Plural)

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
faren deres mora deres barnet deres foreldrene deres
deres far deres mor deres barn deres foreldre
your (pl.) father your (pl.) mother your (pl.) child your (pl.) parents
  • Hvor kommer familien deres fra?

  • Where does your family come from?


Their

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
faren deres mora deres barnet deres foreldrene deres
deres far deres mor deres barn deres foreldre
their father their mother their child their parents
  • Datamaskinen deres fungerer ikke.

  • Their computer does not work.

Notice how deres can mean your (pl.) or their. You will be able to tell the difference through context.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
eier owns
tilhører belongs
mi/min/mitt/mine my, mine
di/din/ditt/dine your, yours
vår/vårt/våre our, ours
hans his
hennes her, hers
deres their, theirs
et rom a room
et navn a name
en telefon a telephone

That and Those updated 2019-08-29 ^

That and Those

We learned early on how to describe definite nouns with the appropriate gender- and number-specific suffixes.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine stolen the chair
Feminine boka the book
Neuter bordet the table
Plural husene the houses

In order to specify further with the word that or those, all we do is add one gender- and number-specific word to the mix: den, det, or de.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine den stolen that chair
Feminine den boka that book
Neuter det bordet that table
Plural de husene those houses

Family updated 2021-02-08 ^

Family

Welcome to the family skill! Family words are some of the most common in Norwegian, but also some of the most irregular. Pay attention to how the following words pluralize.

English Indef. Sing. Def. Sing. Indef. Plur. Def. Plur.
father far faren fedre fedrene
mother mor moren mødre mødrene
brother bror broren brødre brødrene
sister søster søsteren søstre søstrene
daughter datter datteren døtre døtrene

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
en baby a baby
en sønn a son
en/ei datter a daughter
en familie a family
en forelder a parent
en far a father
en/ei mor a mother
en bror a brother
en/ei søster a sister
en tvilling a twin
et søsken a sibling

Grammar focus
possession possessive pronouns
nouns all declensions
verbs present

Location updated 2021-06-13 ^

Location

To describe where something is, Norwegian often forgoes the verb to be in favor of to stand or to lie. Most often, upright objects with legs, such as beds, stand, while other objects, especially those on their side, tend to lie, just like in English.

Norwegian English
Sengen står på gulvet. The bed [stands/is] on the floor.
Hunden ligger på gulvet. The dog [lies/is] on the floor.

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
ligger lies
mellom between
ved by
hjemme (at) home
bak behind
over over, above
foran in front of
under under, below, underneath
ute outside
inne inside
nede downstairs, down
blant among
oppe upstairs, up
et gulv a floor
en butikk a store, a shop
en/ei seng a bed
en/ei øy an island
et hus a house
en bil a car
et tre a tree
en/ei bro a bridge
et gjerde a fence
en lekeplass a playground

Clothing updated 2021-06-13 ^

Clothing

This lesson introduces you to clothing as well as the Norwegian word seg. This word is the reflexive pronoun for all third-person nouns, himself, herself, themselves, etc. It is used in many verbs. In fact, the reflexive is far more common in Norwegian than in English.

For clothing, one uses har på seg to describe what someone is wearing. It literally means, have on oneself and is the equivalent of the English, have on.

  • Hun har på seg en hatt.
  • She has on (herself) a hat.
  • She's wearing a hat.

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
har på seg wears, has on
bruker uses, wears
klær (n) clothes, clothing
en sko a shoe
en/ei jakke a jacket
briller (m) (eye)glasses
en genser a sweater
en/ei skjorte a shirt
en hatt a hat
et slips a tie
en sokk a sock
en frakk a coat
en kjole a dress
en/ei bukse a pair of pants
et belte a belt
en knapp a button
en/ei lomme a pocket
en hanske a glove
et skjerf a scarf
en støvel a (rain)boot
undertøy underwear

The Restaurant updated 2021-06-13 ^

The Restaurant

Hungry already, are we? Nothing like a bit of language learning to work up an appetite.

Ordering

If you're visiting Norway as a tourist, ordering food at a restaurant is a good way to practice a little Norwegian.

After having a look at the menu and working up your courage, give the waiter your most charming smile, and say any of the following:

Jeg vil (gjerne) ha X.
I would like X.

Jeg har lyst på X.
I would like X.

X, takk.
X, please/thanks.

Remember, snapping your fingers or yelling to get a waiter's attention is rude. Try to make eye contact instead. If that fails, you can say unnskyld (excuse me), perhaps accompanied by a wave.


Courses & Drinks

If you want to order a standard three-course meal, you can look at the menu and locate these three headings:

Norwegian English
forrett appetizer
hovedrett main course
dessert dessert

Water is usually free, but if you want anything else to drink you'll find the drinking menu either as the last section of the main menu or as a separate menu. The drinking age in Norway is 18 for beer and wine, but 21 for hard liquor, and it's strictly enforced.


Receiving Your Food

When your food is ready, it will likely be delivered to you with a vær så god, which is the Norwegian equivalent of here you go or dig in.

The appropriate response is either takk, tusen takk, or takk skal du ha.

Later, the waiter may stop by and ask you how your food was, but apart from that you shouldn't expect much small talk or attention. Norwegians like to be left alone to enjoy their food, so the waiter isn't ignoring you to be rude, they're just treating you like Norwegians tend to prefer being treated.


Tipping Culture

Both kitchen and waitstaff are paid decent wages in Norway, so you should never feel like you have to tip anyone. However, it's a nice gesture if you feel the meal or service was good and would like to show your appreciation. Norwegians will often round up to the nearest 100 or 50 kr, depending on how large the total was.

Tips are registered and taxed along with the rest of people's income, so whenever you tip someone you're actually also tipping the Norwegian welfare state, contributing to better healthcare, education, and infrastructure. Having dinner and saving lives - not bad for an evening's work!


Vocabulary
vær så god here you are/go, dig in
smaker tastes
betaler pays
serverer serves
til with
nok enough
en vin a wine
en salat a salad
salat (m) lettuce
en meny a menu
en/ei flaske a bottle
en forrett an appetizer
en restaurant a restaurant
en kokk a cook, a chef
et måltid a meal
en pizza a pizza
en grønnsak a vegetable
en servitør a waiter
en middag a dinner
en tallerken a plate
en olje an oil
en/ei skje a spoon
en kniv a knife
en gaffel a fork
en hovedrett a main course

Direction and Motion updated 2019-09-07 ^

Direction and Motion

In Norwegian, adverbs of place that describe where something is change when they become adverbs of motion and describe where something moves. Below are some examples:

Existence Translation Motion Translation
er hjemme is at home går hjem goes home
er inne is inside går inn goes in
er ute is outside går ut goes out
er oppe is up går opp goes up
er nede is down below går ned goes down

Be careful to use the proper adverb for each situation. For most of the words above, the endings fall off when in motion. Think of them like a pocket book on top of a car. The car moves, so the pocket book falls off.

Existence Translation Motion Translation
er her is here går hit goes here
er der is there går dit goes there

The words hit and dit are related to the antiquated English words hither and thither, which used to describe here and there in motion. Note that it has to be motion toward a location - not in or at a location.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
går walks, goes
drar goes, leaves
løper runs
legger lays, puts, places
flyr flies
svømmer swims
hopper jumps
hjem home
til to (physical direction)
hit (to) here, hither
dit (to) there, thither
mot toward, against
etter after
frem forward
forbi past
tilbake back
inn in
opp up
ned down
gjennom through
ut out
rett straight, directly
rundt around
et basseng a (swimming) pool
en/ei dør a door
et vindu a window

Prepositions updated 2019-08-29 ^

Prepositions

As in English, all prepositions in Norwegian stand before the noun. Below is a reference sheet for the prepositions introduced in this chapter. "Av" and "for" are notoriously versatile prepositions, with several other definitions in addition to the ones mentioned.

Norwegian English Notes
av of, off Used with fractions or two-part verbs.
for for, to Often does not translate directly.
uten without
unntatt except Literally "taken out."
i stedet for instead of

Of course, you've already familiarized yourself with some key prepositions in earlier skills as well. Here comes a quick refresher:

Norwegian English Notes
i in, inside Used to express location
on, at, in Used to express location or indicate language
til to, for Used to express direction and purpose
med with Said like meh, but in a neutral tone.

Phrasal verbs

While we won't mix them into this skill, both separable verbs and phrasal verbs are important parts of the Norwegian language.

Often, they'll use prepositions in ways that are unfamiliar, so if you ever come across a preposition you don't understand the function of, it is worth considering whether it actually forms part of the verb.

This and These updated 2019-05-16 ^

This and These

We learned early on how to describe definite nouns with the appropriate gender- and number-specific suffixes.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine stolen the chair
Feminine boka the book
Neuter bordet the table
Plural husene the houses

And how to specify further with the word that or those.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine den stolen that chair
Feminine den boka that book
Neuter det bordet that table
Plural de husene those houses

Now, we're introducing how to say this and these in Norwegian.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine denne stolen this chair
Feminine denne boka this book
Neuter dette bordet this table
Plural disse husene these houses

Adjectives updated 2020-03-25 ^

Adjectives

Norwegian adjectives change for gender, number, indefinite and definite forms. Let's take a look at adjectives joined to nouns by the phrase to be, starting with the adjective stor, which means big or great.


The Indefinite Form

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine En stol er stor. A chair is big.
Feminine Ei bok er stor. A book is big.

So far, so good. There is no change to the adjective in either masculine or feminine form.

Gender Norwegian English
Neuter Et bord er stort. A table is big.
Plural Hus er store. Houses are big.

As you can see above, the neuter noun changes the spelling of stor to include a -t ending, and the plural noun changes stor to include an -e ending. This pattern applies to most adjectives in the indefinite form, as shown below.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine en stor stol a big chair
Feminine ei stor bok a big book
Neuter et stort bord a big table
Plural store hus big houses

Many adjectives ending in -ig or -sk, like viktig and norsk, do not sound pleasant with a -t ending. This is why we do not add a -t to these specific adjectives in the neuter form.

Norwegian English
et viktig brev an important letter
et norsk hus a Norwegian house

We do still add the -e ending in the plural form, however!

Norwegian English
viktige brev important letters
norske hus Norwegian houses

Adjectives in the Definite Form

The simple thing about adjectives in the definite form is that the endings are almost all the same.

Most adjectives in the definite form end in -e.

In addition to the noun transitioning into the definite form, we place an additional word before the adjective in the definite form. This word changes depending on gender and number, as you see below.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine den store stolen the big chair
Feminine den store boka the big book
Neuter det store bordet the big table
Plural de store husene the big houses

Combining Possessive Pronouns with Adjectives

There are two ways to combine possessive pronouns with adjectives. The possessive pronoun can either follow the noun in the definite form or precede the adjective. Let's take a look at how this works.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine den store stolen min my big chair
Feminine den store boka mi my big book
Neuter det store bordet mitt my big table
Plural de store husene mine my big houses
Gender Norwegian English
Masculine min store stol my big chair
Feminine mi store bok my big book
Neuter mitt store bord my big table
Plural mine store hus my big houses

In the second set of examples, notice how the adjective endings are all -e, just like in the definite form, but the nouns have no endings, just like in the indefinite form. In a sense, this second method of combining possessive pronouns and adjectives is a blending of grammar rules.

Pay special attention to context, and in time, these adjective endings become second nature.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
hvor how (degree)
god good, nice
ny new
stor big
kort short
varm warm, hot
åpen open
vanskelig difficult
veldig very
fin nice
kald cold
lang long
trygg safe, secure
dårlig bad, poor
mye much
tung heavy
viktig important
skitten dirty
ganske rather, pretty, somewhat
ren clean
lett light
mulig possible
vanlig common, usual
forferdelig terrible, awful
hel whole
flott great
hard hard

Location 2 updated 2019-09-01 ^

Bor & Lever

In Norwegian, there are two verbs that translate to "to live", "å bo" and "å leve". However, they are rarely interchangeable with each other.

When talking about someone's place of residence, you should use the verb "bor".

When expressing that someone or something is alive, or describing their way of life, you use "lever".


Ute & Utenfor

There are several of these pairs, but the ones we'll concentrate on is "ute" (adverb) and "utenfor" (preposition).

"Ute" (out; outside; outdoors) is an adverb, and can be used without a point of reference. If you ever want to refer to the great outdoors in Norwegian, you can say "ute".

Vi liker å være ute i naturen.
We like being out in nature.

"Utenfor" is a preposition, which means that it always needs a point of reference. What makes it a little confusing is that the point of reference can be implied; it doesn't have to be explicitly present in the sentence.

In the sentence below, there's an explicit reference point, "gjerdet".

De er utenfor gjerdet.
They are outside (of) the fence.

In the next sentence, there's no explicit reference point. However, we can imagine that the person uttering the sentence is inside a house, and that the subject of the sentence is sitting outside said house.

Hun sitter utenfor.
She is sitting outside.

In the last example, you could use "ute" as well. Either would be correct.


Same, Same, but Different

Some of the prepositions and prepositional phrases you're learning have rather similar meanings, but there are still nuances to them, and you should strive to translate them precisely.

Norwegian English
ved by
ved siden av next to
nær near, close to
i nærheten av near, close to

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
lever lives
henger hangs
leter looks, searches
setter sets, puts, places
det er there is, there are
nær near, close to
langs along
ved siden av next to
innenfor inside (of)
bortenfor past, beyond
herfra from here
derfra from there
en vei a road
en bakke a slope, a hill(side)
et speil a mirror
et bilde a picture
en vegg a wall
en/ei lampe a lamp
en/ei innside an inside
en/ei grense a border, a limit, a boundary
en utgang an exit
en inngang an entrance
et kjøleskap a refrigerator

Qualities updated 2019-09-01 ^

Adjectives in the Definite Form

The simple thing about adjectives in the definite form is that the endings are almost all the same.

Most adjectives in the definite form end in -e.

In addition to the noun transitioning into the definite form, we place an additional word before the adjective in the definite form. This word changes depending on gender and number, as you see below.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine den store stolen the big chair
Feminine den store boka the big book
Neuter det store bordet the big table
Plural de store husene the big houses

Combining Possessive Pronouns with Adjectives

There are two ways to combine possessive pronouns with adjectives. The possessive pronoun can either follow the noun in the definite form or precede the adjective. Let's take a look at how this works.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine den store stolen min my big chair
Feminine den store boka mi my big book
Neuter det store bordet mitt my big table
Plural de store husene mine my big houses
Gender Norwegian English
Masculine min store stol my big chair
Feminine mi store bok my big book
Neuter mitt store bord my big table
Plural mine store hus my big houses

In the second set of examples, notice how the adjective endings are all -e, just like in the definite form, but the nouns have no endings, just like in the indefinite form. In a sense, this second method of combining possessive pronouns and adjectives is a blending of grammar rules.

Pay special attention to context, and in time, these adjective endings become second nature.


Liten

The adjective liten, meaning little or small, is the most highly irregular adjective in the Norwegian language. Take a look at how it declines. Commit this table to memory, because as in English, the word small is used a lot.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine en liten stol a small chair
den lille stolen the small chair
Feminine ei lita bok a small book
den lille boka the small book
Neuter et lite bord a small table
det lille bordet the small table
Plural små hus small houses
de små husene the small houses

Missing Endings in Old and Famous Names

As students of Danish may be aware, the postfixes after the nouns above are absent in Danish, and as a legacy of Danish colonialism, some Norwegian phrases lack the noun endings shown in the table above. These words are generally famous titles or institutions, such as The White House or The French Academy. See how they operate below.

Norwegian English
Det franske akademi The French Academy
Det hvite hus The White House

Note that det hvite huset can also mean the white house, just not the one the US President lives inside.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
det (m./f.) the
den (n.) the
de (pl.) the
so, that
kjempe- very (prefix)
rar strange
ung young
pen pretty
snill kind, nice
liten little, small
fattig poor
berømt famous
rik rich
slem mean, unkind
kjekk handsome
farlig dangerous
perfekt perfect
spesiell special
gammel old

Ownership updated 2020-11-26 ^

Ownership

Possessive pronouns change depending on the gender and number of the possessor and the possessed. Be sure to pay special attention to "sin, si, sitt, & sine," which do not have equivalents in English.


Sin, Si, Sitt, & Sine

The above are an interesting set of possessive pronouns in Norwegian. They all translate to his, her, its, or their and can only be attached to objects in a sentence. Sin, si, sitt, & sine describe something that the subject has or owns, not somebody else. This distinction does not exist in English, so it may take some getting used to, but it's actually a useful distinction to be able to make; many sentences that would be ambiguous in English are perfectly clear in Norwegian.

Norwegian English
Hun elsker faren sin. She loves her (own) father.
Hun elsker faren hennes. She loves her (another woman's) father.
Faren hennes elsker henne. Her father loves her.

In the last sentence, we use faren hennes instead of faren sin because her father is the subject, not the object, of the sentence.


His, Her, or Their (Own)

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
faren sin mora si barnet sitt foreldrene sine
sin far si mor sitt barn sine foreldre
his/her/their (own) father his/her/their (own) mother his/her/their (own) child his/her/their (own) parents

Please note that you should not add "own" to your translations of si/sin/sitt/sine, it's just used here to explain the concept as clearly as possible.


Expressing Possession with a Genitive "-s"

Sometimes you don't have a possessive pronoun to express the ownership with, as you may be talking about "the woman's car" rather than "her car". Just like in English, you can do this by adding a genitive -s at the end of the possessing noun.

  • Kvinnens bil er rød.
  • The woman's car is red.*

As you can see, you don't need to add an apostrophe in Norwegian. The only exception is when the noun itself ends in an -s, -x or -z already, in which case we add an apostrophe and forego the extra -s.


Expressing Possession with "Til"

Another way of achieving the same thing, is using the preposition "til". It's the equivalent of expressing ownership with the preposition "of" in English. While this can sound stilted in English, it's perfectly natural in Norwegian.

  • Bilen til kvinnen er rød.
  • The car of the woman is red.
  • The woman's car is red.

Garpegenitiv

A final way to express possession is the so-called garpegenitiv. It's a format that saw some use in English in the 1600s, often referred to as his-genitive. What it does is link the possessing noun to the possessed noun with a possessive pronoun.

  • Kvinnen sin bil er rød.
  • The woman's car is red.

Literally, "The woman her car is red".

While this format is common in many dialects and recognized by Språkrådet as acceptable in Bokmål, it is considered informal and should not be what you turn to in formal writing.


Combining Possessive Pronouns with Adjectives

There are two ways to combine possessive pronouns with adjectives. The possessive pronoun can either follow the noun in the definite form or precede the adjective. Let's take a look at how this works.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine den store stolen min my big chair
Feminine den store boka mi my big book
Neuter det store bordet mitt my big table
Plural de store husene mine my big houses
Gender Norwegian English
Masculine min store stol my big chair
Feminine mi store bok my big book
Neuter mitt store bord my big table
Plural mine store hus my big houses

In the second set of examples, notice how the adjective endings are all -e, just like in the definite form, but the nouns have no endings, just like in the indefinite form. In a sense, this second method of combining possessive pronouns and adjectives is a blending of grammar rules.


Vocabulary
si/sin/sitt/sine his, her, its, their
til of
-s possessive s (suffix)
guttens the boy's
jentas the girl's
barnets the child's
kattens the cat's
hundens the dog's
mannens the man's
kvinnens the woman's

Colors updated 2022-02-04 ^

Colors as adjectives

Below is a reference chart for all of the most basic Norwegian colors.

Norwegian English
hvit white
grå gray
svart black
brun brown
rød red
rosa pink
oransje orange
gul yellow
grønn green
blå blue
lilla purple

Most colors change their endings for gender and number, like most other adjectives in Norwegian.

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
en brun stol ei brun bok et brunt bord brune hus
en gul stol ei gul bok et gult bord gule hus
en grønn stol ei grønn bok et grønt bord grønne hus

Certain colors are irregular, however, in certain situations.

The words hvit, grå and blå have an extra -t in their neuter forms, and grå and blå also have the option of omitting the plural ending.

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
en hvit stol ei hvit bok et hvitt bord hvite hus
en grå stol ei grå bok et grått bord grå(e) hus
en blå stol ei blå bok et blått bord blå(e) hus

Unlike most adjectives, the words rosa, oransje, and lilla never change for gender or number. They always remain the same.

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
en rosa stol ei rosa bok et rosa bord rosa hus
en oransje stol ei oransje bok et oransje bord oransje hus
en lilla stol ei lilla bok et lilla bord lilla hus

Colors as nouns

Colors can also be nouns. In that case they look a lot like the neuter form of the adjective:

Norwegian English
hvitt white
grått gray
svart black
brunt brown
rødt red
rosa pink
oransje orange
gult yellow
grønt green
blått blue
lilla purple

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
hvit white
rosa pink
svart black
blå blue
rød red
lys light
gul yellow
grønn green
fargerik colorful
lilla purple
oransje orange
brun brown
mørk dark
en farge a color
en blomst a flower

The Store updated 2021-06-13 ^

Vocabulary
koster costs
ser ut looks
dyr expensive
hundre (a) hundred
en pose a bag (plastic/paper)
en kunde a customer
en/ei krone a krone, a crown
penger (m) money
en/ei kvittering a receipt
en matbutikk a grocery store
en kurv a basket
en banan a banana
en/ei pære a pear
en appelsin an orange
et skjørt a skirt
en dress a suit
en klesbutikk a clothing store
en sjokolade a chocolate

Leisure updated 2019-09-01 ^

Hos

"Hos" can be a tricky preposition to translate, as it does not have an equivalent in English. However, those of you who are familiar with French can liken it to "chez".

It's mainly used to express that you're at someone's place; in a person's home, at a company's office, etc.

De er hos oss.
They are at our place.


Vocabulary
spiller plays
vinner wins
taper loses
tegner draws
synger sings
hviler rests
hos at (X's place)
fantastisk fantastic
en hage a garden, a yard
en gitar a guitar
et besøk a visit
en sport a sport
en ball a ball
en park a park
en hobby a hobby
fotball (m) football, soccer
et spill a game
musikk (m) music
et band a band
et piano a piano
en sang a song
et kor a choir
en film a movie, a film
en radio a radio
en TV a TV

Verbs: Present 2 updated 2019-08-29 ^

Just One, Please!

As you may have noticed in previous lessons, we have yet to introduce a solid distinction between indefinite articles such as a or an in English, and the number one. So far, you've been using en (m), ei (f), and et (n) for both functions, and that's also what natives will do when they feel no need to specify.

In cases where you want to emphasize the number, you can use the following descriptors:

Masculine Feminine Neuter
én gutt éi jente ett barn
one boy one girl one child

These will always translate to either one or a single (one). Translating them to a or an would be incorrect.

In speech, you make the distinction by putting stress on the number. The TTS voice used for this course is not great about doing that, so you need to exaggerate it a little more than she does.


Både & Begge

There are two words for both in Norwegian, både and begge. Både is a conjunction and is used in constructions such as både ... og, ie. both ... and . In this case it is possible to list more than two elements. Begge is a quantifier and is used instead of alle when there are only two of something. If you need to use the word both on its own, you may use the phrase begge to, which literally means, both two.

Norwegian English
Vi har bare én katt. We have only one cat.
Jeg ser bare éi and. I see only one duck.
Det er bare ett stykke igjen. There is only one piece left.

Liten

The adjective liten, meaning little or small, is the most highly irregular adjective in the Norwegian language. Take a look at how it declines. Commit this table to memory, because as in English, the word small is used a lot.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine en liten stol a small chair
den lille stolen the small chair
Feminine ei lita bok a small book
den lille boka the small book
Neuter et lite bord a small table
det lille bordet the small table
Plural små hus small houses
de små husene the small houses

Present

The present tense is used to describe things that are happening or are true now:

Jeg leser nå. I am reading now.

The present tense is also used in general statements that are independent of time:

Jorda er rund. The earth is round.

For things that repeat and that are still recurring:

Jeg sover hver natt. I sleep every night.

The present tense can be used to talk about the future as well, especially when it is certain:

Jeg reiser i morgen. I leave tomorrow.

As a rule of thumb, you can use the present tense where you would use either the present (I leave tomorrow.) or present progressive (I am leaving tomorrow.) tenses in English.

You do not have to worry about person or number when dealing with verbs in Norwegian, the verb stays the same. This is even simpler than English where you have to remember to add the -s in the third person singular in the present tense.

Forming the present is extremely easy, just add the suffix -r to the infinitive (the form you'll find in the dictionary).

The table below shows you how to do it:

Group Suffix Infinitive Present English Translation
1 -er å vaske vasker wash(es), am/are/is washing
2 -er å kjøre kjører drive(s), am/are/is driving
3 -r å bo bor live(s), am/are/is living (as in making one's home somewhere)

There are three groups of verbs with different patterns for forming tenses in Norwegian, but in the present case they all behave in the same way as you can see.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
lukter smells
gir gives
venter waits, expects
husker remembers
tar takes
finner finds
åpner opens
takker thanks
dør dies
regner rains
beklager apologizes
leier rents, holds hands with
kysser kisses
én/éi/ett one (not a/an!)
begge both
men but
også also, too, as well
til for
alltid always
hvordan how
langt far
hjemmefra from home
bare just, only
for too
lite little, small

Relatives updated 2021-06-13 ^

Relatives

In Norwegian, each grandparent has a unique name that's very intuitive.

Norwegian English
mormor mother's mother
morfar mother's father
farmor father's mother
farfar father's father

Bestemor is the generic term for grandmother.

Bestefar is in turn the generic term for grandfather.


Vocabulary
en onkel an uncle
en/ei tante an aunt
beste- grand- (prefix)
en slektning a relative
et barnebarn a grandchild
lille- little, younger, baby (prefix)
en/ei slekt an extended family
en svoger a brother-in-law
en morfar a (maternal) grandfather
en/ei mormor a (maternal) grandmother
et søskenbarn a cousin (gender neutral)
store- big, older (prefix)
en farfar a (paternal) grandfather
en/ei farmor a (paternal) grandmother
en/ei kusine a (female) cousin
et enebarn an only child
en/ei svigerinne a sister-in-law
ste- step- (prefix)
olde- great-grand- (prefix)
en nevø a nephew
en/ei niese a niece
en fetter a (male) cousin

Feelings updated 2021-06-13 ^

Feelings

To prepare you for the emotional roller-coaster that is the Norwegian course, this skill will supply you with vocabulary to express your basic feelings.


Irregular Adjectives

While most of the words follow patterns you've already learned, there are a couple of irregularities among the adjectives.

Glad and redd do not take a -t ending in their neuter forms.

Stakkars stays the same in all forms, no matter the gender or number of the noun it modifies.


Fixed Expressions - Love Them or Fear Them

When expressing emotions, you're going to come across a couple of fixed expressions.

å være glad i
to be fond of, to love

å være redd for
to be afraid of

Because these are fixed expressions, their adjectives, glad and redd, do not change to the plural form when used with a plural subject.

Vi er glad i deg.
We love you.

Vi er redd for ulver.
We are afraid of wolves.

Using the plural adjective is by no means a grave error, and actually quite common among natives, but if you want to impress your Norwegian teacher or ace that exam, you'll stick to the singular.


Expressing Emotions in the Cold North

Norwegians tend to be a little reserved, and, as an extension of that, rather economical with their emotions. That doesn't mean that they don't feel as strongly about things, it's just not as readily expressed. Unless we're drunk, of course.


Vocabulary
gråter cries
ler laughs
smiler smiles
føler feels
gjør makes
hater hates
sint angry
glad glad, happy
stakkars poor
trøtt sleepy, tired
redd scared, afraid
sulten hungry
trist sad
stolt proud
ensom lonely
en følelse a feeling, an emotion

Work updated 2019-08-29 ^

Work

Unlike in English, Norwegian usually drops the indefinite article when describing someone's profession.

Norwegian English
Jeg er student. I am a student.
Hun er lege. She is a doctor.
Han er forfatter. He is a writer.

Be mindful that constructions such as jeg er en student are also grammatical, but they are far less common.


Finding Your Voice

Now that you're becoming familiar with the sound of the Norwegian language, listening exercises are probably starting to become a little easier. However, speaking can still be a hurdle!

It's perfectly natural to feel shy about speaking a new language, but it's something that becomes more comfortable the more you practice it. The good news is that you don't have to run out and find a native speaker to practice. Saying the Duolingo sentences out loud is a great start, and will get your tongue used to making those unfamiliar twists and turns. And yes, we do mean every sentence - not just the listening exercises!


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
studerer study
tid (m/f) time
overtid (m/f) overtime
en lege a doctor, a physician
en jobb a job
et kontor an office
en student a student (uni level)
en forfatter an author
et møte a meeting
en konferanse a conference
en sjef a boss
fritid (m/f) free time, leisure
et arbeid a work, a job
en elektriker an electrician
en rørlegger a plumber
en brannmann a fireman, a firefighter
en prest a priest
en ingeniør an engineer
en bussjåfør a bus driver
en telefonselger a telemarketer, a telephone salesman

Verbs: Infinitive updated 2021-06-13 ^

Infinitives

To infinitives, and beyond!

Most infinitive verbs in Norwegian end in the stem -e. There are many, many exceptions, however. A few modal constructions exist that link to infinitive verbs directly, such as kan and vil.

Norwegian English
Jeg kan spise. I can eat.
Hun vil finne katten. She wants to find the cat.

Many infinitives link with other parts of the sentence with the word å, which translates to to, as in, å se or to see. This applies to all situations where an infinitive is present without a modal verb.

Norwegian English
Det er viktig å lese. It is important to read.
Han liker å lage mat. He likes to cook.

You may have noticed that in the final sentence above, the verb å lage mat could have easily translated to cooking, and you would be correct. Sometimes an infinitive beginning with an å can act like a gerund, which is nerd for a noun ending in -ing.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å to
kan can, am able to
must
å bli to become, to get, to be
å lage to make
å spise to eat
å betale to pay
å gi to give
å sove to sleep
å være to be
å gjøre to do, to make
å danse to dance
å kjøpe to buy
å se to see
å ta to take
å få to get, to receive
å lese to read
å vise to show
å synge to sing
å si to say
å leie to rent, to hold hands
å høre to hear
å velge to choose
å tenke to think
å prøve to try, to test, to attempt
å fortsette to continue

Schedule updated 2019-09-01 ^

Times of Day

Norwegian English
morgen morning
formiddag late morning (9-12 am)
ettermiddag afternoon
kveld evening; night (before bed)
natt night

Familiar Prepositions, New Contexts

You're already familiar with the prepositions i, om and from previous skills. Here, you'll meet them again, but in new contexts and with different translations.


Norwegian English
i dag today
i natt tonight
i morgen tomorrow
om dagen at day; during the day
om morgenen in the morning; during the morning
om en time in an hour (from now)
på dagen at day
på morgenen in the morning

As you can see, both and om can be used to express that something happens at day or in the morning.

If you're referring to a specific point in time, like five in the morning, you would use fem på morgenen. If you're just referring to the morning in general, you may use either or om. Some dialects have a preference for one over the other, but that's nothing you need to worry about here.


Two Verbs - One Job

In Norwegian, there are two very common verbs for to work, å arbeide and å jobbe.

While these are largely interchangeable, there are cases where one will be preferred to the other.

Å arbeide is the old workhorse, of Old Norse origin, and thus features in more compounds and fixed expressions.

Å jobbe is the young English apprentice, which has been adopted by the younger generations.

Both verbs are used extensively, and Norwegians will happily switch between the two within the same text or conversation.


Vocabulary
å møte to meet, to encounter
å jobbe to work
å komme to come
om in, at
hver every, each
sjelden seldom, rarely
før before, prior to
i dag today
i kveld this evening, tonight
i morgen tomorrow
senere later
daglig daily
ferdig done, finished, complete
en gang once, one time, a time
en morgen a morning
en ettermiddag an afternoon
en kveld an evening, a night
en plan a plan
et skift a shift
fleksitid (m/f) flexible hours, flextime

Traits updated 2021-06-13 ^

Liten

The adjective liten, meaning little or small, is the most highly irregular adjective in the Norwegian language. Take a look at how it declines. Commit this table to memory, because as in English, the word small is used a lot.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine en liten stol a small chair
den lille stolen the small chair
Feminine ei lita bok a small book
den lille boka the small book
Neuter et lite bord a small table
det lille bordet the small table
Plural små hus small houses
de små husene the small houses

Pay special attention to context, and in time, these adjective endings become second nature.


Negative Prefixes

Just as in English, there are a few different negative prefixes that can be used to negate an adjective. In this skill you'll learn to use u-, but there are a few others as well such as a-, in-, dis-, and mis-, so we'll give examples for all of them while we're at it.

Norwegian English
atypisk atypical
uvanlig unusual
umulig impossible
utrolig incredible
intolerant intolerant
inkompatibel incompatible
disharmoni disharmony
misfornøyd dissatisfied; unhappy

As you can see, there are plenty of cognates going around, but sometimes the choice of prefix does change from language to language, as is the case for "utrolig", which turns into "incredible".


Altfor

You've already learned the intensifying adverb "for", which translates to "too". However, in cases where you feel like that isn't quite strong enough, you can intensify the meaning further by adding the prefix alt-.

"Altfor" translates to "all too", "far too", "way too", or "much too". Note that it cannot be translated to just "too".

"Denne kjolen er altfor dyr!"
"This dress is far too expensive!"


Declining Adjectives

Need a refresher on how to decline adjectives? Have a look at the Tips & Notes for the Adjectives skill.


Vocabulary
virker seems
altfor all too, far too
helt wholly, completely, totally
den lille the little, the small
enkel simple
streng strict
vakker beautiful
umulig impossible
u- un-, im-, a- (negative prefix)
små small, little
lik like, alike
alvorlig serious
kjedelig boring, dull
interessant interesting
fri free
søt sweet, cute
vennlig friendly
forskjellig different

Community updated 2021-06-13 ^

Community

Since you're here learning a language, you probably already know the importance of community and connecting with other people. Now, you'll learn the vocabulary for it as well!


Boyfriend/Girlfriend - It's All the Same to Us

The Norwegian word for boyfriend or girlfriend is kjæreste, which literally means dearest. This is gender neutral in the sense that it does not say anything about the gender of one's partner.

So, if you're queer and in the closet, you can still talk about your significant other in public.


There Are People, and Then There Are People

As in German, Norwegian has a few words that translate to the English word people. Below is a brief overview.

Norwegian English
mennesker most generic term
personer emphasizes the individual
folk emphasizes the collective

Making Friends in Norway

While Norwegians are notorious for avoiding conversation on the bus and in the elevator, you'll find them more receptive in other contexts.

If you don't have the luxury of already knowing someone who can introduce you to new people, or the option of mingling at the workplace, your best bet is to find a shared activity to bond over. This could be a hobby or interest, or just taking a walk in the woods. Norwegians actually greet strangers in the woods, true story.

Why this need for a shared activity? Well, it bypasses the need for small talk, as you'll already have something to talk about that interests both parties. You can liken it to dating: On a coffee date, you may have to work to keep the conversation going, but take your date to do some sort of activity that you both enjoy, and the hours will fly by.

So, sign up for some classes! Learn new things, enjoy nature's offerings, have fun and connect. Build your own little community. :)


Vocabulary
klemmer hugs
å være enig to agree
støtter supports
å snakke to speak, to talk
redder saves, rescues
kjenner knows, is familiar with
tenker thinks
deler shares
å hjelpe to help
noen someone, anyone
sammen together
alene alone
hjelpsom helpful
en kjæreste a girlfriend, a boyfriend, a significant other
et liv a life
en venn a friend
et ansvar a responsibility
et menneske a human
en/ei gruppe a group
et medlem a member
folk (n) people
et språk a language
internet (n) internet
et kallenavn a nickname
en nordmann a Norwegian (person)

Determiners updated 2020-07-10 ^

This and These

We learned early on how to describe definite nouns with the appropriate gender- and number-specific suffixes.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine stolen the chair
Feminine boka the book
Neuter bordet the table
Plural husene the houses

And how to specify further with the word that or those.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine den stolen that chair
Feminine den boka that book
Neuter det bordet that table
Plural de husene those houses

Now, we're introducing how to say this and these in Norwegian.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine denne stolen this chair
Feminine denne boka this book
Neuter dette bordet this table
Plural disse husene these houses

Other & Second

There is only one word for other and second in Norwegian, annen. It declines irregularly, so watch out.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine en annen stol another chair
den andre stolen the other chair
Feminine ei anna bok another book
den andre boka the other book
Neuter et annet bord another table
det andre bordet the other table
Plural andre hus other houses
de andre husene the other houses

Både & Begge

There are two words for both in Norwegian, både and begge. Både is a conjunction and is used in constructions such as både ... og, ie. both ... and . In this case it is possible to list more than two elements. Begge is a quantifier and is used instead of alle when there are only two of something. If you need to use the word both on its own, you may use the phrase begge to, which literally means, both two.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
alt all, everything
andre other, others, second
ingenting nothing
selv myself, yourself, herself...
egen own
ingen no, nobody, no-one
både both (X and X)
annet other, second
hverandre each other, one another
annen other, second
annenhver every other, every second
et ord a word

Days updated 2019-09-01 ^

Weekdays

Below are the days of the week. The reason they're so similar to English is because English gets most of the words for the days of the week from the names of Norse gods. "Thursday" is Thor's day, and so on.

Keep in mind that the days of the week, unlike in English, are only capitalized at the beginning of the sentence. The g at the end of these words may or may not be pronounced, depending on dialect, register, and stress. Even when pronounced, it should be quite soft.

Norwegian English
mandag Monday
tirsdag Tuesday
onsdag Wednesday
torsdag Thursday
fredag Friday
lørdag Saturday
søndag Sunday

Monday through Friday are referred to as hverdager, while Saturday and Sunday are helgedager.

Since all of the days are compound nouns ending in the masculine noun en dag, they too are treated as masculine nouns.


Preposition Use

When you want to express that something's happening on a specific day, you say på mandag, on Monday.

However, if you want to say that something's happening on the weekend, it's i helgen.


Present Tense, Future Meaning

As you already know, you can make some statements about the future using the present tense in English. An example would be "We are going to Norway next month." We still understand that the sentence must be about the future, as a future point in time has been specified.

In Norwegian, you can do exactly the same. In fact, it's even more common to do so.

Vi drar på onsdag.
We are leaving on Wednesday.

Prøven er fredag.
The test is on Friday.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
mandag Monday
tirsdag Tuesday
onsdag Wednesday
torsdag Thursday
fredag Friday
lørdag Saturday
søndag Sunday
en hverdag a weekday
en/ei uke a week
en/ei helg a weekend

Verbs: Present 3 updated 2020-06-17 ^

Indefinite Pronouns

When we're not referring to a specific person, but are making a general statement, we often use an indefinite or impersonal pronoun.

English has two such pronouns, the rather formal "one", which one imagines the queen uses a fair bit more than the general population, and the less formal general "you".

In Norwegian, there are also two of these pronouns, "man" and "en". However, there is no difference in formality; they can be used freely in both the formal and informal register.

"Man kan aldri være helt sikker."
"One can never be completely certain."

Note that "man" can only be used as a subject pronoun, while "en" can be used as both a subject pronoun and an object pronoun. "Ens" is the possessive pronoun, corresponding to "one's" or the general "your".


Learning and Teaching

In this skill, you'll learn the verb lærer, which changes meaning depending on whether it has an indirect object or not.

If it lacks an indirect object, it translates to learn/learns/am learning/are learning/is learning.

Jeg lærer norsk.
I am learning Norwegian.

However, if it has an indirect object, it becomes teach/teaches/am teaching/are teaching/is teaching. You can see how it works in the sentence below, where meg is the indirect object and the person being taught something.

Hun lærer meg norsk.
She is teaching me Norwegian.

What about when you want to say "teach", and you don't have an indirect object? Well, then you can add the adverb "bort" to "lærer", like so:

De lærer bort norsk.
They are teaching Norwegian.

You can also use a whole other verb, which you will learn in a later skill. "Underviser" is used for teaching in a school or university context - classroom teaching.

Professoren underviser i norsk.
The professor teaches Norwegian.


To Exist or Just to Be, That is the Question

The verb finnes is an interesting one. Not only does it have the passive ending -s, but it's used much more extensively than its English counterpart, exist.

Finnes is the passive version of finner, find, so anything that finnes is something that is to be found. Depending on what sounds more natural, you should translate it to either is/are or exist(s) in English.


Present

The present tense is used to describe things that are happening or are true now:

Jeg leser nå. I am reading now.

The present tense is also used in general statements that are independent of time:

Jorda er rund. The earth is round.

For things that repeat and that are still recurring:

Jeg sover hver natt. I sleep every night.

The present tense can be used to talk about the future as well, especially when it is certain:

Jeg reiser i morgen. I leave tomorrow.

As a rule of thumb, you can use the present tense where you would use either the present (I leave tomorrow.) or present progressive (I am leaving tomorrow.) tenses in English.

You do not have to worry about person or number when dealing with verbs in Norwegian, the verb stays the same. This is even simpler than English where you have to remember to add the -s in the third person singular in the present tense.

Forming the present is extremely easy, just add the suffix -r to the infinitive (the form you'll find in the dictionary).

The table below shows you how to do it:

Group Suffix Infinitive Present English Translation
1 -er å vaske vasker wash(es), am/are/is washing
2 -er å kjøre kjører drive(s), am/are/is driving
3 -r å bo bor live(s), am/are/is living (as in making one's home somewhere)

There are three groups of verbs with different patterns for forming tenses in Norwegian, but in the present case they all behave in the same way as you can see.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
lærer learns, teaches
får gets, receives
skjer happens, occurs, takes place
holder holds, is enough
foretrekker prefers
stoler trusts
følger follows
ønsker wishes
forsøker tries, attempts
slutter stops, quits
å fryse to freeze, to be cold
begynner begins, starts
finnes exists, is
bærer carries
stemmer is right
kler på seg gets dressed, puts on
man one, you (impersonal)
godt well
igjen again
en tyv a thief, a burglar
en vane a habit

The Clock updated 2021-06-13 ^

Telling Time

In order to ask what time it is, you may ask,

Hva er klokka?

or literally, What is the clock?

The response will be something like,

Klokka er to.

which means the clock is two, or in other words,

It's two o'clock.


AM, PM & Military Time

Norwegians are used to seamlessly jumping between using 12-hour and 24-hour time, depending on what the situation requires.

When the intended point of time should be obvious from the context, they'll use 12-hour time without specifying AM or PM.

When there is room for confusion, they will either use 12-hour time in conjunction with a time of day to specify, or they'll switch to 24-hour time, also known as military time.

12 hour 12 hour + specification 24 hour military
to to på/om dagen fjorten 14:00
ni ni på/om kvelden tjueen 21:00

The Confusing Half Hours

When someone says halv to in Norwegian, it actually means half past one. The half hour relates to the next whole hour, rather than the previous one, which may take a little getting used to.

Norwegian English
halv fire half past three
halv åtte half past seven
halv elleve half past ten

Vocabulary
allerede already
halv half
kvart på a quarter to
kvart over a quarter past
X på X to
X over X past
sen late
tidlig early
fort fast, quickly
en/ei klokke a clock, a watch, (a time)
et minutt a minute
et sekund a second

Jobs updated 2019-09-01 ^

Jobs

Unlike in English, Norwegian usually drops the indefinite article when describing someone's profession.

Norwegian English
Jeg er student. I am a student.
Hun er lege. She is a doctor.
Han er forfatter. He is a writer.

Be mindful that constructions such as jeg er en student are also grammatical, but they are far less common.


Two Verbs - One Job

In Norwegian, there are two very common verbs for to work, å arbeide and å jobbe.

While these are largely interchangeable, there are cases where one will be preferred to the other.

Å arbeide is the old workhorse, of Old Norse origin, and thus features in more compounds and fixed expressions.

Å jobbe is the young English apprentice, which has been adopted by the younger generations.

Both verbs are used extensively, and Norwegians will happily switch between the two within the same text or conversation.


Spelling Words of Greek Origin

Like English, Norwegian borrows heavily from Greek and Latin, especially for more technical terms. In this skill, you'll come across the noun fotograf, photographer, which stems from the words φῶς (phos), meaning light, and γραφή (graphê), meaning drawing or writing. That's what photographers do, right? They draw with light.

Whenever you come across a word of Greek origin that is spelled with a "ph" combination in English, it will be spelled with an "f" in Norwegian. Another example of this is elefant, which of course is elephant in English.

The same pattern holds true in Greek words with a "th" combination in English; the "h" disappears in Norwegian, leaving only the "t". An example from this skill is therapist, which becomes terapeut.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å arbeide to work
å selge to sell
profesjonell professional
et yrke a profession
en pilot a pilot
en arkitekt an architect
en fotograf a photographer
en/ei utdanning an education
en fisker a fisherman, a fisher
en advokat a lawyer
en terapeut a therapist
en politibetjent a police officer, a policeman, a policewoman

Conjunctions updated 2019-08-29 ^

Conjunctions

Below is a short list of some of the most common conjunctions in the Norwegian language. Four of them, og, men, fordi, and eller, you're already familiar with.

Norwegian English
og and
men but
eller or
fordi because
at that
om whether, if (binary plausibility)
hvis if (cause and effect)

Norwegian conjunctions act very similarly to English ones, with a couple of special rules.


Ikke

Keep in mind that in dependent clauses, the negation ikke gets pulled to a position in-between the subject and the main verb. This occurs with several other constructions as well. This is one weird quirk with Norwegian grammar, but it will sound natural after a while.

Norwegian English
Hun er ikke her. She is not here.
Jeg vet at hun ikke er her. I know that she is not here.

Isn't that interesting?


V-2 Word Order

The V-2 Rule is a linguistic law that applies to all Germanic languages... except English. You can see a rare instance of it in English in the expression here comes the bus. This rule states that all sentences that are statements, in other words not questions, must have a verb in the second position. This allows for some flexibility in the word order for emphasis. What it essentially means is that Norwegian verbs refuse to move from the second position in statements.

The V-2 Rule applies to dependent clauses that begin sentences. In this specific situation, the whole dependent clause is treated as being in the first position, so the verb in the independent clause comes immediately after it, in the second position, followed by the subject in the independent clause.

Norwegian English
Du (1) må (2) støtte meg. You must support me.
Hvis du vil hjelpe meg (1) , (2) du støtte meg. If you want to help me, you must support me.

This may sound jarring, but this rule of inversion becomes easy enough after some exposure.

Norwegian English
Jeg (1) snakker (2) ikke norsk. I do not speak Norwegian.
Selv om jeg er nordmann (1) , snakker (2) jeg ikke norsk. Even though I am Norwegian, I do not speak Norwegian.

If you think this word order is weird, try German.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
om if, whether
at that
so
når when
mens while
for for, because
hvis if
som like, which
selv om even if, even though, despite

Adverbs updated 2021-06-13 ^

Adverbs

In Norwegian, adverbs usually follow the verb.

Norwegian English
Du snakker godt norsk! You speak Norwegian well!

One exception is that adverbs of time often appear at the end of the sentence or clause.

Norwegian English
Jeg har tid . I have time now.

Another exception is related to the V-2 Rule in Germanic linguistics, which applies to all Germanic languages... besides English. You can see a rare instance of it in English in the expression here comes the bus. This rule states that all sentences that are statements, in other words not questions, must have a verb in the second position. This allows for some flexibility in the word order for emphasis, but don't get crazy.

Norwegian English
Jeg har tid . I have time now.
Jeg har tid. I now have time.
har jeg tid. Now I have time.

The final example is a demonstration of the V-2 Rule. When the adverb moved to the front of the statement, the subject moved to the other side of the verb har. This is because Norwegian verbs refuse to move from the second position in statements.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
litt a little
godt well
igjen again
ennå still
borte gone, away, missing
dessverre unfortunately, regrettably, sadly
til og med even, up to and including
enn than
heller rather
nesten nearly, almost
egentlig actually, in fact
vanligvis usually
kun only, exclusively
svært very
gjerne gladly, happily, (not translated, adds politeness/willingness)
i stedet instead
akkurat right, just, exactly, precisely
åpenbart obviously

Imperative updated 2019-04-12 ^

The Imperative

Forming the imperative in Norwegian is quite simple. Take the base form of the verb, such as spise and drop the -e to form the word spis. Congratulations! You have successfully created the imperative in Norwegian!

English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
eat spise spis
read lese les
be være vær

You may be wondering about how we handle verbs that do not end in -e in their base form, such as tro and ta, which mean believe and take. The answer is, we don't change the verb at all in the imperative.

English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
believe tro tro
take ta ta
have ha ha

Some verbs that do end in -e end in a string of consonants that may sound strange without the -e. This is why you are given the option to keep the -e ending in the imperative if you so desire, but only in these specific verbs.

English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
open åpne åpne or åpn
trade handle handle or handl

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
si say
les read
løp run
spis eat
ring call, ring, phone
tenk think
ta take
tro believe
lytt listen
gjør do
kyss kiss
bruk use
syng sing
la let, allow, permit
gi give
vær be
husk remember
betal pay
fortsett continue
se see, look
lek play
pass (på) watch out, look out, make sure
skriv write
tegn draw
bekymre worry

Places updated 2019-08-29 ^

Oh the Places You'll Go...

Norway is a country of fjords and valleys, of babbling brooks and scenic waterfalls, and it's all topped off with a coastline longer than the polar night. If you ever get a chance to visit, you're in for a treat!


Rural Communities

When describing rural communities in Norway, you can use either en/ei bygd or et tettsted.

Ei bygd is a small town or hamlet. It can have a defined center, but often it's more like a handful of farms strewn about the countryside, with a local store and not much more. Some even have to drive to another bygd to do their grocery shopping.

Et tettsted is a very vague term, as it can refer to any congregation of houses with a number of inhabitants of 200 and upward. So, it could be a tiny village, or one of Norway's largest cities.

When talking about villages outside of Norway, or in a historic context, we use the noun en landsby instead. There's a quaintness to it.

Larger towns and cities are referred to as en by.


Gate & Vei

We observe the same distinction as in English, where en gate, a street, is bordered by houses, while en vei, a road, just has to take you from A to B.

You can use vei when referring to a street as well, but it doesn't work the other way around; gate would never be used for a country road or a highway.


Left & Right

When something is to the left of you, you can say that it's either på venstre side, på venstre hånd, or til venstre.

It works the same way for høyre, right. Take care not to get the noun for the direction, høyre, mixed up with the noun for straight or correct, rett.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
omkring around
overfor opposite, across from, facing
venstre left
høyre right
borte ved over by
der borte over there
en by a town, a city
et sted a place
et tårn a tower
et slott a castle
en/ei kirke a church
jorden (m/f) the earth
en/ei bygd a village, a small town, a hamlet
en/ei adresse an address
et område an area
en/ei bygning a building
en eiendom a property
en/ei gate a street
en/ei sone a zone
en innsjø a lake, a pond
en/ei forside a front
en/ei side a side
en bank a bank
en plass a place
nærhet (m/f) proximity, vicinity
en hovedstad a capital city
en planet a planet
en måne a moon
en/ei stjerne a star

Verbs: Infinitive 2 updated 2019-10-13 ^

Infinitives

To infinitives, and beyond!

Most infinitive verbs in Norwegian end in the stem -e. There are many, many exceptions, however. A few modal constructions exist that link to infinitive verbs directly, such as kan and vil.

Norwegian English
Jeg kan spise. I can eat.
Hun vil finne katten. She wants to find the cat.

Many infinitives link with other parts of the sentence with the word å, which translates to to, as in, å se or to see. This applies to all situations where an infinitive is present without a modal verb.

Norwegian English
Det er viktig å lese. It is important to read.
Han liker å lage mat. He likes to cook.

You may have noticed that in the final sentence above, the verb å lage mat could have easily translated to cooking, and you would be correct. Sometimes an infinitive beginning with an å can act like a gerund, which is nerd for a noun ending in -ing.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
for å (in order) to
å le to laugh
å finne to find
pleier tend to, usually do
å holde to hold
å forsøke to try, to attempt
å begynne to begin, to start
å tro to believe
å åpne to open
å endre to alter, to change, to edit
å bruke to use
å bestemme to decide
å gå to walk, to go
å dø to die
å sitte to sit
å leke to play
å miste to lose, to drop
å huske to remember
å stenge to close, to shut
å drikke to drink
å bo to live, to reside
å stå to stand, to be
å vinne to win
å regne to rain, to calculate, to count (on)
å få X til å to make X, to get X to

Demands and Requests updated 2022-02-04 ^

Saying Please

There are a number of ways to say please in Norwegian. Some go at the beginning of the sentence, while others are more comfortable at the very end of the sentence.

Note that vær så snill is a plea or request, while vennligst is more of a polite demand. You'll often see vennligst used on signs in stores, restaurants, and other public areas.

Norwegian English Placement
vær så snill (å) please, be so kind as to beginning
vær snill og please, kindly beginning
vennligst please, kindly beginning
takk please, thanks end
er du snill please, if you please end

The Imperative

Forming the imperative in Norwegian is quite simple. Take the base form of the verb, such as spise and drop the -e to form the word spis. Congratulations! You have successfully created the imperative in Norwegian!

English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
eat spise spis
read lese les
be være vær

You may be wondering about how we handle verbs that do not end in -e in their base form, such as tro and ta, which mean believe and take. The answer is that we don't change the verb at all in the imperative.

English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
believe tro tro
take ta ta
have ha ha

Some verbs that do end in -e end in a string of consonants that may sound strange without the -e. This is why you are given the option to keep the -e ending in the imperative if you so desire, but only in these specific verbs. The versions with the -e suffix is generally preferred, so those are the ones we'll teach you in this course.

English Verb Norwegian Verb Norwegian Command
open åpne åpne or åpn
trade handle handle or handl

Vocabulary
svar answer, reply, respond
spør ask
kom come
hjelp help
sett put, place, set
vær så snill å please
walk, go
lukk close, shut
slutt stop, quit
vask wash, clean
åpne open
vennligst please, kindly
følg follow
møt meet
vent wait
hold hold
forlat leave, abandon
avbryt interrupt
send send
er du snill please, if you please

Time updated 2021-06-13 ^

Time

While we're not quite as obsessed with timeliness as the Germans, being reasonably punctual is important both at work and in private. If you want to make a good impression, you should always strive to be on time.

Of course, sometimes you're late because of things out of your control, in which case it's good to notify the people waiting for you that you're running late, giving some indication of when you're expecting to arrive.

Public transport in Norway tends to be pretty punctual as well. City buses may be late during rush hour, but trains and coaches are usually on time, as are ferries unless the weather's acting up.


Døgn

Et døgn is a really neat noun, which allows you to make a distinction that doesn't exist in everyday English. It translates to a day, but specifically refers to the full 24-hour period. So it's not day as opposed to night, but the day and the night all wrapped up in one unambiguous package.


For ... Siden

When translating the English word ago, you need two words in Norwegian, for ... siden. You should place for in front of the time expression and siden after.

For fem år siden
Five years ago


Prepositions

Several Norwegian expressions of time use the preposition i in combination with a noun. These must be learned independently and treated as completely separate from the nouns they're used with. For example:

Norwegian English
i dag today
i kveld tonight
i morgen tomorrow
i morgen tidlig tomorrow morning
i går yesterday
i år this year
i fjor last year

Wrestling With the Past

Your first encounter with the past tense will be made in this skill, in the form of var (was), hadde (had), and kom (came).

As in many other languages, some of the most important verbs have highly irregular conjugations. No need to despair, though: We're introducing them early so that you'll get plenty of practice using them. By the time you're halfway through the course, these will have become second nature to you.

Infinitive Present Past English
å være er var was
å ha har hadde had
å komme kommer kom came

Regular Past Tense Verbs

The majority of regular verbs end in either -te or -et, such as spiste and snakket, which mean ate and spoke, respectively.

Infinitive Present Past English
å spise spiser spiste ate
å snakke snakker snakket spoke

Some also end in -de or -dde.

Infinitive Present Past English
å prøve prøver prøvde tried
å bo bor bodde lived

Ordinal Numbers

With one notable exception, all adjectival ordinal numbers have the same spelling regardless of gender or number, ending in -e across the board.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine en første stol a first chair
den første stolen the first chair
Feminine ei første bok a first book
den første boka the first book
Neuter et første bord a first table
det første bordet the first table
Plural første hus first houses
de første husene the first houses

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
var was
kom came
hadde had
fortsatt still
i løpet av in the course of, during
iblant occasionally
lenger anymore, any longer
i mellomtiden in the meantime
siden since
for ... siden ago
inntil until, up to
lenge long
første (the) first
neste (the) next
siste (the) last
klar ready
rask swift, quick
langsom slow
et år a year
et døgn a day, a 24h period of time
et øyeblikk a moment
en fest a party
fortid (m/f) past
nåtid (m/f) present
fremtid (m/f) future
en alder an age
en bursdag a birthday

The Home updated 2021-09-03 ^

Home, Sweet Home

Or hjem, kjære hjem, as it goes in Norwegian. Of course, it's difficult to make generalizations about people's homes, but don't think for a second that we're going to let that stop us from trying.

If you're Norwegian, chances are that you either live in a wooden house or in a condo building in one of the larger cities. Most households consist of either a single person or a small family; it's rare to see more than two generations living together.

For the past couple of decades, people have been very busy painting their walls white, which admittedly makes sense in a country with such dark winters. Scandinavian interior design tends to emphasize materials, wood in particular, and there's a certain minimalism to it.

Many Norwegian homes have a fireplace or an oven, to make sure everything's suitably koselig (cozy). What you won't see a lot of are wall-to-wall carpets; wooden floors with the odd rug is where it's at.

With Janteloven, the Law of Jante, still going strong, there aren't many huge or flashy houses around. Mansions are few and far between.


Mind Your Manners

When invited into someone's home, it's customary to take off your shoes as soon as you've made it inside the front door. Norwegians wear socks or slippers indoors.

If you're wearing a hat of some sort, you should leave that in the entryway with your coat and shoes as well, at least if you're visiting someone of the older generation.

So far, so good, right? From here on out, you should get by on basic courtesy, but do remember to thank your host for the food or drink if any is served. Leaving a dinner table without thanking the host or hostess for feeding you is tantamount to treason. It doesn't even matter if the food was bad - your manners have to be better.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å stryke to iron
å låse to lock
å rydde to tidy (up)
å støvsuge to vacuum
en peis a fireplace
en/ei stue a living room
en/ei eske a box
et hjem a home
en gang a hallway, an entryway
et møbel a piece of furniture
en/ei dørmatte a doormat
en duk a tablecloth
en sofa a sofa, a couch
et teppe a rug, a carpet
en/ei badstu a sauna
en fjernkontroll a remote control
et hull a hole
en/ei hylle a shelf
et kjøkken a kitchen
en stikkontakt a power socket
en fryser a freezer
et loft an attic
et tak a roof, a ceiling
støv (n) dust
en/ei trapp a staircase
en etasje a floor, a story, a storey
en kjeller a cellar, a basement
en/ei leilighet an apartment, a flat

*The vocabulary lists are not exhaustive. What you see listed are the main lexemes of each skill, but each lexeme can contain several forms of a word.

For example, a verb lexeme may contain all its conjugations, while a noun lexeme may contain all its declensions. Sometimes, a single lexeme may even comprise several word classes, provided they share the same root and translate predictably into English.

Body Parts updated 2021-06-13 ^

Body Parts

When it comes to body parts, there are plenty of cognates to go around. Have a quick look at the vocabulary list at the bottom of the tips before you get started, and see how many of the Norwegian words resemble their English counterparts.

There are a few irregular nouns to watch out for as well: en tann, en tå, en hånd and en fot all get a vowel change in their plural forms. In the table below, you'll see their full declensions.

indefinite sl. definite sl. indefinite pl. definite pl.
en tann tannen tenner tennene
en tå tåen tær tærne
en hånd hånden hender hendene
en fot foten føtter føttene

Implied Possessives

In Norwegian, as in many other languages, body parts generally do not carry possessive pronouns. Instead, we use the definite form for all pronouns. Øyet can mean the eye, my eye, or your eye, etc. The person's body in question should be intuited from context.

This is especially common when speaking about one's own body parts.


Vocabulary
blod (n) blood
en/ei tå a toe
en fot a foot
et bein a leg
en/ei arm an arm
en/ei hånd a hand
en finger a finger
et øre an ear
et hår a hair
et hode a head
et hjerte a heart
en kropp a body
et øye an eye
en/ei tann a tooth
en/ei nese a nose
en munn a mouth
et ansikt a face
en/ei tunge a tongue

*The vocabulary lists are not exhaustive. What you see listed are the main lexemes of each skill, but each lexeme can contain several forms of a word.

For example, a verb lexeme may contain all its conjugations, while a noun lexeme may contain all its declensions. Sometimes, a single lexeme may even comprise several word classes, provided they share the same root and translate predictably into English.

The Farm updated 2022-02-04 ^

Vocabulary
å mate to feed
å dyrke to grow
på landet in the country(side)
en/ei ku a cow
en sau a sheep
en gris a pig
en gård a farm
en bonde a farmer
en låve a barn
en/ei geit a goat
en åker a field
en potet a potato
en/ei gulrot a carrot

*The vocabulary lists are not exhaustive. What you see listed are the main lexemes of each skill, but each lexeme can contain several forms of a word.

For example, a verb lexeme may contain all its conjugations, while a noun lexeme may contain all its declensions. Sometimes, a single lexeme may even comprise several word classes, provided they share the same root.

Shopping updated 2021-06-13 ^

Vocabulary
å bruke to spend
kjøp buy
passer fits
stenger closes
billig inexpensive, cheap
kontant (in) cash
til salgs for sale
et salg a sale
en/ei veske a (hand)bag
en størrelse a size
et prøverom a fitting room, a changing room
en minibank an ATM
et kjøpesenter a shopping mall
en blomsterbutikk a flower shop, a florist
en pris a price
et gull a gold
en regning a bill, a check, an invoice
et kredittkort a credit card
en/ei lommebok a wallet

Determiners 2 updated 2019-05-16 ^

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
dets its
viss certain
sånn so, such, like this, like that, that way
enhver any, anyone, everyone
enten ... eller either ... or
few
eneste (the) only
samme (the) same
samtlige all
slik so, such, like this, like that, that way, thus
verken ... eller neither ... nor

People updated 2020-05-09 ^

People

As in German, Norwegian has a few words that translate to the English word people. Below is a brief overview.

Norwegian English
mennesker most generic term
personer emphasizes the individual
folk emphasizes the collective

Honorifics

Titles such as "Mr", "Mrs" and "Miss" have almost completely gone out of use since the 1960s. We'll list them regardless, as you might see them on airline tickets and they are sometimes used in a joking manner, just as in English a husband may refer to his wife as "the missus".

Norwegian English
Herr (Hr) Mister (Mr)
Fru (Fr) Mrs
Frøken (Frk) Miss

Pupils used to refer to female teacher as "Frøken", but this has also gone out of use.

Herre also means Lord, so in Norway all men are lords. Perhaps it's only fair, with the word kvinne sharing the same root as queen.


All Ladies are Women, But...

Remember how the saying goes in English? Well, in Norwegian it's more like "All ladies are women, and all women are ladies too", because we don't have the same clear distinction between the words en/ei dame and en/ei kvinne.

Yes, en/ei dame can refer to a lady of noble birth or demeanor, but it can just as well be used to refer to women in general. Different dialects tend to prefer one word over the other, and use that almost exclusively.


Love, Just Not Too Strongly

You've already encountered the two verbs å elske and å være glad i, which both can translate to to love in English.

When referring to people, å elske is used sparingly. It's what you say to your significant other, and possibly your children, but it's not something to throw around lightly. Teenage girls tend to use it a little more broadly, but in general you don't want to overdo it.

The phrasal verb å være glad i can mean anything from I'm fond of you to I really, really love you. It can be said to your lover, your family, your friends, your dog, etc. It can carry as much weight as å elske, but it can also be closer to å like, to like, depending on the context.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å elske to love
menneskelig human, humane
hemmelig secret
voksen grown, grown-up, adult
sjenert shy
personlig personal
folk flest most people
en eks an ex
en herre a gentleman, a lord, a master
en dame a lady, a woman
en fiende an enemy, a foe
en person a person
et offer a victim, a sacrifice
et forhold a relationship
en skuespiller an actor, an actress
en/ei befolkning a population
allmennheten (m/f) the (general) public
en prins a prince
en viking a Viking
en konge a king
en tenåring a teenager
en/ei dronning a queen
en/ei prinsesse a princess
en kronprins a crown prince
en ungdom a youth, a young person
et vennskap a friendship
en pensjonist a pensioner

The Office updated 2021-06-13 ^

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å klippe to cut (with scissors)
å sende to send
å kopiere to copy
en penn a pen
et papir a paper
en blyant a pencil
en/ei mappe a folder
et skrivebord a desk
en/ei saks a pair of scissors
en heis an elevator, a lift
et batteri a battery
et nettbrett a tablet
en kopi a copy
en skjerm a screen, a monitor
en skriver a printer
en rapport a report
en kopimaskin a copy machine, a xerox machine, a photocopier
en datamaskin a computer
en teip a tape
plast (m) plastic
en e-post an email
en linjal a ruler
en binders a paperclip
et viskelær an eraser, a rubber
en/ei avdeling a department

The Year updated 2020-05-09 ^

A Full Year of Cognates

In the table below, you'll find the twelve months of the year listed. Notice how they all share the same etymology as their English counterparts? That's right, this skill is going to be a breeze!

Just like weekdays, months are not capitalized in Norwegian. Unless they begin a sentence, of course. If you ever need to abbreviate them, just take the first three letters of any month and stick a period at the end.

Keep in mind the RS sound in mars makes it sound like marsh. This RS letter combination creates an SH sound in the Norwegian language.

Norwegian English
januar January
februar February
mars March
april April
mai May
juni June
juli July
august August
september September
oktober October
november November
desember December

For grammatical purposes, all of the months are treated as masculine nouns.


Two Types of Seasons

While English tends to use the same word for both, Norwegian has one word for the four seasons of the year, en/ei årstid, and another one for any other type of season, like the hunting season or the skiing season, en sesong.


Preposition Use

As you already know, we use the preposition when referring to days or times of day.

Norwegian English
på mandag on Monday
på morgenen in the morning

When talking about months and seasons, we switch things up a bit and use the preposition i instead. This is also the preposition of choice when it comes to describing how many times a week/month/year something happens.

Norwegian English
i januar in January, this January
i vinter this winter
i uken a week
i måneden a month
i året a year

If you're talking about something that isn't happening this winter in particular, but just generally happens in the wintertime, you would say om vinteren.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
i år this year
januar January
februar February
en dato a date
en vinter a winter
en måned a month
en kalender a calendar
mars March
april April
mai May
juni June
juli July
en vår a spring
en sommer a summer
august August
september September
oktober October
november November
desember December
en høst an autumn, a fall
en/ei årstid a season, a time of year

Present 4 updated 2019-09-01 ^

Present

The present tense is used to describe things that are happening or are true now:

Jeg leser nå. I am reading now.

The present tense is also used in general statements that are independent of time:

Jorda er rund. The earth is round.

For things that repeat and that are still recurring:

Jeg sover hver natt. I sleep every night.

The present tense can be used to talk about the future as well, especially when it is certain:

Jeg reiser i morgen. I leave tomorrow.

As a rule of thumb, you can use the present tense where you would use either the present (I leave tomorrow.) or present progressive (I am leaving tomorrow.) tenses in English.

You do not have to worry about person or number when dealing with verbs in Norwegian, the verb stays the same. This is even simpler than English where you have to remember to add the -s in the third person singular in the present tense.

Forming the present is extremely easy, just add the suffix -r to the infinitive (the form you'll find in the dictionary).

The table below shows you how to do it:

Group Suffix Infinitive Present English
1 -er å vaske vasker wash(es), am/are/is washing
2 -er å kjøre kjører drive(s), am/are/is driving
3 -r å bo bor live(s), am/are/is living (as in making one's home somewhere)

There are three groups of verbs with different patterns for forming tenses in Norwegian, but in the present case they all behave in the same way as you can see.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
blir becomes
klarer is able, manages
inneholder contains
ber asks
antar assumes, presumes
knuser crushes, breaks, smashes
blander mixes, blends
glemmer forgets
fortsetter continues
slår beats, hits, strikes
håper hopes
behøver needs, requires
gjelder pertains to, is about, is valid
skjærer cuts, carves
forlater leaves, abandons
orker has the energy to/for
slipper doesn't have to, is spared
sender sends
stanser stops, halts
handler is about, acts
forteller tells
tilbringer spends (time)
overrasker surprises
lite little
som that, which
fremfor over
en/et/ei slags a sort of, a kind of

Nature updated 2021-06-13 ^

Nature

Norwegians love being out in nature, and who can blame them? Wherever you turn, it's like you're in the middle of a beautiful landscape painting.


Allemannsretten

In Norway, everyone enjoys the right of access to uncultivated land in the countryside. Yes, that privilege extends to you as a tourist as well.

Of course, this means that it's also everyone's responsibility to show consideration to landowners and to respect nature. Littering in the city might earn you some angry glares, but littering in nature might just earn you a spot on someone's hit list. Whenever you leave the great outdoors, it should look as if you were never there.


Playing With Fire

In this skill, you'll learn the general term for fire as a concept and fire as a controlled resource, ild.

Later in the tree, you'll come to know two other terms for fire as well. There's en brann, which is an uncontrolled, destructive fire. Hopefully, you'll never need to, but the fire department's number is 110 in Norway.

You can also call 112 (police) or 113 (medical assistance), and they'll patch you through to the right department. 112 is actually a standard emergency number used throughout the EU states, so you might as well commit it to memory if you're planning to travel in Europe. Most mobile phones will now patch you through if you use 911 as well, so if you blank on the number, just call the one that comes to mind.

The third term for a fire is for bonfires specifically, et bål. Note that you may only make bonfires out in the woods between September 15. and April 15. This is a precaution against forest fires during the drier summer months.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å ødelegge to destroy, to ruin, to break
å stige to rise, to increase
å resirkulere to recycle
å vokse to grow, to increase
naturlig natural
tørr dry
et sted somewhere
en/ei elv a river
et hav an ocean, a sea
en natur a nature
et gress a grass
en/ei plante a plant
en himmel a sky, a heaven
en is an ice
et fjell a mountain
en ild a fire (general/controlled)
en røyk a smoke
en vulkan a volcano
en fjord a fjord
en bølge a wave
et landskap a landscape, a scenery
et tre a (type of) wood
en/ei luft an air
et miljø an environment
en ørken a desert

Verb Endings updated 2019-08-29 ^

Special Endings


This Verb Looks Familiar...

Many Norwegian verbs that end in -erer in the present tense, such as importerer and produserer, are loan words from Latin. As such, they are especially easy to learn for an English speaker. Be sure to recognize them when you can.


Why Does This Verb End in S?

There are a very special set of verbs and expressions that exclusively end in the letter "s" in Norwegian. Usually, this construction is reserved for the passive form, but not here. These verbs represent very abstract concepts and must be learned individually.

Norwegian English
Jeg synes du er pen. I think you are pretty. (Synes is used exclusively for personal opinions.)
Vi ses! See you!
Du mislykkes. You are failing.
Det føles forferdelig. It feels terrible.

I Would Like...

You already know how to say that you want something using vil+[bare infinitive] and vil ha+[noun]. In this skill, you'll learn a slightly more polite way of expressing desire, using the phrasal verbs å ha lyst til+[infinitive] and å ha lyst på+[noun].


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
fungerer functions, works
passerer passes
reparerer repairs
respekterer respects
presenterer presents
ses see (each other)
føles feels
trives is enjoying X, thrives
synes thinks, is of the opinion
møtes meet (each other)
mislykkes fails
har lyst til would like to, wants to
gifter seg gets married
skynder seg hurries
oppfører seg behaves
forbereder seg prepares
har lyst på would like, wants
er i ferd med is about to, is in the process of
spiser opp eats up
går glipp av misses out on
skriver under signs
kommer an på depends on

Simple Past updated 2021-06-13 ^

Simple Past

The simple past is used in a nearly identical way to how it is used in English. The vast majority of verbs in the simple past end in either -te or -et, such as spiste and snakket, which mean ate and spoke, respectively.

Infinitive Present Past English
å spise spiser spiste ate
å snakke snakker snakket spoke

There are several irregular past forms, but, thankfully, these are often similar to the ones that exist in English. You've already encountered the two most common ones, var and hadde, in the Time skill, so you even have a head start!

Infinitive Present Past English
å være er var was
å ha har hadde had
å drikke drikker drakk drank
å finne finner fant found
å ta tar tok took
å le ler lo laughed
å gi gir ga gave

Notice how some of the irregular verb only get a vowel change in the past tense, with no added ending?

Watch out for two verbs in particular, å se and å si, as they are ridiculously easy to confuse in the past tense. Here they are in the present tense, as a review.

Norwegian English
Jeg ser noe. I see something.
Jeg sier noe. I am saying something.

The past tense forms of these verbs are tricky for many reasons. They are each very, very common and they only have a circle above the a to distinguish them! If you imagine this circle to be an eyeball, it will go a long way to remembering that means saw and that sa means said.

Norwegian English
Jeg så noe. I saw something.
Jeg sa noe. I said something.

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
ga gave
fikk got, received
spiste ate
kysset kissed
brukte used
trodde thought
saw
tok took
visste knew
elsket loved
snakket spoke, talked
lo laughed
gikk walked, went
ville wanted
lekte played
skrev wrote
kjøpte bought
valgte chose
sov slept
fant found
fylte filled, turned
kjørte drove
takket thanked
gjorde did
et minne a memory

Transport updated 2021-06-13 ^

Vocabulary
å kjøre to drive
å hente to pick up, to fetch
med by
et tog a train
en trikk a tram
en buss a bus
en/ei reise a travel
en t-bane an underground train, a subway, a metro
kollektivtrafikk (m) public transport
en båt a boat
et skip a ship
en/ei ferge a ferry
en avgang a departure
en ankomst an arrival
en holdeplass a stop
et hjul a wheel
en motor a motor, an engine
et kjøretøy a vehicle
en motorsykkel a motorcycle

Relative Pronouns updated 2019-04-22 ^

Vocabulary
der where
hva what
som that, who
det (som) what, that (which)

School updated 2021-06-13 ^

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å lære to learn
å forklare to explain
å stave to spell
å gjenta to repeat
å fortjene to deserve
å skrive to write
forklarer explains
skjønner understands, gets
lærte learned
klarte managed, was able to
hysj hush, shh
interessert interested
en elev a pupil, a (young) student
en time a class
en skole a school
en/ei tavle a (black)board
en/ei setning a sentence
en skolegård a schoolyard
et klasserom a classroom
et fag a subject
en sjanger a genre
en/ei lekse homework (plurale tantum)
geografi (m) geography
en/ei prøve a test, an exam
en/ei klasse a class
en/ei ordbok a dictionary

Prediction updated 2019-09-01 ^

Prediction

One way to talk about the future in Norwegian, is to use kommer til with the infinitve of the verb. Kommer til is a bit hard to translate directly, but the closest equivalent would be going to. Sometimes, it can also be translated as will, but never as shall, as it does not carry that degree of control and certainty.

It is often used when making predictions about what is probably going to happen. In other words, often about things that you can't control.

Jeg tror at det kommer til å regne i morgen.
I think it is going to rain tomorrow.

Hun kommer nok ikke til å like gaven. She is probably not going to like the gift.


Vocabulary
å savne to miss
å glemme to forget
å ordne seg to work (itself) out , to be okay
å trenge to need, to require
å komme til å to be going to

Compare updated 2019-09-01 ^

Traits & Comparisons

In this skill, you'll be getting a taste of how comparisons are formed in Norwegian.

Comparisons, in the grammatical sense, are adjectives that express a relationship between two nouns. Some of them are irregular, just like in English. Luckily, irregular comparisons in Norwegian are mostly cognates with English ones.

For example:

god bedre best
good better best

Just like in English, there are two ways to form comparisons in Norwegian:

A special ending is added to the adjective.

kald kaldere kaldest
cold colder coldest

The word "more" or "most" is added, particularly for longer adjectives.

religiøs mer religiøs mest religiøs
religious more religious most religious

Be careful, though, since sometimes one language has a special ending where the other language does not.

viktig viktigere viktigst
important more important most important

Keep in mind that all these comparison adjectives still behave like adjectives. This means they'll usually take an -e ending in the definite or plural forms.

  • Boka er viktig.
  • Denne boka er viktigere.
  • Den boka er viktigst.
  • Det er den viktigste boka.

Vocabulary
å ligne to resemble
å kalle to call
kul cool
lat lazy
rolig calm
stygg ugly
typisk typical
tålmodig patient
lav short, low
høy tall, high
dum dumb, stupid
smart smart, clever, bright
utrolig incredible
ekte real, genuine, true
bedre better
snillere kinder, nicer
best best
en egenskap a trait, a characteristic
en/ei personlighet a personality

Simple Past 2 updated 2021-06-13 ^

Simple Past

The simple past is used in a nearly identical way to how it is used in English. The vast majority of verbs in the simple past end in either -te or -et, such as spiste and snakket, which mean ate and spoke, respectively.

Although there is no conjugation in the simple past, or anywhere in Norwegian, there are several irregular past forms, but they are similar to the ones that exist in English.

Norwegian English
var was, were
hadde had
drakk drank

Watch out for two verbs in particular, å se and å si, as they are ridiculously easy to confuse in the past tense. Here they are in the present tense, as a review.

Norwegian English
Jeg ser noe. I see something.
Jeg sier noe. I am saying something.

The past tense forms of these verbs are tricky for many reasons. They are each very, very common and they only have a circle above the a to distinguish them! If you imagine this circle to be an eyeball, it will go a long way to remembering that means saw and that sa means said.

Norwegian English
Jeg så noe. I saw something.
Jeg sa noe. I said something.

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
het was named
døde died
mistet lost, dropped
tenkte thought
bodde lived, resided
betydde meant, signified
så på watched
holdt held
virket seemed
kjente knew
solgte sold
trengte needed
forklarte explained
lette looked, searched
stolte trusted
støttet supported
betalte paid
inneholdt contained, held
oppførte seg behaved
kunne could
stengte closed, shut
beholdt kept
åpnet opened
prøvde tried, attempted, tested
dukket opp turned up, appeared
then
i tide in time
i fjor last year

Order updated 2019-08-29 ^

Ordinal Numbers

With one notable exception, all adjectival ordinal numbers have the same spelling regardless of gender or number. All but one of them have an -e ending.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine en første stol a first chair
den første stolen the first chair
Feminine ei første bok a first book
den første boka the first book
Neuter et første bord a first table
det første bordet the first table
Plural første hus first houses
de første husene the first houses

The one exception is annen, which we introduced in the Determiners chapter as meaning second or other. Watch how it operates below.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine en annen stol a second chair
den andre stolen the second chair
Feminine ei anna bok a second book
den andre boka the second book
Neuter et annet bord a second table
det andre bordet the second table
Plural andre hus second houses
de andre husene the second houses

Keep in mind that annet is pronounced like the British or Boston pronunciation of the word aunt. It can also mean else, as in noe annet or something else.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
andre (the) second
tredje (the) third
fjerde (the) fourth
femte (the) fifth
sjette (the) sixth
sjuende (the) seventh
åttende (the) eight
niende (the) ninth
tiende (the) tenth
ellevte (the) eleventh
tolvte (the) twelfth
trettende (the) thirteenth
fjortende (the) fourteenth
femtende (the) fifteenth
sekstende (the) sixteenth
syttende (the) seventeenth
attende (the) eighteenth
nittende (the) nineteenth
tjuende (the) twentieth
forrige (the) previous, (the) last
et århundre a century
en rekkefølge an order

Travel updated 2021-09-03 ^

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å besøke to visit
å fly to fly
viste showed, displayed
bort away
øst east
vest west
sør south
nord north
utenlands abroad
internasjonal international
fremmed foreign, alien, strange
en/ei reise a trip, a travel
en region a region
en koffert a suitcase
en/ei verden a world
en ryggsekk a backpack, a rucksack
et kontinent a continent
en/ei gjestfrihet a hospitality
utland (n) abroad
en/ei retning a direction
en aksent an accent
en kontakt a contact

Small Talk updated 2021-06-13 ^

Vocabulary
dro left, went
likte liked
møtte met
spurte asked
svarte responded
presenterte presented, introduced
ba asked
antok assumed
ringte called
sa said
traff met, hit
hørte heard
forsto understood
skjedde happened, occurred, took place
da then
i sted earlier, a little while ago
etterpå afterwards
nettopp just, just now, exactly
i går yesterday
i morges this morning
sist last, last time
deretter thereafter, afterwards
en samtale a conversation
et problem a problem
et vær a weather
et rykte a rumor
et tema a topic, a subject, a theme

Abstract Objects updated 2021-06-13 ^

Abstract Nouns

One can often recognize an abstract noun through one of several endings. Below is a sampling of them.

Ending Grammar Notes Example
-ing usually feminine regjering government
-het usually feminine kjærlighet love
-sjon usually masculine versjon version
-else usually masculine beskrivelse description
-tet usually masculine aktivitet activity
-skap usually neuter vennskap friendship

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
en sort a sort, a kind, a variety
en/ei liste a list
en måte a way, a manner
et signal a signal
en grunn a reason
en beskrivelse a description
en type a type
en regel a rule
et tilfelle a case, an occurrence
en versjon a version
et innhold a content
en kategori a category
en del a piece, a part
et sett a set
et råd a piece of advice
et resultat a result, an outcome
en forskjell a difference
en/ei blanding a blend, a mix, a mixture
et utgangspunkt a point of origin, a beginning
et lys a light
en slutt an end
en utsikt a view
et mørke a darkness, a dark
en stemme a voice

Education updated 2021-06-13 ^

Vocabulary
å jukse to cheat
å misforstå to misunderstand
å oversette to translate
å påstå to claim, to allege, to say
å undervise to teach, to instruct
(til) tross (for) in spite of, despite
ifølge according to
et kurs a course, a class
et notat a note
et essay an essay
en studie a study
en diskusjon a discussion
en/ei forklaring an explanation
et eksempel an example
en idé an idea
en karakter a grade, a mark
en vanske a difficulty
en/ei oppgave an exercise, a task
en kalkulator a calculator
et mål a goal, a target
en professor a (full) professor
et universitet a university
en/ei forelesning a lecture
en presentasjon a presentation
en/ei side a page
kunnskap (m) knowledge
et dokument a document
en romkamerat a roommate

Simple Past 3 updated 2021-09-03 ^

Simple Past

The simple past is used in a nearly identical way to how it is used in English. The vast majority of verbs in the simple past end in either -te or -et, such as spiste and snakket, which mean ate and spoke, respectively.

Although there is no conjugation in the simple past, or anywhere in Norwegian, there are several irregular past forms, but they are similar to the ones that exist in English.

Norwegian English
var was, were
hadde had
drakk drank

Watch out for two verbs in particular, å se and å si, as they are ridiculously easy to confuse in the past tense. Here they are in the present tense, as a review.

Norwegian English
Jeg ser noe. I see something.
Jeg sier noe. I am saying something.

The past tense forms of these verbs are tricky for many reasons. They are each very, very common and they only have a circle above the a to distinguish them! If you imagine this circle to be an eyeball, it will go a long way to remembering that means saw and that sa means said.

Norwegian English
Jeg så noe. I saw something.
Jeg sa noe. I said something.

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
lay (intransitive)
sto stood
satt sat (intransitive)
laget made
hang hung (intransitive)
husket remembered
begynte begun, started
la laid (transitive)
satte sat, placed, put (transitive)
hjalp helped
levde lived
glemte forgot
hengte hung (transitive)
bestemte decided
ble became
fløy flew
leide rented
føltes felt
tørket dried
sluttet stopped, quit, ceased
forsøkte tried
lot let, allowed, permitted
falt fell
rakk was enough
fulgte followed
pleide used to
fantes was, existed
spilte played
havnet ended up

Reactions updated 2019-09-01 ^

Vocabulary
å motstå to resist
å reagere to react
å skremme to scare
å fornærme to insult
å bry to care, to bother
å tilgi to forgive
å gråte to cry
å krangle to argue, to fight
å kaste to throw
å angre to regret
å hate to hate
å bryte to break
å nøle to hesitate
å riste to shake
au ouch, ow
for what, such
fryktelig terribly, awfully
nervøs nervous
lei tired
fornøyd content, pleased
vellykket successful
sur sour, grumpy
merkelig peculiar
forståelig understandable
en/ei sorg a sorrow
en frykt a fear
en tåre a tear
en/ei glede a joy, a happiness
et smil a smile
en/ei forventning an expectation
gråt (m) crying
en latter a laughter
en effekt an effect
en/ei endring a change, an alteration
en reaksjon a reaction

Numbers 2 updated 2019-09-01 ^

Compound Numbers

In Norwegian, the numbers from 20 to 99 are formed in a way that will be familiar to English speakers. Essentially, you take the name of the nearest 10, like "tjue" (20) or "tretti" (30), and then tag on one of the basic numbers (1-9) to get the number you're looking for.

The only difference is that you don't need to add a hyphen like you would in English; it's all just one word.

Norwegian English
tjue twenty
tjueto twenty-two
tjuefem twenty-five

Big Numbers

While larger numbers are usually expressed numerically in text, it's good to know how to write them out, as that corresponds to how they're pronounced.

Here are a few examples:

Norwegian Numeral
(ett) hundre og femtitre 153
tre hundre og førtito 342
fem tusen seks hundre og åtti 5 680

Really Big Numbers

There are a couple of things to pay attention to when expressing large numbers. Firstly, when translating "five million" or "eight billion" to Norwegian, you need to use the plural: fem millioner and åtte milliarder respectively.

Another thing to note, is that a comma is used to separate decimals in Norwegian, 5.2 becomes 5,2. So, if you're looking to make large numerals more easily readable, you need to use spacing for that instead.

Norwegian 10^X Numeral
million 10^6 1 000 000
milliard 10^9 1 000 000 000
billion 10^12 1 000 000 000 000
billiard 10^15 1 000 000 000 000 000

Years

When referring to the year of X, you can pronounce them as shown above, but they're often shortened like so:

Long Short Numeral
atten hundre og fjorten attenfjorten 1814
to tusen og nitten tjuenitten 2019

The Number Reform of 1951

We mentioned this number reform briefly in the first Numbers skill, but here we'll outline the actual changes.

Please note that the old way of counting will still be heard in speech, which is why we mention it here, but it is not accepted in Bokmål and thus not accepted in this course.

As you will be illustrated in the table below, this reform didn't just change the spelling of some of the numbers, but it changed how the compound numbers are expressed. Instead of placing the ones first and the tens second, bound together by an og (21 = enogtyve = oneandtwenty), we now place the tens first and the ones second, with nothing in-between (21 = tjueen = twentyone). Pretty drastic!

Current Old Numeral
tjue tyve 20
tjueen enogtyve 21
tretti tredve 30
trettito toogtredve 32
femti femti 50
femtiseks seksogfemti 56

Vocabulary

Norwegian English
tretti thirty
førti forty
femti fifty
seksti sixty
sytti seventy
åtti eighty
nitti ninety
tjueen(-ni) twenty-one through nine
trettien(-ni) thirty-one through nine
førtien(-ni) forty-one through nine
femtien(-ni) fifty-one through nine
sekstien(-ni) sixty-one through nine
syttien(-ni) seventy-one through nine
åttien(-ni) eighty-one through nine
nittien(-ni) ninety-one through nine
tusen (a) thousand
-ende ordinal ending
hundrede 100th
[compound ordinals] ordinals 21st through 99th

Computers updated 2019-08-29 ^

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å installere to install
å oppdatere to update
å lukke to close
å slette to delete
å klikke to click
å slå på to turn on, to switch on
å lagre to save
å slå av to turn off, to switch off
å trykke to press, to push
tilgjengelig accessible, available
en/ei fil a file
en bruker a user
en/ei utgave a version, an edition
et tastatur a keyboard
et program a program
en konto an account
et uhell an accident
en/ei innstilling a setting
hodetelefoner (m) headphones
programmering (m/f) programming

Verbs updated 2019-05-16 ^

Vocabulary
å eie to own
å låne to borrow
å følge to accompany
å bytte to change, to exchange, to swap
å starte to start, to begin
å passe to fit, to suit
å vekke to wake up
å forstå to understand
å rulle to roll
å gjette to guess
å bygge to build
å kunne to be able, to know
å stoppe to stop, to quit, to cease, to halt
å få til to make (something happen)
å kjenne igjen to recognize
å bære to carry
å legge to lay
å tvinge to force
å forlate to abandon, to leave
å advare to warn
å stjele to steal
å utsette to postpone
å tømme to empty
å dytte to push
å forbli to remain, to stay
å spille to play
å stå på spill to be at stake
å oppleve to experience
å gjemme to hide
å anbefale to recommend
å være nødt til to have to, to need to, to be required to

Comparison updated 2019-08-29 ^

Comparison

Comparisons, in the grammatical sense, are adjectives that express a relationship between two nouns. Some of them are irregular, just like in English. Luckily, irregular comparisons in Norwegian are mostly cognates with English ones.

For example:

god bedre best
good better best

Just like in English, there are two ways to form comparisons in Norwegian:

A special ending is added to the adjective.

kald kaldere kaldest
cold colder coldest

The word "more" or "most" is added, particularly for longer adjectives.

religiøs mer religiøs mest religiøs
religious more religious most religious

Be careful, though, since sometimes one language has a special ending where the other language does not.

viktig viktigere viktigst
important more important most important

Keep in mind that all these comparison adjectives still behave like adjectives. This means they'll usually take an -e ending in the definite or plural forms.

  • Boka er viktig.
  • Denne boka er viktigere.
  • Den boka er viktigst.
  • Det er den viktigste boka.

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
lignet resembled, was alike
mer more
enda even
jo ... jo ... the [comparative] the [comparative]
like alike, similar
yngre younger
større bigger
lettere lighter
varmere warmer
færre fewer
nyere newer
lengre longer
mindre smaller
kaldere colder
verre worse
eldre older, elder
penere prettier
tidligere earlier, previously
-ere comparative suffix

Verbs: Present Perfect updated 2019-08-06 ^

Present Perfect

Present perfect is used to talk about the past when the time is uncertain.

  • Jeg har bodd i Oslo.
  • I have lived in Oslo.

It is also used to talk about actions or states that started in the past, that have not completed and that stretch into the present and/or the future.

  • Jeg har bodd her i tre år.
  • I have lived here for three years.

Finally, it is used when talking about the future when one action ends before another begins.

  • Når jeg har spist, skal jeg ringe deg.
  • When I have eaten, I will call you.

What we have to do to express present perfect in Norwegian, is to create a form of the verb, called the past participle. Then we combine this with the present form of ha, which is har.

  • Du har vasket hendene. (You have washed your hands.)
  • De har kjørt bil. (They have driven a car.)
  • Hun har levd lenge. (She has lived a long time.)
  • Jeg har solgt henne en avis. (I have sold her a newspaper.)
  • Jeg har bodd i et hus i Oslo. (I have lived in a house in Oslo.)

This probably looks complicated, and to be perfectly honest, it is. There are three different basic ways to construct present perfect in Norwegian, and they look like this:

Group Suffix Infinitive Present Perfect English Translation
1 -et/-a å vaske har vasket/vaska have washed
2 -t å kjøre har kjørt have driven
-d å leve har levd have lived (as in being alive)
3 -dd å bo har bodd have lived (as in making one's home somewhere

Group 1

This group is easy which is good since most of the verbs in Norwegian belong to it. The past participle is the same as the simple past.

We use the suffix -et in this course, since it is the most common form in writing and there are a few cases where it is also the only allowed form. In speech, the suffix -a is common and in some dialects the only one used.

Group 2

This is the other big group. The past participle is formed by adding a -t. If the stem ends in v, g or a diphthong (ai, au, ei, oi, øy) we use a -d.

Group 3

In this group we find single syllable words such as tro, , , bry og spå. They get the ending -dd or -tt such as ha.

Keep in mind when forming the present perfect that there are no built-in progressive forms in Norwegian. The present perfect covers both the progressive and non-progressive meanings of the verb.

Norwegian Eng. Non-Progressive Eng. Progressive
Jeg har lest boken. I have read the book. I have been reading the book.
Han har spist for mye. He has eaten too much. He has been eating too much.

All the difficulties aside, good luck learning the Norwegian present perfect skill!


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
har have
tatt taken
fått received
hatt had
blitt become
hørt heard
gitt given
lest read
sett seen
ringt called, phoned, ringed
spist eaten
dratt gone, left
bodd lived, resided
gått walked, gone
sagt said
vært been
gjort gone
sendt sent
begynt begun, started
skrevet written
satt set, put, placed
spurt asked
ligget lain
mistet lost, dropped
stengt closed, shut
snakket talked, spoken
kommet come

Adjectives 2 updated 2019-08-29 ^

Adjectives

Norwegian adjectives change for gender, number, indefinite and definite forms. Let's take a look at adjectives joined to nouns by the phrase to be, starting with the adjective stor, which means big or great.


The Indefinite Form

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine En stol er stor. A chair is big.
Feminine Ei bok er stor. A book is big.

So far, so good. There is no change to the adjective in either masculine or feminine form.

Gender Norwegian English
Neuter Et bord er stort. A table is big.
Plural Hus er store. Houses are big.

As you can see above, the neuter noun changes the spelling of stor to include a -t ending, and the plural noun changes stor to include an -e ending. This pattern applies to most adjectives in the indefinite form, as shown below.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine en stor stol a big chair
Feminine ei stor bok a big book
Neuter et stort bord a big table
Plural store hus big houses

Many adjectives ending in -ig or -sk, like viktig and norsk, do not sound pleasant with a -t ending. This is why we do not add a -t to these specific adjectives in the neuter form.

Norwegian English
et viktig brev an important letter
et norsk hus a Norwegian house

We do still add the -e ending in the plural form, however!

Norwegian English
viktige brev important letters
norske hus Norwegian houses

The Definite Form

The simple thing about adjectives in the definite form is that the endings are almost all the same.

Most adjectives in the definite form end in -e.

In addition to the noun transitioning into the definite form, we place an additional word before the adjective in the definite form. This word changes depending on gender and number, as you see below.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine den store stolen the big chair
Feminine den store boka the big book
Neuter det store bordet the big table
Plural de store husene the big houses

Missing Endings in Old and Famous Names

As students of Danish may be aware, the postfixes after the nouns above are absent in Danish, and as a legacy of Danish colonialism, some Norwegian phrases lack the noun endings shown in the table above. These words are generally famous titles or institutions, such as The White House or The French Academy. See how they operate below.

Norwegian English
Det franske akademi The French Academy
Det hvite hus The White House

Note that det hvite huset can also mean the white house, just not the one the US President lives inside.


Combining Possessive Pronouns with Adjectives

There are two ways to combine possessive pronouns with adjectives. The possessive pronoun can either follow the noun in the definite form or precede the adjective. Let's take a look at how this works.

Gender Norwegian English
Masculine den store stolen min my big chair
Feminine den store boka mi my big book
Neuter det store bordet mitt my big table
Plural de store husene mine my big houses
Gender Norwegian English
Masculine min store stol my big chair
Feminine mi store bok my big book
Neuter mitt store bord my big table
Plural mine store hus my big houses

In the second set of examples, notice how the adjective endings are all -e, just like in the definite form, but the nouns have no endings, just like in the indefinite form. In a sense, this second method of combining possessive pronouns and adjectives is a blending of grammar rules.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
lur clever
sann true
kjent famous, (well-)known
klar clear
forsiktig careful
død dead
stille silent
gyldig valid
ordentlig proper
sjelden rare, uncommon
nødvendig necessary
gal crazy
flink good (at something)
mett full, satiated
skarp sharp
rotete messy, untidy
populær popular
våt wet
myk soft
vant used (to something)
tørst thirsty
ryddig tidy
favoritt favorite
u- assorted negative adjectives

Employment updated 2021-06-13 ^

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å søke to apply
å tjene to earn, to serve
å forfremme to promote
jobbet worked
midlertidig temporary
arbeidsledig unemployed
komplisert complicated
et byrå a bureau
en vikar a temporary worker
en referanse a reference
en/et CV a CV, a résumé
en evne an ability
en søker an applicant
en attest a letter of recommendation
et forslag a suggestion
en søknad an application
et intervju an interview
en ordre an order, a command
en pause a pause, a break
en/ei stilling a position

Contrast updated 2021-09-03 ^

Comparison

Comparisons, in the grammatical sense, are adjectives that express a relationship between two nouns. Some of them are irregular, just like in English. Luckily, irregular comparisons in Norwegian are mostly cognates with English ones.

For example:

god bedre best
good better best

Just like in English, there are two ways to form comparisons in Norwegian:

A special ending is added to the adjective.

kald kaldere kaldest
cold colder coldest

The word "more" or "most" is added, particularly for longer adjectives.

religiøs mer religiøs mest religiøs
religious more religious most religious

Be careful, though, since sometimes one language has a special ending where the other language does not.

viktig viktigere viktigst
important more important most important

Keep in mind that all these comparison adjectives still behave like adjectives. This means they'll usually take an -e ending in the definite or plural forms.

  • Boka er viktig.
  • Denne boka er viktigere.
  • Den boka er viktigst.
  • Det er den viktigste boka.

Vocabulary
å sammenligne to compare
aller (the) very (superlative adjective)
nest (the) second (superlative adjective)
forholdsvis relatively
ulik unlike, different
størst biggest, largest
færrest fewest
varmest warmest, hottest
-est -est, most (superlative suffix)
flest most (countable nouns)
minst least
penest prettiest
kaldest coldest
eldst oldest, eldest
yngst youngest
fremst foremost, in the front
annerledes different
en/ei sammenligning a comparison

Present Perfect 2 updated 2020-03-25 ^

Present Perfect

Present perfect is used to talk about the past when the time is uncertain.

  • Jeg har bodd i Oslo.
  • I have lived in Oslo.

It is also used to talk about actions or states that started in the past, that have not completed and that stretch into the present and/or the future.

  • Jeg har bodd her i tre år.
  • I have lived here for three years.

Finally, it is used when talking about the future when one action ends before another begins.

  • Når jeg har spist, skal jeg ringe deg.
  • When I have eaten, I will call you.

What we have to do to express present perfect in Norwegian, is to create a form of the verb, called the past participle. Then we combine this with the present form of ha, which is har.

  • Du har vasket hendene. (You have washed your hands.)
  • De har kjørt bil. (They have driven a car.)
  • Hun har levd lenge. (She has lived a long time.)
  • Jeg har solgt henne en avis. (I have sold her a newspaper.)
  • Jeg har bodd i et hus i Oslo. (I have lived in a house in Oslo.)

This probably looks complicated, and to be perfectly honest, it is. There are three different basic ways to construct present perfect in Norwegian, and they look like this:

Group Suffix Infinitive Present Perfect English Translation
1 -et/-a å vaske har vasket/vaska have washed
2 -t å kjøre har kjørt have driven
-d å leve har levd have lived (as in being alive)
3 -dd å bo har bodd have lived (as in making one's home somewhere

Group 1

This group is easy which is good since most of the verbs in Norwegian belong to it. The past participle is the same as the simple past.

We use the suffix -et in this course, since it is the most common form in writing and there are a few cases where it is also the only allowed form. In speech, the suffix -a is common and in some dialects the only one used.

Group 2

This is the other big group. The past participle is formed by adding a -t. If the stem ends in v, g or a diphthong (ai, au, ei, oi, øy) we use a -d.

Group 3

In this group we find single syllable words such as tro, , , bry og spå. They get the ending -dd or -tt such as ha.

Keep in mind when forming the present perfect that there are no built-in progressive forms in Norwegian. The present perfect covers both the progressive and non-progressive meanings of the verb.

Norwegian Eng. Non-Progressive Eng. Progressive
Jeg har lest boken. I have read the book. I have been reading the book.
Han har spist for mye. He has eaten too much. He has been eating too much.

All the difficulties aside, good luck learning the Norwegian present perfect skill!


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
sittet sat
laget made
tenkt thought
smakt tasted
truffet met, hit
forsøkt tried, attempted
lagt laid
stått stood
fulgt followed
kjøpt bought
betalt paid
forlatt left, abandoned
valgt chosen
villet wanted
hengt hung, hanged
fortalt told, said
hoppet jumped
tvunget forced
solgt sold
tillatt permitted, allowed
åpnet opened
bestilt ordered
skjedd happened, occurred
stanset stopped, halted
presentert presented
stilt put, set, placed, asked
kjent known
burde should
antatt assumed, presumed
sluttet quit, stopped, ceased
vasket washed, cleaned
drukket drunk

Industry updated 2021-06-13 ^

Oljeeventyret

Oljeeventyret, literally the petroleum fairy tale, is a word used to describe how we struck oil and the fairy-tale-like effect it had on what was then a country still rebuilding its economy after wartime. 1969, the year when the first oil well was found in Norwegian territory, is but a generation ago.


Important Industries

While it's been in decline for a few years already, the oil and gas industry is still Norway's most lucrative industry by far. Another important industry is the fishing industry, closely followed by the metal industry. All told, a little over 230,000 people work in the industry sector. Not a huge number, at less than 10% of the country's total workforce, but the value created is substantial.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
bygger build
produserer produce
arbeidet worked
å øke to increase
å utvikle to develop
elektrisk electric, electrical
automatisk automatic
fornybar renewable
et metall a metal
en fabrikk a factory, a plant
en ressurs a resource
en industri an industry
en arbeider a worker
en energi an energy
et produkt a product
et kraftverk a power plant
en leverandør a supplier
en fase a phase
et system a system
en prosess a process

Thought updated 2019-08-29 ^

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å illustrere to illustrate
å lyve to lie
å foreslå to suggest
å oppfinne to invent
å ombestemme seg to change one's mind
å tåle to tolerate, to bear, to put up with
å late som to pretend
å våkne to wake up
utenkelig unthinkable
omtenksom considerate
mystisk mysterious, mystical
uvitende ignorant
en tanke a thought
et minne a memory
en/ei mening a meaning
en verdi a value
en årsak a reason
en/ei mulighet an opportunity
en forståelse an understanding
et formål a purpose
en/ei enighet an agreement
et samhold a unity, a togetherness, a camaraderie
en fremgang a step forward, a success
en/ei beslutning a decision
et emne a topic, a subject
en hjerne a brain
en opplysning a piece of information

Amounts updated 2021-06-13 ^

Amounts

Since the words relating to numbers and amounts are often confused, we've compiled a small list for you:

tall = the generic word for (cardinal) numbers
siffer = digit, not the kind you have on your hands
antall = number of something; quantity of countable noun
mengde = an amount of something; a quantity of an uncountable noun,
nummer = used for a number in an order, and for identification numbers, phone numbers, etc.
ordenstall = ordinal number with ordinal ending

Context Examples

Hva er yndlingstallet ditt?
What is your favorite number?

Tallet hadde fem siffer.
The number had five digits.
It was a five-digit number.

Et firesifret tall
A four-digit number

Et stort antall studenter
A large number of students

Antallet må økes.
The number must be increased.

Nedbørsmengden er stabil.
The amount of precipitation is stable.

Han er nummer fire.
He is number four.

Husnummeret vårt er 86.
Our house number is 86.

Vi trenger ditt fødselsnummer.
We need your social security number.

Hun kom på fjerdeplass.
She came in fourth place.

"Fjerde" er et ordenstall.
"Fourth" is an ordinal number.


Large Numbers

There are a couple of things to pay attention to when expressing large numbers. Firstly, when translating "five million" or "eight billion" to Norwegian, you need to use the plural: fem millioner and åtte milliarder respectively.

Another thing to note, is that a comma is used to separate decimals in Norwegian, 5.2 becomes 5,2. So, if you're looking to make large numerals more easily readable, you need to use spacing for that instead.

Norwegian 10^X Numeral
million 10^6 1 000 000
milliard 10^9 1 000 000 000
billion 10^12 1 000 000 000 000
billiard 10^15 1 000 000 000 000 000

Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å begrense to limit
å gjenstå to remain
å legge til to add
å trekke fra to subtract
per per
delvis partially, in part
hundrevis hundreds
tusenvis thousands
halv half
dobbel double
verdt worth
halvveis halfway
til sammen in total
et antall a number (of something)
en million a million
en milliard a billion
et flertall a majority
en halvpart a half
et mindretall a minority
et gjennomsnitt an average
en rest a rest, a leftover, a remainder

Modal Verbs updated 2020-12-04 ^

Modal Verbs

Below are four modals from previous lessons:

Norwegian English
kan can, be able to
vil want to, will (willing to)
have to, need to, must
la let, allow

And here are the new modals introduced in this chapter:

Norwegian English
skal shall, will (regardless of willingness)
bør should, ought to
får may, get to, be allowed to
tør dare to

All of the modal verbs above also have forms in the simple past, as shown below:

Norwegian English
kunne could, was able to
ville wanted to, was going to (willing to)
måtte had to, needed to
skulle should, was going to (regardless of willingness)
burde should have, ought to have
fikk got to, was allowed to
lot let, allowed
turte dared to

One of These Verbs Is Not Like the Other...

The first rule of Modal Club is that a modal is followed by a bare infinitive, i.e. an infinitive without the infinitive marker "å".

Jeg vil danse.
Hun må dra.
Vi skal gifte oss.

However, the verb tør is the exception to that rule. The infinitive marker is optional following tør.

Han tør ikke (å) bli med.

Verbs: Past Perfect updated 2019-08-29 ^

Past Perfect (aka Pluperfect)

Oh dear, yet another tense. But do not worry! There is no new form of the verb to learn. The past perfect is identical to the present perfect, except for one small thing. The auxillary verb ha is in the past tense, hadde rather than in the present tense, har.

The challenge is to know when to use it. The past perfect is used to talk things that happened before some other thing in the past.

  • Da jeg hadde spist, gikk jeg på skolen.
  • When I had eaten, I went to school.

The past perfect is also used in indirect speech, when someone said something about the past in the past. That sounds confusing, but hopefully the following example will help:

  • Hun sa at hun hadde gått på skolen.
  • She said that she had gone to school.

What we have to do to express past perfect in Norwegian, is to create a form of the verb, called the past participle, our friend from the present perfect. Then we combine this with the past form of ha, which is hadde.

  • Du sa at du hadde vasket hendene. (You said that you had washed your hands.)

  • Hun visste at de hadde kjørt bil. (She knew that they had driven a car.)

  • Da hun døde, hadde hun levd lenge. (When she died, she had lived for a long time.)

  • Da jeg hadde solgt henne en avis, gikk hun. (When I had sold her a newspaper, she left.)

  • Før det hadde jeg bodd i Oslo. (Before that, I had lived in Oslo.)


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
hadde had
gått walked, gone
hørt heard
ringt called
kommet come
gitt given
tatt taken
klart managed, been able to
skåret cut, carved
funnet found
skrevet written
visst known
levd lived
dødd died
trodd believed
glemt forgot, forgotten
oppdaget discovered

Philosophy updated 2019-08-29 ^

Philosophy


Livsløgn

A livsløgn is a personal favorite untranslatable philosophical concept, invented by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen in the play Vildanden, or The Wild Duck. A løgn is a lie or an untruth, and the prefix livs- means of life. Therefore, a livsløgn is commonly translated as a life-lie. Ibsen defined a livsløgn as the central delusion we have in life that keeps us happy. It could be anything ranging from the conviction that you will become a famous Hollywood actor to the belief that your ex-spouse will change his/her mind and remarry you. Once the lie is exposed as such, a person is left without hope for the future, and becomes only a shell of a human being.

Philosophy is not a science for the faint of heart.


Vocabulary (Tree 4)
å diskutere to discuss
å innse to realize
å misbruke to abuse
å lure to wonder, to trick
klok wise
ærlig honest
fornuftig reasonable
vis wise (a little more profoundly than "klok")
ærlig talt honestly
en teori a theory
en filosofi a philosophy
en erfaring an experience
en/ei løgn a lie
en filosof a philosopher
en fornuft a reason, a common sense
en/ei sannhet a truth
en eksistens