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mathew

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Learning Welsh from English

Level 25 · 37880 XP

Crowns: 179

Skills: 118

Lessons: 416

Lexemes: 2366

Strength: 30%

Created: 2015-11-29
Last Goal: 2021-12-06
Daily Goal: 50 XP
Last update: 2021-12-06 07:51:43 GMT+3


144223489

Welsh Skills by StrengthCrownsNameOriginal Order

  • 05 Going to81 @ 100% 0 •••
    aberdaron · abertawe · aberteifi · aberystwyth · ag · aros · barti · caffi · capel · chwarae · chwaraeon · dafarn · dewi lingo · felly · fwyta · gwaith · heddiw · heno · mis · mynd i · parti · pryd · pwll nofio · rygbi · sboncen · sinema · swyddfa · traeth · yfory · ymweld · â
    31 words

    A simple way of expressing the future using mynd i

    To say that someone is 'going to' somewhere or to do something, the phrase mynd i (going to, to go to) can be used, just as in English.


    For example, 'going to' a place:

    • Dw i'n mynd i Abertawe - I am going to Swansea
    • Dych chi'n mynd i Aberdaron - You are going to Aberdaron

    Note that mynd i is not used for 'going to' a person (going to the doctor, for example). For that, we use mynd at.


    By putting mynd i in front of another verb-noun, it can be used to form a statement of someone's current intention to carry out a future action::

    • Dw i'n mynd i siarad â Dewi - I am going to speak to Dewi.
    • Dw i'n mynd i godi. - I am going to get up. (codi)
    • Dw i'n mynd i fynd i'r Eisteddfod. - I'm going to go to the Eisteddfod. (mynd)
    • Dych chi'n mynd i ymweld â Sioned. - You are going to visit Sioned.

    Note that siarad and ymweld are both followed by the preposition â (which becomes ag before a vowel). LIke mynd i, this is an example of some verbs needing to be followed by particular prepositions in order to complete or modify their meaning.


    Soft mutation

    Mutations are changes to some initial consonants of words in certain circumstances. Only nine consonants can take a mutation at all, and not all of them take every mutation. The previous paragraph has some examples of the most common mutation, the 'soft' mutation.

    There are many causes of a soft mutation, only the most common of which are covered on this introductory course. In this section, the preposition i (to, for) which causes soft mutation of the word that directly follows it. For example, you will see above that codi has changed to godi following mynd i, and mynd to fynd.

    Here is a table showing the soft mutations:

    original letter soft mutation
    p- b-
    t- d-
    c- g-
    b- f-
    d- dd-
    g- -
    m- f-
    ll- l-
    rh- r-

    Remember - dd, ll and rh are all single letters in Welsh (along with ch, ff, ng, ph, th).

    Note - when g- takes a soft mutation it vanishes, and that both b- and m- take a soft mutation to f-.


    Some prepositions are routinely followed by a soft mutation

    They are:

    • am, ar, at, gan; dros, drwy, wrth, dan; heb, hyd, i, o.

    See - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8fjUdJqa5Hg


    Church and Chapel

    The chapel movement was very strong in Wales. As a result, "chapel" and "church" are not synonymous in Wales. As influence of the established Church of England diminished, the non-conformist chapels became the primary location of Christian worship in many places. In 1920, the Church of England was disestablished in Wales and the 'Church in Wales' was created as a separate Anglican body with no links to civil government.


    Going to the usual place

    When we are referring to places that we go to habitually, such as 'bed, 'chapel', 'work', 'school' etc, it is the convention in Welsh that i'r... ('to the...') is used. English is not consistent in this:

    • Mae Siân yn mynd i'r gwely - Siân is going to bed.
    • Dw i'n mynd i'r capel bob bore Sul. - I go to chapel every Sunday morning.
    • Mae'r plant yn mynd i'r ysgol. - The children are going to school.
    • Mae Mair yn mynd i'r ymarfer côr ar nos Lun. - Mair goes to choir practice on Monday evenings.
    • Mae e'n mynd i'r swyddfa. - He is going to the office.

    Doing things on particular days

    When we want to say that we are doing something 'on Monday', 'on Sunday' and so on, we usually simply change dydd to ddydd - there is no need to add anything else to mean 'on' in this case:

    • Dw i'n mynd i Aber ddydd Llun. - I'm going to Aber on Monday.

    To say 'on Mondays', etc, when we mean we do something habitually on a day, we use ar as well:

    • Mae'r plant yn mynd i nofio ar nos Iau - the children go swimming on Thursday evenings
    • Dw i'n mynd i Aber ar ddydd Llun - I go to Aber on Mondays

    Changes, or not, following question words

    The adverbial questions Pryd?, Pam?, Ble/Lle? and Sut? (when it means How?) are not followed by a soft mutation of the verb. Nor are questions that begin with a preposition. They are followed by mae, not by ydy/yw, and they are followed by r-forms of bod*:

    • Pryd/Pam/Ble/Sut rwyt ti'n mynd? - When/Why/Where/How are you going?

    (The r- is sometimes dropped in casual use, though...)


    Sports

    In British English, when there is a well-known sporting event coming up it is usual for it to be referred to as simply 'the rugby', 'the golf', 'the athletics', etc:

    • Wyt ti'n mynd i wylio'r rygbi heno? - Are you going to watch the rugby this evening?

  • 05 Animals 171 @ 100% 0 •••
    ac · aderyn · anifail · arth · blaidd · buwch · carw · ceffyl · copyn · crwban · cwningen · dafad · dolffin · dylluan · eliffant · gafr · gwenyn · gwenynen · gŵydd · hwyaden · iâr · llew · llygoden · mochyn · morfil · mwnci · neidr · pili-pala · pryf · pryfed · siarc · teigr
    32 words

    This unit covers the names of some common animals and revises numbers


    Remember - pump, chwech and cant (100) drop their final letters (-p, -ch, -t) before nouns.

    Examples:

    • pum afal, chwe oren, can tŷ - five apples, six oranges, a hundred houses

    Remember that 2, 3 and 4 have feminine forms used in front of feminine nouns.


    Note some additional points about numbers:

    • un is followed by a weak soft mutation of feminine nouns (no mutation of rh- or ll-)
    • dau/dwy is followed by a soft mutation
    • tri is followed by an aspirate mutation
    • chwe is followed by an aspirate mutation

    Examples:

    • un ci; un gath; un llygoden; un rhywogaeth - one dog, one cat; one mouse; one species (llygoden and rhywogaeth are feminine nouns but not affected by the weak soft mutation)
    • dau gi; dwy gath - two dogs; two cats
    • tri chi; tair cath - three dogs; three cats
    • pedwar ci; pedair cath - four dogs; four cats
    • chwe chi; chwe chath - six dogs; six cats

    Note - Both dau and dwy take a soft mutation after 'r/y (the):

    • y ddau gi; y ddwy gath - the two dogs; the two cats

    Soft mutation of feminine nouns and adjectives

    Many names of animals (anifeiliaid) end in -en. Most nouns that end in -en in Cymraeg are feminine and will therefore take a weak soft mutation after 'r/y (the).

    Remember that in a weak soft mutation the letters ll- and rh- resist the mutation.

    Adjectives following feminine nouns take a soft mutation. Remember that the adjective usually follows the noun. For example:

    • y llygoden fawr - the big mouse (mawr)
    • y ddafad fach - the small sheep (bach)
    • yr arth gyflym - the fast bear (cyflym)

    [Note that there are a very few exceptions to this rule. These include the phrases - Nos da (Good night) and wythnos diwethaf (last week), where nos and wythnos are both feminine nouns but where the following d- is not mutated.]

    Note that the mutation also applies to more than one following adjective in an unbroken sequence:

    • yr arth fawr gyflym - the big fast bear
    • yr arth fawr frown gyflym - the big fast brown bear

    Singular nouns used with numbers

    Remember that in Cymraeg, the singular noun is used when follows directly after a number. For example:

    • saith neidr - seven snakes (not the plural nadroedd)
    • pedwar ci - four dogs (not cŵn)
    • wyth ceffyl - eight horses (not cefyllau)

    Aspirate mutation following tri and chwe

    Remember that nouns following tri, chwe take an aspirate mutation if they begin with p-, t-, c-:

    • tri phanda - three pandas (panda)
    • chwe theigr - six tigers (teigr)
    • tri chranc - three crabs (cranc)

    Numbers + o + plural noun

    You may also meet ...o... (of) with a number and the plural noun, especially with larger numbers, although this is generally not used in the course. This also requires a soft mutation following the o, as well as a knowledge of the plural form of nouns. For example:

    • dau ddeg o nadroedd - twenty snakes
    • deg o gŵn - ten dogs
    • cant o geffylau - a hundred horses

  • 05 Days of the Week73 @ 100% 0 •••

    0 words

    Days of the week

    On its own, the word dydd means 'day'. In combination with other words it is used in the names of the days of the week.

    Most of the days of week are named after planets in Welsh, and some are also very similar to the days of the week in Latin and the Romance languages.

    • Sunday - dydd Sul - (Sul is an old word for the Sun, no longer used for that)
    • Monday - dydd Llun - (Llun is an old word for the Moon, no longer used for that).
    • Tuesday - dydd Mawrth - (Mawrth - the planet Mars)
    • Wednesday - dydd Mercher - (Mercher- the planet Mercury)
    • Thursday - dydd Iau - (Iau - Jupiter. Note that Iau starts with a capital 'i', not a lower case L)
    • Friday - dydd Gwener - (Gwener - Venus)
    • Saturday - dydd Sadwrn - (Sadwrn - Saturn)

    Note - include dydd in the name of the day.


    Morning and afternoon

    • bore = morning
    • prynhawn = afternoon

    To say 'Monday morning', Tuesday afternoon' and so on we just put the name of the day after the word for the time of day:

    • bore dydd Llun = Monday morning, (but this is sometimes cut down to just bore Llun).

    Similarly,

    • Tuesday afternoon = prynhawn dydd Mawrth (but this is sometimes cut down to just prynhawn Mawrth).

    All the names of the days of the week can be combined in this way for morning or afternoon.


    Night and evening

    Nos can be combined with the names of the days of the week to mean 'Sunday night' and so on. It is also used in this way for the names of evenings:

    • nos Sadwrn - Saturday night or Saturday evening
    • nos Sul - Sunday night/evening
    • nos Iau - Thursday night/evening

    Some names of days undergo a slight change (a soft mutation) when used with nos. The reason for this is explained later in the course, so just learn these for now:

    • nos Lun - Monday night/evening
    • nos Fawrth - Tuesday night/evening
    • nos Fercher - Wednesday night/evening
    • nos Wener - Friday night/evening

    Note that we do not use dydd with nos - it has to be either one or the other, never both together.


    For the days of the week, always combine the name with some other element

    Note that there should always be something in front of the name of the day - dydd Xxx, bore dydd Xxx, bore Xxx, prynhawn dydd Xxx, nos Xxx, etc - do not use just the name of the day on its own, or it could be mistaken for the name of one of the planets.

    Note that dydd, bore, prynhawn, nos do not usually take a capital letter in the names of days unless at the beginning of a sentence or as part of a special day (for example, Dydd Calan - New Year's Day).


    'On' a particular day

    To say that we are doing something 'on' Thursday, say, we do not use a separate word for 'on', we simply change the word dydd to ddydd:

    • Dw i'n gweithio ddydd Gwener. - I am working on Friday.

    This change does not apply if we use bore or prynhawn:

    • Dw i'n gweithio prynhawn dydd Sul. - I am working on Sunday afternoon.
    • Dw i'n gweithio bore dydd Iau. - I am working on Thursday morning.

    Note that this form is not used for habitual timings such as saying 'I work on a Friday', 'I work on Fridays' or 'Do you watch television on Sundays?' For that, we use the preposition ar:

    • Dw i'n gweithio ar ddydd Gwener. - I work on Fridays; I work on a Friday; I work Fridays.
    • Dw i'n mynd i Aber ar nos Lun. - I go to Aber on Monday evenings/on a Monday evening.

    Note that ar is also used for 'on' with dates and with named holidays such as Dydd Nadolig (Christmas Day), Nos Galan (New Year's Eve) and so on.


    Further information about learning Welsh is at http://www.duolingo.com/comment/13186004 and on the national LearnWelsh/DysguCymraeg website - http://learnwelsh.cymru


  • 05 Numbers 151 @ 100% 0 •••
    chwech · dau · deg · desg · dwy · naw · pedwar · pum · pump · saith · tri · un · un deg dau · un deg pump · un deg un · wyth
    16 words

    There are two counting systems in Cymraeg: the decimal and vigesimal systems. During this course, you will learn both.

    In this section you will learn the modern decimal system (y system ddegol in Cymraeg) that is based on tens. This use of the system is wider than compared to the traditional vigesimal system, and is suitable in most situations. It is quite straightforward to learn.

    The traditional vigesimal system (y system ugeiniol in Cymraeg) is based on twenties. It is still used when telling the time and when using ordinal numbers in a date (2nd, 20th, 31st, and so on). It is still often used when talking about money, and about someone's age. We cover this system later in the course.

    More information on both systems can be found here (Wikipedia article).


    When giving the Welsh answers in this section and elsewhere, please write out the number in full - this is important practice!


    Some numbers

    The modern system in Welsh follows a regular decimal pattern:

    English Cymraeg English Cymraeg
    one un eleven un deg un
    two dau twelve un deg dau
    three tri thirteen un deg tri
    four pedwar fourteen un deg pedwar
    five pump fifteen un deg pump
    six chwech sixteen un deg chwech
    seven saith seventeen un deg saith
    eight wyth eighteen un deg wyth
    nine naw thirty one tri deg un
    ten deg forty five pedwar deg pump

    Note that once you know the first ten numbers you can construct the rest very easily. For example:

    • Pedwar deg chwech - Forty-six (literally 'four ten(s), six')

    Singular nouns follow numbers

    Note that in Welsh the singular noun is used after a number, not the plural. For example:

    • Dau oren - Two oranges (not * dau orenau)
    • Un deg pum afal - fifteen apples (not * un deg pum afalau)
    • Tri afal - Three apples (not * tri afalau)
    • Pum deg tri oren - Fifty-three oranges (not * pum deg tri orenau)

    Note that pump, chwech and cant (100) drop their last letter (-p, -ch, -t) in front of nouns, adjectives and other numbers, changing to pum, chwe and can.


    Different forms of dau, tri, pedwar used with feminine nouns

    Although it is not practised in this section, you may come across some other forms of 2, 3 and 4 which are always used with feminine nouns. Here, athro (teacher) is masculine and athrawes is specifically a female teacher:

    • dau athro, dwy athrawes
    • tri athro, tair athrawes
    • pedwar athro, pedair athrawes

    These forms will be practised later in the course.


    Using dau and dwy after the definite article 'r/yr/y

    Both dau and dwy change after the definite article:

    • y ddau eliffant - the two elephants
    • y ddwy arth - the two bears

    Ths type of change is called a 'soft mutation', and it is covered in more detail later in the course.


    Hyphens in numbers in English

    Normal English usage is to put a hyphen between two-part numbers - twenty-five, thirty-one, ninety-nine, etc. This avoids confusion between expressions such as 'thirty four-part complete kits' and 'thirty-four part-complete kits'.


  • 05 Wanting61 @ 100% 0 •••
    a · afal · bacwn · beic · bresych · car · cath · cawl · ci · cyri · cysgu · dysgu cymraeg · eisiau · hefyd · moron · mêl · nac · neu · oren · pasta · pitsa · pêl · reis · siocled · sudd · tatws · tost · ydw
    28 words

    Remember - please do not report audio faults or mispronunciations, as there is nothing that the course team can do about them at present.


    'I am' and 'You are'

    Very simply:

    • dw i means 'I am', and
    • dych chi means 'you are'

    Wanting

    There are several ways to express want in Cymraeg, and in this unit the noun eisiau is used. For example:

    • dw i eisiau... - 'I am' + 'want' = 'I want....'
    • dych chi eisiau... - 'you are' + 'want' = 'you want....'

    You can follow eisiau with another noun or a verb-noun. For example:

    • Dw i eisiau siocled. - I want (some/a) chocolate.
    • Dych chi eisiau mynd. - You want to go.

    Note - For those who have done a little Welsh before, remember that the noun eisiau does not have 'n/yn in front of it. The pattern is an exceptional one in Welsh.

    Note that Welsh makes no distinction between 'a chocolate', 'some chocolate' or 'chocolate' - there is no specific word for 'a' or 'some' in this sense:

    • Dw i eisiau coffi. - I want a coffee. = I want some coffee. = I want coffee.

    Note that in a negative sentence coffi may also mean '...any coffee':

    • Dw i ddim eisiau coffi. - I do not want coffee. = I do not want a coffee. = I do not want any coffee.

    Note that eisiau is often pronounced isio, isie or isia (although the course voice does not reflect this) and in informal writing it is sometimes spelt as it is pronounced. On the course, we use the standard spelling eisiau, although isio is also introduced as it the version taught in the 'north' versions of the introductory DysguCymraeg courses for adults in Wales.


    And

    The word for 'and' is a, or ac before vowels:

    • afal a lemon - an apple and a lemon
    • afal ac oren - an apple and an orange

    The vowels in Welsh are a, e, i, o, u - as in English, and also w and y.


    Or

    The word for 'or' is neu:

    • afal neu oren - an apple or an orange

    Although you have not met the soft mutation yet, for future reference, note that neu causes a soft mutation of a following noun, adjective or verb-noun. IT does not affect a verb.


    Asking the question

    With dych chi (you are), we simply put a question mark at the end of the sentence and use a rising intonation at the end of the question, as in English - Dych chi...?:

    • Dych chi eisiau car newydd? - Do you want a new car?

    Note that it is not always this simple - some verbs use modified forms for the question. These will be introduced later in the course.


    Saying "yes", "no", and "thank you"

    This skill also introduces one of the several ways of saying "yes" and "no" in Welsh. The ways of answering 'yes' or 'no' in Welsh are quite varied . For example, in this unit we will practice:

    • Ydw - Yes (I am/I do)
    • Nac ydw - No (I'm not/I don't)

    (Note that the Ydw in these a verb related to Dw i (i am). In very many forms of Welsh 'Yes/No' responses we are using a form of a verb instead of words specifically for 'yes' or 'no'. There are specific yes/no words, but they are only used in particular circumstances. This is not a straightforward thing to learn as a beginner, so the various yes/no responses are introduced gradually as they come up in the course for the first time. They are always explained with examples in the relevant course notes, though.)

    Note that if you do use the isio dialect form of eisiau, the answer yes/no is different - Oes (Yes); Nac oes (No) - no matter who is answering:

    • Dach chi/Wyt ti isio coffi? Oes/Nac oes.

    Perhaps you might want some ice cream (hufen iâ), and since you are polite, you will want to say 'thank you ' if someone offers it - diolch (thank you):

    • Dych chi eisiau hufen iâ? Ydw. Diolch - "Do you want an ice cream? Yes. Thank you.
    • Dych chi eisiau hufen iâ? - Nac ydw, ond diolch. - Do you want an ice cream? No, but thank you.
    • Ydw, dw i eisiau hufen iâ. Diolch. - Yes, I do want some ice cream. Thanks.
    • Nac ydw, dw i ddim eisiau hufen iâ, diolch. - No, I don't want any ice cream, thanks.

    For a simple 'No thanks' we have a different expression - Dim diolch:

    • Dych chi eisiau hufen iâ? Dim diolch. - Do you want an ice-cream? No thanks.

    Welsh - Cymraeg

    The word for 'Welsh', meaning 'the Welsh language' is Cymraeg:

    • Dw i eisiau dysgu Cymraeg. - I want to learn Welsh.

    There are other meanings and uses of Cymraeg which are introduced later in the course.


    Pronunciation - keep practising!

    Now would be a good time to go back over those pronunciation videos that we recommended earlier in the course: here they are again https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=16sqX2Baprg&list=


  • 05 Present 122 @ 100% 0 •••
    'n · a · bara · bwyta · cennin · chwaith · cig · coffi · cwrw · ddim · dŵr · hoffi · llaeth · mwynhau · pys · selsig · te · teledu · yfed
    19 words

    Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.


    Simple Sentences

    Every verb can be used to make simple sentences in a standard way using forms of another verb, bod (meaning 'being' or 'to be'). We have already met two forms of bod:

    • dw i - I am, and
    • dych chi - you are

    Now:

    • hoffi is one of several words meaning 'liking' or 'to like'

    To say 'I like', we link 'I am' (dw i) with 'liking' ('hoffi') using a small word which does not actually translate into English when it is used like this - yn. In this pattern, the basic word yn is changed to 'n if it follows a word ending in a vowel. So, 'I like' is made up of:

    • dw i + yn + hoffi

    giving us (remembering that yn => 'n after a vowel):

    • dw i'n hoffi... - I like...

    Note how dw i and 'n join together.

    And so, following the same idea but this time using dych chi (you are), we get:

    • Dych chi'n hoffi... - You like...

    So, what do you and I like? Coffee, perhaps, and the Welsh for 'coffee' is coffi:

    • Dw i'n hoffi coffi - I like coffee
    • Dych chi'n hoffi coffi - You like coffee

    (Note that although 'n/yn here is not actually translated into English, it does act as a marker showing that the action is 'in progress', unfinished. Later in the course you will find other words used instead of 'n/yn to mark completed or newly completed actions.)


    But we don't like coffee...

    The usual word for 'not' in Welsh is ddim:

    • Dw i ddim... - I am not...

    So,

    • Dw i ddim yn hoffi... - I do not like...

    Note that yn is separated from dw i ddim by a space - it does not get changed to 'n. That is because ddim ends with a consonant, not a vowel.

    • Dw i ddim yn hoffi coffi. - I don't like coffee.
    • Dych chi ddim yn hoffi coffi. - You do not like coffee.

    Note that Welsh makes no distinction here between the English 'do not' and 'don't.'


    Do we like things?

    With dw i... and dych chi..., we can turn them into questions just by lifting our tone of voice at the end of the sentence, as we do when asking a question in English:

    • Dych chi'n hoffi selsig? - Do you like sausages?
    • Dw i'n hoffi coffi? - Do I like coffee?

    Some dialect variations

    Welsh has a number of dialects; four or five main ones, with large areas of geographical overlap. Different generations also tend to use different language patterns, too, just as with any modern language. You may live in one of those areas and you may already be learning some slight variations from the forms we generally use on this course. Don't worry about it, just ask your local tutor for advice if this applies to you.

    One common variation is in a phrase we introduce in this section - dych chi (you are). In parts of north-west Wales in particular you may be learning this as dach chi, which reflects a local pronunciation. All the way through this course you can respond with dach chi instead of dych chi if you wish. Later in the course you will also meet dach chi being used as a prompt. It is important to become familiar with some simple dialect variations as they do come up in the national media and you will hear them all over Wales because people travel around so much - we don't change the way we speak just because we are working and living in or visiting a different area. There is some more information about the Welsh dialects in the notes for the later section called 'Dialects'.

    Note that in this introductory course we do not cover many dialect variations, just those few commonly taught in the two introductory levels in courses for adults in Wales under the national 'LearnWelsh' scheme (www.learnwelsh.cymru).


    Further information about learning Welsh is here - https://www.duolingo.com/comment/13186004


  • 05 Greetings 221 @ 100% 0 •••
    dim · diolch · dych chi · gwych · iawn · pwy · sut · wedi blino · yn waeth · yn well
    10 words

    Introducing Yourself

    When introducing ourselves by name or occupation in Welsh, we always emphasise the name or occupation. We do this by putting our name, Sioned, say, at the front of the sentence:

    • Sioned dw i - I am Sioned = (literally, "Sioned am I")

    Sioned would not say * 'Dw i'n Sioned' - that is the wrong order of words for this kind of sentence - the name, role or occupation, etc, has to come first.

    Remember - It can be interesting to learn the Welsh and English equivalents of personal names, but we do not translate people's names between the two languages.


    Welsh has no indefinite article (a / an). So, a dragon could say:

    • Draig dw i - I am a dragon (lit. "A dragon am I").

    Confirming someone's name - perhaps you misheard it

    To confirm someone's name or occupation, we can form a question simply by raising our voice a little at the end of the phrase:

    • Sioned dych chi? - Are you Sioned?
    • Draig dych chi? - Are you a dragon?

    Note - you would not ask 'Dych chi Sioned?' - that order of words is incorrect when asking about names and occupations or roles.


    Asking a Name

    The question Pwy dych chi? means Who are you? It can sound abrupt in English, but it is perfectly acceptable in everyday Welsh speech and is often heard.


    Note - In these lessons, the new characters Gareth (male), Sioned (female), and Eleri Lingo (female) are introduced. Apart from learning a few more common Welsh first names, these will give you some useful listening practice. The word draig (dragon) is also introduced.

    Note - This unit introduces the letter and sound /ch/, which is not used in English, but it is pronounced the same as 'Loch' in Scotland. If you have not already done so, look at the videos here to learn how to pronounce things in Welsh.


    Opportunities for learning Welsh in Wales

    In Wales, there are many locally-held classes aimed at teaching Welsh to adults under the title 'DysguCymraeg' or 'LearnWelsh'. The two basic courses are usually called Mynediad (entry-level) and Sylfaen (basic level).

    There are related courses aimed at people with young children called 'Cymraeg i'r Teulu' ('Welsh for the Family').


    Further information about learning Welsh is here


  • 05 Greetings 111 @ 100% 0 •••
    bore da · croeso · da · draig · dw i · hwyl · nos · prynhawn
    8 words

    Croeso/Welcome to the Welsh course on Duolingo.

    This Duolingo course is designed to cover the CEFR levels A1 and A2 as taught on the LearnWelsh/DysguCymraeg Mynediad and Sylfaen level courses for adults in Wales. See https://www.learnwelsh.cymru


    Let's start! - Greetings

    Bore da = Good morning

    This has two parts:

    • bore = 'morning',
    • da = 'good'

    Note that the usual word order for describing things in Welsh is the noun followed by the adjective, so the Welsh Bore da (literally 'morning good') becomes 'Good morning' when translated into English.

    Similarly, Nos da (Good night) which, as in English, is what we say to someone as a farewell last thing at night:

    • nos - night

    In the first lesson, we use some Welsh first names to help to make the sentences:

    • Dylan, Dewi and Owen are men's names,
    • Morgan can be used by both men and women, and
    • Megan is a woman's name.

    Note - Following the usual practice in Wales, personal names are not translated or changed in spelling between Welsh and English. Where a place has a different name in both languages, though, we do translate them.

    Note that Draig/Dragon is not used as a name in Wales! The Draig Goch is a national symbol.


    Please take the time to read the following notes...


    Section notes - 'Tips and Notes'

    Most sections of this course have notes explaining new patterns and usages, or giving background information about a topic.

    Do read them so that you can get the most out of the course. We keep them updated in response to feedback, especially to points and questions raised in the discussion forums of the course. For how to find the notes, go to https://forum.duolingo.com/topic/924/hot and read the sticky discussion on 'Course tips and notes'.


    Pronunciation

    Nearly every sound in Welsh is also found in British English. Note that Welsh uses two letters as vowels that are usually treated as consonants in English, w and y.

    A fuller description of the Welsh alphabet is in the notes for a later part of the course.

    There are some very good short videos by Welsh Plus on YouTube to help in learning Welsh pronunciation. Look on the web for Welshplus Youtube pronunciation basics.

    We recommend that you work your way through all of the videos in the series - they are very clear, and far better than trying to follow any written description of pronunciation. Go back to them at intervals as you follow the course. If you are still unclear about the pronunciation of individual words, many have live voice recordings in the www.gweiadur.com on-line dictionary.


    Discussions

    On the Duolingo web site you will find an area for discussing particular sentences. If you are looking for an explanation of some new pattern or word, please look in the course notes first.


    Typing accented characters.

    Duo provides some accented characters in a menu, but this does not give the full range required in Welsh, so:

    • If you are in Britain, try setting your region to UK - on iOS that gives you ŵ, ŷ, î, ê, ï, á, etc, as pop-up characters if you keep the w, y or other vowel keys depressed for a second.
    • Otherwise, install the iOS/Android Swiftkey app with its Welsh keyboard.
    • On MacOS, use the Welsh keyboard layout and use the Keyboard Viewer to see how to produce the accents. For example, type opt-w to get ŵ, or opt-8, i to get ï.
    • On Windows you can use the UK extended keyboard layout to get accented characters. Or install the free 'To Bach v2' from https://www.interceptorsolutions.com/tobach Their website has instructions for using it.

    Reporting system bugs

    The volunteer course teams have no access to the underlying Duolingo software. Report bugs here - https://support.duolingo.com/hc/en-us/articles/204728264-How-do-I-report-a-bug-

    Audio

    The audio on this course is produced by a computer-generated voice. The voice has a neutral accent and gives the correct pronunciation or close to it. The course team can do nothing any glitches except to disable the sound for that word or sentence.

    Also see https://support.duolingo.com/hc/en-us/articles/204762054-Troubleshooting


    A note to Welsh speakers

    Croeso i Duolingo! This course is based on a colloquial register of Welsh as taught in the DysguCymraeg Mynediad and Sylfaen courses. It does not cover formal registers of Welsh, dialect or slang forms of Welsh. Please do not suggest alternative answers based on them. However, please do contribute to the course discussions!

    We do not attempt to give all possible ways of translating phrases, just the more common ones as taught to adult learners.


    Further information about learning Welsh is here -http://www.duolingo.com/comment/13186004


  • 23 Present Tense 393 @ 100% 0 •••
    agor · am dro · caru · castell nedd · castell-nedd · cau · cerddoriaeth · chwerthin · clywed · cwpwrdd · ddydd · drws · dydyn nhw · dyn ni · dyw · e · fe · gerddoriaeth · gweddol · gweithio · gwenu · gwrando · gwrando ar · hi · hwylio · iâ · lliwio · llun · lluniau · mae · manceinion · mynd · nghastell-nedd · o gwbl · ofnadwy · radio · rwyt ti · sgipio · sglefrio · smygu · wyt ti · ydy · ydyn
    43 words

    In this unit, other forms of the present tense of bod (to be) are introduced.


    'You' - Ti and Chi

    As in several other European lanaguages, Welsh has two forms of 'you', ti and chi, and different forms of verbs are used with each:

    Ti is only used with an individual, never with more than one person:

    • When talking to an individual with whom you are on familiar terms, such as a friend, relative or close colleague.
    • When talking to a child.
    • When talking or praying to a deity.

    Chi is used:

    • When addressing more than one person, familiar or not.
    • When talking with someone you don't know.
    • With an individual in formal settings.

    The forms of bod (to be)

    The pronouns we use are:

    • i - I
    • ti - you (singular familiar)
    • e, o - he (sometimes fe/fo)
    • hi - she
    • ni - we
    • chi - you (plural, and formal singular)
    • nhw - they

    Note that for 'he', e is generally used in dialects in west, south and some of mid-Wales, o in north and other parts of mid-Wales.

    Here is the pattern of the present tense of bod:

    Positive Question Negative Translation
    (ry)dw i (y)dw i? (dy)dw i ddim I am, am I?, I am not
    rwyt ti wyt ti? dwyt ti ddim you (sing.) are..., etc.
    mae e/o ydy e/o? dydy/dyw e/o ddim he is... etc.
    mae hi ydy hi? dydy/dyw hi ddim she is... etc.
    (ry)dyn ni ydyn ni? (dy)dyn ni ddim we are... etc.
    (ry)dych chi (y)dych chi? (dy)dych chi ddim you (pl) are... etc.
    maen nhw ydyn nhw? (dy)dyn nhw ddim they are... etc

    (ry)dw i shows the fuller form in brackets (rydw) compared to the basic spoken form taught on this course (dw i). The fuller forms are sometimes taught in schools, and are used in the media, too.

    Note in dialects in south, west and parts of mid-Wales the pronoun 'he' is usually e, while in north Wales and other parts of mid-Wales 'he' is usually o.

    Note that on introductory courses using DysguCymraeg 'north' materials, you will be taught dan ni, dach chi, dan nhw, etc. This reflects local pronunciation.

    Note that mae is also used with nouns, both plural and singular:

    • Mae'r plant yn chwarae. - The children are playing.
    • Mae Siôn a Siân yn licio cerdded. - Siôn and Siân like walking.
    • Mae'r car a'r beic yn las. - The car and the bike are blue.

    Note that with verbs the third person plural form is only used with the pronoun nhw.

    Note that Yw... is not used to start a question, only Ydy...? is used.

    Note that the third person singular negatives dyw and dydy have the same meaning and are interchangeable.

    Remember, to form the present tense we use the appropriate part of the verb to be (bod) + 'n/yn and the required verb. For example:

    • Dw i'n canu. - I am singing.
    • Wyt ti'n canu? - Are you singing?
    • Dyw e ddim yn canu. - He is not singing.

    Courses in parts of north and mid-Wales may teach the forms dan ni and dach chi, etc, following local pronunciation. Those forms are accepted on this Duolingo course.


    Emphatic sentences

    In earlier section we saw that when identifying someone by their job or name, we put that first in the sentence:

    • Sam dw i. - I'm Sam.
    • Athro dych chi? - Are you a teacher?

    In identifying sentences in the third person we use ydy/yw following the identifier, or with a plural, ydyn:

    • John yw e. - He's John.
    • Mecanic yw hi. - She is a mechanic.
    • Athrawes ydy hi? - Is she a teacher?
    • Ffermwyr ydyn nhw? - Are they farmers?

    More on Yes and No

    We have already met the responses Ydw - 'Yes (I am) and Nac ydw - 'No (I am not).

    To form the 'Yes' and 'No' in other persons, take the question form and remove the pronoun:

    • Ydy hi'n canu? - Is she singing? - Ydy - Yes (she is); Nac ydy - No (she is not)
    • Dych chi'n cerdded, Megan a Siôn? - Ydyn - Yes (We are); Nac ydyn - No (we are not)
    • Ydyn nhw'n bwyta? - Ydyn - Yes (they are); Nac ydyn - No (they are not)

    If the question starts with something other than the verb we use a much simpler yes/no system - Ie/Nage. For example:

    • Athrawes dych chi? Ie. - Are you a teacher? Yes.
    • John yw e? Nage, Sam.. - Is he John? No, Sam.
    • Athro ydy Siôn? Nage, trydanwr ydy e. - Is Siôn a teacher? No, he's an electrician.

  • 05 Months72 @ 75% 25 •••
    awst · chwefror · cwympo · dail · ebrill · gaeaf · gorffennaf · gwanwyn · gweld · haf · hydref · ionawr · mai · medi · mehefin · mis · rhagfyr · tachwedd · tymor
    19 words

    These lessons introduce the names of the months and the seasons.


    Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults.


    The Months

    Some of the names of the months in Welsh are borrowed from Latin, eg May = Maius (Latin) => Mai (Welsh)


    The word mis (month) precedes the name of the month, and the name of the month always starts with a capital letter:

    • mis Ebrill - April
    • mis Mai - May
    • mis Gorffennaf - July

    To say in a particular month we add the word ym

    • ym mis Ebrill - in April
    • ym mis Mehefin - in June

    Note that using the word mis in front of the names of the months is important, as the names of some of the months also mean other things in Welsh. For example:

    • Mawrth - Mars, the planet
    • dydd Mawrth - Tuesday
    • mis Mawrth - March
    • medi - harvesting, to harvest
    • mis Medi - September
    • yr hydref - autumn
    • mis Hydref - October

    The mis is sometimes dropped when the context is very clear or when used with dates (covered later in the course). Apart from when using dates, it is best to use the mis, and this is what Duo does.

    Note that the names of the months are all masculine in gender. The word mis itself is also masculine.


    The Seasons

    Note that the names of the seasons do not usually start with a capital letter unless they are part of the title of something or, of course, if they are used at the start of a sentence.

    The seasons are usually used with y/yr:

    • y gwanwyn - spring
    • yr haf - summer
    • yr hydref - autumn (fall)
    • y gaeaf - winter

    Note that the names of the seasons are all masculine in gender.

    To say 'in autumn' or 'in the autumn', etc, we use yn y ...:

    • yn yr hydref - in autumn, in the autumn
    • yn y gaeaf - in winter, in the winter

    Be careful to spell gwanwyn correctly, as there are some very similar-looking words:

    • y gwanwyn - spring
    • gwenwyn - poison
    • gwenyn, gwenynen - bees, a bee

    Seeing or enjoying, etc, something doing something

    We can say that we see or enjoy, etc, something in the process of doing something by using 'n/yn in front of the 'doing something':

    • Dw i'n hoffi gweld y ci'n chwarae. - I like seeing the dog playing.
    • Dych chi'n mwynhau gwylio'r plant yn peintio? - Do you enjoy watching the children painting?
    • Dw i ddim yn hoffi clywed y ci'n cyfarth! - I do not like hearing the dog barking!

    How to remember the genders of the main units of time

    Both eiliad (a second) and munud (a minute) can be either masculine or feminine, sometimes varying by dialect. However, if we ignore that for the sake of an aid to memory, there is a useful pattern to be seen in the alternating genders of units of time. (Here, b is benywaidd (feminine) and g is gwrwyaidd (masculine)):

    • eiliad (b) - a second
    • munud (g) - a minute
    • awr (b) - an hour
    • dydd, diwrnod (g) - day, a day
    • wythnos (b) - a week
    • mis (g) - a month
    • blwyddyn (b); [blwydd (b)] - a year; [a year of age]
    • degaid, degawd (g) - a decade
    • canrif (b) - a century
    • mileniwm (g) - a millennium

    So, if you can remember the gender of one, you can work out the others.


    Pronunciation reminder

    Have you checked and practised your pronunciation recently? If not, go back over these pronunciation videos.

    Try recording your voice saying the same words and then playing it back to compare your pronunciation with that on the videos.


  • 05 Clothes 132 @ 75% 25 •••
    blows · cot · cot law · crys · crys chwys · dillad · dillad gaeaf · dillad ysgol · esgidiau · esgidiau rhedeg · fest · ffrog · golchi · gwerthu · gwisg ysgol · gwisgo · gwregys · het · hosan · jîns · menig · newydd · sgarff · sgert · siaced · siwmper · siwt · tei · teits · trowsus
    30 words

    This unit introduces some terms relating to clothing.

    Gender and plurals of Welsh nouns

    As in many other languages, nouns in Welsh are either masculine or feminine in gender. In Welsh, this affects how they are used in the language and in particular on how the initial letters in some words can change for various reasons. This is called 'mutation'.

    The mutations aren't introduced yet and you won't need to concern yourself with them until they gradually start to be introduced later in the course. Just for an example, notice how the first letters of these feminine words change after the word y (the):

    • cot, y got - a coat, the coat
    • coban, y goban - a nightdress, the nightdress
    • baner, y faner - a flag, the flag
    • derwen, y dderwen - an oak tree, the oak tree
    • gwers, y wers - a lesson, the lesson

    Note that plural nouns in Welsh have no gender - for example, these common articles of clothing have no gender: teits (tights), sanau (socks), and menig (gloves).

    Note that there are several ways of forming plurals in Welsh and few guidelines about which method is used for a particular word. A few words have more than one plural. Like genders, plurals are best learned as you go.

    Any dictionary will show a noun's gender and its plural.


    Some of the words for clothing introduced in this unit are (f - feminine, m - masculine, pl - plural):

    • siwmper f - a jumper, pullover, sweater
    • het f - a hat
    • ffrog f - a dress/frock
    • cot, côt f - a coat
    • coban f - a nightdress
    • fest f - a vest
    • cot law f - a raincoat
    • crys m - a shirt
    • gwregys m - a belt
    • crys chwys m - a sweatshirt
    • trowsus m - (a pair of) trousers/pants
    • esgidiau pl - shoes
    • menig pl - gloves
    • sanau pl - socks
    • jîns pl - jeans

    You will notice that several of these words in Modern Welsh are similar to their Modern English equivalents. This is not surprising when you think that Welsh and English have developed as close neighbours for the past 1500 years or so. Both of them draw on the Brythonic language of Britain which dates back to pre-Roman times, and both have been influenced by Latin from the time of the Romans in Britain onwards. And of course several of the items of clothing themselves are relatively recent developments.

    Both languages have many dialects (Welsh has perhaps five main dialects), and it is noticeable that several Welsh language patterns and words are found in the various English dialects of Wales.

    However, the structure of Modern Welsh is much closer to its Brythonic roots than Modern English is now, and this difference in structure and word order means that trying to translate word-for-word from one language to the other often does not work well at all.

    Welsh is not that difficult to learn once you realise that it is different!


    There is no 'a/an' in Welsh

    Remember that there is no indefinite article 'a/an' in Welsh:

    • het - 'hat' or 'a hat'
    • crys - 'shirt' or 'a shirt'

    In the following sentences, for example, 'a/an' is required to make sense in the English, even though there is no equivalent in the Welsh:

    • Dw i'n gwisgo cot law - I am wearing a raincoat
    • Dw i eisiau sgarf - I want a scarf

    Similarly, with plurals we may use the word 'some' in the English translation where there is no equivalent in the Welsh:

    • Dw i eisiau jîns newydd - I want some new jeans
    • Dw i'n gwisgo sanau - 'I'm wearing socks' or 'I'm wearing some socks'

    Someone's things

    To show that someone owns something we simply put the 'owner' after the thing 'owned':

    • crys Tom - Tom's shirt
    • esgidiau Sioned - Sioned's shoes

    Adjectives usually come after the noun

    When we are describing things, the adjective, the describing word, usually comes after the noun in Welsh:

    • cot law - a raincoat
    • dillad ysgol - school clothes
    • esgidiau rhedeg - running shoes
    • jîns newydd - new jeans

    As in any language, there are always exceptions. In Welsh there are about 10 adjectives which always come before the noun, and perhaps 20-25 which can come either before or after, creating slightly different meanings. Only a very few of these will come up in this course.


  • 05 Present 230 @ 75% 25 •••
    brecwast · caws · cerdded · cinio · dych chi'n · dysgu · gwneud · gwylio · lemon · llysiau · mefus · menyn · nofio · ond · orenau · prynu · rhifo · smwddio · swper · tegan · teganau · yma
    22 words

    Some more examples of 'doing things' in Welsh

    A number of other words, both verbs and nouns, are introduced in this unit so that you can start building up your vocabulary. Building a wide vocabulary is essential in learning a language, and there are many tools around to help you.

    In this unit, all the verbs are presented in the present tense. For example:

    • Dw i'n hoffi - I like
    • Dw i'n yfed - I drink/I am drinking
    • Dw i'n hoffi yfed te - I like to drink tea

    Remember that the 'to' in 'to drink' in the third example is included in the meaning of the single Welsh word yfed. Yfed means 'drinking' or 'to drink', so no additional Welsh word is needed for the 'to' in this pattern.

    yn is used to link dw i etc to the following verb. It is usual to shorten it to'n when it follows a Welsh vowel (a e i o u w y). This is normal for any positive sentence. When using a negative sentence, the yn is always full and again comes just before the verb-noun. For example:

    • Mae e'n yfed - He is drinking or He drinks
    • Dw i'n yfed- I am drinking or I drink
    • Dw i ddim yn yfed - I am not drinking or I don't drink
    • Dw i ddim yn gwneud te - I am not making tea

    Cinio - lunch or dinner

    Just as the basic structure of Welsh is very different from that of English - as in something as basic as word order, for example - Welsh words and English word do not always have a one-for-one translation. In this section you will meet an example - cinio - which is used for both 'lunch' and 'dinner'.

    In English, different people use different terms for the various meals of the day. This course does not try to address that, but it is consistent in translating the various terms:

    • brecwast - breakfast
    • cinio - lunch or dinner (regardless of whether you use the term 'dinner' for a midday or an evening meal)
    • te - tea
    • swper - supper

    Verb-nouns

    The basic, dictionary-form of a verb in Welsh (hoffi, yfed, prynu, etc) is known as a verb-noun (berfenw). As you will see later in the course, verb-nouns can be used very flexibly in Welsh.

    The nearest equivalent in English is the 'ing-participle' form of verbs (liking, drinking, buying, etc) but it is often also translated as the 'to-infinitive' (to like, to drink, to buy, etc).

    In a dictionary, a verb-noun is often idenitifed with the abbreviation be for 'berfenw'.

    Translating standalone verb-nouns

    Please note that on this course, if you are asked to translate a verb-noun on its own (for example, bwyta, hoffi, yfed, etc), and not as part of a longer phrase, you should use the forms 'xxxing' or 'to xxx'. ('eating', 'to eat', 'to like', 'drinking'). Do not answer with just 'xxx' (eat, like, drink, swim, etc) as those forms can often be mixed up with nouns (a swim, a drink, ...) or commands (eat!, drink!). When you look them up in a dictionary the distinction is made clear, but we cannot do that on Duo.


    Welsh pronouns

    In colloquial Welsh, verbs are usually followed by their associated subject pronouns, for example dw i, dych chi, (I am, you are), etc.

    (In formal Welsh the pronouns are often dropped, but we do not use or accept formal registers of Welsh on this course.)

    For reference, here is a table of the usual pronouns:

    Cymraeg English Notes
    i I, me sometimes fi
    ti you informal singular
    e or o he, him e in southern dialects, o in northern dialects; sometimes fe, fo
    hi she, her
    ni we, us
    chi you plural, and formal singular
    nhw they, them

    You will meet the verb-forms that go with each of these later in the course.


  • 05 The 141 @ 75% 25 •••
    'r · dre · dref · llawr · llong · nenfwd · peintio · wal · y · yr
    10 words

    The definite article - 'the'

    When saying the in Cymraeg, there are three forms used: 'r, yr and y.

    To know which form to use, 'r, yr or y, just go through the sequence 1, 2, 3 below and use whichever one applies first. Note that the 'r, yr, y refers to the word following it in each case:

    1 - 'r is used following, and attached to, a word ending in a vowel (a e i o u w y, in Welsh), regardless of what letter the next word starts with. For example:

    • hoffi'r afal - liking the apple [...'r afal = ...the apple]
    • casáu'r tywydd
    • mynd i'r dre

    2 - yr is used before vowels and h-. For example:

    • maint yr afal
    • blas yr oren
    • yn ystod yr wythnos

    3 - Otherwise, y is used. For example:

    • gan y bachgen
    • wrth y ferch

    An example of all three:

    • Dw i'n hoffi'r car, y beic, yr awyren a'r eliffant.

    Note - occasionally, you will see 'y' instead of 'yr' used in front of some words beginning with w-. This is not necessarily wrong, so do not think that you have misunderstood the rules if you do come across it. It tends to occur with feminine nouns beginning with gw-, especially gwl-, gwn-, gwr-, where the -w- has the quality of a consonant. For example, y wawr, y wers, y wraig, y wlad, y wrach.

    Note that 'r is always written attached to the preceding word - this is not always obvious in Duolingo as its underlying display formatting rules sometimes separates them. The course team have no control over that.


    Weak soft mutation of feminine nouns after 'r/y (the)

    'r/y cause a 'weak' soft mutation of feminine nouns. 'Weak' because the initial letters ll- and rh- resist the mutation caused by 'r/y. Here are examples of the weak soft mutation of some feminine nouns:

    • pleidlais, y bleidlais - a vote, the vote
    • tafarn, y dafarn - a pub, the pub
    • cân, y gân - a song, the song
    • bwydlen, y fwydlen - a menu, the menu
    • desg, y ddesg - a desk, the desk
    • gardd, yr ardd - a garden, the garden
    • merch, y ferch - a girl, the girl
    • llaw, y llaw - a hand, the hand (no mutation)
    • rhaw, y rhaw - a spade, the spade (no mutation)

    Plural nouns and masculine noun do not mutate after 'r/y.


    A table of the full soft mutation

    For reference:

    original letter soft mutation
    p- b-
    t- d-
    c- g-
    b- f-
    d- dd-
    g- -
    m- f-
    ll- l-
    rh- r-

    Remember that dd, ll and rh are all single letters in Welsh (along with ch, ff, ng, ph, th).

    Note that when g- takes a soft mutation it vanishes, and that both b- and m- take a soft mutation to f-.


    The Welsh Alphabet - Yr Wyddor Gymraeg

    In Cymraeg, the alphabet has 28 letters (29 if we include the loan letter j). Eight of the letters, called 'digraphs', are written as two characters - but in Cymraeg, these always count as a single letter.

    In the list, v stands for vowel (llafariad), c for consonant (cytsain), and d for digraph (deugraff). All digraphs are also consonants. The name of the letter is in brackets (some have more than one) - the grave accent ` over e just indicates that is pronounced as a short vowel, and ˆ indicates a long vowel.

    1. A (â) - v
    2. B (bî) - c
    3. C (èc) - c
    4. Ch (èch) - d
    5. D (dî) - c
    6. Dd (èdd) - d
    7. E (ê) - v
    8. F (èf) - c
    9. Ff (èff) - d
    10. G (èg) - c
    11. Ng (èng) - d
    12. H (âets, hâ) - c
    13. I (î, î-dot) - v
    14. J (jê) - c
    15. L (èl) - c
    16. Ll (èll) - d
    17. M (èm)- c
    18. N (èn) - c
    19. O (ô) - v
    20. P (pî) - c
    21. Ph (ffî) - d
    22. R (êr) - c
    23. Rh (rhî, rhô) - d
    24. S (ès) - c
    25. T (tî) - c
    26. Th (èth) - d
    27. U (û, û-bedol, û-cwpan, û-utgorn) - v
    28. W (ŵ) - v
    29. Y (ŷ) - v

    Note that in some regional accents, î and û can sound the same or very similar, so it can be useful to call them î-dot and û-bedol, etc to distinguish them clearly.

    Note that many people use the sounds of the letters rather than the names of the letters when spelling things out - be careful to notice which method they are using!


    Note that you must be careful to remember the digraphs when looking up words in a Welsh dictionary. For example, chwech comes after cywir because ch is a different letter from c and comes after it in a dictionary.


  • 32 PastWedi101 @ 75% 25 •••
    allan · bath · bwydo'r · cael · codi · eto · glanhau · golchi · gwisgo · i'r gwaith · i'r parc · i'r parti · i'r swyddfa · i'r ysgol · ma's · mynd · tacluso · wedi · ymolchi · yn gynnar · ysgubo
    21 words

    This unit teaches the present perfect tense, yr amser perffaith, using wedi.


    This tense is used to describe something, saying that the activity has been completed - that is why the activity is 'perfect'!

    This tense can be seen in English with 'have/has', and often, although not always, followed with the '-ed' verb-ending. For example:

    • I have swum 300 metres.
    • We have enjoyed lunch, thank you.
    • Siôn has eaten well this evening.
    • She has played well today.
    • They have enjoyed themselves.
    • She has paid the bill already.

    Note that this tense is not the same as the simple past tense 'I swam', I enjoyed', 'I ate', 'I finished' - that is a different tense, the simple past, in both English and Welsh, and it is covered in later sections of the course.


    In the Welsh present tense we use forms of bod with yn/'n

    • Dw i'n mynd - I am going
    • Maen nhw'n bwyta pasta - They are eating pasta.

    There, yn/'n shows that the action is unfinished - it is still incomplete.

    In Welsh, the present perfect tense pattern uses the same present tense forms of bod and we simply use wedi instead of yn/'n, to show that that action has been completed - 'I have gone.', 'They have eaten..,'

    • Dw i wedi nofio 300 metr. - I have swum 300 metres. (But not 'I swam...' - that is a different tense, the simple past).)
    • Dyn ni wedi mwynhau cinio. - We have enjoyed lunch. (But not 'We enjoyed...')
    • Mae Siôn wedi bwyta'n dda heno. - Siôn has eaten well this evening. (But not 'Siôn ate...')

    Note that yn/'n is never used at the same time as wedi - the action cannot be incomplete and complete at the same time. For example, * Dw i'n wedi mynd would make no sense.

    More examples:

    • Dw i wedi gorffen. - I have finished.
    • Mae'r plant wedi codi. - The children have got up.
    • Mae Sioned wedi yfed coffi. - Sioned has drunk a coffee.
    • Dyn ni wedi chwarae pêl-droed. - We have played football.
    • Dw i wedi mynd i siopa. - I have gone shopping.
    • Mae e wedi darllen y nofel. - He has read the novel.

    Questions

    Questions can be asked and answered in the same way as with the present tense:

    • Wyt ti wedi cael cinio? Ydw - Have you had lunch? Yes.
    • Ydy hi wedi mynd? Ydy. Has she gone? Yes.
    • Ydyn nhw wedi bod yno eto? Nac ydyn - Have they been there yet? No.

    In parts of north Wales, and as taught in the 'north' versions of the intoductory and intermediate DysguCymraeg courses, Do/Naddo can be used in answers to questions in the present perfect tense with wedi:

    • Dan ni wedi bod yma o'r blaen? Do/Naddo. - Have we been here before? Yes/No.
    • Dach chi wedi gorffen y gwaith? Do/Naddo. - Have you finished the work? Yes/No.
    • Ydy o wedi dŵad i weld Siân? Do/Naddo. - has he come to see Siân? Yes/No.

    Negatives

    Negatives also work in the same way as with the present tense:

    • Dw i ddim wedi bod i Sbaen eto. - I have not been to Spain yet.
    • Dydyn nhw ddim wedi bod yn yr Almaen o'r blaen. - They have not been in Germany before.
    • Dydy'r plant ddim wedi bwyta wyau heddiw - the children haven't eaten any eggs today.

    Golchi vs ymolchi - washing vs getting washed

    ym- is quite a common verb prefix in Welsh. It often indicates a reflexive action - something that someone does to themselves. This is not always obvious in the English translation. In golchi (washing) and ymolchi (washing oneself, getting washed) it is very clear, though:

    • Mae hi wedi golchi'r car. - She has washed the car.
    • Mae hi wedi ymolchi. - She has got washed; She has washed herself; She has had a wash.

  • 05 Work 133 @ 50% 50 •••
    actor · actores · ar fferm · athrawes · athro · cymraeg · di-waith · drama · fel · ffermwr · garej · gweithio · gwraig tŷ · gymraeg · gŵr tŷ · heddwas · mecanic · meddyg · mewn · nyrs · siop · siopwr · swyddfa · theatr · trydanwr · ysgol · ysgrifenyddes
    27 words

    Stating your occupation

    This unit introduces some nouns for work and occupations. For example:

    • Actor dw i - I am an actor
    • Actores dw i - I am an actress
    • Ffermwr dw i - I am a farmer
    • Siaradwr dw i - I am a speaker

    Note that the name of the occupation comes first in the sentence. This is the correct construction in Welsh when saying what job, occupation or role somebody has - just as when saying what someone's name is, as you learned earlier in the course:

    • Dewi dw i. Ffermwr dw i. - I'm Dewi. I am a farmer.

    Asking what someone's name or job is

    We use the same pattern to ask what someone's name or job is, but we use a rising tone towards the end of the question, as we usually do with questions in English.

    The yes/no answering system can be quite complicated, but in this case it is very simple. For a question that does not start with a verb, we simply use Ie (Yes) or Nage (No):

    • Athro dych chi? - Are you a teacher?
    • John dych chi? - Are you John?
    • Nyrs dych chi? Ie. - Are you a nurse? Yes.
    • Athro dych chi? Nage, actor dw i. - Are you a teacher? No, I'm an actor.

    Note that on some areas you will hear Naci or other variations instead of Nage and Ia instead of Ie. Ia and Naci are taught forms on DysguCymraeg 'north' courses.


    Names of occupations

    Many originally male-orientated occupations and nouns will end in -wr (from gŵr meaning 'a man'), such as ffermwr, and siaradwr, but these can be changed to a specifically female version of the same occupation by changing the -wr to -wraig (from gwraig meaning 'a woman'). For example:

    • Ffermwr (a farmer) => Ffermwraig (specifically a female farmer)
    • Siaradwr (a speaker) => Siaradwraig (specifically a female speaker)
    • Dysgwr (a learner) => Dysgwraig (specifically a female learner)

    In practice, though, the female versions are not always used. The base version is also used as the non-gendered word, even though it remains a grammatically male noun.

    A few other occupations have their own specifically feminine versions, such as:

    • athro; athrawes (a teacher).
    • ysgrifennydd; ysgrifenyddes (a secretary)

    Others make no distinction and can be used for either gender:

    • mecanic - a mechanic
    • cyfrifydd - an accountant
    • heddwas - a police officer
    • meddyg, doctor - a doctor
    • nyrs - a nurse
    • peiriannydd - an engineer

    Working somewhere

    To say where we work, we use mewn or yn, both meaning 'in' or sometimes 'at'.

    The difference between yn and mewn is that yn is in a specific place, whilst mewn means in a non-specific place. Yn is also used when saying 'in the...' (yn y...), in your..., in Cardiff, and so on. (Note that when yn is used fot 'in/at' it does not contract to 'n after a vowel):

    • Dw i'n gweithio yn Abertawe - I work in Swansea.
    • Dw i'n gweithio yn y theatr yn Abertawe - I work in the theatre in Swansea.
    • Dw i'n gweithio mewn theatr yn Abertawe - I work in a theatre in Swansea.
    • Dw i'n gweithio yn Tesco yn Abertawe - I work in Tesco in Swansea (a specific shop in a named place)
    • Dw i'n gweithio mewn siop - I work in a shop.
    • Dw i'n gweithio mewn ysgol - I work in a school.
    • Dw i'n gweithio mewn ysgol Gymraeg yn Abertawe - I work at a Welsh-medium school in Swansea.

    'Welsh', 'Wales', 'Welsh language', 'Welsh-language'

    It is important to distinguish between the various meanings of 'Welsh' and related words:

    • Cymraeg, y Gymraeg - A noun meaning 'Welsh', 'the Welsh language'.
    • Cymraeg - an adjective meaning 'Welsh-language' (books, programmes, etc), 'Welsh-speaking' (person) or, in education in particular, 'Welsh-medium' (that is, through the medium of the Welsh language).
    • Cymreig - an adjective meaning 'Welsh' as in belonging to to or pertaining to Wales (rather than to the language).
    • Cymro (Cymry) - a Welshman, a Welsh person (Welshmen, Welsh people)
    • Cymraes (Cymraësau) - a Welsh woman (Welsh women)
    • Cymru - Wales
    • Cymreictod - Welshness

    Note that some people will refer to 'Welsh school' when meaning 'Welsh-medium school'. There is more information about Welsh-medium education here - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh-medium_education

    Similarly:

    • Saesneg - A noun meaning 'English', 'the English language'
    • Saesneg - an adjective meaning 'English-language', 'English-speaking' or 'English-medium'.
    • Seisnig - an adjective meaning 'English' as in belonging to to or pertaining to England (rather than to the language).
    • Sais (Saeson) - an Englishman (Englishmen, English people)
    • Saesnes (Saesnesau) - an Englishwoman (English women)
    • Lloegr - England

  • 32 Revision4461 @ 25% 75 •••
    arholiad · bargeinio · ddillad cynnes · ddillad gwyn · ddillad newydd · dillad cynnes · dillad gwyn · gweithio yn yr ardd · gwisga i · gyda dy gariad · mewn ymarfer · mi wna i wisgo · sefyll · yn y gampfa · yn y gawod · yn y pwll nofio · yn y tŷ bwyta · ynys
    18 words

    British English expressions

    In British English, we 'take' or 'sit' an academic, etc, examination. The Welsh equivalent is sefyll arholiad.


    Cariad

    Cariad has several meanings: love (the emotion), girlfriend, boyfriend.

    When it is used for 'love', it is a masculine noun.

    When it is used for boyfriend or girlfriend, its grammatical gender changes to match their actual gender:

    • y cariad - the boyfriend
    • y gariad - the girlfriend (weak soft mutation of a feminine noun following the definite article)

  • 32 Revision1291 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar dân · byddwch yn dawel · des i · drist · ffatri · gadael · gweithiwch · gyrraedd · heddlu · i'r dafarn · i'r garej · i'r siop · pryd aeth hi · pryd dest ti · pryd est ti · symudwch · sêls · trist · yfed gormod
    19 words

    The aim of this section is to revise patterns already covered, to extend their application, and to introduce additional vocabulary.


    Newydd - has/have just

    Earlier in the course you met the use of wedi to say that you 'have done' something:

    • Dw i wedi cyrraedd yr ysgol - I have arrived at school.

    To say that we have just done something, we can simply replace the wedi with newydd followed by a soft mutation of the verb-noun:

    • Dw i newydd gyrraedd yr ysgol. - I have just arrived at school.
    • Dw i newydd brynu beic. - I have just bought a bike.
    • Ydy Dewi newydd ddod adre? - Has Dewi just come home?
    • Ydy Mair yn mynd allan heno? Ydy, mae hi newydd ymadael - Is Mair going out this evening? Yes, she has just left.

  • 32 Describing a Selection C8672 @ 25% 75 •••
    anobeithiol · beth bynnag · tybed · y fath beth · ychydig
    5 words

    The section teaches how to describe part or some of a group.

    Using o with personal pronouns

    As with a number of other prepositions such as am, ar, i and so on, o (of) takes additional endings when used with personal pronouns:

    • ohono i - of me
    • ohonot ti - of you (familar singular)
    • ohono fe/fo - of him
    • ohoni hi - of her
    • ohonon ni - of us
    • ohonoch chi - of you (polite or plural)
    • ohonyn nhw - of them

    Describing a selection

    o is used when describing a selection of a larger whole or group. For example:

    • rhan o gar - a part of a car
    • un o'r tîm - one of the team
    • y ddau ohonoch chi - the two of you
    • tair o'r merched - three of the women/girls
    • Bydd tri ohonyn nhw'n mynd i Aber yfory. - Three of them will be going to Aber tomorrow.

  • 32 SchoolEqu611 @ 25% 75 •••
    benthyg · cas pensiliau · cwmpawd · cyfrifiannell · fenthyg · naddwr · onglydd · pensil · pren mesur · rwber · sbâr · torri · ysgrifbin
    13 words

    This section introduces some common words for classroom items.


    Borrowing

    For 'May/Can I borrow...' we use Ga i fenthyg...?. Remember that in this pattern, benthyg (borrowing, to borrow) is softly mutated following the Ga i....

    • Ga i fenthyg dy feic, os gweli di'n dda? - Can I borrow your bike, please?
    • Ga i fenthyg punt? - May I borrow a pound?
    • Ga i fenthyg y geiriadur 'na am funud, plîs? - Can I borrow that dictionary for a minute, please?

    A 'compass' vs 'compasses'

    The word for a north-seeking compass is cwmpawd. The word for compass as in (a pair of) compasses for, say, drawing a circle, is usually cwmpas, although cwmpawd can be used for that as well.


    Whose thing is this or that?

    To ask 'Whose xxx?' we simply use Xxx pwy?:

    • Côt pwy ydy hon? - Whose coat is this? Whose is this coat?

    Note that hwn/hon, etc has to agree with the gender and number of the item (see the course notes for the earlier section 'Money')

    • Cotiau pwy ydy'r rhain? - Whose coats are these?
    • Tegan pwy yw hwn? - Whose toy is this?
    • Pensil pwy ydy hwnnw? - Whose pencil is that?
    • Bechingalw pwy ydy hwn? - Whose is this thingymajig?

  • 41 Comparing1482 @ 25% 75 •••
    ag · cymaint · cyn lleied · cynddrwg · cystal · ddiniwed · ddiog · euog · fel · gilydd · gyda'i gilydd · gyda'n · gyfeillgar · mor · siomedig · sâl · â · â'ch · â'i · â'n · â'r · â'u
    22 words

    The equative pattern for adjectives - 'as xxx as'

    The usual pattern for saying that something is 'as xxx as' something else, the equative pattern, is by using mor:

    • mor + adjective + â = 'as.......as':

    • mor hapus â = as happy as

    • mor aml â = as often as
    • mor enwog â = as famous as

    mor causes weak soft mutation (no mutation of ll- or rh-):

    • mor boblogaidd â = as popular as (p -> b)
    • mor goch â = as red as (c -> g)
    • mor llwyd â = as grey as (no mutation)
    • mor rhugl â = as fluent as (no mutation)

    Remember that â, like gyda, causes an aspirate mutation:

    • mor llawen â chog - as happy as a cuckoo (cog)
    • mor falch â phaun = as proud as a peacock (paun)
    • mor dal â thŵr = as tall as a tower (tŵr)

    Note that ti (you) usually resists this aspirate mutation:

    • Mae e mor dal â ti - He is as tall as you are

    Note that when â precedes a vowel, it changes to ag, just as gyda changes to gydag. For example:

    • mor hapus ag Elen = as happy as Elen

    A few adjectives are irregular in their equative form, and instead of using mor, the particle cyn is used with them, or embedded in them, instead. (cyn sometimes loses its -n when it is embedded.)

    Here are some common ones:

    • cymaint - as large, as many (preferred to mor fawr)
    • cynifer - as many
    • cynddrwg - as bad (preferred to mor ddrwg)
    • cystal - as good (preferred to mor dda)
    • cyn lleied - as small (preferred to mor fach)

    Like mor, cyn causes weak soft mutation.

    (Note - this usage of cyn is completely separate to its meaning of 'before'.)


    Note that this pattern is also used to say that something is 'so big', 'so red', 'so fast' etc, often with a soft mutation if it acts as an adverb:

    • Mae'r ci 'na cymaint! - That dog is so big!
    • Diolch am y blodau, rwyt ti cystal! - Thanks for the flowers, you are so good!
    • Llongyfarchiadau ar ennill, gwnest ti redeg gystal! - Congratulations on winning, you ran so well!

    When used following a verb-form of bod, there is no need to put yn/'n between the verb and the adjective to link them - mor/cyn provides this link instead:

    • Dw i'n hen. - I am old.
    • Dw i mor hen â Siân. - I am as old as Siân.
    • Roedd Siôn yn ddrwg. - Siôn was naughty.
    • Roedd Eleri cynddrwg â Siôn. - Eleri was as naughty as Siôn.
    • Mae'r eliffant yn fawr. - The elephant is big.
    • Dydy'r eliffant ddim cymaint â thŷ. - The elephant is not as big as a house.

    We may want to compare things to other things by saying that something is like something else. For this we can use fel:

    • Mae hi'n edrych fel angel. - She looks like an angel.
    • Mae e'n edrych fel wyneb y Lleuad. - It looks like the surface of the Moon.
    • Mae Dewi'n edrych yn union fel ei dad. - Dewi looks just like his dad.

    'Together' and 'as each other'

    When discussing people 'together' with one another or 'as (something) as each other' we use the word gilydd. (This is a mutated form of cilydd, as word which is now rarely seen). Gilydd is most often used in conjunction with:

    • gyda + a shortened possessive pronoun, to mean 'with each other' or with
    • â + a shortened possessive pronoun, to mean 'as each other'

    For example:

    • Dyn ni'n bwyta gyda'n gilydd. - We are eating together, We are eating with each other.
    • Dych chi'n cerdded gyda'ch gilydd. - You are walking together, You are walking with each other.
    • Maen nhw'n mynd i Aber gyda'i gilydd. - They are going to Aber together.

    Note the form ...'i gilydd that is used with they/nhw.

    • Dyn ni mor hen â'n gilydd. - We are as old as each other.
    • Dych chi mor gyflym â'ch gilydd - You are as fast as each other.
    • Maen nhw cynddrwg â'i gilydd! - They are as bad as each other!

  • 41 GiveAdvice472 @ 25% 75 •••
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    22 words

    Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.


    Ought to, Should do

    There is a verb Dylwn - 'ought to, should' - that we use when saying that someone 'should' or 'ought to' do something. Only the conditional tense is in use in colloquial Modern Welsh.

    (Because its other forms, such as its verb-noun and its other tenses, are missing, it is called a 'defective' verb.)

    It has the same conditional tense endings as baswn i ( I would be), hoffwn i' ( I would like), etc, that are introduced elsewhere in the course:

    • Dylwn i - I should, I ought to
    • Dylet ti
    • Dylai fe/fo/hi/Dewi/y plant
    • Dylen ni
    • Dylech chi
    • Dylen nhw

    Note that fe/fo is usually used in preference to e/o with verbs ending in -ai.

    It is followed by a soft mutation:

    • Dylwn i fynd - I should go
    • Dylen nhw goginio - They should cook
    • Ddylwn i ddim mynd - I should not go (dim has caught the mutation here, not mynd)

    Ought to have, Should have

    To form a past tense, we add bod wedi in front of the verb-noun, and it is bod wedi which catches the mutation:

    • Dylwn i fod wedi mynd - I should have gone

    With the negative, as before, it is dim which catches the mutation:

    • Ddylen nhw ddim bod wedi mynd - They should not have gone.
    • Ddylet ti ddim bod wedi gwneud cinio heddiw - You should not have made lunch today

    Idiomatic expressions

    Idiomatic expressions are those which convey a meaning, but by using words or structures that do not necessarily say so directly. In English, for example:

    • 'I'm not as green as I am cabbage-looking', which is a very odd thing to say! The meaning is along the lines of 'Just because I look dull and uninteresting doesn't mean that I don't have some experience or ideas to contribute'.

    In this unit we introduce a Welsh idiom that might be said when giving advice:

    • Araf deg mae dal iâr - literally 'Slow and steady catches a hen'. A similar English idiom might be 'Softly, softly catchee monkey', meaning that success in a task sometimes comes from working steadily and quietly, rather than by rushing into it headlong.

    As in English, many idioms and sayings in Welsh use quite old-fashioned or very formal words and patterns, as in this piece of advice which applies well to learning Welsh:

    • Dyfal donc a dyrr y garreg - 'Steady tapping breaks the stone', or 'You will succeed if you keep at it regularly and a little at a time'.

    As a reminder, there is an idiomatic way of saying that somebody wants to do something. This uses the preposition am. Remember that am causes soft mutation:

    • Mae Siôn am fynd yn gynnar - Siôn wants to go early
    • Roedd Eleri a Dewi am aros tan hanner nos - Eleri and Dei wanted to stay until midnight
    • Dw i am wella fy Nghymraeg - I want to improve my Welsh (gwella - improving, to improve)

  • 41 WouldDo471 @ 25% 75 •••
    colli pwysau · damwain · disgwyl babi · hufen iâ · letys · llais · madarch · mwy · o gwmpas · ots · rhedeg · syniad · tasai · tasech chi · tasen · taset ti · taswn i · teithio · yn dy le di
    19 words

    Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.


    Reminder - 'any', 'a', 'some'

    Remember that these often have no specific equivalents in Welsh:

    • Dw i eisiau sudd - I want juice/a juice/some juice
    • Dw i ddim eisiau sudd - I do not want juice/a juice/any juice

    Baswn forms - an equivalent

    Another form of Bas- forms is Bydd-:

    • Baswn/Byddwn i'n ffonio - I would phone
    • Basai/Byddai hi'n ateb - She would answer, She would be answering

    Shoulds and coulds

    Here are the conditional verb endings with examples:

    • -wn i - I would be - Baswn i
    • -et ti - You should - Dylet ti
    • -ai e/o/hi - He/She could - Gallai e/o/hi
    • -en ni - We would be - Basen ni
    • -ech chi - You should - Dylech chi
    • -en nhw - They could - Gallen nhw

    (Questions and negatives work just as they do with other tenses - there are examples below.)


    Dylwn is the word used for 'I should'. It only exists in a conditional form:

    • Dylwn i - I should
    • Dylet ti - you should
    • Dylai fe/fo/hi/'r plant - he/she/the children should
    • Dylen ni - we should
    • Dylech chi - you should
    • Dylen nhw - they should

    Some examples:

    • Dylen ni weithio'n galed. - We should work hard.
    • Ddylai'r plant ddim chwarae yno - The children shouldn't play there.
    • Ddylen nhw dalu'r bil 'na? - Should they pay that bill?

    Gallu (being able to) (or Medru) can also be used with a conditional form, meaning 'could (be able to)' using the same endings:

    • Gallwn/Medrwn i ddarllen y nofel 'na heddiw - I could read that novel today
    • Gallet ti beintio'r gegin yfory - you could paint the kitchen tomorrow
    • Allai'r mecanic edrych ar fy nghar? - could the mechanic look at my car?
    • Allen ni ddim dod i'r cyfarfod cyn wyth o'r gloch - We couldn't come to the meeting before eight o'clock
    • Allech chi alw nes ymlaen? - could you call later?
    • Gallen/Medren nhw helpu symud y cwpwrdd trwm 'na - they could help to move that heavy cupboard

    Unlikely if

    If something unlikely were to happen - in English we often combine two conditionals to say what we would do if something unlikely were to happen:

    • If I were to win the lottery, I would buy a lovely house.

    In Welsh, there is a special form of bod which includes the 'unlikely if'. It uses the same conditional endings shown above. Instead of the word begining with bas-/bydd-, it starts with tas-:

    • Taswn i'n ennill y loteri, baswn i'n prynu tŷ hyfryd - If I were to win the lottery, I would buy a lovely house.
    • Tasai hi'n colli ei swydd, basai hi'n drist - if she were to lose her job, she would be sad.

    Here is the full conjugation:

    • taswn i - if I were to be
    • taset ti - if you were to be
    • tasai fe/fo/hi/'r plant - if he/she/the children were to be
    • tasen ni - if we were to be
    • tasech chi - if you were to be
    • tasen nhw - if they were to be

    Note that tas- forms are usually matched with bas- forms rather than bydd- forms.

    Note that we do not use os for 'if' in this case. We use os if the likelihood of the thing happening is neutral. We do not normally use a conditional tense with os:

    • Os bydd hi'n bwrw glaw, bydda i'n gwisgo fy nhgôt - if it rains, I'll wear my coat
    • Os ydy Dewi'n dod â Sioned ymlaen nawr, bydd Siân yn ymadael - If Dewi is bringing Sioned along now, Siân will leave

    (Usually os is used with a future tense, but if we do use it with the third person present tense, as in the second example, it must be os ydy..., not * os mae..., although that is a common mistake.)


    Not minding

    When we are asked whether we would like to do something, we may want to answer: 'I don't mind', 'it doesn't matter' In Welsh we use expressions including the word ots:

    • Fasai'n well gyda ti sglodion neu stwnsh? Does dim ots gyda fi. - Would you prefer chips or mashed potato? I don't mind.

    There are several variations in common use in the colloquial language:

    • Does dim ots gen i/gyda fi. - I don't mind.
    • 'Sdim ots 'da fe. - He doesn't mind.
    • Dim ots; Sdim ots. - No matter; It doesn't matter.

    Some examples:

    • Fasai'n well gyda fe fynd nawr neu nes ymlaen? Sdim ots ganddo fe. - Would he prefer to go now or later? He doesn't mind
    • Ydy hi am weithio yn y dref neu yn y gwlad? Does dim ots ganddi hi - Does she want to work in town or in the country-side? She doesn't care.
    • Does dim cwrw ar ôl! Dim ots, mae 'na ddigon o ddŵr. - There's no beer left! No matter, there's plenty of water.

  • 41 Comparing2491 @ 25% 75 •••
    boethach · clyfar · dadlau · dalach · dda am · dda iawn am · ddadlau · ddrutach · dwpach · enwocach · fwy · gyflymach · hŷn · ifancach · llai · nag · oerach · rhatach · sweden · sychach · teimlo · uwch · wlypach
    23 words

    If you are following Cwrs Sylfaen, these lessons correspond to Uned 26.


    Forming and using comparative adjectives

    To compare adjectives, to say something is -er than something else, you can normally add -ach- on the end of the adjective, sometimes with some modifications. For example:

    • tal (tall) > talach (taller)
    • byr (short) > byrrach (shorter) (double -rr-)
    • twp (stupid) > twpach (more stupid)
    • cynnes (warm) > cynhesach (warmer) (note the change of the -nn- to -nh-)
    • gwlyb > gwlypach (wetter) (note the hardening of -b- to -p-)

    The comparative of longer adjectives is formed in a similar way to English by using mwy (more):

    • mwy poblogaidd - more popular
    • mwy ofnadwy - more terrible

    There are some common exceptions:

    • bach > llai - small > smaller/fewer/less
    • mawr > mwy - large/big > larger/bigger/more
    • da > gwell - good > better
    • drwg > gwaeth - bad > worse
    • uchel > uwch - high > higher
    • isel > is - low > lower

    If we want to compare two things, we use na for 'than':

    • Mae Siân yn dalach na Siôn - Siân is taller than Siôn

    na is followed, like â, a, gyda and tua, by an aspirate mutation of p-, t-, c-:

    • Mae tŷ'n dalach na char - A house is taller than a car.

    Note that ti generally resists mutation:

    • Mae e'n fwy na ti - He is bigger than you are

    Note that in modern English we usually say 'He is taller than her', or 'He is taller than she is', and those are the patterns used on this course.


    Forming superlatives

    In a similar way to forming the comparative forms of adjectives, the superlative (-est) of adjectives can be formed either by adding -a (although this is usually -af in written Welsh):

    • gwlyb (wet) > gwlypa (wettest) (note the hardening of -b- to -p-, the opposite of a soft mutation)
    • oer (cold) > oera (coldest)
    • cyfoethog (rich) > cyfoethoca (richest) (note the hardening of -g- to -c-)
    • pert (pretty) > perta (prettiest)

    The superlative of longer adjectives is formed in a similar way to English by using mwya (most):

    • mwya poblogaidd - most popular
    • mwya ofnadwy - most terrible

    There are some common exceptions:

    • bach > llai > lleia - small > smaller > smallest
    • mawr > mwy > mwya - large/big > larger/bigger/more > largest/biggest/most
    • da > gwell > gorau - good > better > best
    • drwg > gwaeth > gwaetha - bad > worse > worst

    The notes and lessons in Comparing3 will show how to use the superlative.


    Being good at doing things

    To say that someone is good at something, there is a very simple pattern using da am (good at):

    • Mae Sioned yn dda am redeg - Sioned is good at running
    • Roedden nhw'n dda am chemeg yn yr ysgol - They used to be good at chemistry at school
    • Bydd Eleri'n dda am ddysgu Cymraeg i'r myfyrwyr - Eleri will be good at teaching Welsh to the students

    Remember that there is a weak soft mutation after this usage of yn (no mutation of ll- or rh-).

    Remember that there is a soft mutation after am.


  • 41 Dates 1492 @ 25% 75 •••
    ail · chweched · cyntaf · dachwedd · degfed · deuddegfed · drydedd · fai · fawrth · fedi · gŵyl dewi · nawfed · noson · orffennaf · pedwerydd · penblwydd · pumed · pymthegfed · seithfed · trydydd · trydydd ar ddeg · tân gwyllt · unfed ar ddeg · wythfed
    24 words

    Dates

    So far, we have introduced numbers using the newer decimal system: un, dau, deg, un deg un, dau ddeg, and so on. When we are using dates in Welsh we still use the old twenty-based (vigesimal) system. This is the same for the first ten, but then the numbering system changes. Here are the twenty-based numbers 10-15:

    Number Cymraeg (10) Cymraeg (20)
    10 deg deg
    11 un deg un un ar ddeg
    12 un deg dau deuddeg
    13 un deg tri tri ar ddeg
    14 un deg pedwar pedwar ar ddeg
    15 un deg pump pymtheg

    Here are the numbers 1 to 15 as ordinals, as used with dates:

    Ordinal Cymraeg
    1st cyntaf
    2nd ail
    3rd trydydd
    4th pedwerydd
    5th pumed
    6th chweched
    7th seithfed
    8th wythfed
    9th nawfed
    10th degfed
    11th unfed ar ddeg
    12th deuddegfed
    13th trydydd ar ddeg
    14th pedwerydd ar ddeg
    15th pymthegfed

    These are used to form a date as follows:

    • y + ordinal + o + name of month

    Remember that the preposition o is followed by a soft mutation.

    Note that the word mis is usually dropped in this pattern since from the context it is clear that the date refers to a month, not to anything else of the same or similar name. So:

    • y cyntaf o Fedi - the first of September
    • yr ail o Fai - the second of May
    • y nawfed o Fehefin - the ninth of June
    • yr unfed ar ddeg o Awst - the eleventh of August
    • y trydydd ar ddeg o Ragfyr - the thirteenth of December
    • y pymthegfed o Hydref - the fifteenth of October

    Other uses of the ordinal numbers

    The ordinals can also be used to describe any noun - the fifth boy, the first prize, and so on. When used like this they come before the noun, except for cyntaf, which follows it.

    [cyntaf is actually a superlative form of an ordinary adjective, so it follows the rule that (nearly all) adjectives follow the noun.]


    With feminine nouns following 'r/yr/y, the ordinal and the noun both take a soft mutation:

    • y ferch gyntaf - the first girl
    • yr ail ferch - the second girl
    • y bumed gath - the fifth cat

    For use with feminine nouns there are feminine forms of some of the numbers and some of the ordinals, shown here in brackets:

    English Cymraeg
    3rd trydydd (trydedd)
    4th pedwerydd (pedwaredd)
    13th trydydd (trydedd) ar ddeg
    14th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar ddeg
    19th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar bymtheg
    23rd trydydd (trydedd) ar hugain
    24th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar hugain

    So, for example:

    • y drydedd ferch - the third girl
    • y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg - the nineteenth century
    • yr ail ganrif ar bymtheg - the seventeenth century

    Note also that ail (second) causes a soft mutation of the noun.

    For the abbreviations commonly used in writing the dates (-st, -nd, -rd, -th), Welsh uses the following:

    Cardinal Welsh word abbreviation
    1st cyntaf 1af
    2nd ail 2ail
    3rd trydydd 3ydd
    4th pedwerydd 4ydd
    5th pymed 5ed
    6th chweched 6ed
    7th seithfed 7fed
    8th wythfed 8fed
    9th nawfed 9fed
    10th degfed 10fed
    11th unfed ar ddeg 11ed
    12th deuddegfed 12fed
    13th trydydd ar ddeg 13eg
    14th pedwerydd ar ddeg 14eg
    15th pumthegfed 15ed
    16th unfed ar bymtheg 16eg
    17th ail ar bymtheg 17eg
    18th deunawfed 18fed
    19th pedwerydd ar bymtheg 19eg
    20th ugeinfed 20fed
    21st unfed ar hugain 21ain
    22nd ail ar hugain 22ain
    23rd trydydd ar hugain 23ain
    24th pedwerydd ar hugain 24ain
    25th pumed ar hugain 25ain
    26th chweched ar hugain 26ain
    27th seithfed ar hugain 27ain
    28th wythfed ar hugain 28ain
    29th nawfed ar hugain 29ain
    30th degfed ar hugain 30ain
    31st unfed ar ddeg ar hugain 31ain

    Numbers with days and nights/evenings

    To say 'three days', 'four nights' and so on, we use the words diwrnod (masculine) (a day) and noson (feminine) (a night/evening):

    • dau ddiwrnod
    • pedair noson

  • 41 Preposit.513 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar ben · bocs · cwpwrdd · ddinistrio · dinistrio · gosod · grisiau · morthwyl · o dan · o flaen · oddi wrth · osod · rhaw · rheolydd pell · silff · siswrn · soffa · tu ôl i
    18 words

    Prepositions

    Prepositions, arddodiaid in Cymraeg, behave in a similar fashion in Cymraeg as in English; they tell where an object is in relation to another object. Several prepositions cause soft mutation of the immediately following word. Not all of them are introduced here, but the following verse may help you to remember them for the future:

    • am, ar, at
    • dros, drwy, dan (+)
    • i, o, wrth
    • heb, hyd, gan

    (+) and their variants tros, trwy, tan

    For example:

    • Mae Sioned yn mynd i Gaerdydd. - Sioned is going to Cardiff.
    • Maen nhw'n dod o Fangor yn wreiddiol - They come from Bangor originally.

    Prepositions can be made up of more than one word. For example:

    • o flaen - in front of
    • ar ben - on top of
    • tu ôl i - behind
    • o dan - underneath
    • oddi wrth - from (as in receiving something from someone)

    For example:

    • Roedd hi'n sefyll o flaen y drws. - She was standing in front of the door.
    • Ces i neges oddi wrth Sam ddoe . - I had a message from Sam yesterday.
    • Mae'r bocs ar ben y cwpwrdd. - The box is on top of the cupboard.

    Rheolaeth, Rheolydd

    'A remote control', such as a gadget to control a television, is rheolydd pell.

    Rheolaeth bell is the process of remote control - 'controlling remotely'.


    Some British English usage - 'dice'

    • 'Dice' - In British English it is common to use the word 'dice' for both the singular and the plural of the die/dice that we use in playing board games. The Welsh singular dis is used to mean a singular 'dice' in this context. The plural is disiau.

  • 41 Conditional462 @ 25% 75 •••
    basai · basai'n well gyda · basech · basen · basen nhw'n · baset · baswn · bodlon · brotest · derbyn · fasai · fasai hi ddim yn well gyda · fasai'n well gyda · fasen · faswn · fodlon · gwyliau · na faswn · oherwydd · prynu · swydd · swyddi · wyliau
    23 words

    The Conditional tense of bod

    So far we have covered 'I am', 'I will be', 'I was', 'I have been' and so on. Another important form of the verb to cover is the 'conditional' - 'I would be'. For example:

    • Baswn i'n mynd - I would go
    • Faswn i'n mynd? - Would I go?
    • Faswn i ddim yn mynd - I would not go.

    This is how the conditional tense of bod runs:

    Positive Question Negative Translation
    baswn i faswn i? faswn i ddim I would be..etc
    baset ti faset ti? faset ti ddim You would be..etc
    basai fe/fo fasai fe/fo? fasai fe/fo ddim He would be..etc
    basai hi fasai hi? fasai hi ddim She would be..etc
    basen ni fasen ni? fasen ni ddim We would be..etc
    basech chi fasech chi? fasech chi ddim You would be..etc
    basen nhw fasen nhw? fasen nhw ddim They would be..etc

    Note that fe/fo is usually used rather than e/o with verbs ending with -ai

    To form a 'Yes' response to a question, take the statement form and remove the pronoun.

    Baswn i = I would (be) -> Baswn = Yes (I would (be))

    To form a 'No', add Na to the question form and remove the pronoun.

    Faswn i? = Would I (be) -> Na faswn = No (I would not (be))

    Some examples:

    • Baswn i'n mynd i America, ond dw i'n casáu hedfan. - I would go to America, but I hate flying.
    • Faset ti'n mwynhau mynd i'r opera? - Would you enjoy going to the opera?
    • Na faswn, dw i ddim yn hoffi opera. - No, I don't like opera.
    • Basai Dewi'n symud i fyw yng Nghaerdydd, ond mae ei waith ym Mhorthmadog eto - Dewi would move to live in Cardiff, but his work is still in Porthmadog.
    • Fasai Eleri'n hapus yn byw yn y brifddinas? Basai, yn bendant - Would Eleri be happy living in the capital city? Yes, definitely.

    I would prefer...

    We can use the conditional to express a preference, too. Rather like possession, the pattern uses gyda or gan:

    • basai hi - it would be
    • basai hi'n well - it would be better
    • basai hi'n well gyda fi... - I would prefer... or I would rather...

    Remember that in this sort of pattern we often drop the hi in positive statements and questions. Remember, too, that after gan/gyda xxx... there is a soft mutation. Some examples:

    • Basai hi'n well gyda Dewi fynd adre nawr - Dewi would rather go home now.
    • Basai'n well gan Eleri aros yn y parti - Eleri would prefer to stay at the party.
    • Basai'n well gynnon ni _alw Mam heno - We would prefer to call Mum this evening.
    • Fasai'n well gen ti fynd i nofio yfory neu heno? Would you rather go swimming tomorrow or this evening?
    • Basai'n well gen i beidio â nofio o gwbl! - I would rather not swim at all!
    • Fasai hi ddim yn well gyda Siân fynd i nofio. - Siân would not prefer to go swimming.

  • 41 FutShort451 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar amser · arhosan nhw · cyrhaedda i · cyrhaeddwch chi · cyrhaeddwn ni · cysgiff · ddim byd · ffonia i · ffonian nhw · ffoniff · ffoniwch chi · ffoniwn ni · gwelwn ni · na · nes ymlaen · talwch chi · talwn ni · unrhyw beth
    18 words

    Shall and will

    Remember that although 'shall' and 'will' are nowadays considered more or less equivalent in the future tense in English, this course generally only uses 'will' in translations of the future tenses - this is purely for the sake of simplicity.


    The Simple future tense

    There are two common ways of forming the simple future:

    • By adding the appropriate ending to the stem of a verb, making a 'short-form' verb.
    • By using the simple future of gwneud (doing, making) as an auxiliary verb to make a 'long-form' verb.

    This section of the course shows how to use the first method, adding a future ending to the stem of a verb.


    The 'short form' future tense

    As well as using the future of bod or gwneud to form a future tense, we can use a short-form future for nearly all verbs if we wish. All we need to do is to remember what the stem is, and then we add the verb-ending for the future tense. You have met the idea of verb stems earlier in the course in the section on the short-form past tense.

    Here is the full pattern using canu ('singing') as the example:

    • Cana i - I will sing
    • Cani di - you will sing
    • Caniff/Canith e/hi/y plant - he/she/the children will sing
    • Canwn ni - we will sing
    • Canwch chi - you will sing
    • Canan nhw - they will sing

    Note that the -ith ending in the third person future is more often used in some of the north and mid-Wales dialects, but you will come across both in the media.

    Remember that short-form verbs cause a soft mutation of their object:

    • Canwch chi gân. - You will sing a song (cân)

    Here are some more examples:

    • Cyrhaedda i Aber erbyn hanner nos. - I will reach Aber by midnight.
    • Taliff e'r bil. - He will pay the bill.
    • Prynwn ni gar newydd fis nesaf. - We'll buy a new car next month.
    • Coginian nhw swper nes ymlaen. - They'll cook supper later.
    • Gorffennwch chi lanhau'ch cegin yfory. - You will finish cleaning your kitchen tomorrow.

    Remember that if you use the particle mi in front of a positive verb, it causes a soft mutation:

    • Mi gyrhaedda i Aber erbyn hanner nos.
    • Mi dalith o'r bil.
    • Mi brynwn ni gar newydd.

    Questions and answers

    Questions take a soft mutation as usual:

    • Gyrhaedda i Aber erbyn hanner nos? - Will I reach Aber by midnight?
    • Daliff e'r bil ar amser? - Will he pay the bill on time?
    • Brynwn ni gar newydd wythnos nesa? - Will we buy a new car next week?
    • Orffennwch chi lanhau'r garej yfory? - Will you finish cleaning the garage tomorrow?

    For yes/no answers we use the yes/no forms from the future of gwneud:

    • Daliff hi'r bil ar amser? Gwnaiff/Na wnaiff. - Will she pay the bill on time? Yes/No.
    • Gyrhaeddwch chi yfory? Gwna/Na wna (I) Gwnawn/Na wnawn. (we)

    Negatives

    Negatives take a mixed mutation as usual (p t c - aspirate; b d g m ll rh - soft):

    • Chyrhaedda i mo Aber erbyn hanner nos. - I will not get to Aber by midnight.
    • Thaliff e mo'r bil. - He will not pay the bill.
    • Phrynwn ni ddim car newydd wythnos nesa. - We won't buy a new car next week.
    • Orffennwch chi ddim glanhau'r garej yfory. - You won't finish cleaning the garage tomorrow.

    Remember that we use mo in front of a definite object of negative short-form verbs, not ddim:

    • Phryna i mo'r car yfory. - I will not buy the car tomorrow.
    • Ysgrifenna i mo'r llythr tan y penwythnos. - I will not write the letter until the weekend.

  • 41 Aux Future Gwneud452 @ 25% 75 •••
    balu · berwi · bobi · briodi · clywed · cyfarch · cymryd · ddwyn · dwyn · ferwi · gyfarch · gymryd · llwyddo · lwyddo · palu · pobi · priodi · rewi · rhewi · ymarfer · ymlacio
    21 words

    Using gwneud to form a simple future


    The Simple future tense

    There are two common ways of forming the simple future:

    • By adding the appropriate ending to the stem of a verb, making a 'short-form' verb.
    • By using the simple future of gwneud (doing, making) as an auxiliary verb to make a 'long-form' verb.

    This section of the course shows how to use the second method, using gwneud.


    Using the simple future of gwneud to create a simple future of other verbs

    This simple future of gwneud, which was covered a little earlier in the course, can be used to form a simple future tense of other verbs. This method is widely used all over Wales, especially in conversation.

    Remember that the object of a short-form verb takes a soft mutation. In this case, the object of gwneud is the verb-noun for which we are creating the simple future tense. Using the example of canu:

    • Gwna i ganu. - I will sing.
    • Gwnei di ganu. - You will sing.
    • Gwnaiff/Gwneith e/hi/Siân/y plant ganu. - He/she/Siân/the children will sing.
    • Gwnawn ni ganu. - We will sing.
    • Gwnewch chi ganu. - You will sing.
    • Gwnân nhw ganu. - They will sing.

    The initial g- is often dropped in speech and the remaining w- may only be lightly pronounced, if at all.

    In parts of north and mid-Wales, the particle mi is often added at the start of the phrase. In some parts of Wales you may also hear fe being used in the same way. Mi/Fe causes a soft mutation:

    • Mi wna i ganu. - I will sing.
    • Mi wnaiff/wneith o ganu. - He will sing.
    • Mi wnaiff/wneith Siân ganu. - Siân will sing.
    • Fe wnân nhw ganu. - They will sing.

    Some examples:

    • Gwna i siarad â Sian. - I will speak to Siân.
    • Mi wna i gerdded efo Siôn. - I will walk with Siôn.
    • Gwnewch chi ddarllen llyfrau yfory. - You will read some books tomorrow.
    • Gwnei di ddarllen y llyfrau yfory. - You will read the books tomorrow.

    Questions and answers

    As with the future of gwneud earlier in the course, just use the soft mutated form of gwna i, etc and raise the tone at the end of the question:

    • Wna i siarad â Sian? - Will I speak to Siân?
    • Wna i gerdded gyda/efo Siôn? - Will I walk with Siôn?
    • Wnaiff o weld cathod yno? - Will he see any cats there?
    • Wnewch chi ddarllen llyfrau yfory - Will you read any books tomorrow?

    Remember that Fe/Mi is never used with a question.


    The answers to any question in the simple future are the use that person's form of the future of gwneud

    • Wnewch chi ddarllen y nofel 'na? Gwna/Gwnawn. - Will you read that novel? Yes. (I/we).
    • *Wnân nhw nofio yn y môr yfory? Na wnân, bydd y dŵr yn rhy oer. - WIll they swim in the sea tomorrow? No, the water will be too cold.

    Negatives

    As with other negatives, the verb takes a mixed mutation (soft mutation in the case of gwneud) and add ddim. The ddim has a soft mutation as the start of the object of the gwneud verb, so we do not mutate the verb-noun which follows it:

    • Wna i ddim siarad â Sian - I won't speak to Siân
    • Wna i ddim cerdded gyda/efo Siôn - I will not walk with Siôn. (no mutation of cerdded)
    • Wnewch chi ddim darllen llyfrau ddoe - You will not read any books tomorrow. (no mutation of darllen)
    • Wnân nhw ddim cyrraedd y neuadd mewn pryd - They will not arrive at the hall in time.

  • 41 Extend 4541 @ 25% 75 •••
    amgueddfa · arbennig · cyfforddus · cynigion · cynnig · fyw · gwyllt · gyfforddus · gyfleus · gyrrwr · gyrwyr · llong · morwr · morwyr · peint · pethau · porthladd · seidr · ymwelwr · yn
    20 words

    Extend vocab and revise patterns

  • 41 Tech1582 @ 25% 75 •••
    anfon · bysellfwrdd · cadw · caledwedd · copi · creu · cyfrinair · cysylltu · daenlen · defnyddiol · diogel · e-bost · ffeil · ffôn symudol · gwefan · meddalwedd · rhaglen gyfrifiadurol · rhaglennu · taenlen · we · wefan
    21 words

    The use of Cymraeg in technology (technoleg) has come a long way in the past decade with the roll out of broadband (band llydan) to Wales and more rural areas.

    Roughly 73% of households have access to the internet (y rhyngrwyd) and roughly 76% of people currently use the internet at home, work or elsewhere (source).

    The use of Cymraeg on-line (ar-lein) has boomed in the past decade as well, with the following being available partly or fully in Cymraeg:

    1. The availability of Welsh language music on YouTube or SoundCloud. Popular and contemporary bands and artists include: Yws Gwynedd, Sŵnami, Gwyneth Glyn, Elin Fflur, Sarah Louise, Team Panda, Fi a Fo, Casi Wyn, Calfari, and Fleur de Lys. Radio Cymru is also available throughout Wales and on-line.
    2. Welsh language television on S4C or on the BBC iPlayer. Popular programmes include Gwaith/Cartref (similar to Waterloo Road, but better :P) and Pobol y Cwm.
    3. On-line magazines, books, and papers such as IAW!, Lingo, Y Cymro, Ciwb (aimed primarily at Key Stage 3 schoolchildren (aged 11-13)) and Golwg360. Golwg360 is also available on-line and can be used with more advanced learners and Cymraeg speakers.
    4. Apps for games and learning. Click here to visit the Welsh Government's website that promotes apps in Cymraeg.
    5. On-line dictionaries such as Gweiadur, Geiriadur yr Academi, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, grammar and spell checking with Cysill ar-lein (for more experienced learners).
    6. The availability of Windows, Libreoffice, Microsoft Office, Firefox, and Ubuntu in Cymraeg.
    7. You can even change your Facebook into Cymraeg and watch other videos on using Cymraeg in technology here
    8. Check your e-mail in Cymraeg by changing the language settings in Gmail or Outlook or use Thunderbird.
  • 41 SentenceTags542 @ 25% 75 •••
    'chi · 'sti · angen · ch'mod · neb · on'd · on'd ife · on'd oedd · on'd oes · on'd yw · oni · oni fydd · t'mod
    13 words

    Sentence tags, or tag questions

    Sentence tags are the fillers that give you extra "thinking time" and can make you sound more fluent.


    In Lesson 1, the form on'd/oni + time phrase is used, meaning isn't it, wasn't it, won't she...?. Often, a positive answer is expected when a sentence tag such as this is used.

    The form oni is used before consonants, and on'd before vowels. (You may sometimes see on'd written in full as onid in more formal Welsh.) Oni causes 'mixed mutation' - aspirate of p, t, c, and soft of b, d, g, m, ll, rh.

    Some examples:

    • Mae hi'n bwrw glaw, on'd yw hi? Ydy. - It's raining, isn't it? Yes, it is.
    • Roedd hi'n heulog ddoe, on'd oedd hi? Oedd. - It was sunny yesterday, wasn't it? Yes, it was.
    • Bydd hi'n mynd yfory, oni fydd hi? Bydd. - She'll be going tomorrow, won't she? Yes.
    • Mae teigr yn yr ardd eto, on'd oes? Oes! - There's a tiger in the garden again, isn't there? Yes!

    Note that an emphatic statement, typically about names, jobs and roles, uses a tag of ife? or on'd ife:

    • Dewi yw e, on'd ife? - He's Dewi, isn't he?
    • Athrawes ydy hi, on'd ife? - She's a teacher, isn't she?

    It can also be used to frame a question:

    • On'd ydy Siôn yn mynd i'r siopiau? Ydy. - Isn't Siôn going to the shops? Yes, he is.
    • On'd ydy'r glaw wedi gorffen eto? Nac ydy, dim eto - Hasn't the rain stopped yet? No, not yet.

    In Lesson 2, the sentence tags for you know? are taught and can be used to fill out your sentences. Two versions from the many that are used have been included:

    • t'mod? and ch'mod? both mean 'you know?' and are shortened forms of wyt ti'n gwybod? and dych chi'n gwybod?. These are generally heard more in south and west Wales than in the north.
    • 'sti? and 'chi? again mean you know? but they are generally heard more in north and mid-Wales. They are shortened forms of wyddost ti? and wyddoch chi? '(do you know?').

    There are many more sentence tags that are used in Welsh, so this unit is just to give you an basic idea of how they work. If you watch or listen to the Welsh media you will come across many more.


    A need - Angen

    Like eisiau, angen is a noun, not a verb-noun, and it is used in the same exceptional pattern as eisiau:

    • Dw i angen morthwyl. - I need a hammer.
    • Dw i eisiau morthwyl. - I want a hammer.
    • Maen nhw angen gwyliau. - They need a holiday.
    • Maen nhw eisiau gwyliau. - They want a holiday.
  • 41 Adverbs 3572 @ 25% 75 •••
    am byth · bob hyn a hyn · ddiweddar · dros dro · eisoes · ers hynny · fesul · hyd yn hyn · hyd yn oed · o bryd i'w gilydd · tipyn · yn barod · yn syth ar ôl · yn wastad
    14 words

    This section introduces some common adverbial expressions, especially of time.

  • 41 Cult&Lang571 @ 25% 75 •••
    archdderwydd · awdur · awdures · cadair · cymdeithas · darllediad · diwylliant · eisteddfod · gadeirio · gymdeithas · hawliau sifil · iaith · kate roberts · myfyrwyr · protestio · saunders lewis · seremoni · siaradwyr · tynged yr iaith
    19 words

    The 'something' of the 'something' pattern

    The Welsh xxx y zzz translates into English as 'the xxx of the zzz'. So:

    • Cwpan y Byd - 'the Cup of the World', which we then render into normal English as 'the World Cup'.

    This is a common pattern:

    • Cyngor y Sir - the County Council
    • Bwrdd y cwmni - (the board of the company), the company board
    • Eisteddfod yr Urdd - the Urdd Eisteddfod (an annual national youth eisteddfod)

    • The company managers (the managers of the company) - rheolwyr y cwmni

    • The school's results (the results of the school) - canlyniadau'r ysgol
    • The village hall (the hall of the village) - neuadd y pentref

    Welsh culture

    Wales has many traditions and customs, and an interesting history; all being entwined with the rich development of the Welsh language.

    The National Eisteddfod (yr Eisteddfod Genedlaethol in Cymraeg) is held every summer and celebrates poetry, the arts, the sciences and contemporary Welsh culture in a week long programme. It is held in a different location each year, alternating between the main regions of Wales. For example, Cardiff in south-central Wales (2018), Anglesey, north-west Wales (2017), Abergavenny, Monmouthshire in south-east Wales (2016), Meifod, Powys in mid-Wales (2015), Denbigh, north-east Wales (2014) and the Vale of Glamorgan in south-central Wales (2013), It attracts people from all over Wales, the UK, and beyond and it is the largest cultural festival in Europe. There are some traditional events, such as the 'Chairing of the Bard', which are performed during the week-long event. There are many concerts, including live gigs and music performances held in Maes B. Learners of the language can meet up and attend events tailored for them in Maes D on the main site. You can read more about the Eisteddfod Genedlaethol here,

    Eisteddfod yr Urdd is for school-age children, with competitions in many areas of interest, including dance, recital, poetry, and technology. Details of the Urdd Eisteddfod are here

    There is also an international Eisteddfod (Eisteddfod Ryngwladol) held in Llangollen every year, which attracts performers from all over the world to compete. There is more information here.


    Saunders Lewis is an important character in the history of Welsh language; he was a language activist who fiercely defended his rights, and the rights of others, to use Welsh. He did this by putting pressure on the Government and by founding Plaid Cymru, 'the Party of Wales'. In 1962, he gave a radio speech entitled 'Tynged yr Iaith', or 'The Fate of the Language'. With this speech, he intended to motivate the members of Plaid Cymru into more direct action in promoting the language; however, it led to the formation of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg, the Welsh Language Society, which is now well-known for its non-violent, direct protests for the rights of Welsh speakers and Welsh language services in Wales. You can read more about Saunders Lewis here (Wikipedia article) and about Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg here.


  • 41 TheHome2562 @ 25% 75 •••
    badell · berwi · brwnt · cwcer · drwsio · ffrio · ffwrn · frwnt · fudr · glân · gollwng · lân · ollwng · sosban · stemio · to · trwsio · tân
    18 words
  • 41 Future Dod 1442 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar unwaith
    1 words

    The short-form future tense of dod

    The 'short-form' future implying a single future action is formed using the stem of the verb, in the same way as the past tense, and adding the appropriate future tense endings.

    The future tenses of gwneud, mynd, dod and gwneud all look quite similar, but with a few differences. Here they are in a summary table:

    Mynd Dod Cael Gwneud
    A(f) i Do(f) i Ca i Gwna i
    Ei di Doi di Cei di Gwnei di
    Aiff/Eith e/o/hi Daw e/o/hi Caiff/Ceith e/o/hi Gwnaiff/Gwneith e/o/hi
    Awn ni Down ni Cawn ni Gwnawn ni
    Ewch chi Dewch chi Cewch chi Gwnewch chi
    Ân nhw Dôn nhw Cân nhw Gwnân nhw

    Note:

    • In the i forms the final -f is optional.
    • In e/o/hi forms there are two versions shown. The second is common in parts of mid- and north Wales.
    • You may come across some other local variations of these in different parts of Wales.

    Examples:

    • Do i i Gaerdydd heno. - I will come to Cardiff this evening
    • Doi di i Gaerdydd yfory. - You will come to Cardiff tomorrow.
    • Dewch chi i Aber wythnos nesa. - You will come to Aber next week.

    The positive statement marker mi/fe is sometimes added at the start of the sentence in some dialects.

    • Mi ddo i i Gaerdydd. - I will come to Cardiff.
    • Fe ddoi di i'r Fenni heno. - You will come to Abergavenny this evening.

    Questions and answers

    As with the future of bod, to ask a question we use a soft-mutated form of the verb:

    • Ddo i? - Will I come?
    • Ddoi di? - Will you come?
    • Ddewch chi? - Will you come?

    In the short future tenses, the 'yes' answer is the positive of the future of gwneud and the 'no' answer is the negative.

    • Ddo i i Gaerdydd? Gwna/Na wna. - Will I come to Cardiff? Yes/No. (I will/won't)
    • Ddoi di i Aber? Gwna, wrth gwrs!/Na wna. - Will you come to Aber? Yes, of course!/No. (I)
    • Ddewch chi â nhw i'r Fenni? Gwna/Na wna. (I) Gwnawn/Na wnawn. (we) - Will you bring them to Abergavenny? Yes/No.

    Negatives

    Negative verbs start with a mixed mutation, as usual. (aspirate of p-, t-, c-, soft of the rest).

    Note that the soft mutation of the object here is taken by dim => ddim:

    • Ddo i ddim i Aber heno. - I will not come to Aber this evening.
    • Ddoi di ddim i Aber yfory. - You will not come to Aber tomorrow.
    • Ddewch chi ddim â nhw. - You will not bring them.

  • 41 Future Cael 1443 @ 25% 75 •••
    beint o gwrw · ca i · cawn ni · cei di · cewch chi · cân nhw · lasied · na · win · wydraid
    10 words

    The short-form future tense of cael

    The 'short-form' future implying a single future action is formed using the stem of the verb, in the same way as the past tense, and adding the appropriate future tense endings.

    The future tenses of mynd, dod, cael and gwneud are all irregular but look quite similar, although with a few differences. Here they are in a summary table:

    Mynd Dod Cael Gwneud
    A(f) i Do(f) i Ca i Gwna i
    Ei di Doi di Cei di Gwnei di
    Aiff/Eith e/o/hi Daw e/o/hi Caiff/Ceith e/o/hi Gwnaiff/Gwneith e/o/hi
    Awn ni Down ni Cawn ni Gwnawn ni
    Ewch chi Dewch chi Cewch chi Gwnewch chi
    Ân nhw Dôn nhw Cân nhw Gwnân nhw

    Note:

    • In the i forms the final -f is optional.
    • In e/o/hi forms there are two versions shown. The second is common in parts of mid- and north Wales.
    • You may come across some local variations of these in different parts of Wales.
    • The positive forms of cael and gwneud often have a soft mutation in the colloquial language.

    Examples:

    • Ca/Ga i bryd o fwyd heno. - I will have a meal this evening.
    • Cei/Gei di ffôn newydd yfory. - You will get a new phone tomorrow.
    • Cewch/Gewch chi gadeiriau newydd wythnos nesa. - You will get new chairs next week.

    The positive statement marker mi/fe is sometimes added at the start of the sentence in some dialects. They casue a soft mutaion of the verb

    • Mi ga i bryd o fwyd heno. - I will have a meal this evening.
    • Fe gei di ffôn newydd yfory. - You will get a new phone tomorrow.

    Questions and answers

    As with the future of bod, to ask a question we use a soft-mutated form of the verb:

    • Ga i? - Will I get?
    • Gei di? - Will you get?
    • Gewch chi? - Will you get?

    The 'yes' and 'no' answers are taken from the positive and negative statement forms:

    • Ga i bryd o fwyd heno? Ca/Na cha. - Will I have a meal this evening? Yes/No. (=I will/won't)
    • Gei di fynd yfory? Ca, wrth gwrs!/Na cha.* - Will you be allowed to go tomorrow? Yes, of course!/No.
    • Gewch chi'r cadeiriau newydd wythnos nesa. - Will you get new chairs next week. Ca/Na cha. (I) Cawn/Na chawn.* (we)
    • Gaiff e swydd newydd? Caiff/Na chaiff. - Will he get a new job? Yes/No. (he)
    • Ga i frechdan? Cewch/Cei/Na chewch/Na chei. - May I have a sandwich? Yes/No. (you)

    Negatives

    Negative verbs start with a mixed mutation, as usual. (aspirate of p-, t-, c-, soft of the rest).

    Note that the soft mutation of the object here is taken by dim => ddim:

    • Cha i ddim cinio heno. - I will not have dinner this evening.
    • Chei di ddim brecwast yfory. - You will not have breakfast.
    • Chewch chi ddim gwaith wythnos nesa. - You will not get any work next week.

  • 41 Future Gwneud 1431 @ 25% 75 •••
    ddim · fuan · gwnawn ni · gwnân nhw · llestri · llungopïau · papuro · wnawn ni · wnân nhw
    9 words

    Future with Gwneud

    This unit supports Cwrs Sylfaen 18


    The short-form future tense of gwneud

    We have already met the future using forms of the verb 'bod':

    • Bydda i'n gwneud bwrdd yfory. - I will be making a table tomorrow.
    • Byddi di'n gwneud y swper heno - You will be making supper this evening.

    Instead of using the future of bod to make the future tense, we can also use a 'short-form' future of gwneud and other verbs without using bod. This is especially common with gwneud, mynd, dod and cael.

    The 'short-form' future implying a single future action is formed using the stem of the verb, in the same way as the past tense, and adding the appropriate future tense endings.

    The future tenses of gwneud, mynd, dod and gwneud all look quite similar. but with a few differences. Here they are in a summary table:

    Mynd Dod Cael Gwneud
    A(f) i Do(f) i Ca i Gwna i
    Ei di Doi di Cei di Gwnei di
    Aiff/Eith e/o/hi Daw e/o/hi Caiff/Ceith e/o/hi Gwnaiff/Gwneith e/o/hi
    Awn ni Down ni Cawn ni Gwnawn ni
    Ewch chi Dewch chi Cewch chi Gwnewch chi
    Ân nhw Dôn nhw Cân nhw Gwnân nhw

    Note:

    • In the i forms the final -f is optional.
    • In e/o/hi forms there are two versions shown. The second is common in parts of mid- and north Wales.
    • Remember that, as with Ga i...? and the short-form past tense, the object of short-form verb takes a soft mutation.
    • The positive short-forms of cael and gwneud often take a soft mutation in the colloquial language.

    Examples:

    • Gwna i ginio i ni heno. - I will make dinner for us this evening. (cinio)
    • Gwnei di degan yfory - You will make a toy tomorrow. (tegan)
    • Gwnaiff hi lanast yn y lolfa - SHe wil make a mess in the lounge.
    • Gwnewch chi fwrdd wythnos nesa. - You will make a table next week. (bwrdd)

    The positive statement marker mi/fe is sometimes added at the start of the sentence in some dialects. Whn they are used, mi/fe causes a soft mutation of the verb:

    • Mi wna i ginio. - I will make lunch/dinner.
    • Fe wnân nhw degan. - They will make a toy.

    Questions and answers

    As with the future of bod, to ask a question we use a soft-mutated form of the verb:

    • Wna i? - Will I do/make?
    • Wnei di? - Will you do/make?
    • Wnaeth/Wneith e/o/hi? - Will he/she do/make?
    • Wnawn ni? - Will we do/make?

    In the short future tenses, the 'yes' answer is the positive of the future of gwneud and the 'no' answer is the negative.

    • Wnei di ginio? Gwna/Na wna. - Will you make dinner? Yes/No. (I will/won't)
    • Wna i degan i ti? Gwna, wrth gwrs!/Na wna. - Will I make a toy for you? Yes, of course!/No.
    • Wnewch chi gadair? Gwna/Na wna. (I) Gwnawn/Na wnawn. (we) - Will you make a chair? Yes/No.
    • Wnân nhw elw eleni? Gwnân/Na wnân - Will they make a profit this year? Yes/No.

    Negatives

    Negative statements start with a mixed mutation, as usual. (aspirate of p-, t-, c-, soft of the rest - with gwneud, then, it is a soft mutation) Note that the soft mutation of the object here is taken by dim => ddim:

    • Wna i ddim cinio. - I will not make lunch/dinner.
    • Wnei di ddim tegan. - You will not make a toy.
    • Wnewch chi ddim cadair - You will not make a chair.
    • Wnân nhw mo'r bwrdd mewn pryd. - They won't make the table in time.

    Remember that we must use mo (not ddim) with definite objects of a negative verb.


  • 41 Extend1391 @ 25% 75 •••
    aeddfed · allblyg · blentynnaidd · cefn gwlad · chwaraewr · cytuno · farn · flasus · flinedig · lasagne · marn · mewnblyg · mil naw naw naw · mil naw pump pump · mil naw saith dim
    15 words

    Years in the date

    This is usually expressed simply in Welsh. For example:

    • 1962 in English 'nineteen sixty-two' in Welsh is 'a thousand nine six two' = mil naw chwech dau

    • mil saith pump chwech - 1756

    • mil pump dim saith - 1507

    However the pattern for the new milennium has altered:

    • dwy fil - 2000
    • dwy fil ac un - 2001
    • dwy fil a dau - 2002
    • dwy fil a deg - 2010
    • dwy fil un deg un - 2011
    • dwy fil un deg dau - 2012
    • etc...

  • 41 FutureBod332 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar gael · bydd · byddan · byddi · byddwch · byddwn · dod · erbyn · gartre · na fydd · na fydda · na fyddan · na fyddi · na fyddwch · na fyddwn · nôl · os · rhydd · wrth gwrs
    19 words

    The future tense of bod

    This unit introduces the future tense of the verb bod (to be, being).


    The future tense of bod is used either on its own, to mean 'I will be', 'You will be', etc, or to help to form the future of other verbs such as 'I will be eating', 'You will be running', etc.

    Here are the future forms of bod:

    • Bydda i - I will be
    • Byddi di - You will be (Note that ti changes to di in the future tense)
    • Bydd e/o/hi/y plant - He/She/The children will be
    • Byddwn ni - We will be
    • Byddwch chi - You will be
    • Byddan nhw - They will be (Note that this form is only used with the pronoun nhw)

    As with the present tense of bod, the future of bod can be used with 'n/yn and a verb-noun to create a future tense of other verbs:

    • Dw i'n bwyta - I am eating, I eat
    • Bydda i'n bwyta - I will be eating, I will eat.
    • Bydd y plant yn bwyta pysgod heno - The children wil be eating fish this evening.
    • Byddwch chi'n mynd i Fangor yfory - You'll be going to Bangor tomorrow
    • Byddan nhw'n ymweld â Siân ddydd Sul - they will be visiting Siân on Sunday.

    Questions and answers

    When asking a question, the first letter of a verb takes a soft mutation:

    • Fydda i? - Will I be?
    • Fyddi di? - Will you be?
    • Fydd e'n ymweld â Siân yfory? - Will he be visiting Siân tomorrow?
    • Fyddan nhw'n codi'n gynnar yfory? - Will they get up early tomorrow?

    When answering 'Yes' we use the usual form of the positive statement, but without a pronoun.

    When answering 'No', we use Na... + (mixed mutation) + the form of the statement:

    • Fydd hi'n mynd? Bydd/Na fydd. - Will she be going? Yes/No.
    • Fyddan nhw'n ymweld â Siân yfory? Byddan/Na fyddan. - Will they be visiting Siân tomorrow? Yes/No (they).
    • Fyddwch chi'n mwynhau'r parti? Bydda/Na fydda; Byddwn/Na fyddwn. - Will you enjoy the party? Yes/No (I); Yes/No (we).
    • Fyddi di'n gwneud swper? Bydda/Na fydda. - Will you be making supper? Yes/No (I).

    Negatives

    To negate a verb, the first letter takes a mixed mutation and ddim is added after the pronoun.

    In the mixed mutation:

    • The letters p-, t-, c- take an aspirate mutation.
    • The letters b-, d-, g-, m-, ll-, rh- take a soft mutation (since they cannot take an aspirate mutation).

    In the case of the future of bod this means that the b- takes a soft mutation to f-:

    • Fydda i ddim - I will not be
    • Fyddi di ddim - You will not be
    • Fydd e/o/hi/y plant ddim - He/She/The children will not be
    • Fyddwn ni ddim - We will not be
    • Fyddwch chi ddim - You will not b
    • Fyddan nhw ddim - They will not be

    So:

    • Fydda i ddim yn mynd i'r parti heno - I won't be going to the party tonight.
    • Fydd y plant ddim yn mynd i'r ysgol yfory - The children will not be going to school tomorrow.
    • Fyddan nhw ddim yn mynd i'r parc, chwaith. - They won't be going to the park, either.

    Os with the future tense

    In English it is usual to use the present tense followed by the future tense in an if-statement such as 'If it rains tomorrow I will stay at home. In Welsh, though, use the future tense for both parts of the sentence:

    • Os bydd hi'n bwrw glaw yfory, bydda i'n aros gartre. - If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home.
    • Byddwn ni'n mynd i'r sinema yfory, os bydd digon o arian gyda ni. - We will go to the cinema tomorrow, if we have enough money.

    This is another example of where the two languages use different patterns and structures to convey the same meaning.


    Britishisms - revising, to revise

    In British English, one of the common meanings of 'revising' is to go over previously learned materials in order to strengthen our knowledge of them. For example, we might 'revise' our knowledge of the simple past tense of the main irregular verbs in advance of a Welsh exam. In Welsh we use adolygu for this meaning of 'revising'. It is not the same as 'studying' (astudio).


  • 41 Describe1331 @ 25% 75 •••
    barf · byr · clustdlws · cyrliog · ddoniol · doniol · drwyn · golau · gwallt · liw · lle parcio · llygad · llygaid · lygaid · mwstas · pa · sy · trwyn · tywyll · wallt
    20 words

    Soft mutation of adjectives following feminine nouns

    Remember that feminine nouns trigger soft mutation of following adjectives. Also remember that the order is usually noun, adjective. For example:

    • Y llygoden fawr - The big mouse (not mawr)
    • Y ddafad fach - The small sheep (not bach)
    • Yr arth gyflym - The fast bear => (not cyflym)

    Note that the mutation also applies to more than one following adjective:

    • Y llewes fawr gyflym - The big fast lioness

    A special case - the verb following Pwy?

    In questions stating with Pwy? (Who?) we cannot use mae or ydy in the present tense unless we are talking about something/someone specific - 'the fastest, the slowest', 'the teacher', the electrician', etc.. Instead, a special form is used - sy:

    • Pwy ydy'r athro? Dewi ydy'r athro - Who is the teacher? Dewi is the teacher.
    • Pwy yw'r cogydd heddiw? Hefin yw'r cogydd - Who is the cook today? Hefin is the cook.

    But:

    • Pwy sy'n mynd i Aber? Siân sy'n mynd - Who is going to Aber? It's Siân who's going
    • Pwy sy'n ennill? Hefin sy'n ennill ar hyn o bryd - Who is winning? Hefin's winning at the moment.
    • Pwy sy wedi coginio'r brecwast heddiw? Dewi sy wedi coginio'r brecwast. - Who has cooked the breakfast today? It's Dewi who cooked breakfast.
    • Pwy sy gyda char coch? - Who's got a red car?
    • Pwy sy gan gath? - Who has a cat?

    Note that gyda is followed by an aspirate mutation, and gan by a soft mutation.

    This is also covered later in the course in the topic on 'Emphasis'.


    Which ...?

    The question word most closely matching the English 'Which?' is 'Pa?. It can also be used for 'What?' in some contexts where there is a choice between one or more. It is followed by a soft mutation. Note that, like Pwy?, it must sometimes be followed by sy in the present tense:

    • Pa grys wyt ti eisiau? - Which shirt do you want?
    • Pa liw oedd llygaid y gath? - What colour were the cat's eyes?
    • Pa lyfr oedd ar y bwrdd?* - Which book was on the table?
    • Pa drên sy'n mynd i Aber? - Which train goes to Aber?

    It is also be used in the questions "Which one?' (Pa un, P'un) and 'Which ones? (Pa rai?):

    • Pa un fydd yn ennill? - Which one will win?
    • Pa rai ydy'r gorau? - Which ones are the best?
    • Pa rai wyt ti eisiau? - Which ones do you want?
    • P'un sy'n mynd i Aber? - Which one goes to Aber?

  • 41 Problems372 @ 25% 75 •••
    anodd · ar · bai · bwyd · ddillad · ddrud · deall · digon · dim · dim byd · fforddio · fwyd · gormod · gwybod · hen bryd · ie · mae'n · nage · oedd · rhy · rhywbeth · rywle · yn bod
    23 words

    What's the matter?

    In previous lessons we learned the question:-

    • Beth sy'n bod arnoch chi? - 'What's the matter with you?' or 'What's wrong with you?'

    The positive statement follows the same pattern:

    • Mae rhywbeth yn bod arna i. - There is something the matter with me
    • Mae rhywbeth yn bod ar y car - There is something wrong with the car
    • Roedd rhywbeth yn bod ar Siôn ddoe - There was something the matter with Siôn yesterday

    This and similar idiomatic patterns do not translate literally into English and keep the same meaning - a common challenge when learning another language.


    Some other idiomatic patterns

    It is about time that we learned another couple of idiomatic patterns:

    • Mae'n hen bryd i ni ddysgu patrwm newydd - 'It is about time that we learned a new pattern' or 'It is high time that we learned a new pattern'

    This is another pattern that uses i in this way, and so the pattern is a familiar one:

    • Rhaid i ni ddysgu... - We must/have to learn...
    • Mae'n hen bryd i ni ddysgu... - It is about/high time that we learned...

    There are many of these i-based patterns used in Welsh, and they are sometimes known as i-dot patterns, after a Welsh name of the letter i - i-dot.

    • i + pronoun/noun + verb-noun (with soft mutation)

    When we use mae at the front of these patterns it is usually either:

    • Mae'n...., or
    • Mae hi'n... rather than using e/o/fe/fo

    Remember that the form of i has to change with some pronouns:

    • Mae'n hen bryd iddi hi fynd adre - It's high time that she went home
    • Rhaid iddo fo brynu tocyn - he must buy a ticket

    Fault and blame

    Another pattern that does not translate directly to or from English is about fault or blame.

    This usually uses an emphatic construction, with the person or thing being blamed coming first in the sentence. The word for 'fault, blame' is bai, and the English can be phrased in several ways:

    • Ar Siôn mae'r bai. - 'Siôn is at fault', or 'It is Siôn's fault' or, 'The blame lies with Siôn', etc

    Remember that the preposition ar, like i, changes when used with pronouns:

    • Arna i mae'r bai. - It's my fault.
    • Arnoch chi mae'r bai. - You are to blame.
    • Ar y cwmni bws mae'r bai. - The fault lies with the bus company.
    • Arnon ni i gyd mae'r bai. - We are all to blame.

    For questions and negatives:

    • Ar bwy mae'r bai?; Pwy sy ar fai? - Who is to blame?
    • Dim arna i mae'r bai! - It's not my fault!
    • Nage, dim ar Dewi mae'r bai; Nage, dim Dewi sy ar fai. - No, it's not Dewi's fault.

    Answering Yes and No to an emphatic question.

    Remember that the simplest Yes/No in Welsh - Ie/Nage (or Ia/Naci in northern dialects) - is used in response to an emphatic question - a question that does not start with a verb:

    • Meddyg yw e? Ie. - Is he a doctor? Yes.
    • I Aber dach chi'n mynd? Naci, i'r Bala. - Are you going to Aber? No, to Bala.
    • Siôn ydy hwnna? Nage, Dewi ydy o. - Is that Siôn? No, he's Dewi.
    • Nage, dim ar y cwmni mae'r bai.* - No, it's not the company's fault.

  • 41 Future Mynd 1441 @ 25% 75 •••
    a i · aiff · awn ni · bwyty · ei di · ewch chi · gwna · gynhadledd · llungopïo · na wna · safle bws · seland newydd · tseina · ân nhw
    14 words

    The short-form future tense of mynd

    The 'short-form' future implying a single future action is formed using the stem of the verb, in the same way as the past tense, and adding the appropriate future tense endings.

    The future tenses of mynd, dod, cael and gwneud are irregular and all look quite similar, but with a few differences. Here they are in a summary table:

    Mynd Dod Cael Gwneud
    A(f) i Do(f) i Ca i Gwna i
    Ei di Doi di Cei di Gwnei di
    Aiff/Eith e/o/hi Daw e/o/hi Caiff/Ceith e/o/hi Gwnaiff/Gwneith e/o/hi
    Awn ni Down ni Cawn ni Gwnawn ni
    Ewch chi Dewch chi Cewch chi Gwnewch chi
    Ân nhw Dôn nhw Cân nhw Gwnân nhw

    Note:

    • In the i forms the final -f is optional.
    • In e/o/hi forms there may be two versions shown. The second is common in parts of mid- and north Wales.
    • You may come across some local variations of these in different parts of Wales.
    • The positive short-forms of cael and gwneud often take a soft mutation in the colloquial language.

    Examples:

    • A i i Gaerdydd heno. - I will go to Cardiff this evening
    • Ei di i Gaerdydd yfory. - You will go to Cardiff tomorrow.
    • Ewch chi i Aber wythnos nesa. - You will go to Aber next week.

    Note that with 'I-forms' there is a second, different i meaning 'to':

    • A i i Lundain - I will go to London.

    The positive statement marker mi/fe is sometimes added at the start of the sentence in some dialects.

    • Mi a i i Gaerdydd. - I will go to Cardiff.
    • Fe ei di i'r Fenni heno. - You will go to Abergavenny this evening.

    Questions and answers

    As with the future of bod, to ask a question we use a soft-mutated form of the verb, but thsi does not apply with these forms of mynd. so we must rely on the quesiton mark and intonation to identify a question

    • A i? - Will I go?
    • Ei di? - Will you go?
    • Ewch chi? - Will you go?

    In the short future tenses, the 'yes' answer is the positive of the future of gwneud and the 'no' answer is the negative.

    • A i i Gaerdydd? Gwna/Na wna. - Will I go to Cardiff? Yes/No. (I will/won't)
    • Ei di i Aber? Gwna, wrth gwrs!/Na wna. - Will you go to Aber? Yes, of course!/No. (I)
    • Ewch chi â nhw i'r Fenni? Gwna/Na wna. (I) Gwnawn/Na wnawn. (we) - Will you take them to Abergavenny? Yes/No.

    Negatives

    Negative verbs start with a mixed mutation, as usual. (aspirate of p-, t-, c-, soft of the rest).

    Note that the soft mutation of the object here is taken by dim => ddim:

    • A i ddim i Aber heno. - I will not go to Aber this evening.
    • Ei di ddim i Aber yfory. - You will not go to Aber tomorrow.
    • Ewch chi ddim â nhw - You will not take them.

  • 41 Nature601 @ 25% 75 •••
    afon · blodau · coed · cynhaeaf · dail · ddaear · eleni · fioddiraddadwy · goeden · goedwig · gofod · haf · haul · lleuad · llyn · llynoedd · mynydd · mynyddoedd · natur · peth · pethau · planhigion · planhigyn · popeth · pridd · sêr · troi · tyfu
    28 words

    This section introduces some basic vocabulary about seasons, the landscape, and plants and trees. It also introduces a way of saying 'here is...' when you want to show something or point something out to someone.


    Audio problems

    Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.

    (In this section y sêr is mis-pronounced)


    Remember that feminine nouns take a soft mutation following the definite article y (except if they begin with ll- or rh- - this is known as a 'weak' soft mutation)

    Also, adjectives following a feminine noun take soft mutation.

    Examples:

    • Y goeden - The tree (coeden is feminine)
    • Coeden fach - A small tree (bach -> fach)
    • Y goeden fach - The small tree (both words must mutate)

    Drawing attention to something

    'This is the thing!' we say and point to it or hold it up. In Welsh there are particular words we use for this:

    • dyma (this is) and
    • dyna (that is)

    Note that the endings are the same as yma/'ma (here, this) and yna/'na (there, that):

    • y car 'ma - this car
    • dyma'r car - 'this is the car' or 'here's the car'
    • y gath 'na - that cat
    • dyna'r gath - 'that's the cat', or 'there's the cat'

    Note that both dyma and dyna cause a soft mutation:

    • dyma gar - here's a car
    • dyna gath - there's a cat

    You will also come across these words in colloquial expressions such as :

    • Wel, dyna ni, 'te. - Well, there we are, then.
    • Dyma ddiwedd y wers... - Here's the end of the lesson...

    Compound words

    In common with many other languages, Welsh can make compound words from two or more other words or prefixes or suffixes. This unit introduces one example from the English - 'biodegradable':

    • diraddio - to degrade, to break down into parts

    We can drop the -o and add an ending similar to '-able' in English - -adwy:

    • diraddiadwy - degradeable

    A taking it a step further by adding the prefix bio-:

    • bioddiraddiadwy - biodgradeable - we have added bio- just as in the English.

    Notice that the d- of the original diraddio has mutated to dd- following the prefix. This is very common in the pattern of compound words in Welsh.

    So, even if a long word looks very complex, you can often break it down into its component parts to make sense of it.

    (Note that in this particular word, the middle -i is often also dropped, so you will usually see the form bioddiraddadwy, but both are valid.)


  • 41 Medicine632 @ 25% 75 •••
    afu · ambiwlans · aren · calon · canolfan iechyd · claf · cleifion · clust · croen · gleifion · gwaed · gwasanaeth iechyd gwladol · llawdriniaeth · meddygfa · prawf · profion · ysbyty
    17 words

    This section deals with illnesses and medical services


    Being ill

    In Cymraeg there is a distinction describing illness or injuries which affect only one part of the body, and those that tend to be general infections:

    • Mae'r ffliw arno fe - he has got the flu - generalised infection
    • Mae clust dost gyda fe - he has a sore ear - a specific location
    • Roedd ganddi hi goes dost - She had a sore leg - specific location

    Britishisms - where does a family doctor work?

    In Britain, the place where you go to see your family doctor (meddyg teuleuol) is their 'surgery' or the "doctor's/doctors' surgery". It is unusual to call it a "doctor's office" or a clinic, which are used for, respectively, their administrative office or a specialist clinic. Many family doctors now work in a health centre (canolfan iechyd) which houses several sources of primary care under one roof such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, physiotherapists, etc, as well as the back office to support them all.


    Going to a place or going to a person - i or at?

    Remember that we mynd i a place, but mynd at a person:

    • Es i i'r ysbyty - I went to the hospital
    • Ac wedyn es i yn ôl at fy meddyg - and then I went back to my doctor

    Words with more than one gender

    A few words in Cymraeg can appear with more than one gender. There are various reasons for this: historical, local traditions, differing meanings, and so on. Some common examples:

    • canolfan - a centre (health centre, leisure centre) (m/f)
    • munud - a minute (time) (m/f)
    • gwaith - work (m), time, occasion (f)
    • llif - a saw (b), a flood, flow (m)
    • de - (the) south (m), (the) right (f) - be careful not to mix these up in asking for or giving directions!

    The genders of languages are a common problem:

    The simple names of languages are feminine and we use hi when referring to them:

    • Cymraeg, y Gymraeg
    • Gaeleg, yr Aeleg - Gaelic
    • Ffrangeg? Mae Dewi'n ei siarad hi'n dda

    But when we are describing their attributes they are treated as masculine:

    • Cymraeg coeth - excellent/refined Welsh
    • Almaeneg da - good German
    • Cymraeg cyfoes - modern/contemporary Welsh
    • Saesneg Canol - Middle English

  • 41 Extend3532 @ 25% 75 •••
    adeilad · cantores · dioddef · dyfodol · elvis presley · ffenestr · gorffennol · llawn · llyfrgellydd · nifer · o'ch · oriel · orielau · rhan · roc a rôl · sgwrsio · swydd · swyddi · sâl môr · warden traffig
    20 words

    Os dych chi'n dilyn Cwrs Canolradd, dyma Uned 5.

    (These skills support unit 5 of Cwrs Canolradd)

  • 41 Tech2591 @ 25% 75 •••
    adael sylwad · allgofnodi · batri · botwm · ddileu · dim signal · drydaru · ffôn clyfar · gwefru · hashnod · hunlun · isel · mewngofnodi · neges destun · proffil · sgrîn · symudol · technoleg · teclyn
    19 words

    This session introduces some common vocabulary to do with logging on and logging out of a computer, sending texts, charging a phone, sending a tweet and so on.


    It revises possession, which may be expressed in several similar ways:

    • Mae ffôn gyda fi - I have a phone
    • Mae gyda fi ffôn
    • Mae gen i ffôn
    • Mae ffôn gen i

    Remember that you may need to mutate the word for the object owned:

    • Mae batri gen i - I have a battery
    • Mae gen i fatri - Soft mutation of batri -> fatri because gen i has been put between Mae... and ...fatri.

    Remember that neu ('or') causes soft mutation of a following noun, adjective or verb-noun, but not of a verb:

    • Byr neu dal? - Short or tall? Mutation of the adjective tal -> dal
    • Car neu fws? - A car or a bus? Mutation of the noun *bws -> fws.
    • Bwyta neu gysgu? - Eating or sleeping? Mutation of the verb-noun cysgu -> gysgu

    • Cerdda i neu rheda i - I will walk or I will run. No mutation of rheda..., because it is a verb.


    Having just done something

    To say that we have 'just' done something we use the word newydd. This was introduced earlier in the course as an adjective meaning 'new', but it is also used in place of wedi to convey the meaning of having 'just' (done something). In this context it is followed by a soft mutation:

    • Dyn ni newydd gyrraedd. - We have just arrived. (cyrraedd)
    • Mae Sioned newydd orffen y gwaith. - Sioned has just finished the work. (gorffen)
    • Roedd hi newydd fynd - She had just gone. (mynd)
    • Roedd e newydd allgofnodi pan aeth y cyfrifiadur ar dân. - He had just logged off when the computer caught fire.

  • 41 TheArts633 @ 25% 75 •••
    amgueddfa · animeiddio · awdur · bardd · barddoniaeth · bop · caneuon · ffilm · gwerin · oriel · paent · pop · roc
    13 words
  • 41 Religion631 @ 25% 75 •••
    addoli · anffyddiwr · angladd · arwain · beibl · bwdhaeth · cadeirlan · crefydd · cristnogaeth · crynwyr · deml · dewi · dewi sant · dilynwyr · duwiau · duwiesau · efengyl · emyn · emynau · fynwent · gatholig rufeinig · gwasanaeth · gweddi · imâm · islam · mosg · mynwent · nawddsant · nefoedd · offeiriad · paganiaeth · pregethu · san padrig · sant · santes · uffern · ysbryd glân
    37 words

    Traditionally, the Welsh have been a religious people.

    The people of pre-Christian Wales (Cymru cyn-Gristnogol) had a variety of religious beliefs and rituals which are described as Paganism (Paganiaeth), and specifically Druidism (Derwyddiaeth). Evidence of their death rituals can be seen in dolmens (cromlechi), prehistoric megaliths (megalithau cynhanesyddol) that typically have two or three upright stones and a capstone. They are thought to be burial chambers (siamberi claddu) and, according to archaelologists, they are among the earliest permanent structures built by people, even older than the pyramids of Egypt. There are around 150 dolmens in Cymru, the most notable being at Pentre Ifan in Preseli, Pembrokeshire. Pentre Ifan is the cover design on Duolingo's Welsh page.

    Pembrokeshire (sir Benfro) also has a link with the most famous stone circle in Britain, that at Stonehenge (Côr y Cewri, lit: The Giants' Choir), as its inner circle consists of bluestones (cerrig gleision), apparently from the Preseli hills close to Pentre Ifan.

    (Information adapted from this BBC article - http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/history/sites/themes/religion/religion_pre_christian_wales.shtml)

    In current Cymru, according to the 2011 UK Census, Christianity (Cristnogaeth) is the country's largest religion with about 58% of respondents claiming to be Christian (adj. Cristnogol, noun Cristion (Cristnogion)), despite falling numbers. Until 1920, the established church (eglwys), in common with England, was the Anglican (Anglicanaidd) Church of England, when it was formally disestablished in Wales, becoming the Church in Wales (yr Eglwys yng Nghymru). However, Wales has a strong tradition of nonconformism (anghydffurfiaeth) and Methodism (Methodistiaeth). Many non-conformists worship in chapels (capeli) rather than churches (eglwysi), and the distinction between Church and Chapel remains strong.

    Muslims (Mwslimiaid) are the next biggest religious group, making up 1.5% of the population according to the 2011 census.

    Meanwhile the proportion of the population who reported they have no religion (dim crefydd) had reached about 32%.

    Other religions include Paganism, Buddhism (Bwdhaeth), Hinduism (Hindŵaeth), Judaism (Iddewiaeth), Islam, Sikhism (Siciaeth), and Druidism (Derwyddiaeth). These "other religions" account for 1.2% of the population of Cymru, with a higher proportion living in Cardiff. (sources: ONS (http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/culturalidentity/religion/articles/religioninenglandandwales2011/2012-12-11) and Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_in_Wales)).

    There are roughly 3,450 people who identify as Pagan (adj.Paganaidd noun Pagan (Paganiaid) in Cymru, including 740 people who identify specifically as Wiccan (adj. Wicaidd, noun Wiciad (Wiciaid). (source -http://ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/key-statistics-for-local-authorities-in-england-and-wales/rft-table-qs210ew.xls).


  • 41 Past Short241 @ 25% 75 •••
    ais · aist · arwydd · cennin · chi · cod · darllen · ddarllen · ddigwydd · ddim · digwydd · dim · do · ffoni · gennin · gwrandaw · hwyr · i · mi · mo · mwynha · mwynheu · naddo · och · odd · papur · parat · phryn · pryn · teledu · ti
    31 words

    The Simple past tense

    There are two common ways of forming the simple past:

    • By adding the appropriate ending to the stem of a verb to make a 'short-form' verb.
    • By using the simple past of gwneud (doing, making) as an auxiliary verb to make a 'long-form' verb.

    This section of the course shows how to use the first method, adding a simple past tense ending to the stem of the verb.

    Note that there are other ways of creating the simple past tense in some dialects, but this course does not cover them.


    The short-form simple past tense

    The short-form past tense uses the stem of the verb. This is usually formed by removing:

    • -a, -i, -o, -u, -eg, -ed, -an, -yd, -yll

    from the final syllable of the verb-noun.

    For example:

    • busnesa -> busnes- (meddling, to meddle)
    • cefnogi -> cefnog- (supporting)
    • ffonio -> ffoni- - (phoning)
    • tynnu -> tynn- (pulling)
    • rhedeg -> rhed- (running, to run)
    • cerdded -> cerdd- (walking)

    For other verbs there is often no change:

    • darllen -> darllen- (reading)
    • siarad -> siarad- (speaking)

    There are some common exceptions. For example:

    • gweld -> gwel- (seeing)
    • sefyll -> saf- (standing)
    • aros -> arhos- (waiting)
    • cyrraedd -> cyrhaedd- (arriving at)
    • dal -> dali- (catching)
    • gorffen -> gorffenn- (finishing)
    • gadael -> gadaw- (leaving)
    • gwrando -> gwrandaw- (listening)

    (For other stems, check in, for example, www.gweiadur.com , or Y Llyfr Berfau (by Geraint Lewis).)

    Note that there are some dialect variations of some of these stems.


    The past endings are added to the stem:

    • -ais i - I
    • -aist ti - you (informal singular)
    • -odd e/o/hi/Siân/y plant - he/she/Siân/the children
    • -on ni - we
    • -och chi - you (formal, plural)
    • -on nhw - they

    For example, with canu (singing, stem can-):

    • Can- + -ais => Canais i - I sang
    • Canaist ti - you sang
    • Canodd e/hi/Siân/y plant - he/she/Siân/the children sang
    • Canon ni - we sang
    • Canoch chi - you sang
    • Canon nhw - they sang

    Some examples:

    • Siaradais i â Siân - I spoke to Siân
    • Cerddais i gyda Siôn - I walked with Siôn
    • Gwelon ni gathod - We saw some cats
    • Mi welodd y cathod ni - The cats saw us
    • Darllenoch chi lyfrau ddoe - You read some books yesterday
    • Mwynhaoch chi'r ddrama. - You enjoyed the play
    • Mi ddalion nhw'r trên. - They caught the train.

    Note that short form verbs cause a soft mutation of their object.

    • Mi brynodd o lyfr. - He bought a book (llyfr)
    • Gwylion nhw raglen - They watched a programme (rhaglen)

    Questions

    The verb takes a soft mutation if possible, otherwise it's just intonation. (Mi is never used before a question):

    • Siaradais i â Siân? - Did I speak to Siân?
    • Gerddais i gyda Siôn? - Did I walk with Siôn?
    • Welon ni gathod - Did we see any cats?
    • Ddarllenoch chi lyfrau ddoe? - Did you read any books yesterday?

    The answers in this tense are simple:

    • do - yes (I did)
    • naddo - no (I did not)

    Negatives

    We mutate the verb (soft or aspirate, as in the present or future short forms) and add ddim. The ddim takes the soft mutation as the start of the object of the verb:

    • Siaradais i ddim â Siân - I didn't talk to Siân
    • Cherddais i ddim gyda Siôn - I didn't walk with Siôn
    • Welon ni ddim cathod - We did not see any cats
    • Ddarllenoch chi ddim llyfrau ddoe - You didn't read any books yesterday

    We cannot use ddim followed by anything definite - a proper noun, a pronoun, 'r/yr/y (the), etc, and so o is used between them, giving the combination mo:

    • ddim + o => mo
    • Welais i mo Siân. - I did not see Siân.

    mo is followed by a soft mutation, just like o:

    • Welais i mo'i llyfr hi. - I did not see her book.
    • Welodd Siân mo'r cathod. - Siân did not see the cats.
    • Anfonodd o mo'r llythyr at Eleri. - He didn't send the letter to Eleri.
    • Chyrhaeddon ni mo Gaerdydd ddoe. - We did not reach Cardiff yesterday.
    • Thalon ni mo fil Sioned. - We did not pay Sioned's bill.
    • Welodd e mo dŷ fy modryb. - He did not see my aunt's house.
    • Thalodd e mo'u dyled. - He did not pay their debt.

  • 41 Fashion641 @ 25% 75 •••
    brifo · brigdrawst · colur · eicon · ffasiwn · glamoraidd · model · sodlau · steil · traed · ych a fi · ymbincio
    12 words
  • 41 Science643 @ 25% 75 •••
    adweithio · amgylchedd · arbrawf · astudio · beryglus · bioleg · blaned · bywyd · carbon · celloedd · cemeg · cysawd yr haul · damcaniaeth · disgyrchiant · dysgu · effaith · elfen · elfennau · esblygiad · ffiseg · ffisioleg · gyhydnos · heuldro · hydrogen · labordy · llosgi · llosgydd bunsen · nghysawd yr haul · nwyon · ocsigen · seryddiaeth · silindr mesur · trydan · twll du · tymheredd · tŷ gwydr · ymbelydredd
    37 words

    Science, including mathematics, has a rich history of Welsh inventors.

    Isaac Roberts, an astronomer (seryddwr) born in Groes in Denbighshire (Groes yn Sir Ddinbych), was the first to take a clear deep space photograph of what was then labelled a nebula (nifwl), and discovered that it was spiral in shape. He discovered that our closest neighbouring galaxy (galaeth), Andromeda, is spiral in shape.

    Alfred Russel Wallace, born in Llanbadoc in Monmouthshire (Llanbadog Fawr yn sir Fynwy), helped Charles Darwin redefine theory of evolution (damcaniaeth esblygiad).

    David Edward Hughes, born in Corwen in Denbighshire (Corwen yn Sir Ddinbych), refined the idea of a microphone (microffon) as a way of electronically transmitting an acoustic signal, and paved the way for the modern microphone after Edison invented the idea of the microphone when he placed the carbon telephone transmitter inside a telephone (ffôn, teleffôn).

    Edward George Bowen, born in Cockett in Swansea (y Cocyd yn Abertawe), was one of the men who developed the radar that could be used to detect aircraft (awyrennau). He eventually managed to install radar in aircraft and went on to trying to detect submarines (llongau tanfor) by radar during World War II (yr Ail Ryfel Byd).

    Donald Davies, born in Treorcy in the Rhondda (Treorci yn y Rhondda), developed the idea of sending large amounts of data across the world by breaking it up into smaller packets (pecynnau) of data which move independently through a series of networks (rhwydweithiau).

    Robert Recorde, born in Tenby in Pembrokeshire (Dinbych-y-pysgod, Sir Benfro), was the first person to use the modern equals (= hafalnod) and plus (+ adio, plws) signs in a publication. He also produced the first English language book on algebra. On the subject of mathematics, William Jones, born on Ynys Môn (Anglesey) in 1675, invented the modern symbol for Pi.

    Adapted from Wales Online here.


    British English usage - gases

    In British English usage, 'gases' is the plural form of the noun 'gas', and nothing to do with filling a vehicle's fuel tank.


    Short form present/future of gallu/medru

    In more formal registers of written and spoken Welsh, most verbs have a short-form present/future (or 'non-past') tense. With gallu and medru, this tense is sometimes used in the colloquial language as well. For example, in the third person singular:

    • Gall e siarad Ffrangeg yn rhugl.. He can speak French fluently.
    • Medr hi ddatrys y broblemau. - She can solve the problems.

    These two forms will be used occasionally in the latter parts of this course.


  • 41 Auxiliary Past Gwneud242 @ 25% 75 •••
    'na · cystadlu · darllen · ddarllen · do · ffonio · godi · gystadlu · llyfr · llyfrau · mi · naddo · nofel · ras · rasys · wylio
    16 words

    This unit covers the simple past tense, yr amser gorffennol.

    (For those who already know some Welsh, note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - translations without the pronouns will not be accepted)


    The Simple past tense

    There are two common ways of forming the simple past:

    • By adding the appropriate ending to the stem of a verb, making a 'short-form' verb.
    • By using the simple past of gwneud (doing, making) as an auxiliary verb to make a 'long-form' verb.

    This section of the course shows how to use the second method, using gwneud.


    Using the simple past of gwneud to create a simple past of other verbs

    This simple past of gwneud, which was covered a little earlier in the course, can be used to form a simple past tense of other verbs. This method is widely used all over Wales, especially in conversation.

    Remember that the object of a short-form verb takes a soft mutation. In this case, the object of gwneud is the verb-noun for which we are creating the simple past tense. Using the example of canu:

    • Gwnes i ganu - I sang
    • Gwnest ti ganu - You sang
    • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant ganu - He/she/Siân/the children sang
    • Gwnaethon ni ganu - We sang
    • Gwnaethoch chi ganu - You sang
    • Gwnaethon nhw ganu - They sang

    The initial g- is often dropped in speech and the remaining w- may only be lightly pronounced, if at all.

    In parts of north and mid-Wales, the particle mi is often added at the start of the phrase. Mi causes a soft mutation:

    • Mi wnes i ganu - I sang, I did sing
    • Mi wnaeth o ganu - he sang
    • Mi wnaeth Siân ganu - Siân sang

    Some examples:

    • Gwnes i siarad â Sian - I spoke to Siân
    • Mi wnes i gerdded efo Siôn - I walked with Siôn
    • Mi wnaeth y gath ladd yr aderyn. - The cat killed the bird.
    • Gwnaethoch chi brynu llyfr ddoe. - You bought a book yesterday.
    • Gwnest ti ddarllen y llyfrau ddoe. - You read the books yesterday.

    Questions

    As with the past of gwneud earlier in the course, just use the soft mutated form of gwnes i, etc and raise the tone at the end of the question:

    • Wnes i siarad â Sian? - Did I speak to Siân?
    • Wnest ti gerdded gyda/efo Siôn? - Did you walk with Siôn?
    • Wnaeth o weld cathod yno? - Did he see any cats there?
    • Wnaethoch chi ddarllen llyfrau ddoe - Did you read any books yesterday?

    Remember that Fe/Mi is never used with a question.


    The answers to any question in the simple past are the same:

    • do - yes
    • naddo - no

    • Wnaethoch chi ddarllen y nofel 'na? Do. - Did you read that novel? Yes (I/we did).

    • Wnaethon nhw nofio yn môr ddoe? Naddo, roedd y dŵr yn rhy oer. - Did they swim in the sea yesterday? No, the water was too cold.

    Negatives

    As with other negatives, we mutate the verb (soft mutation in the case of gwneud) and add ddim. The ddim takes the soft mutation as the start of the object of the gwneud verb, so we do not mutate the verb-noun which follows it:

    • Wnes i ddim siarad â Sian - I didn't speak to Siân
    • Wnes i ddim cerdded gyda/efo Siôn - I did not walk with Siôn. (no mutation of cerdded)
    • Wnaethoch chi ddim darllen llyfrau ddoe - You did not read any books yesterday. (no mutation of darllen)

  • 41 Simple Past Cael 2203 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar lan y môr · beth · bryd o fwyd · degell · do · dywydd · gyfarfod · i ginio · mi · naddo · o gwbl · tegell · wy · wyau
    14 words

    The simple past of cael

    In this section we cover the remaining parts of the simple past of cael - he/she, we, they, etc.


    The simple past

    Remember that the simple past tense, for example:

    • We got
    • She got

    is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

    • We have got
    • She has got

    He/She, etc got, We got, They got

    Following on from the earlier section, there are two main versions of the remaining forms currently taught. (It is quite common in the colloquial language for these forms to take a soft mutation, even in the positive statement).

    These are the forms taught in the introductory DysguCymraeg 'south' courses:

    • Cafodd e/hi - He/She got
    • Cawson ni - We got
    • Cawsoch chi - You got
    • Cawson nhw - They got

    And you may also come across:

    • Caeth o/hi - He/She got
    • Caethon ni - We got
    • Caethoch chi - You got
    • Caethon nhw - They got

    In parts of north and mid-Wales, the mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb.

    These are the forms taught in the introductory DysguCymraeg 'north' courses:

    • Mi gaeth hi/o
    • Mi gaethon ni
    • Mi gaethoch chi
    • Mi gaethon nhw

    In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.

    You may also come across gaeth e, gaethoch chi, etc, where the soft mutation remains even though the particle mi/fe is not used.


    Soft mutation following a short-form verb

    Note that the object of a short-form verb, the thing that has been got/sold/bought/kicked/etc, takes a soft mutation:

    • Cafodd hi goffi. - She got/had a coffee. (coffi)
    • Cawson ni ddillad newydd. - We got/had some new clothes. (dillad)
    • Mi gaethon nhw lyfr newydd. - They got a new book. (llyfr)

    Questions and Yes/No

    We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing, and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

    • Gaeth o goffi? Gafodd e goffi? - Did he get a coffee?
    • Gaethon ni de?, Gawson ni goffi? - Did we have/get tea?
    • Gawson nhw ginio? - Did they have lunch/dinner?

    In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

    • Do = Yes
    • Naddo = No

    • Gaethon nhw dywydd braf yno? Do. - Did they have some fine weather there? Yes.

    • Gafodd hi hwyl yn Aber? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy oer. - Did she have fun in Aber? No, it was too cold.

    Negatives

    Simply use the mixed mutation (aspirate in the case of cael) with ddim for a negative:

    • Chaethon ni ddim tywydd braf yno. - We didn't have any fine weather there.
    • Chaeth hi ddim dillad newydd i'w phen-blwydd. - She didn't get any new clothes for her birthday.

    Note that the soft mutation is taken by dim => ddim.


    The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

    For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

    • Es i
    • Est ti
    • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Aethon ni
    • Aethoch chi
    • Aethon nhw

    Simple past of dod:

    • Des i
    • Dest ti
    • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Daethon ni
    • Daethoch chi
    • Daethon nhw

    Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

    • Gwnes i
    • Gwnest ti
    • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Gwnaethon ni
    • Gwnaethoch chi
    • Gwnaethon nhw

    Simple past of cael (note that these forms are sometimes seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

    • Ces i
    • Cest ti
    • Cafodd/Caeth e/o/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Cawson/Caethon ni
    • Cawsoch/Caethoch chi
    • Cawson/Caethon nhw

    Note that in parts of mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

    You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

    Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


  • 41 Celebrate692 @ 25% 75 •••

    0 words

    This section introduces some vocabulary about some common celebrations and offering good wishes.


    Short-form present/future

    In the earlier part of the course you met the short-form future of some verbs. For example:

    • pryna i - I will buy
    • bwytwn ni - we will eat

    In more formal Welsh and in a few common expressions in colloquial Welsh, this future form is also used with a present tense meaning. A example here is:

    • dymunwn ni... - we wish...
    • Dymunwn ni bob lwc i chi. - We wish you good luck.

    Noson lawen

    A noson lawen does not really have a very good translation into English. Here we have included 'an evening of entertainment'. A noson lawen is usually a locally organised informal evening of singing, music, stories, dancing and so on, run along the lines of a concert. On the Welsh-language TV channel S4C a Noson Lawen is sometimes broadcast from a local venue or from a studio.


  • 41 Revise and Extend C10682 @ 25% 75 •••
    addas · anhygoel · archebu · ers talwm · neu beidio · ymlaen · ystyried
    7 words

    This section revises and extends the second part of Canolradd Intermediate level Welsh

    No new patterns are introduced, but the sentences have bene extended to give you a little bit more of a challenge so that you can revise earlier patterns and prepare for learning and using Welsh at an intermediate level.


  • 41 Past Gwneud 2231 @ 25% 75 •••
    cadair · ddim byd · dim byd · do · dodrefn · dros y penwythnos · gadair · gwnaeth · gwnaethon nhw · gwnaethon ni · lawer · llanast · llawer · lolfa · mi · naddo · wnaeth · wnaethon nhw · wnaethon ni
    19 words

    The simple past of gwneud

    In this section we cover the remaining parts of the simple past of gwneud - he/she, we, they, etc.


    He/She, etc made/did, We made/did, They made/did

    Following on from the earlier section:

    • Gwnaeth e/hi - He/She made/did
    • Gwnaeth Siân/y plant - Siân/The children made/did
    • Gwnaethon ni - We made/did
    • Gwnaethon nhw - They made/did

    In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb.:

    • Mi wnaeth hi/e/o
    • Mi wnaethon ni
    • Mi wnaethon nhw

    In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


    Soft mutation following a short-form verb

    Note that the object of a short-form verb, the thing that has been made/bought/sold, takes a soft mutation:

    • Gwnaeth hi goffi. - She made a coffee. (coffi)
    • Gwnaethon ni ddillad newydd. - We made some new clothes. (dillad)
    • Gwnaethon nhw fwrdd newydd. - They made a new table. (bwrdd)

    Questions and Yes and No

    We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

    • Wnaeth o goffi? - Did he make a coffee?
    • Wnaethon ni'r gadair? - Did we make the chair?
    • Wnaethon nhw ginio? - Did they make lunch/dinner?

    In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

    Do = Yes
    Naddo = No

    • Wnaethon nhw'r goffi? Do. - Did they make the coffee? Yes.
    • Wnaeth hi ginio iddyn nhw? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy brysur. - Did she make lunch for them? No, she was too busy.

    Negatives

    Simply use the mixed mutation (soft in the case of gwneud here) with ddim for a negative:

    • Wnaethon ni ddim coffi. - We didn't make any coffee.
    • Wnaeth hi ddim dillad newydd. - She didn't make any new clothes.

    The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

    For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

    • Es i
    • Est ti
    • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Aethon ni
    • Aethoch chi
    • Aethon nhw

    Simple past of dod:

    • Des i
    • Dest ti
    • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Daethon ni
    • Daethoch chi
    • Daethon nhw

    Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

    • Gwnes i
    • Gwnest ti
    • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Gwnaethon ni
    • Gwnaethoch chi
    • Gwnaethon nhw

    Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

    • Ces i
    • Cest ti
    • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Caethon/Cawson ni
    • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
    • Caethon/Cawson nhw

    Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

    You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

    Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


  • 41 Reporting Back C7671 @ 25% 75 •••
    amlwg · heini · mewn cysylltiad · sbwriel
    4 words

    This unit teaches how to report what someone else has said.

    It also teaches how to explain that something must be so.


    Reporting what someone else said or wrote.

    Quite simply, we use the same pattern that was introduced earlier in 'Expressing Opinions':

    • Dwedodd hi (ei) bod hi'n mynd i Aber yfory. - She said that she is/was going to Aber tomorrow.
    • Ysgrifennais i (fy) mod i wedi cwrdd ag Owen ddoe. - I wrote that I had met Owen yesterday.
    • Dwedodd o (y) basai Owen yn hoffi dod efo ni i Aber. - He said that Owen would like to come with us to Aber.
    • Dwedodd Sam (y) dylai hi'n ymarfer yn amlach. - Sam said that she should practise more often.

    Note that you may need to be careful about which tense you use in the English translation - be sure that it makes sense.

    Note that bod, etc is only used to introduce a sub-clause that uses the present or imperfect tenses of bod.

    Note that the (y) used in the last two examples is not the same as 'r/yr/y ('the'). It is a particle which is used to link to verbs in certain tenses of bod, including the conditional, as here. It is often omitted in the colloquial language, as shown by the brackets. It does not itself cause a mutation.

    Note that the rule about the object of a short-form verb taking a soft mutation applies here (look back to the sections on the past of cael and gwneud, for example). In the examples just given, the ei, fy and y 'shield' the following word (usually a form of bod here) from mutation as an object, although they may cause their own mutation even if they are omitted. If there is no 'shielding' word, the soft mutation of the 'object' takes effect:

    • Dwedodd y dyn fod y gadair yn rhy ddrud. - The man said that the chair was too expensive. (bod takes the soft mutation)
    • Clywais i fod y dyn yn grintach. - I heard that the man was mean.

    Rhaid bod... - It must be...

    Earlier in the course you met the pattern Rhaid i... to say that something must happen:

    • Rhaid i fi fynd i gwrdd ag Owen yn y caffi nes ymlaen. - I must meet Owen at the cafe later.

    We also use rhaid - but followed by bod, etc - to give an explanation of things:

    • Dyw Owen ddim yma eto - rhaid bod ei drên yn hwyr. - Owen isn't here yet - his train must be late.
    • Mae pawb yn gwisgo cotiau trwm heddiw - rhaid (ei) bod hi'n oer iawn tu allan. - Everyone is wearing heavy coats today - it must be very cold outside.
    • Da iawn ti am dy ddyrchafiad yn y cwmni; rhaid (dy) fod ti wedi gweithio'n galed iawn. - Well done on your promotion in the company; you must have worked very hard.
    • Edrycha ar y barrug ar y coed; rhaid (ei) bod hi wedi bod yn oer iawn dros nos. - Look at the frost on the trees; it must have been very cold overnight.
    • Am bannas blasus! Rhaid mai Owen oedd eu coginio nhw. - What tasty parsnips! It must have been Owen who had cooked them.

  • 41 Past Dod 2202 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar · ar hyd · camlas · do · feic modur · gamlas · golygfeydd · llwybr · mi · naddo · olygfa · pryd
    12 words

    The simple past of dod

    In this section we cover the remaining parts of the simple past of dod - he/she, we, they, etc.


    The simple past

    Remember that the simple past tense, for example:

    • We came
    • She came

    is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

    • We have come
    • She has come

    He/She, etc came, We came, They came

    Following on from the earlier section:

    • Daeth e/hi - He/She came
    • Daeth Siân/y plant - Siân/The children came
    • Daethon ni - We came
    • Daethon nhw - They came

    In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb (here it is d- to dd-):

    • Mi ddaeth hi/e/o
    • Mi ddaethon ni
    • Mi ddaethon nhw

    In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


    Questions and Yes/No

    We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing, and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

    • Ddaeth o i Aber? - Did he come to Aber?
    • Ddaethon ni yma ddoe? - Did we come here yesterday?
    • Ddaethon nhw â hi? - Did they bring her?

    In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

    • Do = Yes
    • Naddo = No

    • Ddaethon nhw yma? Do. - Did they come here? Yes.

    • Ddaeth hi i Aber? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy oer. - Did she come to Aber? No, it was too cold.

    Negatives

    Simply use the mixed mutation (soft in the case of dod here) with ddim for a negative:

    • Ddaethon ni ddim i gladdu Caesar - We did not come to bury Caesar
    • Ddaeth hi ddim â dillad newydd - She didn't bring any new clothes

    The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

    For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

    • Es i
    • Est ti
    • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Aethon ni
    • Aethoch chi
    • Aethon nhw

    Simple past of dod:

    • Des i
    • Dest ti
    • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Daethon ni
    • Daethoch chi
    • Daethon nhw

    Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

    • Gwnes i
    • Gwnest ti
    • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Gwnaethon ni
    • Gwnaethoch chi
    • Gwnaethon nhw

    Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

    • Ces i
    • Cest ti
    • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Caethon/Cawson ni
    • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
    • Caethon/Cawson nhw

    Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

    You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

    Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


  • 41 Past Mynd 2201 @ 25% 75 •••
    ble · castell · clwb · cynhadledd · ddal · do · eglwys · glwb · gynhadledd · lle · mi · naddo
    12 words

    The simple past of mynd

    (For those people who already know some Welsh, note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - responses without the pronouns may not be accepted.)

    In this skill we practise the forms for 'he/she', nouns, 'we and 'them'.


    The simple past

    The simple past tense, for example:

    • We went
    • They went

    is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

    • We have gone
    • Siân has gone

    The irregular verbs

    The four verbs in this unit and the others close to it in the course are 'irregular' - they do not follow the normal pattern in forming their tenses. The four verbs here are:

    • mynd (going, to go),
    • dod (coming, to come),
    • gwneud (making, to make; doing, to do) and
    • cael (getting, to get; having, to have).

    We went, He/She/The children went, They went

    Remember that there is no form of bod being used to help to form the expression. It is simply the verb followed by the person carrying out the action.

    • Aeth Siôn - Siôn went
    • Aeth hi/e/o - She/He went
    • Aethon ni - We went
    • Aethon nhw - They went

    **Remember that the third person singular verb is used with both singular and plural nouns:

    • Aeth Sioned, Hefin a'r plant i Aber. - Sioned, Hefin and the children went to Aber.
    • Aeth y tri dyn i siopa. - The three men went shopping.

    In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives:

    • Mi es i - I went
    • Mi est ti - You went (informal singular 'you')
    • Mi aethoch chi - You went (formal or plural 'you')

    In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


    Questions and Yes and No

    We form the quesiton simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

    • Es i yno gyda ti? - Did I go there with you?
    • Est ti i'r parti? - Did you go to the party?
    • Aethoch chi i Aber? - Did you go to Aber?

    In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

    Do = Yes
    Naddo = No

    • Aethoch chi yno ddoe? Do. - Did you go there yesterday? Yes.
    • Aeth e i Aber gyda/efo Siôn? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy oer. - Did he go to Aber with Siôn? No, it was too cold.

    Negatives

    Simply ddim for a negative (no consonants to mutate in these forms of mynd):

    • Aethon ni ddim yno - We didn't go there
    • Aeth Siân ddim i Aber - Siân did not go to Aber

    The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

    For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

    • Es i
    • Est ti
    • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Aethon ni
    • Aethoch chi
    • Aethon nhw

    Simple past of dod:

    • Des i
    • Dest ti
    • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Daethon ni
    • Daethoch chi
    • Daethon nhw

    Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

    • Gwnes i
    • Gwnest ti
    • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Gwnaethon ni
    • Gwnaethoch chi
    • Gwnaethon nhw

    Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

    • Ces i
    • Cest ti
    • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Caethon/Cawson ni
    • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
    • Caethon/Cawson nhw

    Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

    You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

    Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


    On Monday, On Tuesday, etc

    To say that we did something on a day we mutate the word dydd to ddydd (although this is not always done in casual Welsh):

    • Aethon ni i Aber ddydd Sadwrn - We went to Aber on Saturday
    • Aeth hi ddydd Sul - She went on Sunday.

    Note that we do not use ar for this - strictly, ar ddydd Sul means 'on Sundays', not 'on Sunday'.

    Note that we do use ar with a particular date:

    • Aeth o yno ar y pedwerydd o Fai. - He went there on the fourth of May.

  • 41 Revision2312 @ 25% 75 •••
    achos · ar eich gwyliau · bob dydd · brysur · cewch · dawel · ddrud · ga i baned o · gwesty · gyfforddus · llaeth a siwgr · rhad · roedd e'n · y llynedd
    14 words

    The aim of this section is to revise patterns already covered, to extend their application, and to introduce additional vocabulary.


    This skill revises some of the elements of the previous skills, in particular: Opinions; May I; Health; and Money.


    The phrase 'Dawel Nos' in this unit is the Welsh title for the famous carol 'Stille Nacht' (Silent Night)


    Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.


  • 41 Revision5522 @ 25% 75 •••
    anffodus · annheg · blewog · bod · boeth · ddoeth · deg · doeth · feddylgar · ffodus · gwleidyddol · llon · meddylgar · plentynnaidd · rhesymol · styfnig · teg · wel · ymosodol
    19 words

    The aim of this section is to revise patterns already covered, to extend their application, and to introduce additional vocabulary.


    Llongyfarchiadau! Congratulations!

    Having reached this far means that you've covered Cwrs Mynediad and Cwrs Sylfaen, which normally takes up to four years in a community education setting! Dal ati - Keep at it!

    Mae'r uned hon yn dod â'r pum uned ddiwethaf at ei gilydd.

    This unit brings the last five units together.


  • 41 Past Gwneud 1221 @ 25% 75 •••
    blasus · bryd o fwyd · bwrdd · cinio · declyn · degan · diwetha · do · echdoe · echnos · ffrind · frecwast · fwrdd · ginio · gwnaethoch chi · gwnes i · gwnest ti · naddo · neithiwr · pryd o fwyd · teclyn · wnaethoch chi · wnest ti
    23 words

    The simple past of gwneud

    Gwneud is another of the common irregular verbs in Welsh, and its simple past tense follows the same pattern as the others.

    I made, You made

    • Gwnes i - I made/did
    • Gwnest ti - You made/did (singular informal 'you')
    • Gwnaethoch chi - You made/did (formal or plural 'you')

    In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb:

    • Mi wnes i - I made/did
    • Mi wnest ti - You made/did (informal singular 'you')
    • Mi wnaethoch chi - You made/did (formal or plural 'you')

    In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


    Soft mutation following a short-form verb

    Note that the object of a short-form verb, the thing that has been made/got/sold/etc, takes a soft mutation:

    • Gwnes i goffi - I made a coffee (coffi)
    • Gwnest ti ddillad newydd - You made some new clothes (dillad)
    • Gwnaethoch chi fwrdd newydd - You made a new table (bwrdd)

    Questions and Yes and No

    We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

    • Wnes i goffi? - Did I make a coffee?
    • Wnest ti ddillad? - Did you make some clothes?
    • Wnaethoch chi'r cinio? - Did you make the lunch/dinner?

    In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

    • Do - Yes
    • Naddo - No

    • Wnaethoch chi swper neithiwr? Do. - Did you make supper yesterday evening? Yes.

    • Wnest ti'r sied ddoe? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy oer. - Did you make the shed yesterday? No, it was too cold.

    Negatives

    Simply use the mixed mutation (soft in the case of gwneud) with ddim for a negative:

    • Wnes i ddim swper neithiwr. - I didn't make any supper yesterday evening.
    • Wnaethoch chi ddim dillad newydd. - You didn't make any new clothes.

    The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

    For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

    • Es i
    • Est ti
    • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Aethon ni
    • Aethoch chi
    • Aethon nhw

    Simple past of dod:

    • Des i
    • Dest ti
    • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Daethon ni
    • Daethoch chi
    • Daethon nhw

    Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

    • Gwnes i
    • Gwnest ti
    • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Gwnaethon ni
    • Gwnaethoch chi
    • Gwnaethon nhw

    Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

    • Ces i
    • Cest ti
    • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Caethon/Cawson ni
    • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
    • Caethon/Cawson nhw

    Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

    You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

    Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


  • 41 Past Cael 1183 @ 25% 75 •••
    anrheg · da · dda · diwetha · do · ffôn symudol · gaethon ni · ges i · gest ti · gyri · i frecwast · i swper · mi · naddo · salad · syndod · uwd · wythnos
    18 words

    The simple past of cael

    (For those people who already know some Welsh, note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - responses without the pronouns may not be accepted.)


    The simple past

    The simple past tense, for example:

    • I got
    • You got

    is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

    • I have got
    • You have got

    The irregular verbs

    The four verbs in this unit and the others close to it in the course are 'irregular' - they do not follow the normal pattern in forming their tenses. The four verbs here are:

    • mynd (going, to go),
    • dod (coming, to come),
    • gwneud (making, to make; doing, to do) and
    • cael (getting, to get; having, to have).

    I got, You got

    In the short-form of the verbs, which you are meeting in these units for the first time on this course, there is no form of bod being used to help to form the expression. It is simply the verb followed by the person carrying out the action.

    These are the forms taught in the introductory DysguCymraeg courses:

    • Ces i - I got
    • Cest ti - You got (singular informal 'you')
    • Cawsoch chi - You got (formal or plural 'you')

    You may also come across:

    • Caethoch chi - You got

    In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb (only when it is a statement, not a question or a negative), especially for emphasis. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb. These are the forms taught in the introductory DysguCymraeg 'north' courses:

    • Mi ges i - I got
    • Mi gest ti - You got (informal singular 'you')
    • Mi gaethoch chi - You got (formal or plural 'you')

    In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi.

    You may also come across ges i, gest ti, gaethoch chi, where the soft mutation remains in a positive statement even though the particle fe/mi is not used.


    Soft mutation following a short-form verb

    Note that the object of a short-form verb, the thing that has been got/sold/bought/etc, takes a soft mutation:

    • Ces i goffi - I got/had a coffee (coffi)
    • Cest ti ddillad newydd - You got/had some new clothes (dillad)
    • Cawsoch chi lyfr newydd - You got a new book (llyfr)

    Questions and Yes/No

    We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

    • Ges i goffi? - Did I have a coffee?
    • Gest ti ddillad? - Did you get some clothes?
    • Gawsoch/Gaethoch chi hwyl yno? - Did you have fun there?

    In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

    • Do = Yes
    • Naddo = No

    • Gawsoch/Gaethoch chi dywydd braf yno? Do. - Did you have fine weather there? Yes.

    • Gest ti hwyl yn Aber? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy oer. - Did you have fun in Aber? No, it was too cold.

    Negatives

    Simply use the mixed mutation (aspirate in the case of cael) with ddim for a negative:

    • Ches i ddim tywydd braf yno - I didn't have any fine weather there
    • Chawsoch/Chaethoch chi ddim dillad newyd i'ch pen-blwydd - You didn't get any new clothes for your birthday

    Note that the soft mutation is taken by dim => ddim.


    The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

    For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

    • Es i
    • Est ti
    • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Aethon ni
    • Aethoch chi
    • Aethon nhw

    Simple past of dod:

    • Des i
    • Dest ti
    • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Daethon ni
    • Daethoch chi
    • Daethon nhw

    Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

    • Gwnes i
    • Gwnest ti
    • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Gwnaethon ni
    • Gwnaethoch chi
    • Gwnaethon nhw

    Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

    • Ces i
    • Cest ti
    • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Caethon/Cawson ni
    • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
    • Caethon/Cawson nhw

    Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

    You may well meet some variations of this pattern in these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

    Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


  • 41 Past Dod 1182 @ 25% 75 •••
    'n syth · arddangosfa · cyngerdd · ddest ti · des i · dest ti · do · efo · mi · naddo · o · partner · phartner · sut · yma · yn syth
    16 words

    The simple past of dod

    (For those people who already know some Welsh, note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - responses without the pronouns may not be accepted.)


    The simple past

    The simple past tense, for example:

    • I came
    • You came

    is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

    • I have come
    • You have come

    The irregular verbs

    The four verbs in this unit and the others close to it in the course are 'irregular' - they do not follow the normal pattern in forming their tenses. The four verbs here are:

    • mynd (going, to go),
    • dod (coming, to come),
    • gwneud (making, to make; doing, to do) and
    • cael (getting, to get; having, to have).

    I came, You came

    In the short-form of the verbs, which you are meeting in these units for the first time on this course, there is no form of bod being used to help to form the expression. It is simply the verb followed by the person carrying out the action:

    • Des i - I came
    • Dest ti - You came (singular informal 'you')
    • Daethoch chi - You came (formal or plural 'you')

    In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb:

    • Mi ddes i - I came
    • Mi ddest ti - You came (informal singular 'you')
    • Mi ddaethoch chi - You came (formal or plural 'you')

    In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


    Questions and Yes and No

    We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing, and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

    • Ddes i yma gyda ti? - Did I come here with you?
    • Ddest ti i'r tŷ? - Did you come to the house?
    • Ddaethoch chi i Aber ddoe? - Did you come to Aber yesterday?

    In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

    • Do = Yes
    • Naddo = No

    • Ddaethoch chi yma ddoe? Do. - Did you come here yesterday? Yes.

    • Ddest ti i Aber gyda/efo Siân? Naddo, gyda/efo Siwan. - Did you come to Aber with Siân? No, with Siwan.

    Negatives

    Simply use the mixed mutation (soft in the case of dod) with ddim for a negative::

    • Ddes i ddim yma tan 2010. - I didn't come here until 2010.
    • Ddaethoch chi ddim i Aber ddoe. - You didn't come to Aber yesterday.

    The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

    For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

    • Es i
    • Est ti
    • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Aethon ni
    • Aethoch chi
    • Aethon nhw

    Simple past of dod:

    • Des i
    • Dest ti
    • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Daethon ni
    • Daethoch chi
    • Daethon nhw

    Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

    • Gwnes i
    • Gwnest ti
    • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Gwnaethon ni
    • Gwnaethoch chi
    • Gwnaethon nhw

    Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

    • Ces i
    • Cest ti
    • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Caethon/Cawson ni
    • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
    • Caethon/Cawson nhw

    Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

    You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

    Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


    On Monday, On Tuesday, etc

    To say that we did something on a day we mutate the word dydd to ddydd:

    • Des i yma ddydd Sadwrn - I came here on Saturday
    • Daeth Siân i'r dref ddydd Sul - Siân came to town on Sunday.

    Note that we do not use ar for this - strictly, ar ddydd Sul means 'on Sundays', not 'on Sunday'.

    Note that we do use ar with a particular date:

    • Des i yma ar y pedwerydd o Fai. - I came here on the fourth of May.

  • 41 Past Mynd 1181 @ 25% 75 •••
    banc · bwthyn · do · eleri · es i · est ti · ffrind · gorsaf · gydag · mi · naddo · orsaf · pam · siop lyfrau · yno
    15 words

    The simple past of mynd

    (For those people who already know some Welsh, note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - responses without the pronouns may not be accepted.)


    The simple past

    The simple past tense, for example:

    • I went
    • You went

    is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

    • I have gone
    • You have gone

    The irregular verbs

    The four verbs in this unit and the others close to it in the course are 'irregular' - they do not follow the normal pattern in forming their tenses. The four verbs here are:

    • mynd (going, to go),
    • dod (coming, to come),
    • gwneud (making, to make; doing, to do) and
    • cael (getting, to get; having, to have).

    I went, You went

    In the short-form of the verbs, which you are meeting in these units for the first time on this course, there is no form of bod being used to help to form the expression. It is simply the verb followed by the person carrying out the action:

    • Es i - I went
    • Est ti - You went (singular informal 'you')
    • Aethoch chi - You went (formal or plural 'you')

    In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb:

    • Mi es i - I went
    • Mi est ti - You went (informal singular 'you')
    • Mi aethoch chi - You went (formal or plural 'you')

    In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


    Questions and Yes/No

    We form the question simply by adding a question mark in writing, and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking. The simple past of mynd has no initial consonant to mutate:

    • Es i yno gyda ti? - Did I go there with you?
    • Est ti i'r parti? - Did you go to the party?
    • Aethoch chi i Aber? - Did you go to Aber?

    In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

    • Do = Yes
    • Naddo = No

    • Aethoch chi i'r parti? Do. - Did you go to the party ? Yes.

    • Est ti i Aber gyda/efo Siân? Naddo, gyda/efo Siwan. - Did you go to Aber with Siân? No, with Siwan.

    Negatives

    Simply use ddim for a negative - the simple past of mynd has no initial consonant to mutate:

    • Es i ddim i'r dafarn - I didn't go to the pub
    • Aethoch chi ddim i Aber ddoe - You didn't go to Aber yesterday

    The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

    For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

    • Es i
    • Est ti
    • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Aethon ni
    • Aethoch chi
    • Aethon nhw

    Simple past of dod:

    • Des i
    • Dest ti
    • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Daethon ni
    • Daethoch chi
    • Daethon nhw

    Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

    • Gwnes i
    • Gwnest ti
    • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Gwnaethon ni
    • Gwnaethoch chi
    • Gwnaethon nhw

    Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

    • Ces i
    • Cest ti
    • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
    • Caethon/Cawson ni
    • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
    • Caethon/Cawson nhw

    Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

    You may well meet some variations of this pattern in these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

    Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


    On Monday, On Tuesday, etc

    To say that we did something on a day we mutate the word dydd to ddydd:

    • Es i yno ddydd Sadwrn - I went there on Saturday
    • Aeth Siân i'r dref ddydd Sul - Siân went to town on Sunday.

    Note that we do not use ar for this - strictly, ar ddydd Sul means 'on Sundays', not 'on Sunday'.

    Note that we do use ar with a particular date:

    • Es i yno ar y pedwerydd o Fai. - I went there on the fourth of May.


  • 41 Possession Gan153 @ 25% 75 •••
    ardd · argraffydd · cae · caeau · carafán · does · ffatri · ffôn · gae · geffyl · gen i · gen ti · goffi · gynni hi · gynno fo · nac oes · oes · pensil · rhif · rhifau · swyddfa · trydan
    22 words

    This unit looks at how we indicate possession in Welsh - it covers the pattern using gan, as explained below.

    Note - If you are learning the gyda pattern, you can still use that in this unit to answer English to Welsh translations.


    One thing belonging to another

    Possession of one thing by another is generally indicated simply by word order:

    • het y dyn - (= the hat of the man) => the man's hat
    • het Owen (= the hat of Owen) => Owen's Hat
    • pannas Owen (= parsnips of Owen) => Owen's parsnips
    • cath Olwen - Olwen's cat
    • tŷ mawr Siôn a Sioned - Siôn and Sioned's large house
    • siop fach Gruff - Gruff's little shop
    • drws y siop - the shop's door
    • athrawon yr ysgol - the school's teachers

    To have

    In Welsh , as in other Celtic languages, there is no simple verb for 'having, to have' in the sense of possession

    Instead, we use a roundabout construction which literally translates as 'There is a xxx with yyy'. So, instead of 'I have/own a car', we use the pattern equivalent to 'There is a car with me' or 'There is with me a car'

    In this pattern, there are two words which are used for 'with', gyda or gan. The pattern with 'gyda' is covered another, parallel unit on this course. This unit deal with how to use gan for possession.

    • Mae gen i gar - (There is with me a car) => I have a car
    • Mae gan Sioned gath - Sioned has a cat
    • Mae gan Owen bannas - (There are with Owen some parsnips) => Owen has some parsnips

    To use this construction with a pronoun we need to know that gan changes according to the pronoun it is referring to:

    • gen i - with me
    • gen ti - with you
    • gynno/ganddo fo/fe - with him
    • gynni/ganddi hi - with her
    • gynnon ni - with us
    • gynnoch chi - with you
    • gynnyn/ganddyn nhw - with them

    Note the gynn-, gandd- variants - both are in common use. You may sometimes come across some other variations, but we do not cover them on this course.

    Note that gan does not change if not used with a pronoun:

    • gan y ferch
    • gan Sioned

    With gan, this often comes before the thing being owned, and this change in word order causes a soft mutation of the thing owned:

    • Mae gen i gar. - I have a car.
    • Mae gynnon ni gath. - We have a cat.
    • Mae gynno fo bannas. - He has some parsnips.
    • Mae gan Morgan dŷ mawr. - Morgan has a large house.

    However, gan can be also used after the thing owned. There is no hard and fast rule except that if the gan comes in front of the thing owned, there has to be a soft mutation, as in the examples above


    In general, dialects in mid-, north and north-west Wales more often use gan, putting it in front of the thing owned:

    • Mae gynno fo gar.

    In most west and south Wales dialects, the tendency is to use gyda, at least in informal use, and to keep it after the thing owned:

    • Mae car gyda fe.

    You will come across both patterns in the media and when meeting people, so you need to become familiar with both.


    Note that cael is not used in the sense of possessing something.


    Questions - Do you have a...?

    To ask a question we use the pattern: "Is there a xxx with you?". The word Oes? is used to start a question about the existence of something:

    • Oes teigr yn yr ardd? - Is there a tiger in the garden?

    So, when asking whether someone has something:

    • Oes gen i gar? - car
    • Oes gen ti gar?
    • Oes gynno/ganddo fo/fe gar?
    • Oes gynni/ganddi hi gar?
    • Oes gynnon ni gath? - cat
    • Oes gynnoch chi gath?
    • Oes gynnyn/ganddyn nhw gath?

    The Oes gyn...? forms may be contracted in informal speech and writing to Sgen i/Sgynni hi/Sgynnoch chi/etc...?

    As usual in Welsh, the 'yes' and 'no' come from the question form of the verb being used:

    • Oes - yes
    • Nac oes - no

    • Oes gan Dewi gar. Oes, mae gynno fo Ford. - Does Dewi have a car? Yes, he has a Ford. Oes gan Olwen gath? Nac oes, mae gynni hi ddau gi. - Does Olwen have a cat? No, she has two dogs.


    Negatives - You don't have a...

    For a negative statement we use the pattern: 'There is with me/you/Siân no car'. Note that here the word dim takes the soft mutation:

    • Does gan Owen ddim car. - 'Owen doesn't have a car.'
    • Does gen ti ddim car.
    • Does ganddo fe ddim car.
    • Does gynni hi ddim cath.
    • Does gynnoch chi ddim cath.
    • Does ganddyn nhw ddim cath.

    The Does gyn... ddim? forms may be contracted in informal speech and writing to Sgen i/Sgynni hi/Sgynnoch chi/etc... ddim....


    This is very well explained in the Big Welsh Challenge - Practice with the Tutor


  • 41 Possession Gyda152 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar hyn o bryd · arian · brechdan · bwthyn · car · cath · chi · chloch · cloch · da · dda · ddraig · does dim · draig · fe · ffôn · fi · gar · gath · geiriadur · gyda · jiráff · lwcus · nac oes · oes · telyn · ysbytai · ysbyty
    28 words

    This unit looks at how we indicate possession in Welsh - it covers the pattern using gyda, as explained below.

    Note - If you are learning the gan pattern, you can still use that in this unit to answer English to Welsh translations.


    One thing belonging to another

    Possession of one thing by another is generally indicated simply by word order:

    • het y dyn - (= the hat of the man) => the man's hat
    • het Owen (= the hat of Owen) => Owen's Hat
    • pannas Owen (= the parsnips of Owen) => Owen's parsnips
    • cath Olwen - Olwen's cat
    • tŷ mawr Siôn a Sioned - Siôn and Sioned's large house
    • siop fach Gruff - Gruff's little shop
    • drws y siop - the shop's door
    • athrawon yr ysgol - the school's teachers

    To have

    In Welsh, as in other Celtic languages, there is no simple verb for 'having, to have' in the sense of posession.

    Instead, we use a roundabout construction which literally translates as 'There is an xxx with yyy'. So, instead of 'I have a car', we use the pattern equivalent to 'There is with me a car' or 'There is a car with me'.

    In this pattern, there are two words which are used for 'with', gyda or gan. Using 'gyda' is covered in this unit, how to use gan is covered in another, parallel unit:

    • Mae car gyda fi - (There is a car with me) => I have a car
    • Mae cath gyda Sioned - Sioned has a cat
    • Mae pannas gydag Owen - (There are some parsnips with Owen) => Owen has some parsnips

    Note that gyda changes to gydag in front of vowels - apart from that it does not need to change.


    In general, dialects in north and north-west Wales more often use gan, putting it in front of the thing possessed:

    • Mae gan Siân gar

    In most south Wales dialects, the tendency is to use gyda, at least in informal use, and to keep it after the thing owned:

    • Mae car gyda Siân

    However, gan can be used after the thing owned - there is no hard and fast rule except that if the possessive phrase comes between the verb and its subject, the thing owned, there has to be a soft mutation:

    • Mae gynno fo gar
    • Mae gan Owen bannas
    • Mae gan Owen gath

    You will come across both patterns in the media and when meeting people, so you need to become familiar with both.


    Note that cael is not used in the sense of possessing something.


    Questions - Do you have a...?

    To ask a question we use the pattern: "Is there a xxx with you?". The word Oes? is used to start a question about the existence of something:

    • Oes teigr yn yr ardd? - Is there a tiger in the garden?

    So, when asking whether someone has something:

    • Oes car gyda chi? - car
    • Oes car gyda ti?
    • Oes cath gydag Olwen? - cat
    • Oes cath gyda nhw?

    As usual in Welsh, the 'yes' and 'no' come from the question form of the verb being used:

    • Oes - yes
    • Nac oes no

    • Oes car gyda Dewi. Oes, mae Ford gyda fe. - Does Dewi have a car? Yes, he has a Ford. Oes cath gydag Olwen? Nac oes, mae dau gi gyda hi - Does Olwen have a cat? No, she has two dogs.


    Negatives - You don't have a...

    For a negative statement we use the pattern: 'There is no car with me/you/etc':

    • Does dim car gydag Owen. - 'Owen doesn't have a car.'
    • Does dim cath gydag Owen.
    • Does dim car gyda fe/fo.
    • Does dim car gyda ni.
    • Does dim ci gyda Siân.

    Gyda is followed by an aspirate mutation

    Note that when gyda is used as 'with', it is followed by an aspirate mutation:

    • Mae Owen yn bwyta cig gyda phannas. - Owen eats meat with parsnips.
    • Dw i ddim yn hoffi llaeth gyda the. - I do not like milk with tea.
    • Dw i yn y siop gyda chariad Sioned. - I am in the shop with Sioned's boyfriend.

  • 41 Weather142 @ 25% 75 •••
    braf · bwrw cesair · bwrw eira · bwrw glaw · bydd hi'n · cymylog · ddiflas · ddoe · diflas · dwym · glaw · gymylog · heulog · mae hi'n · niwlog · oer · ond · rhy · roedd hi'n · stormus · sut bydd · sut roedd · sych · tywydd · waeth · well · wlyb · wyntog · wythnos diwetha · y bore 'ma · y prynhawn yma · ydy hi'n
    32 words

    Describing the weather

    Note that for an abstract 'it', such as when referring time, distance or weather, we use the pronoun hi.

    We use the construction Mae hi'n... (it is) with an adjective. Note that 'n/yn here causes a weak soft mutation of the adjective. (_ indicates a g being mutated away):

    • Mae hi'n gymylog - It is cloudy (cymylog)
    • Mae hi'n braf. - It is fine
    • Mae hi'n heulog. - It is sunny
    • Mae hi'n _wyntog iawn. - It is very windy (gwyntog)
    • Mae hi'n ofnadwy - It's terrible
    • Mae hi'n ddiflas - It's miserable (diflas)
    • Mae hi'n _wlyb - It is wet (gwlyb)

    Note - the word braf resists mutation.


    To say it was, the mae is changed to roedd:

    • Roedd hi'n stormus neithiwr. - It was stormy last night.

    To say it will be, we use bydd hi:

    • Bydd hi'n oer yfory. - It will be cold tomorrow

    What will the weather be like?

    To ask 'What will something be like?' or 'What is something like?' we use sut?:

    • Sut bydd y tywydd yfory? - What will the weather be like tomorrow?
    • Sut mae'r tywydd yn Eryri heddiw? - What is the weather like in Snowdonia like today?

    Morning, afternoon, etc

    When saying 'this morning' or 'this afternoon' etc., the definite article y (the) is used (although it is often dropped), then the noun, then 'ma to mean 'this'. For example:

    • Mae hi'n braf y bore 'ma - It's fine this morning
    • Bydd hi'n wlyb prynhawn 'ma - It'll be wet this afternoon

    For 'that' we can use, similarly, 'na:

    • Roedd hi'n wyntog y prynhawn 'na. - It was windy that afternoon.
    • Roedd hi'n oer iawn bore 'na. - It was very cold that morning.

    There are words (adverbs) for some other particular times:

    • echdoe - the day before yesterday
    • echnos - the night/evening before last
    • ddoe - yesterday
    • neithiwr - yesterday evening; last night
    • heddiw - today
    • heno - this evening; tonight
    • yfory - tomorrow

    And we can combine some of them:

    • bore ddoe - yesterday morning
    • prynhawn ddoe - yesterday afternoon
    • bore yfory - tomorrow morning
    • prynhawn yfory - tomorrow afternoon
    • nos yfory - tomorrow evening/night

    For example:

    • Roedd y tywydd yn ofnadwy echdoe. - The weather was terrible the day before last.
    • Erbyn nos yfory, bydd hi'n wyntog. - By tomorrow evening, it will be windy.
    • Sut bydd y tywydd prynhawn yfory? - What will the weather be like tomorrow afternoon?
    • Sut roedd y tywydd bore echdoe? - What was the weather like the morning before last?

    Soft mutations after nos in days of the week

    Now that you have met the soft mutation a couple of times you can use it following nos with the days of the week where we did not cover them earlier in the course:

    • dydd Llun, (nos + Llun ->) nos Lun - Monday evening/night
    • dydd Mawrth, nos Fawrth - Tuesday evening/night
    • dydd Mercher, nos Fercher - Wednesday evening/night
    • dydd Gwener, nos Wener - Friday evening/night

    So:

    • Erbyn nos Fercher bydd hi'n oer iawn - By Wednesday evening it will be very cold.

    Too hot, too windy

    To say 'too' in this context we use an adverb rhy. It causes soft mutation of the following word:

    • Mae hi'n rhy boeth. - It's too hot. (poeth)
    • Roedd hi'n rhy wyntog ddoe. - it was too windy yesterday. (gwyntog)
    • Bydd hi'n rhy wlyb i fynd allan heno. - It'll be too wet to go out this evening. (gwlyb)
    • Mae hi'n rhy oer. - It's too cold.

    Note that rhy is not mutated by yn - the letters ll- and rh- resist mutation by yn.


    yn again

    Note that the 'n in the notes above is a shortened form of yn - this use of yn/'n, though, is not quite the same as the one which we have seen before getting to this section. This use of yn links to an adjective (cold, wet, stormy, red, fast) rather than linking to a verb-noun (going, swimming, buying, getting):

    • If yn/'n is linking to a verb-noun, there is no mutation.
    • If yn/'n is linking to an adjective or an adverb, there is a weak soft mutation (no mutation of ll- or rh-).

    For example:

    • Mae hi'n darllen. - She is reading. - no mutation
    • Mae hi'n ddiflas. - It is miserable. - soft mutation diflas -> ddiflas
    • Mae'r llyfr yn dda. - The book is good. - soft mutation da -> dda

    This will be covered again later in the course, too, so don't worry if it isn't absolutely clear yet.


  • 41 Colours131 @ 25% 75 •••
    blodyn · brown · coch · ddu · du · dylluan · frown · glas · glaswellt · goch · gwyn · gwyrdd · llwyd · melyn · pinc · porffor · trên · wen
    18 words

    Colours

    Colours, as with other adjectives, follow the noun in Cymraeg. For example:

    • a blue bike => beic glas
    • black coffee => coffi du
    • a brown car => car brown

    As with other adjectives, colours undergo soft mutation after feminine singular nouns:

    • y ci du, y gath ddu - the black dog, the black cat
    • y bwrdd coch, y gadair goch - the red table, the red chair
    • ci gwyn, cath wyn - a white dog, a white cat

    Some colours have specific feminine forms which are often, but not always, used after feminine singular nouns. The feminine forms are the second in each pair:

    • gwyn, gwen
    • gwyrdd, gwerdd
    • melyn, melen

    The feminine forms must also mutate after a feminine noun:

    • y ci gwyn, y gath wen - the white dog, the white cat
    • y bwrdd gwyrdd, y gadair werdd - the green table, the green chair
    • y tŷ melyn, y gegin felen - the yellow house, the yellow kitchen

    Note that if a feminine noun is followed by an unbroken chain of adjectives, they each take a soft mutation:

    • y gath wen fawr - the big white cat

    But:

    • y gath ddu a gwyn - the black and white cat (No mutation of gwyn as the chain of adjectives has been broken by a (and).)

    Soft mutation of feminine nouns after y/'r (the)

    Looking at the sentence above you will see that some nouns have mutated after y. This is because y/'r causes a weak (+) soft mutation of feminine nouns

    (+) In a 'weak' soft mutation, there is no mutation of words beginning with ll- or rh-)

    • pabell, y babell - a tent, the tent
    • taten, y daten - a potato, the potato
    • cath, y gath - a cat, the cat
    • braich, y fraich - an arm, the arm
    • derwen, y dderwen - an oak-tree, the oak-tree
    • gwawr, y wawr - a dawn, the dawn
    • merch, y ferch - a girl, the girl
    • llaw, y llaw - a hand, the hand (llaw is feminine)
    • rhaw, y rhaw - a spade, the spade (rhaw is feminine)

    There are no comprehensive rules as to which nouns are feminine, so it is best to look up and learn the genders at the same time that you learn the meanings. As you go on you will begin to spot some patterns, but look out for the exceptions.


    Colour variations in Welsh

    There are some other examples of occasional variations between the words for colours which you may come across:

    • Glas (blue) is also sometimes used for shades of bluey-green and sometimes for the idea of 'fresh green', as in newly grown grass and plants. Glaswellt is a word for 'grass'. People who are inexperienced in things may also be described as glas or termed gleision, similar to the English 'green', 'greenhorn' and 'fresher'.

    • Melyn (yellow) may be applied to shades of cream, beige or sandy colour.

    • Llwyd (grey) may also be applied to some shades of grey-ish or dull brown. For example, 'brown paper' used for wrapping is papur llwyd.


  • 41 TheNews392 @ 25% 75 •••
    bwletin · camera cyflymder · chwilio · cnoi · dangos · dathlu · ddyn · drafod · dyn · dynion · ei arestio · ei dal · ei ddal · ei ddwyn · ei hanafu · ei harestio · ei ladd · ei lladd · ei losgi · ei saethu · eu dal · eu harestio · eu lladd · eu saethu · ffordd · ffyrdd · gamera cyflymder · gnoi · gohirio · lladron · llanc · lleidr · miloedd o bunnoedd · newyddion · pryd caeth · rhaglen · sut caeth · trafod · tŷ · wrecsam · yn olaf · yn ôl
    42 words

    How to construct a passive

    This unit looks at the passive voice as often used in news reports, that is, how we describe things that have happened to somebody, as opposed to what they have done themselves.

    The good news is that, unlike many other languages, Welsh has no passive voice built in to its verb system, so there is no extra set of verb endings to learn! Instead, in the colloquial register of the language, we use a workaround using cael (getting, to get):

    • Cafodd y car ei ddwyn. (literally, 'The car had its stealing') - The car was stolen.
    • Mi gaeth y dyn ei arestio. ('The man had his arresting') - The man was arrested.
    • Pryd caeth y dyn ei arestio? - When was the man arrested?
    • Bydd y car yn cael ei drwsio. - The car will be repaired. (trwsio - repairing)
    • Mae'r dyn yn cael ei arestio. - The man is being arrested.
    • Cafodd lladron eu harestio. - Some thieves were caught.

    Remember that some of the possessive pronouns (ei (her), ein, eu) cause the addition of h- at the front of a word beginning with a vowel. Note that the 'echoing' pronoun sometimes used in the possessive pattern (...ei char hi) is not used in this pattern:

    • Cafodd Siân ei hanafu yn y ddamwain. - Siân was injured in the accident.
    • Mi gaethon ni ein henwebu gan ein rhieni. - we were nominated by our parents.
    • Cân nhw eu hoedi. - they will be delayed.

    So, if you know how to use cael, you can use it to create passive sentences.


    If we want to say that something was done to someone by someone else, we use the preposition gan, here meaning 'by'. Gan causes soft mutation:

    • Cafodd lladron eu hela gan yr heddwas. - Some thieves were chased by the policeman. (hela - chasing, hunting)
    • Mi gaeth y gemau eu dwyn gan leidr. - The gems were stolen by a burglar. (lleidr - burglar, thief)
    • Ces i fy nharo gan gar. - I was hit by a car. (taro - hitting, to hit)

    There is another workaround that you may hear of for making a passive - that uses the 'impersonal' forms of verbs, but that is usually only used in more formal registers of Welsh, and we do not cover it in this course.


    Translating standalone verb-nouns - a reminder

    Remember that if you are asked to translate a verb-noun such as bwyta, hoffi, yfed on its own, not as part of a longer phrase, back into English on this course you should use the forms 'xxxing' or 'to xxx'. Do not answer with just 'xxx' (eat, like, drink, swim, etc) as those forms can often be mixed up with nouns (a swim, a drink, ...) or commands (eat!, drink!). When you look them up in a dictionary the distinction is made clear, but we cannot do that on this course.)


  • 41 Places191 @ 25% 75 •••
    'r fenni · aberaeron · bangor · bwllheli · byw · caerfyrddin · dod · dywyn · efrog newydd · ger · llyfrgell · mynd i · o · pwllheli · siopau · tywyn · y fenni · ynghanol
    18 words

    When using Welsh in Wales you will come across place names which you may only have heard before in English. This unit introduces a few of them. It also covers a couple of many uses of the soft mutation.

    Note - Following the usual practice in Wales, personal names are not translated or changed in spelling between Welsh and English. Where a place has a different name in both languages, though, we do translate them.

    The Soft Mutation following i (to) and o (from)

    You may have heard of mutations in the Welsh language. In this unit we introduce the first, and by far the most common of these - the soft mutation.

    The prepositions i (to) and o (from) cause a soft mutation of the following word. This means that some consonants at the start of words 'soften'. Here is the complete list:

    Original letter Soft mutated letter
    p b
    t d
    c g
    b f
    d dd
    g -
    m f
    ll l
    rh r

    (Note - the g vanishes when it undergoes soft mutation)

    For example:

    • Dw i'n mynd i Dywyn. - I am going to Tywyn. (t => d)
    • Dw i'n dod o Lanelli. - I come from Llanelli. (ll => l)
    • Mae o'n dŵad o Fangor heddiw. - He is coming from Bangor today.
    • Dych chi'n mynd i Garno. - You are going to Carno. (c => g)

    Note that dŵad is a regional variation of dod found in some mid- and north Wales dialects.

    More information about the soft mutation, y treiglad meddal, can be found here (a Wikibooks article).


    Placenames

    We use placenames widely during the rest of the course to give context and variety when discussing travel, work, and so on. You will also often come across them in the Welsh media. Here are some that have separate Welsh and English names:

    Enw Cymraeg English Name
    Abergwaun Fishguard
    Casnewydd Newport
    Caergybi Holyhead
    Caerfyrddin Carmarthen
    Pwllheli Pwllheli*
    Manceinion Manchester
    Efrog Newydd New York
    Amwythig Shrewsbury
    Caergrawnt Cambridge
    Y Bala Bala
    Y Fenni Abergavenny
    Y Bontfaen Cowbridge
    Y Drenewydd Newtown
    Castell-nedd Neath
    Hendy Gwyn ar Daf Whitland

    Like most places in Wales. Pwllheli has only a Welsh name. It is included here as it has a very high proportion of Welsh speakers, over 80% of its population at the last census.

    Note that in the examples where the Welsh name includes y (the), that this is not reflected in the English name.

    Note that some Welsh place names have more than one word where the English has only one, and vice versa.


    A list of some English-language place names in Wales can be found here (Wikipedia article) and some in the rest of the world here (Wikipedia article).

    If you want to know more about these places and where they are, just look in any good atlas or on the internet. Many will have their own web sites and articles on their history.


    Many place-names have common descriptive elements in them, and it can add interest to any journey through Wales if you get to know some of them. A fuller list is available at https://getoutside.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/guides/the-welsh-origins-of-place-names-in-britain/, but here are some common ones:

    Cymraeg Meaning
    Aber Where one river flows into another body of water
    Ban, Bannau Peak(s), beacon(s)
    Bron Breast of a hill
    Bryn Hill
    Caer Fort
    Cas Castle
    Crug Hill, tump
    Cwm Valley
    Derw, Deri Oaks
    Dinas Hill-fort
    Dyffryn Valley, vale
    Ffin Border, boundary
    Isaf Lower, lowest
    Llan Church, church land (often followed by the name of the saint to whom the church was dedicated, eg, Llangatwg - a place with a church dedicated to St Catwg)
    Morfa Salt-marsh
    Nant Brook, dingle
    Pont Bridge
    Porth Gate
    Rhos Moor
    Tyle Hill-side, ascent
    Uchaf Upper, highest
    Ystrad Vale

  • 41 Numbers2132 @ 25% 75 •••
    aderyn · adio · can · dau · ddau · dri · dwy · lluosi · naw deg un · oed · pedair · pedwar deg chwech · rhannu · saith deg tri · symiau · tair · tri · tri deg pedwar · tynnu · yn hafal i
    20 words

    More on numbers


    Changes in pump, chwech, cant when followed by adjectives or nouns

    pump, chwech and cant drop their final letters (-p, -ch, -t) when they come before the nouns and adjectives that they are numbering:

    • pum car - five cars
    • chwe beic - six bikes
    • can person - a hundred people

    Mutations after un, dau/dwy, tri, chwe:

    • Feminine nouns take a weak soft mutation after un (soft mutation, but no mutation of ll-, rh-).
    • dau and dwy both cause a soft mutation of following words.
    • tri, chwe cause an aspirate mutation of following words - p-, t-, c- are mutated to ph-, th-, ch- respectively. Note that the feminine forms tair, pedair do not cause a mutation.

    So ((b) = feminine noun):

    • merch (b), un ferch, dwy ferch, tair merch, chwe merch - a girl, one girl, two girls, three girls, six girls
    • rhaw (b), un rhaw, dwy raw, tair rhaw, chwe rhaw - a spade, one spade, two spades, three spades, six spades
    • teisen (b), un deisen, dwy deisen, tair teisen, chwe theisen - a cake, one cake, two cakes, three cakes, six cakes
    • twll, un twll, dau dwll, tri thwll, chwe thwll - a hole, one hole, three holes, six holes
    • pêl (b), un bêl, dwy bêl, tair pêl, chwe phêl - a ball, one ball, two balls, three balls, six balls
    • pen, un pen, dau ben, tri phen, chwe phen - a head, one head, two heads, three heads, six heads

    Note that feminine forms of numbers are also used with age:

    • Mae Siân yn ddwy (flwydd) oed. - -Siân is two years old. (The word for 'a year (of age)' - blwydd, a feminine noun - is often left out.)

    These changes also apply to numbers

    Note that these changes also apply to numbers. So:

    • dau ddeg - 20 (soft mutation following dau)
    • pum deg - 50 (last letter dropped)
    • chwe deg - 60 (last letter dropped)
    • can mil - 100000 (last letter dropped)

    Britishisms -'sums'

    In British English, the word 'sums' is often used to refer to the sort of basic arithmetic taught to children in primary schools - addition, subtraction, division and multiplication, etc. These are the words used to distinguish between the common terms in this area:

    • symiau - sums, arithmetic
    • rhifyddeg - arithmetic
    • mathemateg - mathematics

  • 41 Would Hoffi Gallu483 @ 25% 75 •••
    allech · allet ti · allwn i · camera · ddod · dynnu · gael · gallech · gallen nhw · gallet ti · gallwn i · heb · hoffai · hoffech · hoffen · hoffen ni · hoffet ti · hoffwn · hoffwn i · nghamera · rhan-amser · tynnu · weithio
    23 words

    Conditional forms of Hoffi/Licio (liking) and Gallu/Medru (being able to)

    In an earlier section you met the use of the conditional of bod to form expresssions such as 'I would....'

    • Baswn i'n hoffi cath - I would like a cat
    • Baset ti'n licio fynd - You would like to go
    • Basai fo'n medru rhedeg - He could run

    However, as with the future and past tenses, it is possible to express the conditional using short forms of verbs. This is commonly used in colloquial Welsh with the verbs hoffi/licio (liking, to like) and gallu/medru (being able, to be able).


    The verb endings in the short-form conditional are the same as those of the conditional of bod, but this time added to the stems of hoffi (hoff-), licio (lici-), gallu (gall-) and medru (medr-) respectively.

    For example, here is how the conditional tense of hoffi runs. The other verbs take the same endings:

    Verb with ending Translation
    hoffwn i I would like
    hoffet ti You would like (singular familar)
    hoffai fe/fo He would like
    hoffai hi She would like
    hoffen ni We would like
    hoffech chi You would like (polite or plural)
    hoffen nhw They would like

    As with other short-form verbs, the short-form condtional of these verbs is followed by a soft mutation of the object:

    • Liciwn i gath. - I would like a cat.
    • Hoffet ti fynd adre. - You would like to go home.
    • Medrai fo redeg i'r siop. - He could run to the shop.
    • Gallai hi lifio'r pren. - She would be able to saw the wood.
    • Licien ni gael cawl pannas i ginio. - We would like to have some parsnip soup for lunch.
    • Hoffech chi Borthmadog. - You would like Porthmadog.
    • Gallen nhw goginio cinio Sul. - They could cook Sunday dinner.

    Questions and Answers

    As with other verbs, the question forms take a soft mutation where possible:

    • Liciet ti fynd adre? - Would you like to go home?
    • Fedrai fe redeg i'r siop? - Could he run to the shop?
    • Allai hi nofio yn y môr? - Could she swim in the sea?
    • Hoffen nhw gwrdd â Sioned? - Would they like to meet Sioned?

    For answers, we use a suitable conditional form of the same verb, but without the pronoun. In a negative answers, na causes a mixed mutation, although just a soft mutation is needed here, and only with gallu and medru:

    • Liciet ti fynd adre? Liciwn - Would you like to go home? Yes.
    • Liciet ti fynd adre? Na liciwn - Would you like to go home? No.
    • Fedrai fe redeg i'r siop? Medrai. - Could he run to the shop? Yes.
    • Fedrai fe redeg i'r siop? Na fedrai. - Could he run to the shop? No.
    • Allai hi nofio yn y môr? Gallai - Could she swim in the sea? Yes.
    • Allai hi nofio yn y môr? Na allai - Could she swim in the sea? No.
    • Hoffen nhw gwrdd â Sioned? Hoffen - Would they like to meet Sioned? Yes.
    • Hoffen nhw gwrdd â Sioned? Na hoffen - Would they like to meet Sioned? No.

    Negatives

    As with other verbs, the negative form would take a mixed mutation, but only the soft mutation is required here, and only with gallu and medru.

    • Liciwn i ddim cath. - I wouldn't like a cat.
    • Fedrai fe ddim rhedeg i'r siop i nôl bara. - He would not be able to run to the shop to fetch some bread.
    • Allen ni ddim seiclo'r pum deg milltir i Aber erbyn amser cinio. - We couldn't cycle the fifty miles to Aber by lunch time.
    • Fedren nhw ddim dysgu Cymraeg heb lawer o ymarfer. - They wouldn't be able to learn Welsh without a lot of practice.
    • Allet ti ddim ffordio prynu'r car 'na. - You couldn't afford to buy that car.

    Remember, too, that mo (a contraction of the more formal ddim o) is used instead of ddim before a definite object:

    • Hoffwn i mo'r gath 'na. - I wouldn't like that cat.
    • Liciet ti mo'i hen gar brwnt. - You wouldn't like his dirty old car.
    • Hoffech chi mo Sioned â'i ffrindiau hi. - You wouldn't like Sioned and her friends.

    Could have, Would have

    Just as in the perfect tense 'I have gone' (Dw i wedi mynd), we can say 'I would have been able to...' and 'Dewi would have liked to...'. We do this by adding bod wedi after the subject of the verb, mutating it if it follows directly:

    • Gallai fe fod wedi gyrru. - He could have driven.
    • Hoffai Dewi fod wedi mynd i'r parti. - Dewi would have liked to have gone to the party.
    • Medrwn i fod wedi gwneud hynny i chi. - I could have done that for you.

    In a negative, the ddim takes the mutation, as usual:

    • Allai fe ddim bod wedi gyrru. - He could not have driven.
    • Fedret ti ddim bod wedi bwyta cymaint â nhw! - You could not have eaten as much as them!

  • 41 Opinions293 @ 25% 75 •••
    bert · beth wyt ti'n feddwl o · borffor · dal · dalentog · dda · ddiddorol · ddiflas · denau · dew · dodrefn · dyw e ddim yn · dyw hi ddim yn · dywyll · frown · fyr · gas · gyda'r nos · gyffrous · hapus · hen · hyfryd · ifanc · neis · nodrefn · noswaith · ofnadwy · olygus · pa liw yw · porffor · rhaglen deledu · salw · sut un yw · wych · wyn · wyrdd · ych-a-fi · ydy e'n
    38 words

    This unit introduces some new adjectives to describe people and things, as well as some more colours.


    'Weak' soft mutation after yn

    Remember the use of the soft mutation after yn when it is used to introduce an adjective:

    • Mae e'n denau - He is thin (tenau)
    • Roedd Siân yn rhedeg yn gyflym - Siân used to run fast (cyflym)
    • Mae'r gerddi'n breifat - The gardens are private (preifat)

    But note that this use of yn does not cause soft mutation in words beginning with the letters ll- or rh-:

    • Mae Siôn yn byw'n lleol - Siôn lives locally
    • Bydd y theatr yn llawn heno - The theatre will be full tonight
    • Roedden nhw'n mynd i'r dafarn yn rhy aml - They used to go to the pub too often
    • Dydy'r bwyty 'na ddim yn rhad o gwbl! - That restaurant isn't cheap at all!

    This particular soft mutation, where ll- and rh- resist the soft mutation, is sometimes known as the 'weak soft mutation'. Although it does not apply to many situations, some of these are quite common, although you may not have met all of them yet. It applies to:

    • y (the) in front of feminine nouns.
    • un (one) in front of feminine nouns.
    • yn when introducing nouns and adjectives.
    • mor, cyn, but only where these mean 'as' or 'so' in front of adjectives.

    What do you think of...

    We are often asked what we think of or about things. The usual construction in Welsh is to use meddwl + o. Remember that meddwl should be mutated in this pattern following Beth...? or Be ...? (although not everybody remembers to do so!) and the ei that causes it may occasionally be left in, especially in writing:

    • Beth wyt ti'n feddwl o'r etholiad? - What do you think of/about the election?
    • Beth oeddech chi'n feddwl o Ceri Lingo fel Prif Weinidog? - What did you think of Ceri Lingo as First Minister?
    • Be fyddan nhw'n feddwl o Dewi fel eu cynghorydd? - What will they think of Dewi as their councillor?
    • Beth fydd eich mab yn ei feddwl o'ch tŷ newydd? - What will your son think of your new house?
    • Be fydd Siân yn feddwl o lythyr Dewi? - What will Siân think about Dewi's letter?

    Note that when talking about what people thought about something in the past (what did they think) we usually use the imperfect (beth oedden nhw'n ei feddwl o...) rather than the simple past. This is because 'thinking about' tends to be a continuing, longer lasting process than just a one-off event such as 'going to somewhere'.

    Note that we use meddwl o when asking about or giving an opinion, but meddwl am, when, say, thinking about doing something:

    • Maen nhw'n meddwl am symud tŷ'n fuan - They are thinking about moving house soon.
    • Dw i'n meddwl am ymarfer fy Ngymraeg heno yn lle defnyddio Saesneg gymaint - I am thinking about practising my Welsh this evening instead of using English so much.

    What sort of place was it? What is someone like?

    We have seen sut? with a verb so far, causing no mutation, and meaning simply 'How...?:

    • Sut mae hi? - How is she?
    • Sut mae? - How are you? How are things? - as a greeting
    • Sut roedd eich gwyliau? - How were your holidays?
    • Sut prynoch chi'ch car newydd? - How did you buy your new car?

    We can also use it in front of a noun or a name to ask 'What sort of place/person is xxx?' 'What is xxx like?' In this case, sut causes a soft mutation if it comes directly before a noun:

    • Sut le ydy Aber? - What sort of a place is Aber? What is Aber like? (lle -> le)
    • Sut un ydy Dewi Lingo? - What is Dewi Lingo like?
    • Sut berson ydy Hefin? - What sort of a person is Hefin? (person -> berson)
    • Sut un yw'r tŷ 'na? - What is that house like?
    • Sut roedd y tywydd yn Aber ddoe? - What was the weather like in Aber yesterday?

    An example of a fixed expression - gyda'r nos

    Welsh has many idiomatic or fixed expressions where a literal translation does not help to understand the actual meaning. One that is very widely used all over Wales is:

    • gyda'r nos - in the evening; evening

    For example:

    • Mae o'n hoffi mynd allan gyda'r nos. - He likes to go out in the evening.
    • Ydy'r siop ar agor gyda'r nos? - Is the shop open in the evening?
    • Roedd Sam allan drwy'r gyda'r nos. - Sam was out all evening.

  • 41 Time143 @ 25% 75 •••
    am · am faint o'r gloch · amser · awr · bedwar · bum · bum munud ar hugain · bump · bws · chwarter · chwarter i · chwe · cyrraedd · ddeg · ddeuddeg · deuddeg · dri · faint o'r gloch ydy hi · gwely · hanner awr · hanner dydd · hanner nos · munud · munud i · o'r gloch · tan · ugain · un ar ddeg
    28 words

    When telling the time in Cymraeg, the traditional (vigesimal - 20-based) system of counting is used for some of the numbers:

    • 11 – un ar ddeg (one on ten)
    • 12 – deuddeg (two ten)
    • 15 - pymtheg
    • 20 – ugain
    • 25 – pump ar hugain (five on twenty)

    Note that ugain gains an h- when used after ar

    Remember that the singular form of the noun is always used if it comes directly after the number. Therefore, "five minutes" is pum munud.

    Sometimes there is a change to the spelling of a number before nouns as noted here:

    • Un funud - un causes weak soft mutation of a following singular feminine noun.
    • Dwy funud - dau becomes dwy before feminine nouns. Also note that both dau and dwy cause soft mutation of a following word..
    • Tair munud - tri becomes tair when used before singular feminine nouns.
    • Pedair munud - pedwar becomes pedair when used before singular feminine nouns.
    • Pum munud - pump changes to pum when used before nouns.
    • Chwe munud - chwech changes to chwe when used before nouns.
    • Deng munud - deg may change to deng (traditionally - not always done now) when used before munud.

    Note that in some areas, munud is a masculine noun, so you will find un munud, dau funud, tri munud, pedwar munud.


    The Cymraeg for 'o’clock' is o’r gloch (literally - 'of the bell').

    To ask 'What time is it?' you say Faint o’r gloch ydy hi?:

    • Mae hi’n un o’r gloch - It is one o’clock.
    • Mae hi’n saith o’r gloch - It is seven o’clock.
    • Mae hi’n wyth o’r gloch - It is eight o’clock.

    Note that for an abstract 'it', such as when referring time, distance or weather, we use the pronoun hi.

    We can also ask to confirm the time - 'Is it ... o'clock?':

    • Ydy hi'n un o'r gloch? - Is it one o'clock?
    • Ydy hi'n wyth o'r gloch? - Is it eight o'clock?

    And we can add eto, meaning 'yet':

    • Ydy hi'n chwech o'r gloch eto? - Is it six o'clock yet?

    Note that Mae hi’n... or Ydy hi'n...? causes a soft mutation to the number which follows:

    • Mae hi’n ddau o’r gloch - It’s two o’clock
    • Mae hi’n dri o’r gloch - It’s three o’clock
    • Mae hi’n bedwar o’r gloch - It’s four o’clock
    • Mae hi’n bump o’r gloch - It’s five o’clock
    • Mae hi’n ddeg o’r gloch - It’s ten o’clock
    • Mae hi’n ddeuddeg o’r gloch - It’s twelve o’clock
    • Ydy hi'n ddau o'r gloch? - Is it two o'clock?
    • Ydy hi'n dri o'r gloch? - Is it three o'clock?
    • etc...

    Half past the hour is expressed as hanner awr wedi … (note that awr is always used) and 'quarter past' as chwarter wedi … (no awr):

    • Mae hi’n hanner awr wedi dau. - It is half past two.
    • Mae hi’n hanner awr wedi pump. - It is half past five.
    • Mae hi’n chwarter wedi chwech. - It is (a) quarter past six.
    • Mae hi’n chwarter wedi tri. - It is (a) quarter past three.

    Quarter to the hour is chwarter i ... i causes soft mutation of the following word:.

    • Mae hi’n chwarter i dri - It is (a) quarter to three.
    • Mae hi’n chwarter i ddeg - It is (a) quarter to ten.
    • Mae hi’n chwarter i ddeuddeg - It is (a) quarter to twelve.

    'Five', 'ten', 'twenty' and 'twenty-five' minutes are expressed as follows:

    • Mae hi’n bum munud i naw. - It’s five (minutes) to nine.
    • Mae hi’n bum munud wedi pedwar. - It’s five (minutes) past four.
    • Mae hi’n ddeg/ddeng munud i bedwar. - It’s ten (minutes) to four.
    • Mae hi’n ddeg/ddeng munud wedi pump. - It’s ten (minutes) past five.
    • Mae hi’n ugain munud wedi naw. - It is twenty (minutes) past nine.
    • Mae hi’n bum munud ar hugain i dri. - It is twenty-five (minutes) to three.

    To say 'at' a particular time we use 'am', which causes soft mutation of a following word:

    • Am un o’r gloch - At one o’clock
    • Am ddau o’r gloch - At two o’clock
    • Am bum munud i ddeg - At five (minutes) to ten
    • Am ddeg munud wedi deg - At ten (minutes) past ten

    We can also use this pattern to ask at what time something happens:

    • Am faint o'r gloch wyt ti'n mynd adre? - At what time are you going home?
    • Am faint o’r gloch mae Siôn yn mynd i'r dafarn? - At what time is Siôn going to the pub?
    • Am faint o'r gloch mae Eleri'n mynd i nofio? - At what time is Eleri going swimming?
    • Am faint o'r gloch dych chi'n codi? - At what time are you getting up?

    Note also:

    • Mae hi’n hanner dydd - It is midday.
    • Mae hi’n hanner nos - It is midnight.

  • 41 Places2341 @ 25% 75 •••
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    24 words

    Saying 'there'

    Welsh has several words for 'there' as in:

    • I have been there, too.
    • She goes there a lot.
    • We'll meet there tomorrow.

    where 'there' is not necessarily specified in the sentence but perhaps has been mentioned earlier in the conversation. Two common words are:

    • yna, 'na - where 'na is just a common contraction of yna.
    • yno

    While yna/'na is also used in other situations to mean 'then' or 'that', yno is only ever used to mean 'there'.

    • Es i yno y llynedd. - I went there last year.
    • Mae hi'n mynd yno'n aml. - She often goes there.
    • Byddwn ni'n cwrdd yno yfory. - We'll meet there tomorrow.

    What sort of place was it? What is someone like?

    We have seen sut? with a verb so far, causing no mutation, and meaning simply 'How...?:

    • Sut mae hi? - How is she?
    • Sut mae? - How are you? How are things? - as a greeting
    • Sut roedd eich gwyliau? - How were your holidays?
    • Sut prynoch chi'ch car newydd? - How did you buy your new car?

    We can also use it in front of a noun or a name to ask 'What sort of place/person is xxx?' 'What is xxx like?' In this case, sut causes a soft mutation if it comes directly before a noun:

    • Sut le ydy Aber? - What sort of a place is Aber? What is Aber like? (lle -> le)
    • Sut un ydy Dewi Lingo? - What is Dewi Lingo like?
    • Sut berson ydy Hefin? - What sort of a person is Hefin? (person -> berson)
    • Sut un yw'r tŷ 'na? - What is that house like?
    • Sut roedd y tywydd yn Aber ddoe? - What was the weather like in Aber yesterday?

  • 41 Family2211 @ 25% 75 •••
    alys · brawd · brydferth · cefnder · ceri lingo · cyfnither · edrych · efo · ewythr · ffrog briodas · fodryb · gefnder · gyfnither · hefin · i'n · llysfab · llysfam · llysferch · lysfab · modryb · mrawd · nai · nhad · nith · perthnasau · priodas · priodfab · priodferch · priodi · prydferth · wyres · yng nghyfraith · ŵyr
    33 words

    Possessive pronouns

    To say 'my this', 'your that', 'our something else', and so on, we use possessive pronouns. These come in two parts in Welsh, one coming before the thing being owned, and one, optionally, after:

    • fy ... i - my
    • dy... di - your
    • ei ... e/o - his, its.
    • ei ... hi - hers, its
    • ein ... ni - our
    • eich ... chi - your
    • eu ... nhw - their

    The second, optional, part of the possessive pronoun is often used for emphasis, or to differentiate between his and hers. For example:

    • fy ffilm i - my film, my film
    • fy ffilm - my film (leaving out the optional second part)
    • ei seidr e/o - his cider, his cider
    • ei seidr hi - her cider, her cider
    • ein nai ni - our nephew, our nephew
    • ein nith - our niece
    • eich car chi - your car, your car
    • eu car coch newydd nhw - their new red car, their new red car
    • eu car - their car

    Mutations caused by some possessive pronouns

    After some of the possessive pronouns, there is also a mutation of the first letter of the word which follows them:

    • After fy (my) - a nasal mutation.
    • After dy (your) and ei (his) - a soft mutation.
    • After ei (her) - an aspirate mutation.

    After some of them, there is an additional h- breath sound (the same as 'h-' in 'has, happy', etc) in front of any vowels (a- e- i- o- u- w- y-) at the start of a following word:

    • ei - her
    • ein - our
    • eu - their

    (If it helps, think of it as 'hemphasising' the vowel.)

    Here is a summary of the changes:

    • Fy ... i + nasal mutation (my)
    • Dy ... di + soft mutation (your)
    • Ei ... e/o + soft mutation (his)
    • Ei ... hi + aspirate mutation/h- in front of vowels (her)
    • Ein ... ni + h- in front of vowels (our)
    • Eich ... chi (your) (no changes!)
    • Eu ... nhw + h- in front of vowels (their)

    Some examples:

    • fy nhad-cu - my grand-father
    • fy meic i - my bike
    • fy nghefnder Dewi - my cousin Dewi (cefnder - a male cousin)
    • fy *nghyfnither Sioned - my cousin Sioned (cyfnither - a female cousin)
    • fy llyfrau - my books
    • fy llyfrau a dy lyfrau - my books and your books
    • ei lyfrau a'i llyfrau - his books and her books
    • ei chath hi a'i gi o - her cat and his dog
    • ei harth - her bear
    • ei arth a'i hafal - his bear and her apple
    • ei ffilm o am ei naid barasiwt hi - his film about her parachute jump
    • ein harth, ei hafal a'i gi - our bear, her apple and his dog
    • eich car chi, dim fy nghar i - your car, not my car
    • Mae eu hafalau'n ddrud iawn. - Their apples are very expensive.
    • Mae eu harth a dy feic yn beryglus iawn. - Their bear and your bike are very dangerous.
    • Pam mae dy lyfrau di yn fy mag i? - Why are your books in my bag?

    Note how a + ei is shortened to a'i. This can be seen with other combinations of prepositions and possessives, too:

    • a + ei => a'i
    • a + ein => a'n
    • a + eich => a'ch
    • a + eu => a'u
    • gyda + ei => gyda'i
    • efo + ein => efo'n
    • o + eich => o'ch
    • â + ein => â'n
    • â + eu => â'u
    • i + ein => i'n
    • etc

    Note that after i (to/for) there is a different form with ei/eu:

    • i + ei -> i'w
    • i + eu -> i'w

    So:

    • Dw i'n mynd efo'i ffrindiau o - I'm going with his friends
    • Mae e'n mynd i'w thŷ - He is going to her house
    • Maen nhw'n prynu tatws i'w mam nhw - They are buying potatoes for their mother.
    • Dw i'n dawnsio gyda'u brawd nhw - I am dancing with their brother

    Table of the mutations

    As a reminder, here is a summary of the Welsh mutations of initial letters:

    Letter Soft Nasal Aspirate
    p b mh ph
    t d nh th
    c g ngh ch
    b f m
    d dd n
    g - ng
    m f
    ll * l
    rh * r

    Note that:

    • Letters not shown do not take a mutation.
    • Not all the letters take all the mutations.
    • In soft mutation, an initial g- is removed.
    • b- and m- both take a soft mutation to f-.
    • In a 'mixed' mutation, as explained in the relevant course notes about negative verbs, p-, t-, c- take an aspirate mutation and the others take a soft mutation.
    • In a very few circumstances, as explained in the relevant course notes, ll- and rh- (marked here with asterisks) resist a soft mutation. This is sometimes known as a 'weak' soft mutation.

  • 41 Revision3351 @ 25% 75 •••
    at · cyfrifiadur · cyngerdd · darllen · digwyddiad · gliniadur · llythyr · rhywun · rywun · teipio · tipyn bach o · ysgrifennodd · ysgrifennu
    13 words

    The aim of this section is to revise patterns already covered, to extend their application, and to introduce additional vocabulary.

    Prepositions causing soft mutation

    The prepositions that cause soft mutation in the immediately following word are:

    • am, ar, at
    • dros, drwy, dan (+)
    • i, o, wrth
    • heb, hyd, gan

    (+) and their variants tros, trwy, tan


    Writing to, Going to

    When saying to a person (rather than a place) with certain verbs, such as writing to or going to them, we use at instead of i for 'to':

    • mynd i Gaerdydd; mynd at y meddyg - going to Cardiff; going to the doctor
    • ysgrifennu i'r cyngor, ysgrifennu at Mr Williams - wring to the council, writing to Mr Williams
    • Similarly with anfon, gyrru, postio, etc The preposition at conjugates as follows:
    Conjugation of at English
    ata i to me
    atat ti to you (singular familiar)
    atoch chi to you (plural, formal)
    ati hi to her
    ato fe/fo to him
    aton ni to us
    atyn nhw to them
    at rywun to someone
    at Rhys to Rhys

    Note that at is one of the prepositions that are followed by a soft mutation.

    Remember that personal names resist mutation.

    Note that the preposition only conjugates when used with a pronoun, not with a noun:

    • Dw i'n ysgrifennu at Sioned. - I am writing to Sioned.
    • Dw i'n ysgrifennu ati hi. - I am writing to her.
    • Mae Dewi'n mynd at y deintydd. - Dewi is going to the dentist.
    • Mae Dewi'n mynd ato fo. - Dewi is going to him.

  • 41 HappyAgain521 @ 25% 75 •••
    baset ti'n · berthynas · boddau · byd · ddeallais i · ddwedaist ti · dwedais i · dy fodd · ei bodd · ei fodd · eich bodd · fferm · fy modd · glywaist ti · mi welais i · mi wnes i ddweud · mo · perthynas · stori · welais i · welaist ti
    21 words

    This unit looks at three different patterns.


    Saying/Thinking/Believing etc that...

    We often want to say something like:

    • I think that he is very good.
    • I believe that they are completely hopeless.
    • I said that he is a very good manager.
    • You used to claim that they always paid late.

    In Welsh we can use use forms of bod to make that link. If the second part of the sentences is in the present or the imperfect we use these forms:

    • Dw i'n dweud fy mod i'n iawn - I am saying that I am/was right
    • Ro'n i'n dweud dy fod ti'n iawn - I used to say that you were right
    • Mi wnes i glywed ei fod e'n hwyr - I heard that he was late
    • Dw i'n credu ei bod hi'n iawn - I believe that she's fine
    • Mae Dewi wedi clywed ein bod ni'n gweithio yn Aber - Dewi has heard that we are/were working in Aber
    • Maen nhw'n meddwl eich bod chi'n alluog - they think that you are/were skilled
    • Gwnes i weld eu bod nhw'n sâl - I saw that they were ill

    Note that the possessive pronoun before the bod is often dropped in colloquial Welsh, but any mutation remains:

    • Dw i'n meddwl fod ti'n gywir. - I think that you are correct.

    There are other forms of bod and other verbs that can be used to make the link, too:

    • Dw i'n meddwl (y) bydd popeth yn iawn - I think that everything will be fine. (sub-clause using the future tense of bod)
    • Ro'n i'n meddwl (y) basai hi'n hapus yno. - I thought that she would be happy there. (sub-clause using the conditional tense of bod)
    • Dw i'n meddwl (y) dylet ti fynd i prynu'r bara - I think that you should go to buy the bread. (sub-clause using another verb)

    **Note in written forms of Welsh 'y' indicates 'that' with those tenses. In the colloquial language, the 'y' is often omitted.


    Saying that you did not do/see/hear something specific

    We usually use ddim in a negative:

    • Dw i ddim yn gallu gweld cath - I cannot see a cat
    • Welais i ddim cathod yno - I saw no cats there, I did not see any cats there

    But we cannot use ddim with y/yr/'r or with proper nouns, names or pronouns. Instead we have to use a pattern similar to 'nothing of' in English - ddim o, which is almost always abbreviated to mo

    • Welais i ddim ffilm - I didn't see a film, but
    • Welais i mo'r ffilm - I didn't see the film
    • Welais i mo Dewi neithiwr - I didn't see Dewi last night
    • Ddarllenais i mo'i stori hi wrthyn nhw - I didn't read her story to them (ddim + o + ei = mo'i)
    • Pheintias i mo'r lolfa ddoe - I didn't paint the lounge yesterday

    Being 'really happy'

    The word bodd (pleasure) is used along with wrth + possessive pronouns which mutate the b- to express the idea of being 'really happy' about something.

    For example:

    • Dw i wrth fy modd yn fy swydd newydd. - I am really happy in my new job.
    • Roeddet ti wrth dy fodd yn Aber. - You were really happy in Aber.

    The forms are (and note the plural form boddau which is often used with plural pronouns):

    • wrth fy modd
    • wrth dy fodd
    • wrth ei fodd
    • wrth ei bodd
    • wrth ein bodd/boddau
    • wrth eich bodd/boddau
    • wrth eu bodd/boddau

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    18 words

    Soft mutation

    You may have heard of mutations in the Welsh language. In this unit we again use the first, and by far the most most common of these - soft mutation.

    After certain words and patterns, some consonants at the start of words 'soften'. Here is the complete list:

    Original letter Soft mutated letter
    p b
    t d
    c g
    b f
    d dd
    g -
    m f
    ll l
    rh r

    (Note that the g vanishes when it undergoes soft mutation)

    The main reason for soft mutation is that it allows the language to flow better when spoken, although sometimes it is due to reasons of grammar.

    More information about the soft mutation, y treiglad meddal, can be found here https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Welsh/Mutations#Soft_mutation.

    As you go through the course you will come across some more of the main reasons for soft mutation. Just pick them up and practise them as you go. Above all, when speaking Welsh do not worry if you miss a mutation.

    When you use a dictionary to look up a word you may need to take a possible mutation into account. Ofyn will not be in the dictionary, for example - you would need to look up Gofyn. Luckily, some on-line dictionaries such as www.gweiadur.com, and smartphone apps such as Ap Geiriaduron will handle mutated words.


    May I?

    Ga i...? is a very important phrase in Welsh meaning, simply:

    • 'May I ...' or 'Can I have (something)?'
    • 'May I ...' or 'Can I (do something)?'

    We use Ga i...? to ask for things:

    • Ga i afal? - May I have an apple?

    We also use it to ask for permission to do something:

    • Ga i fynd? - May I go? (notice the soft mutation here which has changed mynd (going, to go) to fynd

    The object (mynd, here) of a short-form verb such as this always takes a soft mutation if it can. Some more examples - check that you can see where the soft mutation comes in:

    • Ga i goffi? - May I have a coffee? (coffi -> goffi)
    • Ga i fynd nawr? - May I go now?
    • Ga i goffi, plîs? - Can I have a coffee, please
    • Ga i bapur? - May I have a paper?
    • Ga i siwgr, plîs? - May I have some sugar, please? (note - s does not mutate)
    • Ga i ddiod? - May I have a drink?
    • Ga i dalu nawr? - Can I pay now?

    If there is more than one word in the object phrase, just the first element takes the soft mutation:

    • Ga i lyfr mawr? - May I have a large book? (llyfr takes the mutation as the object of ga?)
    • Ga i'r llyfr? - May I have the book? (no mutation possible of 'r)
    • Ga i ddau lyfr? - May I have two books (dau takes the mutation because it is the first element of the object phrase, but the mutation of llyfr is for a different reason - it follows dau)

    Ga i? is a question form of the verb-noun cael. This has several meanings, one of which is 'to be allowed to', and it is this meaning that is being used in Ga i...?


    Answering

    • Ga i afal? Cei/Na chei. - May I have an apple? Yes/No. (ti-form)
    • Ga i afal? Cewch/Na chewch. - May I have an apple? Yes/No. (chi-form)

    Note the aspirate mutation following na:

    • na + aspirate mutation + cewch => na chewch

    Aspirate mutation

    The aspirate mutation (treiglad llaes) is far less common than the soft mutation. It only affects three initial consonants, p, t, c:

    • p => ph
    • t => th
    • c => ch

    Among other things, it follows a (and):

    • pannas a phys - parsnips and peas
    • trên a thractor - a train and a tractor
    • coffi a chacen - coffee and cake

    Please

    There are several ways of saying 'please':

    • Os gwelwch chi'n dda.
    • Os gwelwch yn dda - a slight variation.
    • Plîs - simple and widely used, especially informally
    • Os gweli di'n dda - The ti form.

    Verb-nouns

    The basic form of verbs that you will look up in a Welsh dictionary is called a 'verb-noun'. By the end of this unit you will have met, for example, gofyn, talu, hoffi, yfed, gwneud and several others. The nearest equivalent in English is the '-ing' form of words - asking, paying, liking,... or the 'to xxx' form - to ask, to pay, to like, ....

    Note - if you are asked to translate this sort of word on its own, not as part of a longer phrase on this course, use the forms 'xxxing' or 'to xxx'. Do not answer with just 'xxx' (eat, like, drink, swim, etc) as those can often be mixed up with nouns (a swim, a drink, ...) or commands (eat!, drink!).


    Britishisms - a cup of tea or 'cuppa'

    'A cup of tea', or 'a cuppa' is a common thing to ask for in Britain. The Welsh equivalent is paned, or in some dialects disgled. 'Te'/'tea' need not be specified.

    If you mean 'a cup of coffee', say, you should specify paned/disgled o goffi.


  • 41 Education2553 @ 25% 75 •••
    adran · almaeneg · brifysgol · celf · cerddoriaeth · chwaraeon · coleg · cwrs · cyrraedd · enghraifft · feithrin · ffrangeg · graddio · gwers · gwyddoniaeth · hanes · mathemateg · nodyn · phrifysgol · prifysgol · sbaeneg · seminar · tymor · ymarfer
    24 words

    Forgotten your ruler (pren mesur) and pencil (pensil)? DETENTION! Done your Duolingo homework (gwaith cartre) - gold star!


    Education System in Wales / Y System Addysg yng Nghymru

    The education system in Wales includes the Foundation Phase (y Cyfnod Sylfaen), Key Stage 1 (Cyfnod Allweddol 1), KS2, KS3, and KS4 (GCSE / TGAU).

    KS3 sees the first phase of compulsory secondary education (addysg uwchradd) and pupils are aged 11 - 14. This KS includes Years 7, 8, and 9.

    KS4 sees the last phase of compulsory secondary education (and education in general) and pupils are aged 15 - 16. This KS includes Years 10 and 11 and is called GCSE - General Certificate of Secondary Education (TGAU - Tystysgrif Gyffredinol Addysg Uwchradd). KS3 and KS4 (Years 7 to 11) are taught in Secondary Schools.

    After compulsory education, pupils who qualify can continue post-16 education (addysg ôl-16) at Six Form (y Chweched Dosbarth) or College (y Coleg) (both termed as FE - Further Education / AB - Addysg Bellach)), take Apprenticeships (Prentisiaethau), or start in the world of work, and eventually move on to University (Prifysgol) (termed as HE - Higher Education, AU - Addysg Uwch).


    Welsh-medium education - Addysg cyfrwng Cymraeg

    All schools in Wales teach Welsh (termed as "Welsh second language" in English-medium schools (ysgolion Saesneg) and as "Welsh first language" in Welsh-medium schools (ysgolion Cymraeg).

    There are currently (2016) 65,460 pupils in primary education who receive their education through the medium of the Welsh language, which equates to 24% of the overall total. 36,485 pupils in secondary education also receive their education though the medium of Welsh, which equates to 20% of the overall total.

    At the time of writing (mis Mehefin 2016), the Welsh Government, lead by Professor Graham Donaldson, is restructuring the whole curriculum from the Foundation Phase to GCSE. This new curriculum will be available for implementation from mis Medi 2018 onwards and is hoped to be fully implemented by yr haf 2021.


  • 41 Shapes and colours161 @ 25% 75 •••
    arian · bach · ciwb · cylch · fach · hecsagon · hir · mawr · petryal · seren · sgwâr · triongl
    12 words

    This is a small unit about some shapes in Welsh. Colours are also reviewed.

    Remember some common guidelines:

    • Adjectives generally follow the noun.
    • A few adjectives usually come before the noun, causing a soft mutation of the noun. For example, hen, prif, holl, cryn.
    • A feminine noun causes a following adjective to take a soft mutation.
    • Where a feminine noun is followed by an unbroken series of adjectives, they all take a soft mutation.
    • Adjectives of size come before adjectives of colour.
    • The adjective arall/eraill (other) comes last in a sequence.

    There is a more complicated sequence of types of adjective, but that is not likely to be very useful until you study more advanced Welsh.


  • 41 Adverbs2551 @ 25% 75 •••
    amdana i · amdanat ti · amdani hi · amdano fe · amdanoch chi · amdanon ni · amdanyn nhw · amyneddgar · canais i · cymharu · cysgais i · ddewr · dilyn · dramor · dynn · edrych · frys · gadawodd · gwariodd · gwenais i · gwrandawodd · sownd · treuliodd · tynnais i · uchel · ymladdodd
    26 words

    These lessons show how to describe actions with adverbs, especially about how we do things - this a a revision and extension of Adverbs1.

    The last lesson also introduces the the preposition am ('about', or sometimes 'for').


    Adverbs - describing how and when we do things

    We often need to say how, when, where or why we do things, and we do this by using adverbs:

    • I ran quickly.
    • I held tightly onto the rope.
    • She shouted loudly.
    • They explained things clearly.

    One way of doing this in Welsh is to create the adverb from an adjective by putting yn/'n between the verb and the adjective:

    • Ro'n i'n aros yn amyneddgar - I was waiting patiently (amyneddgar - patient -> yn amyneddgar - patiently)
    • Bydd hi'n bwrw glaw'n drwm - It will be raining heavily (trwm - heavy)

    Remember that yn causes a weak soft mutation of a following noun or adjective (no mutation of ll-, rh-)

    While the method shown above is a simple way of creating adverbs, there are other expressions which can describe how and we do things - they don't all use yn:

    • ar frys - in a hurry/rush
    • mewn penbleth - in confusion
    • o gwmpas - around
    • ddydd Llun - on Monday
    • ar ddydd Llun - on Mondays

    • Ro'n i'n rhedeg o gwmpas y dref ar frys ddydd Llun - I was running around town in a rush on Monday

    Note that adverbs saying when we do things are usually mutated:

    • Es i yno ddoe - yesterday (the original doe is not seen in the modern language)
    • Gwela i ti ddydd Gwener - I'll see you on Friday
    • wastad - always (from gwastad)
    • Gwnes i fe ddwywaith - I did it twice
    • Roedden ni'n mynd yno bob wythnos - we used to go there every week
    • Aeth hi yno flwyddyn yn ôl - she went there a year ago

    We may also need to say why we do things - that will be covered later in the course.


    Am (about, for) - how it changes with the person to whom it refers

    Am is one of several Welsh prepositions that take additional endings in front of personal pronouns:

    • Mae Siân yn aros am y bws - Siân is waiting for the bus
    • Mae hi'n aros am ei phlant - she is waiting for her children

    Very straightforward. But what if she is waiting for you?

    • Mae Siân yn aros amdanat ti - Siân is waiting for you
    • Mae Sian yn aros amdanoch chi i gyd - Siân is waiting for you all.

    Now she is searching for Dewi, or her gloves:

    • Mae hi'n chwilio amdano fe/fo - she is searching for him (chwilio am - to search for)
    • Mae hi'n chwilio amdanyn nhw - she is searching for them

    In full, this is how am conjugates:

    • amdana i - for me
    • amdanat ti - for you (singular familiar)
    • amdano fe/fo - for him
    • amdani hi - for her
    • andanon ni - for us
    • amdanoch chi - for you (formal or plural)
    • amdanyn nhw - for them

    Those are the common forms used on this course - you may come across minor variations elsewhere.


    Remember that in Welsh, as in other languages, there are words which can have more than one meaning. In this unit, for example you will meet ysgol - 'a ladder', or 'a school'.


    (Note - For those people who already know some Welsh, please note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - responses without the pronouns may not always be accepted.)


    Ever or never - byth, erioed

    As a reminder, byth and erioed are used to mean both 'ever' and 'never', depending on the context. In a negative sentence they can be used in place of ddim to mean 'never'. They are used with particular tenses:

    • erioed is used with completed tenses in the past - the present perfect, the simple past and the pluperfect.
    • byth is used with other tenses - the present, future, imperfect past and the conditional.

    For example:

    • Dyw hi byth yn mynd yno. Dyw hi ddim yn mynd yno byth. - She never goes there.
    • Doedd hi byth yn mynd yno. Doedd hi ddim yn mynd yno byth. - She never used to go there.
    • Fydd hi byth yn mynd yno. - She will never go there.
    • Fydd hi byth mynd i Fangor? - Will she ever go to Bangor?
    • Dyw hi erioed wedi mynd yno. Dyw hi ddim wedi mynd yno erioed. - She has never been there.
    • Aeth hi yno erioed? - Did she ever go there?
    • Doedd hi erioed wedi bod yno. - She had never been there.

  • 41 Commands 1281 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar bwys · bwytwch · cylchdro · darllenwch · dewch · dillad · edrychwch · ewch · ffoniwch · golchwch · goleuadau · heibio · llyfrgell · neuadd · peidiwch · postiwch · rhedwch · tacluswch · trowch i'r chwith · trowch i'r dde · wrth · yfwch · yn araf · yn gyflym
    24 words

    Giving commands

    Cymraeg, along with many other European languages, has separate command forms of the verb.

    Firstly, we have to identify the stem of the verb. Looking at the basic for of the verb, the 'verb-noun', as found in dictionaries, we can, in general, remove the following endings if they are present:

    • -a, -i, -o, -u, -eg, -ed, -an, -yd, -yll

    For example:

    • bwyta -> bwyt-
    • coginio -> cogini-
    • canu -> can-
    • rhedeg -> rhed-
    • cerdded -> cerdd-

    If the word does not end with one of those endings, the stem is usually the same as the basic form

    • chwarae -> chwarae-
    • edrych -> edrych-
    • eistedd -> eistedd-
    • deall -> deall-

    Once we have the stem, we generally add one of two endings to give us the command form:

    • -a is added for the familiar, singular ti form
    • -wch is added for the plural or formal chi form

    This section of the course practises the plural or formal -wch form.

    For convenience on this course, we will generally add an exclamation mark after the commands to make them easier to identify. For example:

    • bwyta!, bwytwch! - eat!
    • coginia!, coginiwch! - cook!
    • cana!, canwch! - sing!
    • rheda!, rhedwch! - run!
    • cerdda!, cerddwch! - walk!

    There are several more detailed rules for finding stems and there are some irregular command forms too. Here are some common ones:

    • aros (arhos-) - arhosa!, arhoswch! - wait!
    • ennill (enill-) - enilla!, enillwch! - win!
    • gorffen (gorffenn-) - gorffenna!; gorffennwch! - finish!
    • gweld (gwel-) - gwela!, gwelwch! - see!
    • sefyll (saf-) - saf!; sefwch! - stand up!
    • troi (tro-) - tro!, trowch! - turn!

    And very importantly, these irregular command forms:

    • bod - bydd!; byddwch! - be!
    • mynd - cer/dos!; cerwch/ewch! - go!
    • dod - dere/tyrd/ty'd!; dewch/dowch! - come!
    • gwneud - gwna!; gwnewch! - do!, make!

    Note that cael has no command forms.

    Other exceptional forms will come up from time to time in the course, so keep an eye on the pop-up hints. For example:

    • gwrando (gwrandaw-) - gwranda!, gwrandewch! - listen!

    Soft mutation after a command

    The command forms are short-form verbs, so if they are followed by an object, that object takes a soft mutation, as usual:

    • Dwedwch rywbeth! - Say something! (rhywbeth)
    • Darllena lyfr! - Read a book! (llyfr)

    Telling someone not to do something

    We can tell somebody to eat their vegetables - Bwytwch eich llysiau! - but we often need to tell someone not to do something, too.

    Paid! and Peidiwch! are command forms from the verb-noun peidio ('to refrain from') and we use those as negative commands:

    • Peidiwch â bwyta'r glo! - Don't eat the coal!
    • Peidiwch â bwyta'r madarch 'na! - Don't eat those mushrooms!

    Note that Paid â...! and Peidiwch â...! are translated into English as 'Don't...!' or 'Do not...!, (not as * 'Refrain from...!')

    Peidio and its forms are followed by the preposition â, although it is often omitted in casual speech. Where it is used, â is followed by an aspirate mutation of p-, t-, c-:

    • Peidiwch â phrynu...! - Don't buy...! (prynu)
    • Peidiwch â thalu...! - Don't pay...! (talu)
    • Peidiwch â chwyno am...! - Don't complain about...! (cwyno)

    Remember that â changes to ag before vowels:

    • Peidiwch ag edrych i lawr! - Don't look down!

    Remember not to mix ti and chi in the same sentence

    It would be strange to mix familiar ti and formal/plural chi forms when addressing someone, so stick to one form or the other in a sentence:

    • Pryna lysiau ar dy ffordd adre, wnei di? - Buy some vegetables on your way home, will you? (ti-forms)
    • Prynwch lysiau ar eich ffordd adre, wnewch chi? - Buy some vegetables on your way home, will you? (chi-forms)

    Not all words get translated one-for-one between English and Welsh

    This is a convenient place to mention that not all words get translated one-for-one between English and Welsh. Here are some examples:

    • sefyll - to stand (up), standing (up), - no need for the 'up' in the Welsh
    • eistedd - to sit (down), sitting (down)
    • trowch i'r chwith/dde - to turn (to the) left/right (the 'to the' is optional in the English)
    • mynd heibio i - to go past (the i is required in the Welsh)
    • gyferbyn â - opposite (the â is not translated)
    • mynd â - to take, taking
    • dod â - to bring, bringing
    • garddio - to garden, to do the garden(ing) (no need to translate the 'to do' here)

    To read more about command forms, visit http://clwbmalucachu.co.uk/cmc/cheat/cheat_commands.htm


  • 41 Countries162 @ 25% 75 •••
    affrica · alban · almaen · america · antarctig · anthem · ar draws · awstralia · baner · byw · caerdydd · caeredin · canada · cefnfor · cymru · daearyddiaeth · ddulyn · de america · dod o · dulyn · efrog newydd · eidal · ewrop · fawr · ffrainc · gaerdydd · genedlaethol · gogledd america · gwlad · gwledydd · gymru · i · iwerddon · lloegr · llundain · llydaw · môr · môr iwerydd · môr tawel · môr y canoldir · môr y gogledd · ne america · ngogledd america · norwy · ogledd america · prifddinas · prydain · sbaen · unol daleithiau · wreiddiol · yn · yr ariannin
    52 words

    This section introduces some names of countries, and how to say 'to', 'from' and 'in' places. It revises the soft mutation and introduces the nasal mutation.


    To and from - i and o with soft mutation

    When saying "to somewhere" or "from somewhere" in Cymraeg, the prepositions i ('to') and o ('from, of') are used.

    Note the soft mutation after i and o - this happens whenever i is used to mean 'to', and where o is used to mean 'from' or 'of'.

    For example:

    • i Gymru - to Wales
    • i Lydaw - to Brittany
    • o Batagonia - from Patagonia
    • o Gaerdydd - from Cardiff
    • i Lanidloes - to Llanidloes
    • i Ros - to Rhos
    • o Lundain - from London
    • o Ddolgellau - from Dolgellau
    • i Fangor - to Bangor

    Countries and Oceans

    Some places in Cymraeg have y/yr in front of them. For example:

    • yr Almaen - Germany
    • yr Eidal - Italy
    • yr Alban - Scotland
    • yr Aifft - Egypt
    • y Swistir - Switzerland

    This is the same for the use of 'the' in English sometimes:

    • yr Antarctig - the Antarctic
    • y Caribî - the Caribbean

    Although Welsh has a word for 'ocean', 'cefnfor', seas and oceans are usually named using the Welsh for 'sea', môr

    • Y Môr Celtaidd - The Celtic/Irish Sea
    • Môr Iwerydd - The Atlantic Ocean (in current general usage - other forms are sometimes used)

    Yn - reminders

    Remember that yn as a preposition meaning 'in' does not get abbreviated to 'n. When it is used as a particle to link to verbs or to nouns and adjectives, it does get abbreviated:

    • Dw i yn Aber - I am in Aber - no abbreviation
    • Dw i'n mynd - I am going - abbreviation
    • Dw i'n hapus - I am happy - abbreviation

    Remember that yn never causes soft mutation of words beginning with ll- or rh-, no matter what function it has in the sentence:

    • Dydy Siôn ddim yn llon iawn yn Llundain neu yn Rhos. - Siôn is not very cheerful in London or in Rhos.

    Nasal mutations following yn when it is a preposition meaning 'in'

    When yn means 'in', and only then, it causes a nasal mutation of several letters (never a soft mutation) and can undergo changes itself.

    Here is the nasal mutation - note the pattern where there is an -h- in the first three in the list, but no -h- in the second three:

    • P- -> Mh-
    • T- -> Nh-
    • C- -> Ngh-
    • B- -> M-
    • D- -> N-
    • G- -> Ng-

    Only when it means 'in', yn changes to ym before m-, and to yng before ng-. Here are some examples with some names of Welsh towns showing both the nasal mutation and the changes to yn:

    • Pwllheli - ym Mhwllheli - in Pwllheli
    • Tywyn - yn Nhywyn - in Tywyn
    • Caerdydd - yng Nghaerdydd
    • Bangor - ym Mangor
    • Dolgellau - yn Nolgellau
    • Garn - yng Ngarn

    Other - Arall, Eraill

    The adjective arall (other, another) has a plural form eraill which must be used with plural nouns:

    • y ferch arall; y merched eraill - the other girl; the other girls
    • gwlad arall; gwledydd eraill - another country; other countries

    The Welsh flag, The Scottish team, ...

    There is a particular pattern to use when describing 'the something of ' or 'the something.

    Remember how we say 'Owen's car':

    • car Owen - Owen's car (= 'the car of Owen')

    The equivalents of 'the' and 'of' in the awkward-sounding, expanded English version are not needed in the Welsh:

    • blows Sioned - Sioned's blouse (= 'the blouse of Sioned')
    • tŷ fy mam - my mother's house (= 'the house of my mother')

    Similarly, 'the Welsh team' ('the team of Wales') translates as tîm Cymru - no y/yr/'r:

    • tîm Norwy - the Norwegian team
    • tîm Ffrainc - the French team
    • baner yr Alban - the Scottish flag

    Note that the yr is only there in the third example because yr Alban is the word for 'Scotland'.

    • baner Cymru - the Welsh flag ('the flag of Wales')
    • tîm Lloegr - the English team
    • cefn gwlad Ffrainc - the French country-side

    So:

    • lliw baner Cymru - the colour(s) of the Welsh flag

    There is still no y/yr/'r in the Welsh phrase.


  • 41 Emphasise1412 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar hyn o bryd · ateb · biau · cyfarfod · dim ond · eiliad · gadael · gyfrifol · hon · honno · hwn · hyn · neges · rhywun · sy 'ma · sy 'na · sy'n · y tro nesa
    18 words

    Emphatic sentences

    In an emphatic sentence the word order changes so that the subject comes first. For example, early in the course we met:

    • Megan ydw i - I am Megan
    • Athrawes yw Megan - Megan is a teacher

    Now, instead of emphasising Megan's name or occupation we can emphasise that, for example, Megan who is in a particular place:

    • Megan sy yma - 'It is Megan who is here', or 'Megan is here'
    • Dewi sy yma, hefyd - Dewi is here, too.
    • Fi sy'n prynu'r car 'na heddiw - It's me who's buying that car today

    Note that this requires a different form of the verb - instead of mae or ydy/yw - sy (you may also see the full form of sy - sydd).

    Note that sy is only used for this purpose in the present tense. In the future tense we use fydd, and in the imperfect we use oedd.

    Note that nowadays the English pattern 'It is I who is...', It is she who is...' is rarely used in English except in very formal situations, so despite it's being grammatically correct, it is not used on this course. We use the less formal 'It is me/us/her who...', which is a better match for the informal register of Welsh taught on this course.


    Emphasising who it is who owns something

    So far we have met:

    • Mae pensil gyda fi. - I have a pencil.
    • Oes pensil gyda ti? - Do you have a pencil?

    Now I pick up a pencil that I think is yours, not mine, not Dewi's. I want to ask 'Is this your pencil? There is a very irregular verb that we use for this: - biau (sometimes seen as piau). biau is only used with an emphatic pattern.

    In the colloquial language this pattern is:

    • Chi sy biau hwn? - Is this yours?
    • Dewi sy biau'r pensil 'ma? - Is this pencil Dewi's?

    To state who owns it, we just drop the question mark and we do not lift our voice towards the end of the question:

    • Dewi sy biau'r pensil 'na. - Dewi owns that pencil.

    Note that you will also come across the pattern without sy being used - that is perfectly valid, too, and it is in fact the normal pattern in more formal Welsh, as the sy is not strictly necessary. Where sy is used, there is no 'n/yn following sy - biau is a verb, not a verb-noun.


  • 41 Travelling171 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar y · awyren · ble · dros · dyma · fferi · gwyliau · modur · nesa · pam · penderfynu · penwythnos · trên
    13 words

    This unit introduces some vocabulary and patterns to use about travelling.


    Where?

    To ask 'Where?', we use Ble?. In some mid-and north Wales dialects you will come across Lle? instead:

    • Ble dych chi'n mynd ar eich gwyliau? - Where are you going on your holiday?
    • Ble mae hi'n mynd i gwrdd â Dewi? - Where is she going to meet Dewi?
    • Lle dach chi'n aros nos yfory? - Where are you staying tomorrow night?
    • Lle bydd y cynhebrwng? - Where will the funeral be?

    Here is... There is...

    If you want to show something or point out something to somebody, as in 'Here is a good place to sit', 'This is a nice cake', we use:

    • Dyma... - 'Here is...' or 'This is...'

    A similar word is used for 'There is his car', That is a nice cake':

    • Dyna... - There is...' or 'That is...'

    Both words are followed by a soft mutation:

    • Dyma gadair gyfforddus - Here's a comfortable chair (cadair)
    • Dyma drên - Here is/This is a train. (trên)
    • Dyma'r cacen! - This is the cake!
    • Dyma gacen - Here's a cake.
    • Dyna Hefin! - There's Hefin!
    • Dyna westy ddrud - There's an expensive hotel. (gwesty)

    Superlative (-est) forms of adjectives

    This section introduces the word nesa, meaning 'next' or 'nearest'. The fuller form of this is nesaf, but the final -f is often dropped in colloquial speech and writing.

    This is an example of a superlative adjective, the '-est' form such as nearest, closest, best, furthest, dearest, greenest, biggest and so on.

    Superlative adjectives ending in -a are not always shown in a Welsh dictionary, so remember to look them up with an ending of -af.


    Doing something 'next/last month'

    Remember that when saying we are doing something on a particular day we mutate dydd... to ddydd.... This is because ddydd Llun, say, is being used as an adverb to say when we are doing it. We do the same with mis nesa (next month) and mis diwetha (last month) if we use those in the same way:

    • Dw i'n mynd ar wyliau ddydd Gwener. - I am going on holuday on Friday.
    • Mae hi'n mynd ar wyliau fis nesa. - She is going on holiday next month.
    • Aethon ni i'r Alban fis diwetha. - We went to Scotland last month.

  • 41 Politics651 @ 25% 75 •••
    blaid · bleidleisio · ceidwadol · chwyldro · cyffredin · cynghorydd · cyngor tref · cynulliad · deyrnas unedig · eleni · etholiad · etholiadau lleol · geidwadol · gomiwnyddol · gwrth- · gyffredin · heddwch · heddychwr · heddychwraig · hiliaeth · isetholiad · lafur · llywodraeth · plaid · polisïau · prif weinidog · rwsia · seddi · senedd · sir · sosialaidd · sosialydd · werdd · wlad · ymgyrchu · ymgyrchydd
    36 words

    This unit introduces vocabulary for political parties and other political terms.


    Saying that someone has just done something

    The word newydd has already come up as an adjective meaning 'new'. However, it can also be used as an adverb following forms of bod to mean 'just' as in 'I have just washed the car'. In this pattern it replaces wedi and causes soft mutation:

    • Dw i newydd olchi'r car. - I have just washed the car.
    • Dw i newydd sefyll yr arholiad. - I have just sat the exam.
    • Maen nhw newydd gwblhau'r pos. - They have just finished the puzzle.
    • Bydd Dewi newydd orffen gwaith am ddeg o'r gloch heno. - Dewi will have just finished work at ten o'clock this evening.

    Expressions such as Senedd Cymru ('the Welsh Parliament')

    Note that in Welsh we do not use the definite article y ('the') in front of two proper nouns put together to form a proper noun phrase such as Senedd Cymru.


    The Senedd

    As an institution, the national elected body of Wales was renamed Senedd Cymru in May 2020. It was formerly known as Cynulliad Cymru (the Welsh Assembly). In English it is now known as 'Welsh Parliament', or more often just 'the Senedd'. See https://senedd.wales/en/abthome/Pages/abthome.aspx

    There may have been a short-lived parliament during Owen Glyndŵr's time in the Middle Ages, although the building in Machynlleth where it was once reputed to have been held is now known to date to some time after Glyndŵr.

    As a word on its own, senedd simply translates as 'a parliament' or 'a senate'.

    Wales has had regular representation in the Westminster parliament since 1536. The Westminster parliament is usually known informally in Welsh as San Steffan after the St Stephen's entrance to the House of Commons.


    Forms of address - personal titles

    y is also used in front of people's professional and honorary titles, where it represent a form of address:

    • Yr Athro ap Gwilym - Professor ap Gwilym
    • Y Doethur Tudur Jones - Dr Tudur Jones
    • Yr Arglwydd Wigley - Lord Wigley

    This is also used when addressing praise (or not!) to someone:

    • Y seren! - You star!
    • Yr arwr! - You hero!
    • Y druan! - You poor thing!
    • Y ionc! - You twit!

    Welsh Government and politics

    Following a series of devolutions, the people of Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland now have their own parliaments or assemblies with some devolved powers and the ability to make local laws covering some subjects. Wales was granted devolution in 1999.

    These parliaments/assemblies are responsible for a wide range of devolved powers. As at Jun 2016, Wales has twenty subjects of devolved power, including Health, Education, Social welfare, Environment, Economic development and Culture. A new devolution agreement for Wales is currently (June 2016) under discussion.


    Political parties in Wales

    The main political parties in Wales following the Assembly elections of 2016 are:

    • y Blaid Lafur - The Labour Party
    • y Blaid Geidwadol - The Conservative Party
    • Plaid Cymru - Plaid Cymru (the Welsh nationalist party, literally - 'the Party of Wales', but it is not usually translated into English)
    • Plaid y Democratiaid Rhydfrydol - the Liberal Democratic Party - (lit - 'the Party of the Liberal Democrats')
    • PADU (Plaid Annibyniaeth y Deyrnas Unedig) - UKIP (the United Kingdom Independence Party)

    In the names of the parties, note that we only use y in front of those where the noun Plaid is followed by an adjective (llafur, ceidwadol) rather than by another noun (Cymru, Annibyniaeth)

    Remember that Plaid is a feminine noun, so that it mutates after y, and itself causes mutation of a following adjective:

    • y Blaid Lafur
    • y Blaid Geidwadol

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    12 words
  • 41 Business622 @ 25% 75 •••
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    17 words

    This section introduces some vocabulary about businesses and companies.

    It also provides a chance to revise the prepositions i, yn, mewn.

    Remember also the distinction between the indefinite a (no equivalent in Welsh) and the (yr, 'r, y).


    If we want to say that we work for a company, we use the preposition i. Remember that i causes a soft mutation (but not usually of names of companies):

    • Dw i'n gweithio i gwmni mawr - I work for a large company.

    Be careful to distinguish for a... and for... from for the...:

    • Dyn ni'n gweithio i fusnes bach yn y pentref - We work for a small business in the village.

    • Mae Siôn yn gweithio i Tesco - Siôn works for Tesco.

    • Dw i'n gweithio i'r cwmni mwya yn y dre - I work for the largest company in the town.

    If we are discussing working in an un-named or non-specific place or organisation, we use mewn instead of i:

    • Maen nhw'n gweithio mewn siop leol - They work in a local shop.

    But if it is somewhere particular, we use the preposition yn, which, remember, causes a nasal mutation:

    • Dych chi'n gweithio yn y dafarn fwya yn yr ardal - You work in the largest pub in the area.

    • Mae Dewi'n gweithio yn yr archfarchnad - Dewi works in the supermarket.

    • Wyt ti'n gweithio yng Nghaerdydd? - Do you work in Cardiff?

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    15 words

    The section introduces some terms to do with banking and making payments.


    Contactless payments

    A rapidly spreading technology, especially in Britain, allows payments of small amounts of money, up to a few tens of pounds usually, to be made by payment card or by a smart-phone app without having to enter any details such as PIN codes. This works by just holding the card or phone very close to the payment terminal. This is termed 'contactless payment' in English, or talu'n ddigyffordd ('paying contactlessly') in Welsh.


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    17 words

    This unit introduces some vocabulary to do with shopping


    The 'bag for life'

    Because of the huge amount of poorly recyclable, flimsy plastic bags being given away each day by shops and supermarkets in Britain, shops now have to charge a small amount for them. The proceeds go to charity. This has been very successful in hugely reducing the numbers of these bags being used and thrown away. Instead, people now tend to use more durable, longer-lived shopping bags, nick-named 'bags for life' - the life of the bag, anyway:

    • bag am oes - a bag for life

    The 'checkout' or 'cash desk'

    • y ddesg talu - the checkout, the cash desk

    desg is a feminine noun - we can tell that because it mutates after y. So why has talu not mutated - after all, it looks as though it is acting as an adjective, as in a paying desk?

    Instead, talu here is acting as another noun. We know by now that desg Owen means 'Owen's desk' ('desk of Owen'). So, desg talu here means 'desk of paying' - the desk where we pay, the 'checkout'.


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    14 words

    This section introduces some vocabulary to use about the home, and it gives an opportunity to practice some patterns and rules you have met already.

    About a third of Welsh nouns are feminine, and although there are some rough guides as to how to recognise them, there are also many exceptions. The best thing is to learn the gender of nouns as you first meet them. If you make lists of the words that you learn, note those that are feminine.

    It is also useful to look up and note down the plurals, too - Gweiadur Pawb and Geiriadur yr Academi are useful on-line dictionaries to help you. The Gweiadur gives both Welsh to English and English to Welsh, it often has examples of how the words are used, and it often has real voice recordings of the pronunciation of the Welsh words.


    Soft mutations and feminine nouns

    Firstly, the definite article y/yr/'r causes weak soft mutation of feminine nouns (that is, it does not cause mutation of words beginning with ll- or rh-).

    Secondly, remember that an adjective following a feminine noun undergoes soft mutation.

    Some feminine nouns used about the home include:

    • lolfa (lolfeydd) - a lounge (lounges)
    • cegin (ceginau) - a kitchen (kitchens)
    • ystafell (ystafelloedd) - a room
    • cadair (cadeiriau) - a chair
    • gardd (gerddi) - a garden

    Remember that plural nouns lose their singular gender, so they do not undergo, or cause, either of the mutations mentioned above.

    So:

    • y lolfa fawr - the big lounge
    • ystafell fyw - a living room
    • y gegin fawr - the large kitchen
    • yr ystafell wely fach - the small bedroom
    • yr ardd daclus fach - the small, tidy garden
    • y llen liwgar - the colourful curtain

    But:

    • y lolfeydd mawr - the large lounges
    • ystafelloedd byw - living rooms
    • y ceginau mawr - the big kitchens
    • ystafelloedd gwely bach - small bedrooms
    • y gerddi taclus bach - the small, tidy gardens
    • y llenni lliwgar - the colourful curtains
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    22 words

    Forgotten your ruler (pren mesur) and pencil (pensil)? DETENTION! Done your Duolingo homework (gwaith cartre) - gold star!


    The Education System in Wales / Y System Addysg yng Nghymru

    The education system in Wales includes the Foundation Phase (y Cyfnod Sylfaen), Key Stage 1 (Cyfnod Allweddol 1), KS2, KS3, and KS4 (GCSE / TGAU).

    The Foundation Phase includes children 3 - 7 years old. Children are encouraged to be creative and imaginative and learn by taking part in practical activities instead of working through exercises in textbooks. This Phase includes Nursery (yr Ysgol Feithrin) and Reception (y Dosbarth Derbyn) (see -http://www.theschoolrun.com/overview-welsh-education-system).

    Key Stage 1 sees the start of compulsory education age and pupils are aged 5 - 7.

    KS2 sees the second phase of compulsory education and pupils are aged 7 - 11. KS1 and KS2 (Years 1 to 6) are taught in Primary Schools (Ysgolion Cynradd).

    See the notes for 'Education 2' to find out about Key Stage 3, further education and Welsh-medium education.

    At the time of writing (mis Mehefin 2016), the Welsh Government, lead by Professor Graham Donaldson, is restructuring the whole curriculum from the Foundation Phase to GCSE. This new curriculum will be available for implementation from mis Medi 2018 onwards and is hoped to be fully implemented by yr haf 2021.


    Medium of education

    In Wales, schools at each level are often described by their 'medium of education', that is, the language through which the education is provided. Schools can be 'Welsh-medium', 'Bilingual' or 'English-medium'.

    In this sense, the word for 'medium' is cyfrwng, as in addysg cyfrwng Cymraeg (Welsh-medium education). However, that is not needed in expressions such as ysgol Gymraeg (a Welsh-medium school) or ysgol Saesneg (an English-medium school), where Cymraeg or Saesneg are used as adjectives meaning Welsh/English-medium.


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    29 words

    An adferf (adverb) is a word or phrase that modifies a verb or adjective, often saying how something is done. In Cymraeg, they can often be created by using the pattern of yn plus an adjective (with a weak soft mutation). For example:

    • Tawel: Mae Siân yn siarad yn dawel. - Siân is speaking quietly.
    • Swnllyd: Roedd y plant yn gweithio'n swnllyd. - The children were working noisily.
    • Tyner: Mae Dafydd yn mwytho'r gath yn dyner iawn. - Dafydd is stroking the cat very gently.

    Note the contraction of yn to 'n following a vowel.

    Note that the intensifier iawn ('very') can also be used, as in the example above.

    Note that yn causes a 'weak soft mutation' in this usage - it does not mutate words beginning with ll- or rh- :

    • Mae'r plant yn chwarae'n llon. - The children are playing happily.
    • Roedd yr olwyn yn troi'n rhydd. - The wheel was spinning freely.

    Soft mutation of some words used as adverbs

    Some adverbs are formed by a soft mutation of a basic word rather than by prefixing them with yn:

    • Mae e'n gwaedu lawer. - He is bleeding a lot.
    • Dw i'n hoffi mynd am dro weithiau. - I like to go for a walk sometimes.

    With some of these, the basic unmutated word or phrase is not used or very uncommon in the colloquial language:

    • Es i yno ddoe. - I went there yesterday. (no doe)
    • Gwelais i Sam gynnau. - I saw Sam just now. (no cynnau, except an unrelated verb-noun)
    • Mae hi'n gweithio yn Aber dros dro. - She is working in Aber temporarily. (no tros dro*)

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    12 words

    Some British expressions

    We realise that there are many people using this course who are not familiar with some British activities , so here are some notes which may help.

    A coffee morning is a morning social gathering at which coffee or tea is available. In the Welsh context it often provides an opportunity to socialise though the medium of Cymraeg, as well as for those learning the language to gain confidence in speaking Cymraeg and to talk about learning Cymraeg. Some coffee mornings are also held to raise money for good causes.

    A car boot sale often takes place in a large open area where people can offer things for sale from the boot of their car. There are usually many people doing this in the same place together. Not the same as a 'garage sale'.


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    22 words

    The 'simple past' tense of bod

    When talking about actions that started and completed within specific periods of times in the past in Cymraeg, a simple past form of the verb bod (being, to be) bu- can be used instead of the imperfect tense roedd-.

    The simple past of bod is conjugated as follows in the colloquial language:

    • bues i
    • buest ti
    • buodd/bu fe/hi
    • buon ni
    • buoch chi
    • buon nhw

    Some examples:

    • Bues i yno am awr ddoe - I was there yesterday for an hour
    • Buodd hi yn Sbaen am wythnos y llynedd - She was in Spain for a week last year.

    There is a specific expression for describing when somebody died - bu farw (or sometimes fu farw) - which you will often see on gravestones.

    • Bu farw ar 10fed o Awst 1950 - Died on the 10th of August 1950

    Note that there is no yn, and that marw (to die, dying) has been mutated to farw. This construction comes from older forms of Welsh, and it has continued to be used for this particular purpose.


    I have been here since...

    In English we use the perfect tense to describe how long someone has been somewhere where they still are, or how long they have been doing something that they are still doing:

    • I have worked here for ten years. (Implied - and I still work here now)
    • They have lived there since 2005. (Implied - and they still do)

    In Welsh we use thge word ers and the present tense of bod for this meaning, rather than the present perfect. So those same two sentences in Welsh are:

    • Dw i'n gweithio yma ers deg mlynedd.
    • Maen nhw'n byw yno ers 2005.

    I was there for ... I will be there for ...

    A - Use ers (since) with actions that started in the past and were or are continuing at the time of the statement.

    B - Use am (for) for the duration of actions that started and finished in the past, or which are starting now or in the future.

    • A - Dw i'n gweithio yma ers 2005. - I have been working here since 2005.
    • A - Dw i'n gweithio iddyn nhw ers achau. - I have been working for them for ages.
    • B - Roedd hi'n gweithio iddyn nhw am ddwy flynedd. - She worked/had worked for them for two years.
    • B - Bydd hi yn Aber am sbel. - She will be in Aber for a while.
    • B - Bydda i'n gweithio yn yr adran 'ma am chwe mis. - I will be working in this department for six months.
    • B - Mae hi yma am wythnos. - She is here for a week.

    In formal Welsh, you may see er rather than ers for actions that started at a specified time - er 2005, er mis Rhagfyr - but this is not very common in colloquial Welsh.


    Dates

    Here is a full table of the ordinal numbers used in dates. For interest, this includes the abbreviations equivalent to 1st, 2nd, and so on. You may see these on posters advertising events and so on, but we do not want you to use them on the course at this stage - it is important to practise the full forms first.

    English Cymraeg Talfyriad
    1st cyntaf 1af
    2nd ail 2il
    3rd trydydd 3ydd
    4th pedwerydd 4ydd
    5th pumed 5ed
    6th chweched 6ed
    7th seithfed 7fed
    8th wythfed 8fed
    9th nawfed 9fed
    10th degfed 10fed
    11th unfed ar ddeg 11eg
    12th deuddegfed 12fed
    13th trydydd ar ddeg 13eg
    14th pedwerydd ar ddeg 14eg
    15th pymthegfed 15fed
    16th unfed ar bymtheg 16eg
    17th ail ar bymtheg 17eg
    18th deunawfed 18fed
    19th pedwerydd ar bymtheg 19eg
    20th ugeinfed 20fed
    21st unfed ar hugain 21ain
    22nd ail ar hugain 22ain
    23rd trydydd ar hugain 23ain
    24th pedwerydd ar hugain 24ain
    25th pumed ar hugain 25ain
    26th chweched ar hugain 26ain
    27th seithfed ar hugain 27ain
    28th wythfed ar hugain 28ain
    29th nawfed ar hugain 29ain
    30th degfed ar hugain 30ain
    31st unfed ar ddeg ar hugain 31ain

    These are used to form a date as follows:

    • y + ordinal + o + name of month

    Remember that the preposition o is followed by a soft mutation.

    Note that the word mis is usually dropped in this pattern since from the context it is clear that the date refers to a month, not to anything else of the same or similar name. So:

    • y cyntaf o Fedi - the first of September
    • yr ail o Fai - the second of May
    • y nawfed o Fehefin - the ninth of June
    • yr unfed ar ddeg o Awst - the eleventh of August
    • y trydydd ar ddeg o Ragfyr - the thirteenth of December
    • y pymthegfed o Hydref - the fifteenth of October
    • yr unfed ar ddeg ar hugain o Orffennaf - the thirty-first of July

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    18 words

    The superlative - how to translate '-est'

    In Welsh, when saying that something is 'the best', the quickest', the cleanest' and so on, we always use an emphatic sentence, with the thing that is the '-est' being put at the front of the sentence:

    • Gareth ydy'r gorau - Gareth is the best
    • Y plant 'na yw'r ifancaf yn y dosbarth - Those children are the youngest in the class.

    Note that a third person singular verb (ydy/yw; oedd, fydd, etc) is always used with 'the -est', regardless of whether or not the '-est' thing is singular or plural, we or you, etc:

    • Y plant 'na ydy'r gorau yn yr ysgol. - Those children are the best in the school.
    • Fi oedd y cyflyma yn y tîm. - I was the fastest in the team.
    • Nhw ydy'r anifeiliaid lleiaf yn y byd. - They are the smallest animals in the world.
    • Chi fydd y rhai ola i ymadael heddiw - You will be the last ones to leave today.

    When emphasising with a pronoun or proper noun and using an adjective, the superlative adjective will softly mutate for singular feminine nouns. For example:

    • Gareth yw'r gorau. - Gareth is the best. ...but
    • Siân yw'r _orau. - Siân is the best.

    In the case of gorau, the g mutates away for Siân as she is feminine. Other examples include:

    • Fe yw'r tlota. - He is the poorest. ... but
    • Sioned yw'r dlota. - Sioned is the poorest.
    • Fe yw'r tala. - He is the tallest. ... but
    • Hi yw'r dala. - She is the tallest.

    Similarly if mwya is used:

    • Hi ydy'r un fwya poblogaidd yn y tîm - She is the most popular one in the team. But:
    • Fe ydy'r un mwya poblogaidd yn y tîm - He is the most popular one in the team.

    When asking a question about whether someone is the tallest, or whether a thing is the most expensive and so on, a question must start with the person or thing, as with any emphatic question:

    • Aled yw'r tala? Ie. - Is Aled the tallest? Yes.
    • Y BMW ydy'r car mwya drud yn y garej? - Is the BMW the most expensive car in the garage?
    • Sioned ydy'r ferch dala yn y tîm? Nage. - Is Sioned the tallest girl in the team? No.
    • Pwy yw'r person cyflyma yn y gystadleuaeth hyd yn hyn? - Who is the fastest in the competition so far?

    Note that in Welsh, unlike in English, we use the superlative form (-a, -af) to say that something or someone is the taller/shorter/better/etc of two as well as the tallest/shortest/best/etc of three or more:

    • Cymru neu'r Alban, pa un ydy'r fwya? - Wales or Scotland, which is the larger? (Note that countries are feminine in gender, so mwya has been mutated to fwya here)
    • Cymru, yr Alban neu Ddenmark, pa un ydy'r fwyaf? - Wales, Scotland or Denmark, which is the largest?
    • Eleri neu Dewi, pwy ydy'r tala? - Eleri or Dewi, who is the taller?

    Using an emphatic clause as the second part of a sentence - mai/taw

    When using that in the middle of a two-part sentence where the second part is emphatic, the verb bod changes to the particle mai/taw. This allows us to use another, separate verb in the second part of the sentence, maintaining its emphatic structure. For example:

    • Dw i'n meddwl bod Megan yn dal - but,
    • Dw i'n meddwl mai Megan ydy'r dala.

    Similarly with clauses that use sy:

    • Dw i'n meddwl mai fi sy'n araf.

    • Dw i'n gwybod fod ti'n siarad means 'I know that you're speaking' but:

    • Dw i'n gwybod mai ti sy'n siarad means 'I know that it is you who is speaking.

    Note the use of sy'n after the pronoun or proper noun.

    Similarly, Dw i'n gwybod taw ti sy'n siarad is also correct - taw often being used instead of mai in west and south Wales.


    mai/taw can also be used with other tenses, and the translation will also change according to the tense used. For example:

    • Ro'n i'n meddwl mai ti oedd yn anghywir. - I thought that it was you who was wrong.
    • Roedd e'n credu taw Dewi fasai'n ymadael yn gynnar. - He believed that Dewi would leave early.
    • Mae Sarah yn gobeithio mai Jack fydd yn dod i'r parti. - Sarah hopes that it is Jack who will be coming to the party.

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    29 words

    Audio

    Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.


    Feminine forms of numbers

    The numbers 2, 3 and 4 change to their feminine forms dwy, tair, pedair before a feminine noun. Singular feminine nouns, such as milltir (a mile), take a soft mutation after un, dwy.

    Remember that pum(p), chwe(ch), can(t) lose their final letter (p, ch, t) before nouns, masculine or feminine. (Note that until Duo fix the system-wide zombie sentence bug we are unable to remove examples where this has not been done here.)

    Look at the the following examples, and note the changes in form of 2, 3, 4 and the soft mutation after un, dwy:

    • Un filltir
    • Dwy filltir
    • Tair milltir
    • Pedair milltir
    • Pum milltir
    • Chwe milltir
    • Saith, Wyth, Naw milltir
    • Deng/Deg milltir (note the optional change from -g to -ng at the end of deg - this is getting less common nowadays, but it is still used by many people)

    Note that un causes a weak soft mutation - no mutation of feminine nouns beginning ll-, rh-:

    • un llaw - one hand
    • un rhaglen deledu - one television programme

    Note that the feminine form tair does not cause a mutation, whereas the masculine form tri causes an aspirate mutation:

    • tair cath - three cats (feminine noun cath*)
    • tri chi - three dogs (masculine noun ci)

    This use of feminine number forms, the weak soft mutation after un, and the soft mutation after dwy apply to all singular feminine nouns.


    Remember that masculine nouns take a soft mutation after dau, just as feminine nouns do after dwy.

    • dwy gath - two cats (feminine noun cath*)
    • dau gi - three dogs (masculine noun ci)

    How far? How big?

    When asking 'how far?', 'how big?', 'how wide?', 'how tasty?' and so on, we use pa mor...? Like un above, mor in this sense causes a weak soft mutation:

    • Pa mor bell ydy Bangor? - How far is Bangor?(pell)
    • Pa mor fawr ydy Bangor? - How large is Bangor? (mawr)
    • Pa mor flasus oedd y pysgod neithiwr? - How tasty was the fish last night? (blasus)
    • Pa mor drwchus yw'r rhew yno? - How thick is the ice there? (trwchus)
    • Pa mor llydan ydy'r bwrdd? - How wide is the table? (no mutation of llydan)

    In answer we might say:

    • Deg milltir i ffwrdd mae Bangor - Bangor is ten miles away
    • Mae'r bwrdd 'ma tua phum troedfedd o led - This table is about five feet wide
    • Mae'r rhew 'na dros filltir o drwch - That ice is over a mile thick.

    Note that troedfedd means a foot in length, not a foot with toes!


    Reporting what someone said

    There is a special verb to report what someone said in the past, and we introduce some forms of it here.

    • meddai fe/hi - he/she said
    • medden nhw - they said

    For example:

    • Mae'n ddeg milltir i Fangor, medden nhw - It is ten miles to Bangor, they said.
    • Mae Pwllheli yn awr i ffwrdd, meddai Dewi - Pwllheli is an hour away, said Dewi.

    British English usage

    In British English, people's weights are expressed in kilograms, or in stones and pounds rather than in pounds alone. In Welsh, a pound weight (lb) is pwys and a stone weight (st) is stôn.

    Note:- 1 stone (in weight) = 14 pounds (in weight)


  • 41 Extend2421 @ 25% 75 •••
    anafu · casglu · cau · daflen · doliau · eu · fagu · ffilmio · gau · gorffen · i bawb · i gyd · llawlyfr · lori · magu · nwy fil · pysgota · roi arian · roi lifft · stampiau · taflen · taflenni · waith · wrando · ym mangor · yr heddlu
    26 words

    Is it a verb or is it a noun?

    When we mention verbs-nouns such as bwyta, cerdded, mynd and so on it is normal to think of them as meaning 'to eat, 'to walk', to go' - this is what we are used to in English.

    In Welsh, things are a little different. The 'verbs' in this basic form are actually closer in meaning to teh English forms 'eating, 'walking', 'singing', and they can also be used as nouns:

    • Dw i'n mynd i wrando ar y canu - I am going to listen to the singing/playing

    These verb-nouns are very flexible:

    • Dw i'n hoffi gwylio'r rasio ar y teledu - I like watching the racing on the TV
    • Dyn ni'n hoffi bwyta allan - We like eating out
    • Roedd y canu yn y cyngerdd neithiwr yn wych - the singing at the concert last night was excellent

    'He had done something' - the pluperfect tense

    Earlier in the course we covered how to use wedi to say that someone has done something:

    • Mae e wedi darllen y llyfr. - He has read the book.

    We also covered the imperfect tense:

    • Roedd e'n darllen bob dydd. - He used to read every day.
    • Roedd hi'n bwrw glaw. - It was raining.

    These can be combined to make the pluperfect tense - 'had done' something. We use wedi with roedd, etc:

    • Roedd e wedi darllen y llyfr yn barod. - He had read the book already.
    • Roedd hi wedi mynd i'r sinema cyn mynd i'r bwyty. - She had gone to the cinema before going to the restaurant.
    • Roedd hi wedi bwrw glaw yn y nos. - It had rained in the night.
    • Ro'n i wedi gwneud y golchi'n barod. - I had done the washing already.

    Aspirate mutation

    The aspirate mutation affects only the initial letters p-, t-, c-:

    • p- -> ph-
    • t- -> th-
    • c- -> ch-

    There are several causes of the aspirate mutation of p, t, c in modern Welsh. Here is a summary of the causes covered in this course:

    • Negative short-form verbs (although this is not always observed, especially among younger people)
    • After ei... when it means 'her...'
    • After â, gyda, tua
    • After a when it means 'and'
    • After na when it means 'than'
    • After the numbers tri, chwe (remember that chwech drops the final -ch)

  • 41 Favours411 @ 25% 75 •••
    agor y ffenestr · air · baned o de · basio'r halen · caiff · cân · ddefnyddio'r · dynnu llun · ffôn · gaiff e · gaiff hi · gair · gau'r ffenestr · gawn ni'r · gwna i · gwnaf · gymryd neges · gân nhw · na wnaf · olchi'r llestri · roi lifft · siocled poeth · weld · wnei di · wnewch chi
    25 words

    This unit teaches the conjugated forms in the future tense of the verb gwneud ('doing, to do, making, to make'), which can be used to say, for example:

    • Gwna i gacen. - I will make a cake.
    • Gwnewch chi'r cinio heno. - You will make the dinner this evening.

    Future of gwneud (doing, making)

    English Statement Question Negative
    I will do Gwna i Wna i? Wna i ddim
    You will do (informal singular) Gwnei di Wnei di? Wnei di ddim
    He will do Gwnaiff e (SW) / Gwneith o (NW) Wnaiff e? (SW) / Wneith o? (NW) Wnaiff e ddim (SW) / Wneith o ddim (NW)
    She will do Gwnaiff hi (SW) / Gwneith hi (NW) Wnaiff hi? (SW) / Wneith hi? (NW) Wnaiff hi ddim (SW) / Wneith hi ddim (NW)
    We will do Gwnawn ni Wnawn ni? Wnawn ni ddim
    You will do (formal, plural) Gwnewch chi Wnewch chi? Wnewch chi ddim
    They will do Gwnân nhw Wnân nhw? Wnân nhw ddim

    Yes and No

    Forms of the verb to do/make are used for 'Yes' and 'No' in the short future forms for most verbs.

    English Yes Welsh English No Welsh
    Yes (I will) Gwna(f) No (I will not) Na wna(f)
    Yes (you will) Gwnei No (you will not) Na wnei
    Yes (he will) Gwnaiff# No (he will not) Na wnaiff#
    Yes (she will) Gwnaiff# No (she will not) Na wnaiff#
    Yes (we will) Gwnawn No (we will not) Na wnawn
    Yes (you (pl) will) Gwnewch No (you (pl) will not) Na wnewch
    Yes (they will) Gwnân No (they will no)t Na wnân

    '#' Northern dialects tend to use Gwneith/Na wneith

    For example:

    • Wnei di frecwast? Gwna/Na wna. - Will you make breakfast? Yes/No.
    • Ei di adre nes ymlaen? Gwna/Na wna. - Will you go home later? Yes/No.
    • Fwytwch chi'r pannas? Gwnawn/Na wnawn. - WIl you eat the parsnips? Yes/No.

    Future of cael (getting, being allowed to)

    English Statement Question Negative
    I will get Ca i Ga i? Cha i ddim
    You will get (informal singular) Cei di Gei di? Chei di ddim
    He will get Caiff e (SW) / Ceith o (NW) Gaiff e? (SW) / Geith o? (NW) Chaiff e ddim (SW) / Cheith o ddim (NW)
    She will get Caiff hi (SW) / Ceith hi (NW) Gaiff hi? (SW) / Geith hi? (NW) Chaiff hi ddim (SW) / Cheith hi (NW) ddim
    We will get Cawn ni Gawn ni? Chawn ni ddim
    You will (formal, plural) Cewch chi Gewch chi? Chewch chi ddim
    They will get Cân nhw Gân nhw? Chân nhw ddim

    When answering Yes/No to questions using cael we use suitable forms of cael rather than of gwneud:

    • Ga i fynd? Cei/Cewch. - May I go? Yes.
    • Gaiff hi fynd? Caiff. - May she go? Yes.
    • Cawn, cawn ni fynd. - Yes, we may go.
    • Gawn ni fynd? Na chewch. - May we go? No.

  • 41 BroughtUp401 @ 25% 75 •••
    chwedegau · dy dalu · dy eni · dy weld · ei chlywed · ei dalu · ei ddihuno · ei dihuno · ei eni · ei fagu · ei geni · ei glywed · ei gweld · ei magu · ei thalu · ei weld · eich geni · fy ngeni · gest · mil · pumdegau · siôn · wythdegau · yn ne · yng nghymru · yng ngogledd
    26 words

    This unit shows how to use the passive in the past.


    A passive in the simple past tense

    To say I was born in Welsh, we use a roundabout construction - I had my birthing:

    • Ces i... - I had...
    • ...fy ngeni - ...my birthing

    So:

    • Ces i fy ngeni - I was born

    We use the same construction for being brought up (magu):

    • Ces i fy magu - I was brought up
    • Mi ges i fy magu - I was brought up

    For all other persons the construction is the same:

    • Mi gest/Cest ti dy eni a dy fagu yng Nghymru. - you were born and brought up in Wales.
    • Mi gaeth/Cafodd Dewi ei eni yn Abertawe. - Dewi was born in Swansea.
    • Mi gaethon/Cawson ni ein magu yn Aber. - We were brought up in Aber.
    • Mi gaethoch/Cawsoch chi eich geni yn Abertawe. - You were born in Swansea.

    This construction is also useful for events such as being paid, being seen, getting arrested, and so on....:

    • Mi ges/Ces i fy nhalu ddoe - I was paid yesterday (talu)
    • Mi gaeth/Cafodd Siân ei gweld gyda Dewi yn Aber ddydd Llun. - Siân was seen with Dewi in Aber on Monday.
    • Mi gaeth/Cafodd y lladron eu harestio yn y Rhyl wythnos diwethaf - The thieves were arrested in Rhyl last week.

    Remember the different mutations after the various possessive pronouns:

    • fy + nasal
    • dy + soft
    • ei (his) + soft
    • ei (her) + aspirate/h-vowel
    • ein + h-vowel
    • eich + no mutation
    • eu = + h-vowel

    The h-vowel occurs when an h- is added in front of a vowel:

    • Mi gaeth hi ei hachub - She was rescued (achub)
    • Cawson ni ein henwi - We were named (enwi)
    • Mi gaethon nhw eu hufuddhau - They were obeyed (ufuddhau)

    Some examples:

    • Mi ges i fy ngeni ym Mhorthmadog- - I was born in Porthmadog-
    • Mi gest ti dy dalu ddoe. - You got paid yesterday.
    • Cafodd Siân ei phenodi i swydd dda iawn. - Siân got appointed to a very good job.
    • Mi gaeth Ffred ei alw gan ei fòs. - Ffred was called by his boss.
    • Cafodd y plant eu haddysgu ym Mangor. - The children were educated in Bangor.
    • Cawson ni ein gwahodd i'r parti. - We were invited to the party.

    If we want to say that we were seen/paid/brought up/ arrested, etc by someone, we use the word gan (+ soft mutation):

    • Cafodd y lladron eu harestio gan yr heddlu. - The thieves were arrested by the police.
    • Mi gaeth Siân ei magu gan fam ei thad. - Sîân was brought up by her father's mother.
    • Mi gaeth ein bil ei dalu gan Gwmni Mawr ddoe. - Our bill was paid by Cwmni Mawr yesterday.

  • 41 Prefer383 @ 25% 75 •••
    beth · casáu · fi · figanaidd · fwyd · fwydo'r · fy hoff beth · fy nghas beth · goffi · gomedi · gyda · gylchgrawn · hoff · hufen · llysieuol · mae'n gas · mae'n well · na · pa fath o · raglen · siopa · sy'n · the
    23 words

    How to express a preference

    'I prefer...' in Welsh is mae'n well gyda fi... or mae'n well gen i...:

    • Mae'n well gyda fi seidr na chwrw. - I prefer cider to beer.
    • Mae'n well gen i seidr na chwrw. - I prefer cider to beer.
    • Mae'n well gyda fi bysgod na chig. - I prefer fish to meat.
    • Mae'n well gen i bys na chennin. - I prefer peas to leeks.

    Note that there is a soft mutation after well gyda fi/gen i, and an aspirate mutation after na.

    A summary table of initial mutations in Welsh is here - https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Welsh/Mutations.


    There are two ways of talking about things you hate:

    • The simplest way is to use the verb-noun casáu (hating, to hate):

      • Dw i'n casáu nadroedd - I hate snakes.
    • The other way is to the use the same sort of construction as in 'I prefer...':

      • Mae'n gas gyda fi nadroedd, or
      • Mae'n gas gen i nadroedd

    How to say 'I had better...'

    A very similar construction is used to say that someone had better do something - be careful to note the difference:

    • Mae'n well gyda fi fwydo'r ci na'r gath - I prefer to feed the dog than the cat.
    • Mae'n well i fi fwydo'r ci - I had better feed the dog

    Some more examples:

    • Mae'n well iddyn nhw fynd adre erbyn hanner nos. - They had better go by midnight.
    • Mae'n well i Siân fwydo'r cathod cyn mynd allan. - Siân had better feed the cats before going out.
    • Mae'n well gyda Dewi fynd allan, ond mae'n well iddo fe orffen paentio'r lolfa heno. - Dewi prefers going out, but he had better finish painting the lounge this evening.

    Favourite things

    The word for 'favourite' is hoff and, unusually in Welsh, this adjective comes before the noun (like hen, 'old'). Putting an adjective in front of a noun causes a soft mutation of the noun.

    When talking about a favourite thing it is usual to use the emphatic pattern, putting either the 'favourite thing' phrase or the 'thing' that is favourite first in the sentence:

    • Hufen iâ yw fy hoff fwyd. - .Ice-cream is my favourite food. (bwyd - a food)
    • Fy hoff beth yw hufen iâ. - My favourite thing is ice-cream.
    • Cerdded oedd ein hoff weithgaredd. - Walking was our favourite pastime. (gweithgaredd - a pastime)
    • Yr hen felin oedd eu hoff le. - The old mill was their favourite place. (melin - a mill; lle - a place)
    • Eu hoff bwnc yn y brifysgol oedd archeoleg. - Their favourite subject at university was archaeology.

    A pet hate

    My 'pet hate' is 'the thing that I hate the most'. In Welsh, this is expressed by using the phrase cas beth. cas is an adjective, and when used in front of the noun, as in this particular phrase it causes a soft mutation of the noun that follows it, peth.

    When talking about a 'pet hate' it is usual to put that phrase at the start of the sentence:

    • Fy nghas beth ydy llygod mawr. - My pet hate is rats; The thing that I hate the most is rats.
    • Ei chas beth yw codi'n gynnar yn y bore. - Her pet hate is getting up early in the morning; The thing she hates the most is getting up early in the morning.

    Asking for 'some'

    'Some' in this context may mean 'a small amount of' an uncountable material or 'a small number' of countable things. There are several ways of expressing these, but a couple of common ones are to use peth (for 'amount') and rhai (for countable items). Remember that the object of a short-form verb takes a soft mutation:

    • Mae dy hufen iâ'n edrych yn dda. Ga i beth? - Your ice-cream looks good, may I have some/a little?
    • Mae'r afalau hynny'n edrych yn flasus. Ga i rai? - Those apples look tasty. May I have some/a few?

  • 41 Describe Place371 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar wahân · ardal · bwysig · byngalo · ddiweddar · dewis · dwll o le · fflat · foel · fyngalo · gardd · golwg · hardd · lle · moel · mynydd · mynyddoedd · pâr · sengl · sied · syth · teras · tŷ
    23 words

    These lessons support Cwrs Sylfaen Uned 5

    Using adjectives to describe places and people is reviewed.


    Using adjectives

    Remember that following mae e, dw i, etc, the pattern is yn/'n + adjective (with weak soft mutation).

    Remember that the weak soft mutation following yn/'n means that words beginning ll-, rh- do not mutate.

    For example:

    • Mae e'n foel. - He is bald. (moel)
    • Mae'r bryn yn foel. - The hill is bare. (moel - 'bare' when describing a hill)
    • Dyn ni'n bwysig. - We are important. (pwysig)
    • Roedd hi'n rhugl yn Gymraeg. - She was fluent in Welsh.
    • Mae'r bws yn llawn. - The bus is full.

    Remember that where the adjective follows a noun directly, it mutates if the noun is feminine and singular:

    • bwrdd coch - a red table (bwrdd - masculine)
    • cadair goch - a red chair (cadair - feminine)
    • cadeiriau coch - red chairs (cadeiriau - plural)

    Sometimes an adjective can be a phrase of more than one word:

    • ar wahân - a detached house (ar wahân - detached)
    • wy wedi'i ffrio - a fried egg (wedi'i ffrio - fried)

    Using the 'possession' pattern to describe people

    Welsh has no straightforward verb for 'having, possessing, owning' and so we use a roundabout pattern:

    • Mae gynni hi gar coch. - She has a red car.
    • Mae tŷ ar wahân mawr gyda nhw. - they have a large detached house.

    This can also be used for personal descriptions:

    • Mae gyda fe natur hyfryd. - He has a lovely nature.
    • Mae ganddi hi wallt byr. - She has short hair
    • Mae gwallt tywyll gyda'r teulu 'na. - That family have dark hair.
    • Mae trwyn syth ganddo fe. - He has a straight nose.

    It looks good/awful/interesting/..,

    To describe the look or appearance of somethingWe can just use edrych (looking):

    • Mae'r tŷ'n edrych yn dywyll. - The house looks dark.

    A more idiomatic expression uses golwg (a look, appearance), a feminine noun, with the preposition ar:

    • Mae golwg dywyll ar y tŷ. - The house looks dark.
    • Mae golwg hyfryd ar yr ardd. - The garden looks lovely.

    (When used as a noun meaning (the sense of) sight, golwg usually takes masculine gender.)


  • 41 Imperfect361 @ 25% 75 •••
    arfer · do't ti · doedd · drws nesa · e'n · hi'n · hir · malwod · o'n · oedd · pan · ro'n i'n · roedd · sbectol
    14 words

    The imperfect tense

    The imperfect is 'I was, You were', etc. It is used to describe things which went on over a period of time in the past, or which were habitual:

    • Ro'n i'n hapus yn yr ysgol - I was happy at school
    • Roedd Dewi yn mynd i'r dre bob nos Gwener - Dewi used to go to town every Friday evening

    Here is the full pattern. Note that the spoken form is often shortened for some forms compared to the longer (written) form.

    English Welsh Sentence
    I was Ro'n (Roeddwn) i Ro'n i'n hapus.
    You were Ro't (Roeddet) ti Ro't ti'n hapus.
    He was Roedd e/o Roedd o'n hapus.
    She was Roedd hi Roedd hi'n hapus.
    We were Ro'n (Roedden) ni Ro'n ni'n hapus.
    You were Ro'ch (Roeddech) chi Ro'ch chi'n hapus.
    They were Ro'n (Roedden) nhw Ro'n nhw'n hapus.

    Questions

    The question is formed by dropping the initial r:

    • O't ti yno? - Were you there?
    • Oeddech chi yn y neuadd? - Were you in the hall?

    Negatives

    The negative is formed by replacing the initial r with a d:

    • Do't ti ddim yno. - You were not there.
    • Doedd Siôn ddim yn y siop. - Siôn was not in the shop.

    Yes and No

    'Yes' and 'No' are formed from the question, dropping the pronoun for the affirmative and adding Nac for the negation:

    • O'ch chi ar y bws ddoe? O'n. - Were you on the bus yesterday? Yes (I was) or Yes (we were).
    • O'ch chi ar y bws ddoe? Nac o'n. - Were you on the bus yesterday? No.
    • Oedd Dewi yn yr ysgol ddoe? Nac oedd. - Was Dewi at school yesterday? No.

    Using arfer

    The verb-noun arfer (being used to) can be used with the imperfect to mean that somebody used to do something habitually. It is not actually needed in Welsh to convey that meaning, but if it is used in Welsh is should always be translated into English as 'used to':

    • Ro'n i'n nofio bob dydd. => I swam every day; I used to swim every day.
    • Ro'n i'n arfer nofio bob dydd. => I used to swim every day.
    • Roedd hi'n chwarae pêl-droed ar ddydd Sadwrn. - She played football on Saturdays; She used to play football on Saturdays.
    • Roedd hi'n arfer chwarae pêl-droed ar ddydd Sadwrn. - She used to play football on Saturdays.

    Emphatic sentences in the imperfect

    Earlier in the course, emphatic sentences were introduced for describing someone's name, job, role, and so on, with yw/ydy following after the thing being emphasised. In the unemphatic sentence, the verb starts the sentence (mae here):

    • Mae e'n gweithio fel canwr - He works as a singer. (unemphatic)
    • Canwr ydy e. - He is a singer. (emphasising 'singer')

    In the imperfect, there is also a difference in the verb-forms used, but it is less obvious:

    • Roedd e'n gweithio fel canwr - He used to work as a singer. (unemphatic, using r- form)
    • Canwr oedd e. - He used to be a singer. (emphatic, r- has been dropped)

    pan - when (conjunction)

    The word pan is used for 'when' when it is a conjunction joining two phrases or when introducing a time when something happened::

    • I liked Aber when I lived there.
    • When I was at school I used to enjoy maths.

    pan causes a soft mutation of an immediately following word, or the dropping of r- from forms of bod:

    • Pan brynais i'r car, roedd e'n rhad iawn. - When I bought the car, it was very cheap. (prynais => brynais)
    • Ro'n i'n mwynhau darllen nofel pan ganodd y ffôn - I was enjoying reading a novel when the phone rang. (canodd => ganodd)
    • Pan o'n i'n rhedeg, ro'n i'n gyflym iawn. - When I used to run, I was very fast. (ro'n => o'n)

  • 41 Must&MustNot262 @ 25% 75 •••
    adael · amau · anghofio · araf · arafu · beidio ag · beidio â · boeni · cyflym · ddweud · ddysgu · does dim rhaid · ennill · ers · feddwl · ffonio · fynd · gofio · gwyno · gyflym · gyrru · i ceri lingo · i chi · i fi · i ni · i ti · iddi hi · iddo fe · iddyn nhw · nac oes, does dim rhaid · oes rhaid · oes, mae rhaid · rhaid · symud · yrru
    35 words

    Must

    To say that somebody must or has to to do something in English is expressed with the pattern rhaid i... in Welsh.

    The standard pattern in the colloquial language is Rhaid i followed by a pronoun or proper name, followed by a verb-noun with soft mutation.

    • Rhaid i fi fynd. - I have to go, I must go.
    • Rhaid i Dylan fwyta. - Dylan must eat.
    • Rhaid i chi fwydo Dylan. - You must feed Dylan.
    • Rhaid i ni ddeffro Dylan. - We must wake Dylan up.

    Mae rhaid...

    Sometimes Mae... appears in front of rhaid. This is generally omitted in colloquial Welsh unless you want to emphasise the phrase:

    • Mae rhaid i Eleri dalu. - Eleri has to pay.

    Some pronouns cause changes to the preposition ’i’

    English Welsh
    I must go Rhaid i fi/mi fynd
    You (sing.) must go Rhaid i ti fynd
    He must go Rhaid iddo fe/fo fynd
    She must go Rhaid iddi hi fynd
    We must go Rhaid i ni fynd
    You (plural) must go Rhaid i chi fynd
    They must go Rhaid iddyn nhw fynd

    Questions

    The question begins with Oes

    Do you have to go? = Oes rhaid i chi fynd? (literally - Is there a necessity for you to go?)

    • The positive answer is Oes
    • The negative answer is Nac oes

    • Oes rhaid i Eleri dalu? Oes/Nac oes. - Must Eleri pay? Yes. (she must)

    • Oes rhaid iddyn nhw ymadael nawr? Oes. - Do they have to leave now? Yes. (they must)

    If you want to emphasies what they must do, use Oes, mae rhaid ...:

    • Oes rhaid iddyn nhw fynd nawr? Oes, mae rhaid iddyn nhw fynd nawr neu byddan nhw'n colli'r trên adre. - Do they have to go now? Yes, they must go now or they will miss the train home.

    Two negatives - 'Don't have to' and 'Must not'

    Don't have to

    This negative starts with Does dim rhaid ... and corresponds to ... don't have to ...:

    • Does dim rhaid i chi fynd. - You don’t have to go.
    • Does dim rhaid i Eleri dalu. - Eleri doesn't have to pay.
    Must not

    Another negative phrase ...must not... has a completely different meaning and is written in a different way. Here, we use peidio â/ag, with the meaning 'to not do' something. (ag is used before a vowel):

    • Rhaid i chi beidio â mynd. - You must not go. (literally - 'You must refrain from going')
    • Rhaid i chi beidio ag yfed. - You must not drink.

    Note that peidio takes a soft mutation after the rhaid i... pattern.

    Note that the preposition â causes an aspirate mutation of a following word beginning with p, t, c:

    • Rhaid iddyn nhw beidio â cherdded adre. - They must not walk home. (cerdded)
    • Rhaid iddo fe beidio â thalu'r tro 'ma. - He mustn't pay this time. (talu)
    • Rhaid i ti beidio â phrynu anrhegion. - You must not buy any presents. (prynu)

    You will come across the â/ag being dropped in casual speech and writing, in which case there is no adpirate mutation:

    • Rhaid iddo fe beidio talu. - He must not pay.

    Other uses of i fi, i ti, iddi hi, etc in the i-dot patterns

    There are many other patterns which use i fi and so on to create various meanings. We introduce one here which means 'since I, you, they, etc did something'. Note that the verb-noun that follows takes a soft mutation just as with the rhaid i... pattern:

    • Ers i ti fynd dw i wedi colli dy rif ffôn. - Since you went I have lost your phone number.
    • Ers iddo fe brynu'r car newydd, mae o wedi cael llawer o hwyl. - Since he bought the new car, he has had a lot of fun.

    Note that if there is no following verb-noun, there is no use of i:

    • Dw i ddim wedi gweld Dewi ers mis Mai. - I have not seen Dewi since May.
    • Dydy hi ddim bod i Aber ers ei phen-blwydd. - She has not been to Aber since her birthday.

  • 41 Opinions2352 @ 25% 75 •••
    barod · bod · caled · credu · dwedodd · dwp · efallai · falle · galed · gobeithio · hwyr · meddwl · meddwl bod · mod · plant · problem · siân · siŵr · sori · tiwtor
    20 words

    I think that...

    We look at the construction: I think that... For example:

    • Dw i'n meddwl bod Sioned yn hapus. - I think that Sioned is happy.
    • Mae e'n meddwl bod Owen yn hoffi pannas. - He thinks that Owen likes parsnips.
    • Dyn ni'n meddwl bod y ddrama'n wych. - We think that the play is excellent.

    Here, bod is used to introduce our opinion, in the way that 'that' can be used in English, as in those examples.


    With a slightly modified pattern we can also use a pronoun at the start of what we think about someone. For example:

    • Dw i'n meddwl ei fod e'n hapus - I think that he is happy.

    The variant of bod used in this pattern varies according to the pronoun being used - but only in the examples in bold type in the table below. (The pronouns in brackets may be dropped):

    English Welsh
    ....that I am... ...(fy) mod i'n......
    ....that you are... ...(dy) fod ti'n......
    ....that he is... ...(ei) fod e/o'n......
    ....that she is... ...(ei) bod hi'n......
    ....that we are... ...(ein) bod ni'n......
    ....that you are... ...(eich) bod chi'n......
    ....that they... ...(eu) bod nhw'n......

    Some more examples:

    • Mae Siôn yn meddwl bod Sioned yn hapus. - Siôn thinks that Sioned is happy.
    • Dw i'n meddwl bod y pannas yn ddrud. - I think that the parsnips are expensive.
    • Dych chi'n meddwl ei fod e'n olygus? - Do you think that he's handsome?
    • Rwyt ti'n meddwl fy mod i'n gyrru'n gyflym. - You think that I am driving fast.
    • Mae nhw'n dweud dyfod ti'n fedrus. - They say that you are skillful.
    • Dw i'n credu eu bod nhw'n byw ym Mangor erbyn hyn. - I believe that they are living in Bangor now.

    More words that use this pattern

    So far we have seen this pattern with meddwl, and then with dweud and credu. It is in fact used quite widely, including with the following:

    • gobeithio ... - hopefully ...
    • efallai/falle/ella ... - perhaps ...
    • siŵr/sicr ... - sure ...
    • er ... - although ...
    • wrth gwrs ... - of course ...

    • Gobeithio fy mod i wedi llwyddo. - Hopefully I have succeeded.

    • Mae Siôn yn gobeithio bod Sioned yn gweithio'n galed heddiw. - Siôn is hoping that Sioned works hard today.
    • Maen nhw'n siŵr ei fod e'n onest. - They are sure that he is honest.
    • Efallai ei bod hi'n bwrw glaw yn Llundain ar hyn o bryd. - Perhaps it is raining in London at the moment.
    • Er ei bod hi'n bwrw glaw, dw i'n mynd allan eto. - Although it's raining, I'm going out again.
    • Wrth gwrs fy mod i'n mynd i bysgota eto, pam lai? - Of course I'm going fishing again, why not?

    The pattern is the same in the imperfect

    Even if the hoping, thinking, saying and so on was happening in the past, the pattern with bod stays the same:

    • Ro'n i'n meddwl ei fod e'n onest. - I thought that he was honest.
    • Roedd e'n gobeithio ei bod hi'n gweithio'n galed. - He used to hope that she was working hard.
    • Ro'n nhw'n sicr ei fod e'n onest - They were sure that he was honest.
    • Roedd Sioned yn gobeithio ei fod e ar ei ffordd. - Sioned was hoping that he was on his way.

    Note that we use the imperfect rather than the simple past for past feelings, thoughts, etc, as they are generally continual in nature:

    • Ro'n i'n meddwl ei fod e'n hyfryd. - I thought that he was lovely.
    • Roedd hi'n gobeithio bod y trên ar amser. - She hoped that the train was on time.

    The pattern can be used with wedi instead of 'n/yn

    By using wedi instead of 'n/yn we can put the second clause into the present perfect or pluperfect tenses:

    • Dw i'n meddwl ei bod hi wedi mynd adre. - I think that she has gone home. (present perfect)
    • Ro'n i'n meddwl ei bod hi wedi mynd adre. - I thought that she had gone home. (pluperfect)
    • Dwedodd Owen fod y dyn wedi prynu gormod o bannas. - Owen said that the man had bought too many parsnips. (pluperfect)

    Note that this pattern with bod, etc is not used with the future or conditional tenses.


  • 41 Can&When321 @ 25% 75 •••
    ambell waith · bedair gwaith · beth dych chi'n gallu wneud · bob dydd · bob wythnos · byth · canu · coginio · cymraeg · ddwywaith · dwywaith yr wythnos · dyw e ddim yn gallu · dyw hi ddim yn gallu · eitha da · gymraeg · gyrru · helpu · nac ydw, dw i ddim yn gallu · pa mor aml · peintio · sgïo · siarad · unwaith · weithiau · wyt ti'n · wyt ti'n gallu · y flwyddyn · y mis · ydw, dw i'n gallu · ydy e'n gallu · ydy hi'n gallu · ydy, mae e'n gallu · ydy, mae hi'n gallu · yn aml
    34 words

    Being able to ...

    The simplest way to express 'to be able' or 'can' is to use the verb-nouns gallu or medru.

    This is usually used with form of bod 'to be':

    • Dw i'n gallu... - I am able to/I can...
    • Dych chi'n gallu... - You are able to/You can...
    • Dw i ddim yn medru... - I am not able to/I cannot...
    • Ydy e'n gallu...? - Can he...?

    Adding another verb-noun directly after gallu/medru tells us what it is that the person can do:

    • Dw i'n gallu nofio'n gyflym. - I can swim fast.
    • Byddi di'n gallu gyrru car yn fuan. - You will soon be able to drive a car.
    • Roedd Siân yn medru sgïo'n dda iawn. - Siân used to be able to ski very well.

    In parts of north Wales, medru is often used instead of or alongside gallu:

    • Roedd o'n medru dringo'n dda. - He used to be able to climb very well.
    • Doedd Eleri ddim yn medru coginio o gwbl. - Eleri couldn't cook at all.
    • Dach chi'n medru gyrru lori? - Can you drive a lorry?

    We can also ask what someone is able to do:

    • Beth dych chi'n gallu wneud? - What can you do?

    Note that gwneud should be mutated in this construction. This is because of an ei which is usually left out in colloquial speech:

    • Beth mae Siôn yn gallu (ei) wneud? - What can Siôn do?

    Note that you will come across Be? as a shortened form of Beth?.

    As the thing that we are asking about Siôn's ability to do is vague or indeterminate, the masculine gender is assumed for it, so the ei (masculine) causes a soft mutation of gwneud.

    Note that in this question Beth...? is followed by mae:

    • Beth bydda i'n gallu wneud yfory? - What will I be able to do tomorrow?
    • Beth mae'r plant yn gallu wneud yn yr ardd nawr? - What can the children do in the garden now?
    • Be mae hi'n medru wneud o bapur? - What can she make out of paper?
    • Be mae Dewi'n medru wneud o'r bren 'na? What can Dewi make from that wood?

    Another accent or diacritic - the diaeresis, y didolnod

    We have already met some words which use a vowel with a circumflex accent (to bach or acen grom) to show that the vowel is always pronounced as a long vowel: dŵr, tŷ, ffôn, gêm, ...

    A less common but important accent is the didolnod (diaeresis or 'double dot'), which looks the same as a printed German umlaut. In Welsh, it signifies that the vowel is to be pronounced as a separate long vowel in the emphasised syllable and not as part of a diphthong. Some examples:

    • sgïo (skiing) - prounounced as sgï-o, with the emphasis on the sgï- and a long vowel.
    • Gwenllïan (a woman's name) - pronounced as Gwen-llï-an, with the emphasis on the -llï- with a long vowel.
    • gwnïo (sewing) - pronounced as gw-nï-o, with the emphasis on the -nï- with a long vowel.
    • gweddïo (praying) - pronounced as gwe-ddï-o, with the emphasis on -ddï- with a long vowel.

    It can be quite hard to spot in some fonts, so be careful to look out for it. Because it uses the same symbol as the umlaut, it is usually readily available on most keyboard layouts - just look on the web for how to get that accent on your particular device. On phones and tablets it can usually be found by keeping the character key pressed for a short while until a pop-up menu of accented characters appears. The same trick is usually available on MacOS keyboards, too.

    Ever or never - byth, erioed

    byth and erioed are used to mean both 'ever' and 'never', depending on the context. In a negative sentence they can be used in place of ddim to mean 'never'. They are used with particular tenses:

    • erioed is used with completed tenses in the past - the present perfect, the simple past and the pluperfect.
    • byth is used with other tenses - the present, future, imperfect past and the conditional.

    For example:

    • Dyw hi byth yn mynd yno. Dyw hi ddim yn mynd yno byth. - She never goes there.
    • Doedd hi byth yn mynd yno. Doedd hi ddim yn mynd yno byth. - She never used to go there.
    • Fydd hi byth yn mynd yno. - She will never go there.
    • Dyw hi erioed wedi mynd yno. Dyw hi ddim wedi mynd yno erioed. - She has never been there.
    • Aeth hi yno erioed? - Did she ever go there?
    • Doedd hi erioed wedi bod yno. - She had never been there.

  • 41 Health311 @ 25% 75 •••
    annwyd · arna i · arnat ti · arni hi · arno fe · arnoch chi · arnon · arnyn nhw · beth sy'n bod · bola tost · braich dost · clun dost · ddannoedd · dost · ffliw · gwddw tost · gwres · gyda fe · iechyd · pen tost · peswch
    21 words

    Being ill

    The way of asking if someone is ill in Welsh is to say:

    • Beth sy'n bod arnoch chi? - What's the matter with you?
    • Beth sy'n bod arnat ti? - What's the matter with you?

    If you have a generalised illness such as a cold, the standard pattern to use is:

    • Mae annwyd arna i. - I have a cold

    Note that in northern dialects the possessive pattern with gan is used rather than using ar. The gan, etc comes before the noun:

    • Mae gen i annwyd.

    If you have a specific localised pain, such as sore throat, the answer is similar to the natural English sentence and we use gyda or gan, as in the Welsh possessive patterns. (This pattern is also used for a generalised illness in northern dialects):

    • Mae gwddw tost gyda fi or Mae gen i wddw sâl - I have a sore throat.

    Note that in the second phrase, the gen i has come between the mae... and the gwddw sâl/tost and so it causes a mutation of gwddw to wddw. This is the same cause of a soft mutation as was explained in the notes for 'Possession' earlier in the course.

    The following ailments in Cymraeg, particularly where they affect the whole body or are some sort of internal infection, are usually on (ar) us instead of with (gyda/gan) us. (Not in northern dialects, though.) These include:

    • annwyd - a cold
    • peswch - a cough
    • gwres - a temperature
    • twymyn - a fever
    • y ddannoedd/ddannodd - toothache
    • feirws - a virus
    • haint - a bug
    • y ffliw - the flu

    A conjugation of ar is needed for each pronoun and works like this:

    English Cymraeg Example Translation
    I have Mae ... arna i Mae annwyd arna i I have a cold
    You have Mae ... arnat ti Mae peswch arnat ti You have a cough
    He has Mae ... arno fe/fo Mae'r ddannodd arno fe/fo He has toothache
    She has Mae ... arni hi Mae feirws arni hi She has a virus
    We have Mae ... arnon ni Mae haint arnon ni We have a bug
    You have Mae ... arnoch chi Mae gwres arnoch chi You have a temperature
    They have Mae ... arnyn nhw Mae annwyd arnyn nhw They have a cold
    Siân has Mae ... ar Siân Mae peswch ar Siân Siân has a cough

    Some examples:

    • Mae annwyd arnoch chi. - You have a cold.
    • Mae'r ffliw arnyn nhw. - They have got the flu.
    • Mae'r ddannodd ofnadwy arna i. - I have terrible toothache.
    • Mae gwres ar Siân. - Siân's got a temperature.

    But in northern dialects:

    • Mae gan Siân wres. - Siân has got a temperature.

    Asking questions about health

    With many diseases and complaints we can simply ask about their existence by using Oes...? as usual when asking about the existence of indefinite things:

    • Oes annwyd arnat ti? Oes/Nac oes. - Do you have a cold? Yes/No.
    • Oes gwres ar Siân? Oes/Nac oes. - Has Siân got a temperature? Yes/No.
    • Oes pen tost gyda fe? Oes/Nac oes. - Does he have a headache? Yes/No.

    In northern dialects:

    • Oes gen ti annwyd? Oes/Nac oes. - Do you have a cold? Yes/No.
    • Oes gan Siân wres? Oes/Nac oes. - Has Siân got a temperature?

    However, some diseases in Welsh usually come with a definite article, even though there may not be in English. For example:

    • (y) ffliw - (the) flu
    • y frech goch - measles
    • clefyd y gwair - hayfever
    • y ddannodd - toothache

    We do not use Oes...? as a question about definite things in Welsh, so we have to use Ydy...? with these 'definite' complaints instead:

    • Ydy'r ffliw arnoch chi? Ydy/Nac ydy. - Have you got (the) flu? Yes/No.
    • Ydy'r frech goch arnyn nhw? Ydy/Nac ydy. - Have they got measles? Yes/No.
    • Ydy clefyd y gwair ar Sam heddiw? Ydy/Nac ydy. - Has Sam got hayfever today ? Yes/No.

    Alternative forms in parts of north Wales

    As mentioned, in the 'north' versions of the DysguCymraeg Mynediad and Sylfaen courses, the preposition gan is taught instead of both gyda and ar for ailments and injuries, reflecting local usage. The conjugation of gan was covered earlier in the course in 'Possession Gan'.

    There are also some different forms for some common ailments.

    Some examples:

    • Mae gen i gur pen. - I have a headache.
    • Mae gen ti boen bol. - You have a stomache ache.
    • Roedd gynnoch chi beswch. - You had a cough.
    • Oedd gen ti bigyn clust. - Did you have earache?
    • Oes gynno fo ddolur gwddf? - Does he have a sore throat?

    Unless there is a specific alternative form, *poen * is usually used:

    • poen braich - a sore arm
    • poen bawd - a sore thumb

    Note that there are also abbreviated forms. For example:

    • Sgen i ddim annwyd. - I do not have a cold.
    • Sgen ti ffliw? - Have you got flu?
    • Sgynno fo ffliw? - Does he have flu?
    • Sgynni hi boen clun? - Has she got a sore hip?
    • Sgynni hi ddim dolur gwddw. - She doesn't have a sore throat.
    • etc

  • 41 Money301 @ 25% 75 •••
    afalau · bargen · bob · bris · bunt · ceiniog · chwisgi · costio · faint · fodca · hwnnw · hynny · newid · pecyn · pedair · pob · pris · prynu · pum · punt · rheina · saith deg pum · saith deg pump · tair · tocyn · tocynnau · un deg saith · wyth deg saith · y botel · y cilogram · y peint · y pwys · yr un · yw'r
    34 words

    Money

    The monetary units in British currency, punt (pound) and ceiniog (penny), are feminine nouns in Welsh, so we use the feminine versions of the numbers two, three and four for money:

    • dwy geiniog, dwy bunt - two pence, two pounds
    • tair ceiniog, tair punt - three pence, three pounds
    • pedair ceiniog, pedair punt - four pence, four pounds

    Since there is no indefinite article 'a' in Welsh, a sentence like '£10 (ten pounds) a bottle' is translated in Welsh as £10 y botel.

    • Faint yw'r losin? Dau ddeg ceiniog y pecyn. - How much are the sweets? Twenty pence a packet.
    • Mae'r tatws 'ma'n costio punt y cilo. - These potatoes cost a pound a kilo.
    • Mae'r tatws 'na'n yn costio pum deg ceiniog y pwys. - Those potatoes cost fifty pence a pound.

    To say that you can buy something for some amount of money, use am:

    • Mae e'n gwerthu y gadair am bunt. He is selling the chair for a pound.
    • Mae e'n talu pum punt am y cloc. - He is paying five pounds for the clock.

    Note that:

    • punt is a pound (£) currency (feminine noun)
    • pwys is a pound (lb) weight (masculine noun)

    So:

    • Mae'r tatws 'na'n costio pedair punt am bedwar pwys! - Those potatoes cost four pounds for four pounds! (£4 for 4lbs)

    Plurals - punnau and punnoedd

    It is quite acceptable these days to use the singular punt with larger amounts of money:

    • dau ddeg punt - twenty pounds
    • pedwar deg pedair punt - forty-four pounds

    However, it is also still common to use the plurals punnau (with o, usually for specific amounts) and punnoedd (usually for non-specific amounts, but otherwise with o, too).

    Note that the feminine forms of the final part of the numbers are used when they are followed by o bunnau:

    • dau ddeg tair o bunnau - twenty-three pounds
    • pedwar deg pedair o bunnau - forty-four pounds
    • Gwnes i wario cant o bunnau ddoe. - I spent a hundred pounds yesterday. (a definite amount)
    • Mae hwnna'n werth miloedd o bunnoedd! - That's worth thousands of pounds! (an indefinite amount)
    • Mae e'n gwario degau o bunnoedd ar barcio bob wythnos. - He spends tens of pounds on parking every week. (an indefinite amount)

    Traditional 20-based numbers may also still be seen occasionally:

    • ugain o bunnau - twenty pounds
    • deugain o bunnau - forty pounds
    • hanner cant o bunnau - fifty pounds
    • trigain o bunnau - sixty pounds
    • pedwar ugain o bunnau - eighty pounds
    • pedwar ar bymtheg a phedwar ugain o bunnau - ninety-nine pounds

    This last example is perhaps why people are now much more keen to use the newer decimal system of numbering for day-to-day purposes!


    Other currencies

    For other currencies we have:

    • Doler a sent - Dollar and cent
    • Ewro a sent - Euro and cent

    Both doler and sent are feminine nouns and so will use the feminine numbers above. Ewro is a masculine noun so will use masculine numbers.

    • Pedair doler pedair sent - $4.04
    • Pedwar ewro pedair sent - €4.04

    This, these, that and those

    Often, we will want to ask 'How much is that?', 'How much are those?'. These are the words to use:

    • hwn - this one, this (masculine/indeterminate)
    • hon - this one, this (feminine)
    • hwnna, hwnnw - that one, that (masculine/indeterminate)
    • honno - that one, that (feminine)
    • y rhain - these, these ones
    • y rheina - those, those ones

    • Faint ydy'r rhain? - How much are these?

    • Faint yw hon? - How much is this one? (something which you know if feminine - sgert, cath, cadair,...)
    • Faint yw'r rheina? How much are those?
    • Faint bydd y rheina fis nesaf? - How much will those be next month?
    • Beth yw hwn? - What's this? (something of indeterminate gender)

    There are some variants of these, especially in some dialects and in more formal writing.

    The h- words can also be used as demonstrative adjectives:

    • y ci hwn; y ci 'ma - this dog
    • y gath hon, y gath 'ma - this cat
    • y ci hwnnw; y ci 'na - that dog
    • y gath honno; y gath 'na - that cat

    There are other words that we use for intangibles, abstract concepts that we cannot physically touch:

    • hyn - this
    • hynny - that

    For example:

    • Mae hyn yn wir - This is true
    • Doedd hynny ddim yn glyfar iawn! - That wasn't very clever!
    • Dydy hyn/hynny ddim yn deg - This/That isn't fair.
    • Mae hyn yn anodd! Nac ydy, mae hynny'n anos o lawer! - This is difficult! No it isn't, that's much harder!

    Note that as demonstrative adjectives they can used with plurals:

    • y llyfrau 'ma; y llyfrau hyn - these books
    • y llyfrau 'na; y llyfrau hynny - those books

  • 41 Sport292 @ 25% 75 •••
    aelod · ar y teledu · athletau · bocsio · can metr · canlyniad · chwe gwlad · colli · cwpan y byd · enillodd · ennill · gan metr · gemau · golff · gwylio · gêm · hoci · o'r tîm · olympaidd · pencampwriaeth · pencampwyr · pêl-droed · pêl-fas · pêl-fasged · pêl-foli · pêl-rwyd · ras · seiclo · sgôr · tennis · tîm · yn erbyn
    32 words

    This is a unit on sport.


    While the efforts of the national rugby team are probably given the most coverage, there are many other sports played in Wales at every level.

    The national football (soccer) team has seen a significant renaissance in recent years, briefly appearing above its neighbour England in the top ten rankings.


    Emphatic sentences

    As a reminder, the emphatic sentence pattern is used in some of the examples here. The thing being emphasised changes is put at the start of the sentence instead of the main verb:

    • Nhw ydy'r pencampwyr! - 'They are the champions!'

    Perfect vs Simple Past

    Remember that a past with wedi, such as:

    • Dyn ni wedi ennill. - We have won.
    • Mae Dewi wedi ennill. - Dewi has won.

    needs to be translated into an English 'perfect' tense, with 'has/have'. Whereas:

    • Enillon ni - We won
    • Gwnaethon ni ennill - We won

    are in the 'simple past' tense and should not include 'has/have' in their translation.

    Note, too, that the stem of ennill (double n) is enill- (single n).


    National and other sports teams

    When we say 'The Welsh rugby team' we usually translate this using a pattern without a matching 'yr/y/'r in Welsh:

    • Tîm rygbi Cymru - 'The rugby team of Wales', but usually put into English as -> 'The Welsh rugby team'.
    • Tîm hoci Cymru - The Welsh hockey team
    • Tîm sboncen Lloegr - The English squash team
    • Tîm criced Morganwg - The Glamorgan cricket team
    • Tîm tennis y Drenewydd - The Newtown tennis team

    But if an adjective for the country or town, etc, that they come from is used, the pattern is this:

    • Tîm rygbi Cymreig - a Welsh rugby team (= any rugby team from Wales)
    • Tîm pêl-droed Seisnig - an English football team

    If the name of the country, etc, is used, it follows the preposition o:

    • tîm hoci o India - A hockey team from India
    • tîm tennis o'r Drenewydd - a tennis team from Newtown; a Newtown tennis team
    • tîm rygbi o Bont-y-pŵl - a rugby team from Pontypool; a Pontypool rugby team

    The Six Nations Championship

    'The Six Nations' (Y Chwe Gwlad), as it is known informally, is an annual international rugby tournament between Wales, England, Scotland, Ireland, France and Italy. Look on the web for more information about this year's games and locations.


  • 41 Commands2282 @ 25% 75 •••
    anfona · bwyta · cer · cerdda · darllena · dere · gwranda · rheda · saf · taclusa
    10 words

    Giving commands

    Cymraeg, along with many other European languages, has separate command forms of the verb.

    Firstly, we have to identify the stem of the verb. Looking at the basic for of the verb, the 'verb-noun', as found in dictionaries, we can, in general, remove the following ending if they are present:

    • -a, -i, -o, -u, -eg, -ed, -an, -yd, -yll

    For example:

    • bwyta -> bwyt-
    • coginio -> cogini-
    • canu -> can-
    • rhedeg -> rhed-
    • cerdded -> cerdd-

    If the word does not end with one of those endings, the stem is usually the same as the basic form

    • chwarae -> chwarae-
    • edrych -> edrych-
    • eistedd -> eistedd-
    • deall -> deall-

    Once we have the stem, we generally add one of two endings to give us the command form:

    • -a is added for the familiar, singular form
    • -wch is added for the plural or formal form

    This section of the course practises the familar -a form.

    For convenience on this course, we will generally add an exclamation mark after the commands to make them easier to identify. For example:

    • bwyta!, bwytwch! - eat!
    • coginia!, coginiwch! - cook!
    • cana!, canwch! - sing!
    • rheda!, rhedwch! - run!
    • cerdda!, cerddwch! - walk!

    There are several more detailed rules for finding stems and there are some irregular command forms too. Here are some common ones:

    • aros (arhos-) - arhosa!, arhoswch! - wait!
    • ennill (enill-) - enilla!, enillwch! - win!
    • gorffen (gorffenn-) - gorffenna!; gorffennwch! - finish!
    • gweld (gwel-) - gwela!, gwelwch! - see!
    • gwrando (gwrandaw-) - gwranda!, gwrandewch! - listen!
    • sefyll (saf-) - saf!; sefwch! - stand up!
    • troi (tro-) - tro!, trowch! - turn!

    And very importantly, these irregular command forms:

    • bod - bydd!; byddwch! - be!
    • mynd - cer/dos!; cerwch/ewch! - go!
    • dod - dere/tyrd/ty'd!; dewch/dowch! - come!
    • gwneud - gwna!; gwnewch! - do!, make!

    Note that cael has no command forms.

    Other exceptional forms will come up from time to time in the course, so keep an eye on the pop-up hints. For example:

    • gwrando (gwrandaw-) - Gwranda! Gwrandewch! - Listen!

    Soft mutation after a command

    The command forms are short-forms verbs, so if they are followed by an object, that object takes a soft mutation, as usual:

    • Dwedwch rywbeth! - Say something! (rhywbeth)
    • Darllena lyfr! - Read a book! (llyfr)

    Telling someone not to do something

    We can tell somebody to eat their vegetables - Bwyta dy lysiau! - but we often need to tell someone not to do something, too.

    Paid! and Peidiwch! are command forms from the verb-noun peidio (to refrain from) and we use those as negative commands:

    • Paid â bwyta'r glo! - Don't eat the coal!
    • Paid â bwyta'r madarch 'na! - Don't eat those mushrooms!

    Note that Paid â...! and Peidiwch â...! are translated into English as 'Don't...!' or 'Do not...!, (not as * 'Refrain from...!')

    Peidio and its forms are followed by the preposition â, although it is often omitted in casual speech. Where it is used, â is followed by an aspirate mutation of p-, t-, c-:

    • Paid â phrynu...! - Don't buy...! (prynu)
    • Paid â thalu...! - Don't pay...! (talu)
    • Paid â chwyno am...! - Don't complain about...! (cwyno)

    Remember thatâ changes to ag before vowels:

    • Paid ag edrych i lawr! - Don't look down!

    As you would expect from the endings, paid â! is the informal singular form, and peidiwch â is the formal or plural form.


    Not all words get translated one-for-one between English and Welsh

    This is a convenient place to mention that not all words get translated one-for-one between English and Welsh. Here are some examples:

    • sefyll - to stand (up), standing (up), - no need for a separate word for 'up' in the Welsh
    • eistedd - to sit (down), sitting (down)
    • trowch i'r chwith/dde - turn (to the) left/right (the 'to the' is optional in the English)
    • mynd heibio i - go past (the i is usual in the Welsh)
    • gyferbyn â - opposite (the â is not translated)
    • mynd â - to take, taking
    • dod â - to bring, bringing

    To read more about command forms, visit this site.

  • 41 Order271 @ 25% 75 •••
    ar wyliau · ar ôl · ar ôl dechrau gweithio · ar ôl i chi gael · ar ôl i chi godi · ar ôl i dewi lingo fynd · ar ôl i fi godi · ar ôl i mi godi · ar ôl i ti godi · ar ôl iddi hi fynd · ar ôl iddyn nhw briodi · ar ôl ymddeol · bws · cael y plant · cawod · cyn · cyn dechrau gweithio · cyn i ni ymddeol · cyn ymddeol · cyngor · daflu · dechrau · golli · gysgu · orffen · priodi · symudoch chi · ymddeol
    28 words

    A simple sequence of events

    'Before I did this, we did that'. 'After doing one thing, I will do another'. 'Before I go somewhere, they will do something'. These are all examples of simple sequences of events.

    In this unit, the words cyn and ar ôl are taught, meaning before and after:

    • cyn mynd - before going
    • ar ôl bwyta - after eating.

    These phrases are "tenseless" - that is to say that when translating them, it is some other part of the sentence which will point to the tense of the whole expression. For example:

    • Ar ôl codi, ces i gawod. - After getting up, I had a shower

    When they are used in a pattern saying that somebody does or did, etc something before or after something else, they are used in a pattern that is similar to rhaid i ('must'), using i fi, i ti, iddo fe and so on.

    Note that this pattern, the 'i-dot pattern', is common in Welsh in a variety of contexts. It has been covered earlier in the course with rhaid i... and ers i....

    Remember that the i-dot pattern is followed by a soft mutation of the verb-noun.

    For example:

    • Ar ôl i fi godi, est ti i'r siop. - After I had got up, you went to the shop.

    In this example, est ti, (the past tense of mynd, 'going, to go') meaning 'you went', will mean that the action codi was also in the past. It cannot be * 'After I get up, you went to the shop' as the tenses are mismatched - the sequence makes no sense.

    • Cyn i fi fynd i'r gwely, siaradais i â Siôn yn Gymraeg - Before I went to bed, I spoke to Siôn in Welsh.

    In this example, the siaradais i (being in the past tense) meaning "I spoke" will mean that the fynd is translated as "went". Again, this sentence cannot be translated as * 'Before I go to bed, I spoke Welsh' as the tenses don't match up.

    • Symudoch chi i Gymru cyn i chi gael y plant. - You moved to Wales before you had the children. or You had moved to Wales before you had the children.

    In that example, the governing tense is introduced first - 'you moved', in the past. It cannot be translated as "You moved to Wales before you 'have the children' as the first part, 'you moved', tells you that cyn i chi gael needs to be translated as 'before you had (or had had) the children'.

    Note that we do not use yn or wedi in these i-clauses.

    If there is no pronoun, we just use i:

    • cyn i Dewi fynd - before Dewi goes/went/had gone
    • Cyn i Sioned ddod i Aber, roedd hi'n byw yn Llanidloes. - Before Sioned came to Aber she was living in Llanidloes.
    • Cyn i Dewi fynd, rhaid iddo fe dalu'r bil. - Before Dewi goes, he has to pay the bill.
    • Ar ôl i Dewi orffen y gwaith, bydd e'n mynd adre. - After Dewi finishes the work, he will go home.

    Similarly, when moving from English to Welsh:

    • 'Before we moved to Aber, we lived in Rhos'

    means that 'we lived in Rhos' can be translated in the imperfect:

    • ...ro'n ni'n byw yn Rhos

    There is no tense in the cyn i ni... pattern itself, so the sentence becomes simply:

    • Cyn i ni symud i Aber, ro'n ni'n byw yn Rhos

    Now consider 'Before we move to Aber, we will visit Patagonia'. Cyn i ni symud... stays the same - no tense in the expression - and it is just the 'visiting' which needs to be put into the future:

    • Cyn i ni symud i Aber, byddwn ni'n ymweld â Phatagonia - Before we move to Aber, we will visit Patagonia.

    With the past again:

    • Cyn i ni symud i Aber, ro'n i wedi gweithio ym Mangor - Before we moved to Aber, I had worked in Bangor.

    On its own then, a phrase such as cyn i ni symud could translate as 'before we moved', 'before we had moved' or as 'before we move' - all are potentially correct until the phrase is put next to one with a tense in it.


  • 41 Reflexive Pronouns261 @ 25% 75 •••
    hun · hunain · hunan
    3 words

    Note: Please do this lesson a few times to practise with different pronouns.


    Reflexive verbs

    There are a number verbs in Cymraeg that start with the prefix ym-. They are called reflexive verbs, berfau atblygol. The person carrying out the action also receives the action. Their reflexive nature is not always obvious in the English translation. Notice the soft mutation within the word after the prefix ym-.

    • golchi - to wash => ymolchi - to wash oneself
    • dangos - to show => ymddangos - to appear, or to show oneself
    • gweld - to see => ymweld - to visit
    • lladd - to kill => ymladd - to fight
    • gwrthod - to refuse => ymwrthod - to reject
    • gadael - to leave (something or somewhere) => ymadael - to leave, to part company from someone or something (often with a sense of some personal movement)

    Reflexive pronouns

    Reflexive pronouns, and their use with verbs in Cymraeg, differ greatly from their English counterparts.

    Reflexive pronouns are used when ym- forms of verbs do not exist. They are made up of the possessive pronouns learnt in the previous unit, and the word in Cymraeg for self, hun. For example:

    • Siarad â fy hun - To speak to myself
    • Gwrando ar dy hun - Listening to yourself
    • Gofalu am eu hun - To look after themselves
    • Gweithio i'ch hun - Working for yourselves

    They can also be used with possessive pronouns to indictate 'my/your/their/... own (thing)':

    • Ble mae dy esgidiau dy hun? - Where are your own shoes?
    • Dw i'n hoffi fy nghoginio fy hun. - I like my own cooking.
    • Mae eu tŷ eu hun yn Aber. - Their own house is in Aber.

    Variations

    There is some variation in hun between the various dialects in Wales. In one form, as explained above, the word hun is used for '-self/-selves' regardless of which person it applies to.

    In a variation, hunan, is used instead of hun in the singular (me, you, him, her) , and hunain is used for the plurals (us, you, them). The hunan/hunain form is perhaps more common in south and west Wales dialects, although both forms can be found all over Wales.

    So, in summary:

    • fy hun - myself
    • dy hun - yourself (singular informal)
    • ei hun - him/herself
    • ein hun - ourselves
    • eich hun - yourself (formal)/yourselves
    • eu hun - themselves

    And:

    • fy hunan
    • dy hunan (singular informal)
    • ei hunan
    • ein hunain
    • eich hunan (yourself, singular formal)); eich hunain (yourselves)
    • eu hunain

    The first lesson uses hun and the second lesson uses hunan/hunain.


  • 41 Family1191 @ 25% 75 •••
    cacen · chwaer · cwrdd · daid · deulu · di · dy · ei · eich · ein · enw · eu · fam · fy · gacen · gwraig · gwrdd · gŵr · mam · mam-gu · nabod · nain · ngwraig · ngŵr · nhad · tad · tad-cu · taid · teulu · thad-cu
    30 words

    In this unit, the possessive pronouns are introduced.


    A summary table of mutations

    Some mutations of initial letters in Welsh have already been introduced. In this section on possessive pronouns all three mutations are going to be used. Here is a summary table of mutations that you can copy and keep somewhere convenient for reference.

    Letter Soft Nasal Aspirate
    p b mh ph
    t d nh th
    c g ngh ch
    b f m
    d dd n
    g - ng
    m f
    ll * l
    rh * r

    Note that:

    • Letters not shown do not take a mutation.
    • Not all the letters take all the mutations.
    • In soft mutation, an initial g- is removed.
    • b- and m- both take a soft mutation to f-.
    • In a 'mixed' mutation, as explained in the relevant course notes about negative verbs, p-, t-, c- take an aspirate mutation and the others take a soft mutation.
    • In a very few circumstances, as explained in the relevant course notes, ll- and rh- (marked here with asterisks) resist a soft mutation. This is sometimes known as a 'weak' soft mutation.

    More details about the mutations can be found here http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/learnwelsh/pdf/welshgrammar_mutations.pdf or here http://clwbmalucachu.co.uk/cmc/cheat/cheat_mutations.htm.


    The possessive pronouns - my, your, etc

    After several possessive pronouns, there is a mutation.

    • After fy (my), there is a nasal mutation.
    • After dy (your) and ei (his), there is a soft mutation.
    • After ei (her), there is an aspirate mutation. Also, ei (her) adds h- if the following word starts with a vowel (a e i o u w y in Welsh).
    • After ein (our) and eu (their) an h- is added to a following word if it starts with a vowel.

    After the thing being owned, there is sometimes also an echoing pronoun, which emphasises or clarifies who is owning it, especially with 'his' vs 'hers'. These are optional, unless required to be certain of meaning. They are shown below in the list below:

    • Fy ... i - my (+ nasal mutation)
    • Dy ... di your (+ soft mutation)
    • Ei ... e/o - his (+ soft mutation)
    • Ei ... hi - her, (+ aspirate mutation, or + h- to following vowel-words)
    • Ein ... ni - our (plus h- to following vowel-words)
    • Eich ... chi - your
    • Eu ... nhw - their (plus h- to following vowel-words)

    Remember that dy (your) is related to ti (you - familar and singular) and that eich (your) is related to chi (you - any plural, or unfamilar singular).

    Some examples:

    • fy nghar (i) - nasal mutation
    • dy gar (di) - soft mutation
    • ei gar (o/e) - soft mutation
    • ei char (hi) - aspirate mutation
    • ein car (ni)
    • eich car (chi)
    • eu car (nhw)

    And now, showing the h- added after some possessives:

    • fy athro (i)
    • dy athro (di)
    • ei athro (o/e)
    • ei hathro (hi) - + h-
    • ein hathro ni - + h-
    • eich athro (chi)
    • eu hathro (nhw) - + h-

    Other examples:

    • fy ngŵr (i) - my husband
    • dy chwaer (di) - your sister
    • dy frawd (di) - your brother
    • ei fodryb (e/o) - his aunt
    • ei modryb (hi) - her aunt
    • ei hanti (hi) - her aunt
    • eu brawd (nhw) - their brother
    • eich gwraig/gŵr/chwaer/brawd (chi) - your wife/husband/sister/brother
    • eu hewythr/hwncl (nhw) - their uncle

    Grandparents

    There are two pairs of words used for Grandmother/Grandfather: Nain/Taid and Mam-gu/Tad-cu.

    Typically, Nain/Taid is more often used in northern dialects and Mam-gu/Tad-cu in southern areas. In practice, though, it can vary between families even in the same area.


    Knowing people and places and knowing facts.

    In Welsh, as in several other modern languages, there are two different words used for 'knowing':

    • gwybod - knowing facts
    • nabod - knowing people and places

    So:

    • Dw i'n gwybod ei lyfr e'n dda iawn. - I know his book very well.
    • Mae Dewi'n gwybod sut mae'r injan yn gweithio - Dewi knows how the engine works.
    • Wyt ti'n nabod Siân? - Do you know Siân?
    • Wyt ti'n gwybod sut mae Siân? - Do you know how Siân is?
    • Ydy Dewi'n nabod y dref? Does Dewi know the town?
    • Ydy Dewi'n gwybod sut i gyrraedd y llyfrgell? - Does Dewi know how to get to the library?

  • 41 Dialects 1111 @ 25% 75 •••
    bachgen · chdi · dach chi · dynes · dyw · hogan · hogyn · licio · llaeth · llefrith · mae o'n · menyw · merch · nawr · rŵan · s'mae · shwmae · ydy hi · ydy o · yw e · yw hi
    21 words

    'Identification' sentences

    When we want to say what or who someone is - their name, their occupation or whether they are male or female and so on, this is termed an 'identification sentence'.

    • I'm Dewi
    • He is a teacher
    • Sioned is a mechanic
    • She is a girl

    Remember that in Welsh, identification sentences use the emphatic construction, with the 'identity' being put first in the sentence.

    Remember that with the third person verb this means that the 'identity' is followed by ydy/yw, never by mae:

    • Dewi dw i
    • Athro ydy o
    • Mecanig yw Sioned
    • Geneth ydy hi - (geneth - girl)
    • Pobydd dych chi - (pobydd - baker)

    The five main Welsh dialect areas

    A variety of dialects are used in the Welsh-language media, so it is useful to become at least a little familar with some of the main variants as you start to learn the language.

    Although people often refer to there being two main variants of Cymraeg, this greatly over-simplifies the reality. There are four or five commonly-recognised main dialect areas (see more below).

    The five generally recognised dialects are:

    • y Wendodeg - north-west Wales
    • y Bowyseg - north-east and northern mid-Wales
    • Iaith Sir Benfro - north Pembrokeshire Welsh
    • y Ddyfedeg - southern mid-Wales and south-west Wales (Dyfed)
    • Y Wenhwyseg - south and south-east Wales

    A map of four of the five the main dialect areas is here although it includes the north Pembrokeshire dialect as part of the Dyfedeg dialect.

    The dialect areas are not at all as distinct as the map may imply, and in many areas you may hear several words in use for the same thing, and several variations in the details of grammar. These often vary by the age of the person speaking, particularly as younger people tend to move around more for work and education, with the result that their language can tend to mix dialects and to standardise.

    For examples of the actual complexity on the ground, look at examples such as these, which, although they cover only the vocabulary and not local variations in pronunciation and grammar, emphasise the lack of clear-cut dialect boundaries:

    There are local dialect words and pronunciations for such everyday things as girl, boy, hedge, farm lane and so on. Milk can be llaeth, llâth, llefrith. Large/big is usually mawr, but pronounced /mowr/ in much of the south-west.

    Here are some variations for 'table', 'grass', and 'iron': https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLz6oFM0_Iszwucu8_lmEhmk44elcxCCgB

    Adre ('homewards') is often pronounced /adra/ in the north-west and the south-east and as /adre/ elsewhere, but it sometimes appears as tua thre (pronounced /sha thre/) in the south and south-east.

    -au endings (eg dechrau, cefnau) are often pronounced /-a/, (/dechra, cefna/) in the north-west and south-east, but /-e/ (/dechre/, /cefne/) in the north-east, mid-Wales and the south-west.

    Cael might be heard as /câl/ in the south-west and /ciêl, ciel/ in mid-Wales.

    Roedd hi'n oer may be heard as /wedd hi'n wer/ in Pembrokeshire.

    Gwybod is often /gwpod/ in south-east Wales, and dw i ddim yn gwybod tends to be sa i'n gwpod.

    More information here - https://museum.wales/articles/2011-03-29/The-Dialects-of-Wales/


    Here are some words introduced in this unit and in which broad area they tend to be more common:

    English west and south Wales north Wales
    boy crwt, bachgen hogyn (NW), bachgen (NE)
    girl merch hogan (NW), geneth (NW/NE)
    milk llaeth, /llâth/ llefrith
    you are dych chi, /ych chi/, /ŷch chi/, /dech chi/ dach chi, /dech chi/
    woman menyw dynes
    is not dyw, dydy dydy
    is yw, /odi/ ydy, ydi, /'di/
    liking hoffi/licio/lico hoffi/licio
    he is mae e, /ma' e/, /ma' fe/ mae o
    you (singular, informal) ti ti, chdi
    hi, how are things? /shwmae/ s'mae
    a want, (wanting) eisiau, /isia/, /isie/, (moyn) /isio/
    with gyda efo
    to be able to gallu medru
    coming dod dod, dŵad
    out ma's, mas, allan allan
    yes; no ie; nage ie, ia; naci
    Where? Ble? Lle?, Ble?

    Many other variants are also common, such as:

    • perth, sietin, clawdd, gwrych for 'hedge' in various areas

    A very big topic that this course can only skim!

    There are examples of several dialects here - https://museum.wales/articles/2011-03-29/The-Dialects-of-Wales/ Do not expect to be able to understand them yet, but you may pick up the variations in the various accents.


  • 41 Extend112 @ 25% 75 •••
    adre · arall · blodfresych · cylchgrawn · da iawn · dwyt · dydy · dyn · eisiau bwyd · eisiau diod · eleri lingo · gareth · gweld · gwin · hi · lemonêd · mae · maen · mr lingo · nac ydy · nac ydyn · nhw · ni · pannas · rhywbeth · rwyt · sioned · sudd afal · ti · treiffl · wedyn · wyt · ydy · ydyn
    34 words

    This section of the course introduces some additional vocabulary.


    Hungry and thirsty

    In Welsh the idea of being hungry or thirsty is expressed by 'a want' of 'food/drink' using the word eisiau (a want) in along with bwyd/diod (food/drink):

    • Dych chi eisiau bwyd. - You are hungry.
    • Dw i eisiau diod. - I am thirsty.

    A reminder of the full present tense of bod (to be)

    Here is the full pattern of the present tense of bod - dw i, etc, again:

    Positive Question Negative Translation
    [ry)dw i (y)dw i? (dy)dw i ddim I am, Am I?, I am not
    rwyt ti wyt ti? dwyt ti ddim You (sing) are.. etc.
    mae e/o ydy e/o? dydy e/o ddim He is....etc.
    mae hi ydy hi? dydy hi ddim She is....etc.
    (ry)dyn ni ydyn ni? (dy)dyn ni ddim We are.... etc.
    (ry)dych chi (y)dych chi? (dy)dych chi ddim You (pl) are.... etc.
    maen nhw ydyn nhw? (dy)dyn nhw ddim They are....etc

    (ry)dw i shows the full written form in brackets (rydw i) compared to the spoken form taught on this course (dw i).

    Remember that mae is also used with nouns, both singular and plural:

    • Mae'r dyn yn mynd adre. - The man is going home.
    • Mae'r dynion yn mynd adre. - The men are going home
    • Mae'r plant yn mynd adre. - The children are going home.
    • Mae Siôn a Siân yn mynd adre. - Siôn and Siân are going home.

    Home, at home, to home

    There are three words to learn concerning home:

    • cartre - a home
    • gartre - at home
    • adre - (towards) home, home(wards) - used to convey some sort of movement towards or arrival at home.

    All three will also be seen with a final -f, although it is rarely pronounced in colloquual Welsh.

    • Mae cartre Dewi yn Aber. - Dewi's home is in Aber.
    • Mae Dewi yn aros gartre heddiw. - Dewi is staying at home today.
    • Mae Sioned yn cerdded adre. - Sioned is walking home.
    • Mae Sioned yn cyrraedd adref erbyn saith o'r gloch fel arfer. - Sioned usually gets home by seven o'clock.

  • 41 Dates 2502 @ 25% 75 •••
    ail ar bymtheg · ail ar hugain · calan · cerdyn · deunawfed · nadolig · pumed ar hugain · ragfyr · santes dwynwen · seithfed ar hugain · ugeinfed · unfed ar ddeg ar hugain · unfed ar hugain
    13 words

    More on the older vigesimal counting system

    Following on from the first section on numbers used in dates, here is a full table of the numbers 10 to 31 in the vigesimal system. You will see that the numbers from 20 to 30 are actually very regular, made up as 'nn on twenty' - nn ar hugain.

    Note the h- on the front of ugain when it follows ar - this is a unique pattern in Welsh)

    31 uses another pattern - 'one on ten on twenty'.

    Number Cymraeg (10) Cymraeg (20)
    10 deg deg
    11 un deg un un ar ddeg
    12 un deg dau deuddeg
    13 un deg tri tri ar ddeg
    14 un deg pedwar pedwar ar ddeg
    15 un deg pump pymtheg
    16 un deg chwech un ar bymtheg
    17 un deg saith dau ar bymtheg
    18 un deg wyth deunaw
    19 un deg naw pedwar ar bymtheg
    20 dau ddeg ugain
    21 dau ddeg un un ar hugain
    22 dau ddeg dau dau ar hugain
    23 dau ddeg tri tri ar hugain
    24 dau ddeg pedwar pedwar ar hugain
    25 dau ddeg pump pump ar hugain
    26 dau ddeg chwech chwech ar hugain
    27 dau ddeg saith saith ar hugain
    28 dau ddeg wyth wyth ar hugain
    29 dau ddeg naw naw ar hugain
    30 tri deg deg ar hugain
    31 tri deg un un ar ddeg ar hugain

    And here is a full table of the ordinal numbers used in dates. For interest, this includes the abbreviations equivalent to 1st, 2nd, and so on. You may see these on posters advertising events and so on, but we do not want you to use them on the course at this stage - it is important to practise the full forms first.

    English Cymraeg Talfyriad
    1st cyntaf 1af
    2nd ail 2il
    3rd trydydd 3ydd
    4th pedwerydd 4ydd
    5th pumed 5ed
    6th chweched 6ed
    7th seithfed 7fed
    8th wythfed 8fed
    9th nawfed 9fed
    10th degfed 10fed
    11th unfed ar ddeg 11eg
    12th deuddegfed 12fed
    13th trydydd ar ddeg 13eg
    14th pedwerydd ar ddeg 14eg
    15th pymthegfed 15fed
    16th unfed ar bymtheg 16eg
    17th ail ar bymtheg 17eg
    18th deunawfed 18fed
    19th pedwerydd ar bymtheg 19eg
    20th ugeinfed 20fed
    21st unfed ar hugain 21ain
    22nd ail ar hugain 22ain
    23rd trydydd ar hugain 23ain
    24th pedwerydd ar hugain 24ain
    25th pumed ar hugain 25ain
    26th chweched ar hugain 26ain
    27th seithfed ar hugain 27ain
    28th wythfed ar hugain 28ain
    29th nawfed ar hugain 29ain
    30th degfed ar hugain 30ain
    31st unfed ar ddeg ar hugain 31ain

    For interest...

    We also use these forms for saying things such as:

    • y car cyntaf - the first car
    • yr ail lyfr - the second book (note the soft mutation after ail, just as there is after dau/dwy)
    • y pumed bachgen - the fifth boy
    • y pymthegfed ci - the fifteenth dog

    When it comes to the compound ordinals, the noun comes after the first element:

    • yr unfed ci ar ddeg - the eleventh dog
    • yr ail berson ar hugain - the twenty-second person

    With feminine nouns following 'r/yr/y, the ordinal and the noun both take a soft mutation:

    • y ferch gyntaf - the first girl
    • yr ail ferch - the second girl
    • y bumed gath - the fifth cat

    For use with feminine nouns there are feminine forms of some of the numbers and some of the ordinals, shown here in brackets:

    English Cymraeg
    3rd trydydd (trydedd)
    4th pedwerydd (pedwaredd)
    13th trydydd (trydedd) ar ddeg
    14th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar ddeg
    19th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar bymtheg
    23rd trydydd (trydedd) ar hugain
    24th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar hugain

    So, for example:

    • y drydedd ferch - the third girl
    • y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg - the nineteenth century
    • yr ail ganrif ar bymtheg - the seventeenth century

    Higher numbers use a similar system:

    English Cymraeg Talfyriad
    100th canfed 100fed
    1000th milfed 1000fed

2019-10-24
0.075

Greetings 1 updated 2021-04-10

Croeso - Welcome to the Welsh course on Duolingo.

This Duolingo course is designed to cover the CEFR levels A1 and A2 as taught on the LearnWelsh/DysguCymraeg Mynediad and Sylfaen level courses for adults in Wales. See https://www.learnwelsh.cymru Let's start!

Greetings

Bore da = Good morning

This has two parts:

  • bore - morning
  • da - good

Note that the usual word order for describing things in Welsh is the noun followed by the adjective, so the Welsh Bore da (literally 'morning good') becomes 'Good morning' when translated into English.

Similarly, Nos da (Good night) which, as in English, is what we say to someone as a farewell last thing at night:

  • nos - night

In the first lesson, we use some Welsh first names to help to make the sentences:

  • Dylan, Dewi and Owen are men's names,
  • Morgan can be used by both men and women, and
  • Megan is a woman's name.

Note - Following the usual practice in Wales, personal names are not translated or changed in spelling between Welsh and English. Where a place has a different name in both languages, though, we do translate them.

Note that Draig/Dragon is not used as a name in Wales! The Draig Goch is a national symbol.

Please take the time to read the following notes:

Section notes - 'Tips and Notes'

Most sections of this course have notes explaining new patterns and usages, or giving background information about a topic.

Do read them so that you can get the most out of the course. We keep them updated in response to feedback, especially to points and questions raised in the discussion forums of the course. To see how to find the course notes, go to https://forum.duolingo.com/topic/924/hot and read the discussion 'Course tips and notes'. The 'duome' link there is useful for browsing all the notes in one place. We recommend reading the notes for each new section as you start it.

Pronunciation

Nearly every sound in Welsh is also found in British English. Note that Welsh uses two letters as vowels that are usually treated as consonants in English, w and y. A fuller description of the Welsh alphabet is in the notes for a later part of the course.

There are some very good short videos by Welsh Plus on YouTube to help in learning Welsh pronunciation. Look on the web for 'Welshplus Youtube pronunciation basics'. We recommend that you work your way through all of the videos in the series - they are very clear, and far better than trying to follow any written description of pronunciation. Go back to them at intervals as you follow the course. If you are still unclear about the pronunciation of individual words, many have live voice recordings in the www.gweiadur.com on-line dictionary or at forvo.com.

Discussions

On the Duolingo web site you will find an area for discussing particular sentences. If you are looking for an explanation of some new pattern or word, please look in the course notes first.

Typing accented characters.

Duo provides some accented characters in a menu, but this does not give the full range required in Welsh, so:

  • If you are in Britain, try setting your region to UK - on iOS that gives you ŵ, ŷ, î, ê, ï, á, etc, as pop-up characters if you keep the w, y or other vowel keys depressed for a second.
  • Otherwise, install the iOS/Android Swiftkey app with its Welsh keyboard.
  • On MacOS, use the Welsh keyboard layout and use the Keyboard Viewer to see how to produce the accents. For example, type opt-w to get ŵ, or opt-8, i to get ï.
  • On Windows you can use the UK extended keyboard layout to get accented characters. Or install the free 'To Bach v2' from https://www.interceptorsolutions.com/tobach Their website has instructions for using it.

Reporting system bugs

The volunteer course teams have no access to the underlying Duolingo software. Report bugs here - https://support.duolingo.com/hc/en-us/articles/204728264-How-do-I-report-a-bug-

Audio

The audio on this course is produced by a computer-generated voice. The voice has a neutral accent and usually gives the correct pronunciation or close to it. The course team can do nothing any glitches except to disable the sound for that word or sentence. Also see https://support.duolingo.com/hc/en-us/articles/204762054-Troubleshooting

A note to Welsh speakers

Croeso i Duolingo! This course is based on a colloquial register of Welsh as taught in the DysguCymraeg Mynediad and Sylfaen courses. It does not cover formal registers of Welsh, dialect or slang forms of Welsh. Please do not suggest alternative answers based on them. However, please do contribute to the course discussions!

We do not attempt to give all possible ways of translating phrases, just the more common ones as taught to adult learners.

Further information about learning Welsh is here -http://www.duolingo.com/comment/13186004

Greetings 1 updated 2020-10-11

Croeso/Welcome to the Welsh course on Duolingo.

This Duolingo course is designed to cover the CEFR levels A1 and A2 as taught on the LearnWelsh/DysguCymraeg Mynediad and Sylfaen level courses for adults in Wales. See https://www.learnwelsh.cymru


Let's start! - Greetings

Bore da = Good morning

This has two parts:

  • bore = 'morning',
  • da = 'good'

Note that the usual word order for describing things in Welsh is the noun followed by the adjective, so the Welsh Bore da (literally 'morning good') becomes 'Good morning' when translated into English.

Similarly, Nos da (Good night) which, as in English, is what we say to someone as a farewell last thing at night:

  • nos - night

In the first lesson, we use some Welsh first names to help to make the sentences:

  • Dylan, Dewi and Owen are men's names,
  • Morgan can be used by both men and women, and
  • Megan is a woman's name.

Note - Following the usual practice in Wales, personal names are not translated or changed in spelling between Welsh and English. Where a place has a different name in both languages, though, we do translate them.

Note that Draig/Dragon is not used as a name in Wales! The Draig Goch is a national symbol.


Please take the time to read the following notes...


Section notes - 'Tips and Notes'

Most sections of this course have notes explaining new patterns and usages, or giving background information about a topic.

Do read them so that you can get the most out of the course. We keep them updated in response to feedback, especially to points and questions raised in the discussion forums of the course. For how to find the notes, go to https://forum.duolingo.com/topic/924/hot and read the sticky discussion on 'Course tips and notes'.


Pronunciation

Nearly every sound in Welsh is also found in British English. Note that Welsh uses two letters as vowels that are usually treated as consonants in English, w and y.

A fuller description of the Welsh alphabet is in the notes for a later part of the course.

There are some very good short videos by Welsh Plus on YouTube to help in learning Welsh pronunciation. Look on the web for Welshplus Youtube pronunciation basics.

We recommend that you work your way through all of the videos in the series - they are very clear, and far better than trying to follow any written description of pronunciation. Go back to them at intervals as you follow the course. If you are still unclear about the pronunciation of individual words, many have live voice recordings in the www.gweiadur.com on-line dictionary.


Discussions

On the Duolingo web site you will find an area for discussing particular sentences. If you are looking for an explanation of some new pattern or word, please look in the course notes first.


Typing accented characters.

Duo provides some accented characters in a menu, but this does not give the full range required in Welsh, so:

  • If you are in Britain, try setting your region to UK - on iOS that gives you ŵ, ŷ, î, ê, ï, á, etc, as pop-up characters if you keep the w, y or other vowel keys depressed for a second.
  • Otherwise, install the iOS/Android Swiftkey app with its Welsh keyboard.
  • On MacOS, use the Welsh keyboard layout and use the Keyboard Viewer to see how to produce the accents. For example, type opt-w to get ŵ, or opt-8, i to get ï.
  • On Windows you can use the UK extended keyboard layout to get accented characters. Or install the free 'To Bach v2' from https://www.interceptorsolutions.com/tobach Their website has instructions for using it.

Reporting system bugs

The volunteer course teams have no access to the underlying Duolingo software. Report bugs here - https://support.duolingo.com/hc/en-us/articles/204728264-How-do-I-report-a-bug-

Audio

The audio on this course is produced by a computer-generated voice. The voice has a neutral accent and gives the correct pronunciation or close to it. The course team can do nothing any glitches except to disable the sound for that word or sentence.

Also see https://support.duolingo.com/hc/en-us/articles/204762054-Troubleshooting


A note to Welsh speakers

Croeso i Duolingo! This course is based on a colloquial register of Welsh as taught in the DysguCymraeg Mynediad and Sylfaen courses. It does not cover formal registers of Welsh, dialect or slang forms of Welsh. Please do not suggest alternative answers based on them. However, please do contribute to the course discussions!

We do not attempt to give all possible ways of translating phrases, just the more common ones as taught to adult learners.


Further information about learning Welsh is here -http://www.duolingo.com/comment/13186004


Greetings 2 updated 2018-12-09


Introducing Yourself

When introducing ourselves by name or occupation in Welsh, we always emphasise the name or occupation. We do this by putting our name, Sioned, say, at the front of the sentence:

  • Sioned dw i - I am Sioned = (literally, "Sioned am I")

Sioned would not say * 'Dw i'n Sioned' - that is the wrong order of words for this kind of sentence - the name, role or occupation, etc, has to come first.

Remember - It can be interesting to learn the Welsh and English equivalents of personal names, but we do not translate people's names between the two languages.


Welsh has no indefinite article (a / an). So, a dragon could say:

  • Draig dw i - I am a dragon (lit. "A dragon am I").

Confirming someone's name - perhaps you misheard it

To confirm someone's name or occupation, we can form a question simply by raising our voice a little at the end of the phrase:

  • Sioned dych chi? - Are you Sioned?
  • Draig dych chi? - Are you a dragon?

Note - you would not ask 'Dych chi Sioned?' - that order of words is incorrect when asking about names and occupations or roles.


Asking a Name

The question Pwy dych chi? means Who are you? It can sound abrupt in English, but it is perfectly acceptable in everyday Welsh speech and is often heard.


Note - In these lessons, the new characters Gareth (male), Sioned (female), and Eleri Lingo (female) are introduced. Apart from learning a few more common Welsh first names, these will give you some useful listening practice. The word draig (dragon) is also introduced.

Note - This unit introduces the letter and sound /ch/, which is not used in English, but it is pronounced the same as 'Loch' in Scotland. If you have not already done so, look at the videos here to learn how to pronounce things in Welsh.


Opportunities for learning Welsh in Wales

In Wales, there are many locally-held classes aimed at teaching Welsh to adults under the title 'DysguCymraeg' or 'LearnWelsh'. The two basic courses are usually called Mynediad (entry-level) and Sylfaen (basic level).

There are related courses aimed at people with young children called 'Cymraeg i'r Teulu' ('Welsh for the Family').


Further information about learning Welsh is here


Greetings 2 updated 2021-09-22

Introducing Yourself When introducing ourselves by name or occupation in Welsh, we always emphasise the name or occupation. We do this by putting our name, Sioned, say, at the front of the sentence:

Sioned dw i - I am Sioned = (literally, "Sioned am I") Sioned would not say * 'Dw i'n Sioned' - that is the wrong order of words for this kind of sentence - the name, role or occupation, etc, has to come first.

Remember - It can be interesting to learn the Welsh and English equivalents of personal names, but we do not translate people's names between the two languages.

Welsh has no indefinite article (a / an). So, a dragon could say:

Draig dw i - I am a dragon (lit. "A dragon am I"). Confirming someone's name - perhaps you misheard it To confirm someone's name or occupation, we can form a question simply by raising our voice a little at the end of the phrase:

Sioned dych chi? - Are you Sioned? Draig dych chi? - Are you a dragon? Note - you would not ask 'Dych chi Sioned?' - that order of words is incorrect when asking about names and occupations or roles.

Asking a Name The question Pwy dych chi? means Who are you? It can sound abrupt in English, but it is perfectly acceptable in everyday Welsh speech and is often heard.

Note - In these lessons, the new characters Gareth (male), Sioned (female), and Eleri Lingo (female) are introduced. Apart from learning a few more common Welsh first names, these will give you some useful listening practice. The word draig (dragon) is also introduced.

Note - This unit introduces the letter and sound /ch/, which is not used in English, but it is pronounced the same as 'Loch' in Scotland. If you have not already done so, look at the videos here to learn how to pronounce things in Welsh.

Opportunities for learning Welsh in Wales In Wales, there are many locally-held classes aimed at teaching Welsh to adults under the title 'DysguCymraeg' or 'LearnWelsh'. The two basic courses are usually called Mynediad (entry-level) and Sylfaen (basic level). There are related courses aimed at people with young children called 'Cymraeg i'r Teulu' ('Welsh for the Family').


Present 1 updated 2020-04-17

Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.


Simple Sentences

Every verb can be used to make simple sentences in a standard way using forms of another verb, bod (meaning 'being' or 'to be'). We have already met two forms of bod:

  • dw i - I am, and
  • dych chi - you are

Now:

  • hoffi is one of several words meaning 'liking' or 'to like'

To say 'I like', we link 'I am' (dw i) with 'liking' ('hoffi') using a small word which does not actually translate into English when it is used like this - yn. In this pattern, the basic word yn is changed to 'n if it follows a word ending in a vowel. So, 'I like' is made up of:

  • dw i + yn + hoffi

giving us (remembering that yn => 'n after a vowel):

  • dw i'n hoffi... - I like...

Note how dw i and 'n join together.

And so, following the same idea but this time using dych chi (you are), we get:

  • Dych chi'n hoffi... - You like...

So, what do you and I like? Coffee, perhaps, and the Welsh for 'coffee' is coffi:

  • Dw i'n hoffi coffi - I like coffee
  • Dych chi'n hoffi coffi - You like coffee

(Note that although 'n/yn here is not actually translated into English, it does act as a marker showing that the action is 'in progress', unfinished. Later in the course you will find other words used instead of 'n/yn to mark completed or newly completed actions.)


But we don't like coffee...

The usual word for 'not' in Welsh is ddim:

  • Dw i ddim... - I am not...

So,

  • Dw i ddim yn hoffi... - I do not like...

Note that yn is separated from dw i ddim by a space - it does not get changed to 'n. That is because ddim ends with a consonant, not a vowel.

  • Dw i ddim yn hoffi coffi. - I don't like coffee.
  • Dych chi ddim yn hoffi coffi. - You do not like coffee.

Note that Welsh makes no distinction here between the English 'do not' and 'don't.'


Do we like things?

With dw i... and dych chi..., we can turn them into questions just by lifting our tone of voice at the end of the sentence, as we do when asking a question in English:

  • Dych chi'n hoffi selsig? - Do you like sausages?
  • Dw i'n hoffi coffi? - Do I like coffee?

Some dialect variations

Welsh has a number of dialects; four or five main ones, with large areas of geographical overlap. Different generations also tend to use different language patterns, too, just as with any modern language. You may live in one of those areas and you may already be learning some slight variations from the forms we generally use on this course. Don't worry about it, just ask your local tutor for advice if this applies to you.

One common variation is in a phrase we introduce in this section - dych chi (you are). In parts of north-west Wales in particular you may be learning this as dach chi, which reflects a local pronunciation. All the way through this course you can respond with dach chi instead of dych chi if you wish. Later in the course you will also meet dach chi being used as a prompt. It is important to become familiar with some simple dialect variations as they do come up in the national media and you will hear them all over Wales because people travel around so much - we don't change the way we speak just because we are working and living in or visiting a different area. There is some more information about the Welsh dialects in the notes for the later section called 'Dialects'.

Note that in this introductory course we do not cover many dialect variations, just those few commonly taught in the two introductory levels in courses for adults in Wales under the national 'LearnWelsh' scheme (www.learnwelsh.cymru).


Further information about learning Welsh is here - https://www.duolingo.com/comment/13186004


Present 2 updated 2019-10-02

Some more examples of 'doing things' in Welsh

A number of other words, both verbs and nouns, are introduced in this unit so that you can start building up your vocabulary. Building a wide vocabulary is essential in learning a language, and there are many tools around to help you.

In this unit, all the verbs are presented in the present tense. For example:

  • Dw i'n hoffi - I like
  • Dw i'n yfed - I drink/I am drinking
  • Dw i'n hoffi yfed te - I like to drink tea

Remember that the 'to' in 'to drink' in the third example is included in the meaning of the single Welsh word yfed. Yfed means 'drinking' or 'to drink', so no additional Welsh word is needed for the 'to' in this pattern.

yn is used to link dw i etc to the following verb. It is usual to shorten it to'n when it follows a Welsh vowel (a e i o u w y). This is normal for any positive sentence. When using a negative sentence, the yn is always full and again comes just before the verb-noun. For example:

  • Mae e'n yfed - He is drinking or He drinks
  • Dw i'n yfed- I am drinking or I drink
  • Dw i ddim yn yfed - I am not drinking or I don't drink
  • Dw i ddim yn gwneud te - I am not making tea

Cinio - lunch or dinner

Just as the basic structure of Welsh is very different from that of English - as in something as basic as word order, for example - Welsh words and English word do not always have a one-for-one translation. In this section you will meet an example - cinio - which is used for both 'lunch' and 'dinner'.

In English, different people use different terms for the various meals of the day. This course does not try to address that, but it is consistent in translating the various terms:

  • brecwast - breakfast
  • cinio - lunch or dinner (regardless of whether you use the term 'dinner' for a midday or an evening meal)
  • te - tea
  • swper - supper

Verb-nouns

The basic, dictionary-form of a verb in Welsh (hoffi, yfed, prynu, etc) is known as a verb-noun (berfenw). As you will see later in the course, verb-nouns can be used very flexibly in Welsh.

The nearest equivalent in English is the 'ing-participle' form of verbs (liking, drinking, buying, etc) but it is often also translated as the 'to-infinitive' (to like, to drink, to buy, etc).

In a dictionary, a verb-noun is often idenitifed with the abbreviation be for 'berfenw'.

Translating standalone verb-nouns

Please note that on this course, if you are asked to translate a verb-noun on its own (for example, bwyta, hoffi, yfed, etc), and not as part of a longer phrase, you should use the forms 'xxxing' or 'to xxx'. ('eating', 'to eat', 'to like', 'drinking'). Do not answer with just 'xxx' (eat, like, drink, swim, etc) as those forms can often be mixed up with nouns (a swim, a drink, ...) or commands (eat!, drink!). When you look them up in a dictionary the distinction is made clear, but we cannot do that on Duo.


Welsh pronouns

In colloquial Welsh, verbs are usually followed by their associated subject pronouns, for example dw i, dych chi, (I am, you are), etc.

(In formal Welsh the pronouns are often dropped, but we do not use or accept formal registers of Welsh on this course.)

For reference, here is a table of the usual pronouns:

Cymraeg English Notes
i I, me sometimes fi
ti you informal singular
e or o he, him e in southern dialects, o in northern dialects; sometimes fe, fo
hi she, her
ni we, us
chi you plural, and formal singular
nhw they, them

You will meet the verb-forms that go with each of these later in the course.


Clothes 1 updated 2019-08-25

This unit introduces some terms relating to clothing.

Gender and plurals of Welsh nouns

As in many other languages, nouns in Welsh are either masculine or feminine in gender. In Welsh, this affects how they are used in the language and in particular on how the initial letters in some words can change for various reasons. This is called 'mutation'.

The mutations aren't introduced yet and you won't need to concern yourself with them until they gradually start to be introduced later in the course. Just for an example, notice how the first letters of these feminine words change after the word y (the):

  • cot, y got - a coat, the coat
  • coban, y goban - a nightdress, the nightdress
  • baner, y faner - a flag, the flag
  • derwen, y dderwen - an oak tree, the oak tree
  • gwers, y wers - a lesson, the lesson

Note that plural nouns in Welsh have no gender - for example, these common articles of clothing have no gender: teits (tights), sanau (socks), and menig (gloves).

Note that there are several ways of forming plurals in Welsh and few guidelines about which method is used for a particular word. A few words have more than one plural. Like genders, plurals are best learned as you go.

Any dictionary will show a noun's gender and its plural.


Some of the words for clothing introduced in this unit are (f - feminine, m - masculine, pl - plural):

  • siwmper f - a jumper, pullover, sweater
  • het f - a hat
  • ffrog f - a dress/frock
  • cot, côt f - a coat
  • coban f - a nightdress
  • fest f - a vest
  • cot law f - a raincoat
  • crys m - a shirt
  • gwregys m - a belt
  • crys chwys m - a sweatshirt
  • trowsus m - (a pair of) trousers/pants
  • esgidiau pl - shoes
  • menig pl - gloves
  • sanau pl - socks
  • jîns pl - jeans

You will notice that several of these words in Modern Welsh are similar to their Modern English equivalents. This is not surprising when you think that Welsh and English have developed as close neighbours for the past 1500 years or so. Both of them draw on the Brythonic language of Britain which dates back to pre-Roman times, and both have been influenced by Latin from the time of the Romans in Britain onwards. And of course several of the items of clothing themselves are relatively recent developments.

Both languages have many dialects (Welsh has perhaps five main dialects), and it is noticeable that several Welsh language patterns and words are found in the various English dialects of Wales.

However, the structure of Modern Welsh is much closer to its Brythonic roots than Modern English is now, and this difference in structure and word order means that trying to translate word-for-word from one language to the other often does not work well at all.

Welsh is not that difficult to learn once you realise that it is different!


There is no 'a/an' in Welsh

Remember that there is no indefinite article 'a/an' in Welsh:

  • het - 'hat' or 'a hat'
  • crys - 'shirt' or 'a shirt'

In the following sentences, for example, 'a/an' is required to make sense in the English, even though there is no equivalent in the Welsh:

  • Dw i'n gwisgo cot law - I am wearing a raincoat
  • Dw i eisiau sgarf - I want a scarf

Similarly, with plurals we may use the word 'some' in the English translation where there is no equivalent in the Welsh:

  • Dw i eisiau jîns newydd - I want some new jeans
  • Dw i'n gwisgo sanau - 'I'm wearing socks' or 'I'm wearing some socks'

Someone's things

To show that someone owns something we simply put the 'owner' after the thing 'owned':

  • crys Tom - Tom's shirt
  • esgidiau Sioned - Sioned's shoes

Adjectives usually come after the noun

When we are describing things, the adjective, the describing word, usually comes after the noun in Welsh:

  • cot law - a raincoat
  • dillad ysgol - school clothes
  • esgidiau rhedeg - running shoes
  • jîns newydd - new jeans

As in any language, there are always exceptions. In Welsh there are about 10 adjectives which always come before the noun, and perhaps 20-25 which can come either before or after, creating slightly different meanings. Only a very few of these will come up in this course.


Work 1 updated 2021-09-22


Stating your occupation

This unit introduces some nouns for work and occupations. For example:

  • Actor dw i - I am an actor
  • Actores dw i - I am an actress
  • Ffermwr dw i - I am a farmer
  • Siaradwr dw i - I am a speaker

Note that the name of the occupation comes first in the sentence. This is the correct construction in Welsh when saying what job, occupation or role somebody has - just as when saying what someone's name is, as you learned earlier in the course:

  • Dewi dw i. Ffermwr dw i. - I'm Dewi. I am a farmer.

Asking what someone's name or job is

We use the same pattern to ask what someone's name or job is, but we use a rising tone towards the end of the question, as we usually do with questions in English.

The yes/no answering system can be quite complicated, but in this case it is very simple. For a question that does not start with a verb, we simply use Ie (Yes) or Nage (No):

  • Athro dych chi? - Are you a teacher?
  • John dych chi? - Are you John?
  • Nyrs dych chi? Ie. - Are you a nurse? Yes.
  • Athro dych chi? Nage, actor dw i. - Are you a teacher? No, I'm an actor.

Note that on some areas you will hear Naci or other variations instead of Nage and Ia instead of Ie. Ia and Naci are taught forms on DysguCymraeg 'north' courses.


Names of occupations

Many originally male-orientated occupations and nouns will end in -wr (from gŵr meaning 'a man'), such as ffermwr, and siaradwr, but these can be changed to a specifically female version of the same occupation by changing the -wr to -wraig (from gwraig meaning 'a woman'). For example:

  • Ffermwr (a farmer) => Ffermwraig (specifically a female farmer)
  • Siaradwr (a speaker) => Siaradwraig (specifically a female speaker)
  • Dysgwr (a learner) => Dysgwraig (specifically a female learner)

In practice, though, the female versions are not always used. The base version is also used as the non-gendered word, even though it remains a grammatically male noun.

A few other occupations have their own specifically feminine versions, such as:

  • athro; athrawes (a teacher).
  • ysgrifennydd; ysgrifenyddes (a secretary)

Others make no distinction and can be used for either gender:

  • mecanic - a mechanic
  • cyfrifydd - an accountant
  • heddwas - a police officer
  • meddyg, doctor - a doctor
  • nyrs - a nurse
  • peiriannydd - an engineer

Working somewhere

To say where we work, we use mewn or yn, both meaning 'in' or sometimes 'at'.

The difference between yn and mewn is that yn is in a specific place, whilst mewn means in a non-specific place. Yn is also used when saying 'in the...' (yn y...), in your..., in Cardiff, and so on. (Note that when yn is used fot 'in/at' it does not contract to 'n after a vowel):

  • Dw i'n gweithio yn Abertawe - I work in Swansea.
  • Dw i'n gweithio yn y theatr yn Abertawe - I work in the theatre in Swansea.
  • Dw i'n gweithio mewn theatr yn Abertawe - I work in a theatre in Swansea.
  • Dw i'n gweithio yn Tesco yn Abertawe - I work in Tesco in Swansea (a specific shop in a named place)
  • Dw i'n gweithio mewn siop - I work in a shop.
  • Dw i'n gweithio mewn ysgol - I work in a school.
  • Dw i'n gweithio mewn ysgol Gymraeg yn Abertawe - I work at a Welsh-medium school in Swansea.

'Welsh', 'Wales', 'Welsh language', 'Welsh-language'

It is important to distinguish between the various meanings of 'Welsh' and related words:

  • Cymraeg, y Gymraeg - A noun meaning 'Welsh', 'the Welsh language'.
  • Cymraeg - an adjective meaning 'Welsh-language' (books, programmes, etc), 'Welsh-speaking' (person) or, in education in particular, 'Welsh-medium' (that is, through the medium of the Welsh language).
  • Cymreig - an adjective meaning 'Welsh' as in belonging to to or pertaining to Wales (rather than to the language).
  • Cymro (Cymry) - a Welshman, a Welsh person (Welshmen, Welsh people)
  • Cymraes (Cymraësau) - a Welsh woman (Welsh women)
  • Cymru - Wales
  • Cymreictod - Welshness

Note that some people will refer to 'Welsh school' when meaning 'Welsh-medium school'. There is more information about Welsh-medium education here - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh-medium_education

Similarly:

  • Saesneg - A noun meaning 'English', 'the English language'
  • Saesneg - an adjective meaning 'English-language', 'English-speaking' or 'English-medium'.
  • Seisnig - an adjective meaning 'English' as in belonging to to or pertaining to England (rather than to the language).
  • Sais (Saeson) - an Englishman (Englishmen, English people)
  • Saesnes (Saesnesau) - an Englishwoman (English women)
  • Lloegr - England

The 1 updated 2021-01-06


The definite article - 'the'

When saying the in Cymraeg, there are three forms used: 'r, yr and y.

To know which form to use, 'r, yr or y, just go through the sequence 1, 2, 3 below and use whichever one applies first. Note that the 'r, yr, y refers to the word following it in each case:

1 - 'r is used following, and attached to, a word ending in a vowel (a e i o u w y, in Welsh), regardless of what letter the next word starts with. For example:

  • hoffi'r afal - liking the apple [...'r afal = ...the apple]
  • casáu'r tywydd
  • mynd i'r dre

2 - yr is used before vowels and h-. For example:

  • maint yr afal
  • blas yr oren
  • yn ystod yr wythnos

3 - Otherwise, y is used. For example:

  • gan y bachgen
  • wrth y ferch

An example of all three:

  • Dw i'n hoffi'r car, y beic, yr awyren a'r eliffant.

Note - occasionally, you will see 'y' instead of 'yr' used in front of some words beginning with w-. This is not necessarily wrong, so do not think that you have misunderstood the rules if you do come across it. It tends to occur with feminine nouns beginning with gw-, especially gwl-, gwn-, gwr-, where the -w- has the quality of a consonant. For example, y wawr, y wers, y wraig, y wlad, y wrach.

Note that 'r is always written attached to the preceding word - this is not always obvious in Duolingo as its underlying display formatting rules sometimes separates them. The course team have no control over that.


Weak soft mutation of feminine nouns after 'r/y (the)

'r/y cause a 'weak' soft mutation of feminine nouns. 'Weak' because the initial letters ll- and rh- resist the mutation caused by 'r/y. Here are examples of the weak soft mutation of some feminine nouns:

  • pleidlais, y bleidlais - a vote, the vote
  • tafarn, y dafarn - a pub, the pub
  • cân, y gân - a song, the song
  • bwydlen, y fwydlen - a menu, the menu
  • desg, y ddesg - a desk, the desk
  • gardd, yr ardd - a garden, the garden
  • merch, y ferch - a girl, the girl
  • llaw, y llaw - a hand, the hand (no mutation)
  • rhaw, y rhaw - a spade, the spade (no mutation)

Plural nouns and masculine noun do not mutate after 'r/y.


A table of the full soft mutation

For reference:

original letter soft mutation
p- b-
t- d-
c- g-
b- f-
d- dd-
g- -
m- f-
ll- l-
rh- r-

Remember that dd, ll and rh are all single letters in Welsh (along with ch, ff, ng, ph, th).

Note that when g- takes a soft mutation it vanishes, and that both b- and m- take a soft mutation to f-.


The Welsh Alphabet - Yr Wyddor Gymraeg

In Cymraeg, the alphabet has 28 letters (29 if we include the loan letter j). Eight of the letters, called 'digraphs', are written as two characters - but in Cymraeg, these always count as a single letter.

In the list, v stands for vowel (llafariad), c for consonant (cytsain), and d for digraph (deugraff). All digraphs are also consonants. The name of the letter is in brackets (some have more than one) - the grave accent ` over e just indicates that is pronounced as a short vowel, and ˆ indicates a long vowel.

  1. A (â) - v
  2. B (bî) - c
  3. C (èc) - c
  4. Ch (èch) - d
  5. D (dî) - c
  6. Dd (èdd) - d
  7. E (ê) - v
  8. F (èf) - c
  9. Ff (èff) - d
  10. G (èg) - c
  11. Ng (èng) - d
  12. H (âets, hâ) - c
  13. I (î, î-dot) - v
  14. J (jê) - c
  15. L (èl) - c
  16. Ll (èll) - d
  17. M (èm)- c
  18. N (èn) - c
  19. O (ô) - v
  20. P (pî) - c
  21. Ph (ffî) - d
  22. R (êr) - c
  23. Rh (rhî, rhô) - d
  24. S (ès) - c
  25. T (tî) - c
  26. Th (èth) - d
  27. U (û, û-bedol, û-cwpan, û-utgorn) - v
  28. W (ŵ) - v
  29. Y (ŷ) - v

Note that in some regional accents, î and û can sound the same or very similar, so it can be useful to call them î-dot and û-bedol, etc to distinguish them clearly.

Note that many people use the sounds of the letters rather than the names of the letters when spelling things out - be careful to notice which method they are using!


Note that you must be careful to remember the digraphs when looking up words in a Welsh dictionary. For example, chwech comes after cywir because ch is a different letter from c and comes after it in a dictionary.


Numbers 1 updated 2021-09-22

There are two counting systems in Cymraeg: the decimal and vigesimal systems. During this course, you will learn both.

In this section you will learn the modern decimal system (y system ddegol in Cymraeg) that is based on tens. This use of the system is wider than compared to the traditional vigesimal system, and is suitable in most situations. It is quite straightforward to learn.

The traditional vigesimal system (y system ugeiniol in Cymraeg) is based on twenties. It is still used when telling the time and when using ordinal numbers in a date (2nd, 20th, 31st, and so on). It is still often used when talking about money, and about someone's age. We cover this system later in the course.

More information on both systems can be found here (Wikipedia article).


When giving the Welsh answers in this section and elsewhere, please write out the number in full - this is important practice!


Some numbers

The modern system in Welsh follows a regular decimal pattern:

English Cymraeg English Cymraeg
one un eleven un deg un
two dau twelve un deg dau
three tri thirteen un deg tri
four pedwar fourteen un deg pedwar
five pump fifteen un deg pump
six chwech sixteen un deg chwech
seven saith seventeen un deg saith
eight wyth eighteen un deg wyth
nine naw thirty one tri deg un
ten deg forty five pedwar deg pump

Note that once you know the first ten numbers you can construct the rest very easily. For example:

  • Pedwar deg chwech - Forty-six (literally 'four ten(s), six')

Singular nouns follow numbers

Note that in Welsh the singular noun is used after a number, not the plural. For example:

  • Dau oren - Two oranges (not * dau orenau)
  • Un deg pum afal - fifteen apples (not * un deg pum afalau)
  • Tri afal - Three apples (not * tri afalau)
  • Pum deg tri oren - Fifty-three oranges (not * pum deg tri orenau)

Note that pump, chwech and cant (100) drop their last letter (-p, -ch, -t) in front of nouns, adjectives and other numbers, changing to pum, chwe and can.


Different forms of dau, tri, pedwar used with feminine nouns

Although it is not practised in this section, you may come across some other forms of 2, 3 and 4 which are always used with feminine nouns. Here, athro (teacher) is masculine and athrawes is specifically a female teacher:

  • dau athro, dwy athrawes
  • tri athro, tair athrawes
  • pedwar athro, pedair athrawes

These forms will be practised later in the course.


Using dau and dwy after the definite article 'r/yr/y

Both dau and dwy change after the definite article:

  • y ddau eliffant - the two elephants
  • y ddwy arth - the two bears

Ths type of change is called a 'soft mutation', and it is covered in more detail later in the course.


Hyphens in numbers in English

Normal English usage is to put a hyphen between two-part numbers - twenty-five, thirty-one, ninety-nine, etc. This avoids confusion between expressions such as 'thirty four-part complete kits' and 'thirty-four part-complete kits'.


Wanting updated 2021-03-01

Remember - please do not report audio faults or mispronunciations, as there is nothing that the course team can do about them at present.


'I am' and 'You are'

Very simply:

  • dw i means 'I am', and
  • dych chi means 'you are'

Wanting

There are several ways to express want in Cymraeg, and in this unit the noun eisiau is used. For example:

  • dw i eisiau... - 'I am' + 'want' = 'I want....'
  • dych chi eisiau... - 'you are' + 'want' = 'you want....'

You can follow eisiau with another noun or a verb-noun. For example:

  • Dw i eisiau siocled. - I want (some/a) chocolate.
  • Dych chi eisiau mynd. - You want to go.

Note - For those who have done a little Welsh before, remember that the noun eisiau does not have 'n/yn in front of it. The pattern is an exceptional one in Welsh.

Note that Welsh makes no distinction between 'a chocolate', 'some chocolate' or 'chocolate' - there is no specific word for 'a' or 'some' in this sense:

  • Dw i eisiau coffi. - I want a coffee. = I want some coffee. = I want coffee.

Note that in a negative sentence coffi may also mean '...any coffee':

  • Dw i ddim eisiau coffi. - I do not want coffee. = I do not want a coffee. = I do not want any coffee.

Note that eisiau is often pronounced isio, isie or isia (although the course voice does not reflect this) and in informal writing it is sometimes spelt as it is pronounced. On the course, we use the standard spelling eisiau, although isio is also introduced as it the version taught in the 'north' versions of the introductory DysguCymraeg courses for adults in Wales.


And

The word for 'and' is a, or ac before vowels:

  • afal a lemon - an apple and a lemon
  • afal ac oren - an apple and an orange

The vowels in Welsh are a, e, i, o, u - as in English, and also w and y.


Or

The word for 'or' is neu:

  • afal neu oren - an apple or an orange

Although you have not met the soft mutation yet, for future reference, note that neu causes a soft mutation of a following noun, adjective or verb-noun. IT does not affect a verb.


Asking the question

With dych chi (you are), we simply put a question mark at the end of the sentence and use a rising intonation at the end of the question, as in English - Dych chi...?:

  • Dych chi eisiau car newydd? - Do you want a new car?

Note that it is not always this simple - some verbs use modified forms for the question. These will be introduced later in the course.


Saying "yes", "no", and "thank you"

This skill also introduces one of the several ways of saying "yes" and "no" in Welsh. The ways of answering 'yes' or 'no' in Welsh are quite varied . For example, in this unit we will practice:

  • Ydw - Yes (I am/I do)
  • Nac ydw - No (I'm not/I don't)

(Note that the Ydw in these a verb related to Dw i (i am). In very many forms of Welsh 'Yes/No' responses we are using a form of a verb instead of words specifically for 'yes' or 'no'. There are specific yes/no words, but they are only used in particular circumstances. This is not a straightforward thing to learn as a beginner, so the various yes/no responses are introduced gradually as they come up in the course for the first time. They are always explained with examples in the relevant course notes, though.)

Note that if you do use the isio dialect form of eisiau, the answer yes/no is different - Oes (Yes); Nac oes (No) - no matter who is answering:

  • Dach chi/Wyt ti isio coffi? Oes/Nac oes.

Perhaps you might want some ice cream (hufen iâ), and since you are polite, you will want to say 'thank you ' if someone offers it - diolch (thank you):

  • Dych chi eisiau hufen iâ? Ydw. Diolch - "Do you want an ice cream? Yes. Thank you.
  • Dych chi eisiau hufen iâ? - Nac ydw, ond diolch. - Do you want an ice cream? No, but thank you.
  • Ydw, dw i eisiau hufen iâ. Diolch. - Yes, I do want some ice cream. Thanks.
  • Nac ydw, dw i ddim eisiau hufen iâ, diolch. - No, I don't want any ice cream, thanks.

For a simple 'No thanks' we have a different expression - Dim diolch:

  • Dych chi eisiau hufen iâ? Dim diolch. - Do you want an ice-cream? No thanks.

Welsh - Cymraeg

The word for 'Welsh', meaning 'the Welsh language' is Cymraeg:

  • Dw i eisiau dysgu Cymraeg. - I want to learn Welsh.

There are other meanings and uses of Cymraeg which are introduced later in the course.


Pronunciation - keep practising!

Now would be a good time to go back over those pronunciation videos that we recommended earlier in the course: here they are again https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=16sqX2Baprg&list=


Wanting updated 2019-06-28

This skill supports Welsh for the Family Unit 2

Remember - please do not report audio faults or mispronunciations, as there is nothing that the course team can do about them at present.


'I am' and 'You are'

Very simply:

  • dw i means 'I am', and
  • dych chi means 'you are'

Wanting

There are several ways to express want in Cymraeg, and in this unit eisiau is used. For example:

  • dw i eisiau... - 'I am' + 'want' = 'I want....'
  • dych chi eisiau... - 'you are' + 'want' = 'you want....'

You can follow eisiau with another noun or a verb-noun. For example:

  • Dw i eisiau siocled = I want (some/a) chocolate
  • Dych chi eisiau mynd = you want to go

Note - For those who have done a little Welsh before, eisiau does not have 'n/yn in front of it when used in phrases such as 'I want to go', 'Dewi wants to eat', etc.

Note that eisiau is usually pronounced isio, isie or isia (although the course voice does not reflect this) and in informal writing it is sometimes spelt as it is pronounced. On the course, we use the standard spelling eisiau, although isio is also accepted as it sometimes occurs in print.

Note that Welsh makes no distinction between 'a chocolate', 'some chocolate' or 'chocolate' - there is no specific word for 'a' or 'some' in this sense:

  • Dw i eisiau coffi - I want a coffee = I want some coffee = I want coffee

Note that in a negative sentence coffi may also mean '...any coffee':

  • Dw i ddim eisiau coffi - I do not want coffee = I do not want a coffee = I do not want any coffee

And

The word for 'and' is a, or ac before vowels:

  • Afal a lemon - An apple and a lemon
  • Afal ac oren - An apple and an orange

The vowels in Welsh are a, e, i, o, u - as in English, and also w and y.


Asking the question

With dych chi (you are), we simply put a question mark at the end of the sentence and use a rising intonation at the end of the question, as in English - Dych chi...?:

  • Dych chi eisiau car newydd? - Do you want a new car?

Note that it is not always this simple - some verbs use modified forms for the question. These will be introduced later in the course.


Saying "yes", "no", and "thank you"

This skill also introduces one of the several ways of saying "yes" and "no" in Welsh. The ways of answering 'yes' or 'no' in Welsh are quite varied . For example, in this unit we will practice:

  • Ydw - Yes (I am/I do)
  • Nac ydw - No (I'm not/I don't)

Perhaps you might want some ice cream (hufen iâ), and since you are polite, you will want to say 'thank you ' if someone offers it - diolch (thank you):

  • Dych chi eisiau hufen iâ? Ydw. Diolch - "Do you want an ice cream? Yes. Thank you.
  • Dych chi eisiau hufen iâ? - Nac ydw, ond diolch - Do you want an ice cream? No, but thank you.

For a simple 'No thanks' we have a slightly different expression - Dim diolch:

  • Dych chi eisiau hufen iâ? DIm diolch.* - Do you want an ice-cream? No thanks.

Welsh - Cymraeg

The word for 'Welsh', meaning 'the Welsh language' is Cymraeg:

  • Dw i eisiau dysgu Cymraeg - I want to learn Welsh

Pronunciation - keep practising!

Now would be a good time to go back over those pronunciation videos that we recommended earlier in the course: here they are again https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=16sqX2Baprg&list=


Further information about learning Welsh is here


Animals 1 updated 2020-04-26

This unit covers the names of some common animals and revises numbers


Remember - pump, chwech and cant (100) drop their final letters (-p, -ch, -t) before nouns.

Examples:

  • pum afal, chwe oren, can tŷ - five apples, six oranges, a hundred houses

Remember that 2, 3 and 4 have feminine forms used in front of feminine nouns.


Note some additional points about numbers:

  • un is followed by a weak soft mutation of feminine nouns (no mutation of rh- or ll-)
  • dau/dwy is followed by a soft mutation
  • tri is followed by an aspirate mutation
  • chwe is followed by an aspirate mutation

Examples:

  • un ci; un gath; un llygoden; un rhywogaeth - one dog, one cat; one mouse; one species (llygoden and rhywogaeth are feminine nouns but not affected by the weak soft mutation)
  • dau gi; dwy gath - two dogs; two cats
  • tri chi; tair cath - three dogs; three cats
  • pedwar ci; pedair cath - four dogs; four cats
  • chwe chi; chwe chath - six dogs; six cats

Note - Both dau and dwy take a soft mutation after 'r/y (the):

  • y ddau gi; y ddwy gath - the two dogs; the two cats

Soft mutation of feminine nouns and adjectives

Many names of animals (anifeiliaid) end in -en. Most nouns that end in -en in Cymraeg are feminine and will therefore take a weak soft mutation after 'r/y (the).

Remember that in a weak soft mutation the letters ll- and rh- resist the mutation.

Adjectives following feminine nouns take a soft mutation. Remember that the adjective usually follows the noun. For example:

  • y llygoden fawr - the big mouse (mawr)
  • y ddafad fach - the small sheep (bach)
  • yr arth gyflym - the fast bear (cyflym)

[Note that there are a very few exceptions to this rule. These include the phrases - Nos da (Good night) and wythnos diwethaf (last week), where nos and wythnos are both feminine nouns but where the following d- is not mutated.]

Note that the mutation also applies to more than one following adjective in an unbroken sequence:

  • yr arth fawr gyflym - the big fast bear
  • yr arth fawr frown gyflym - the big fast brown bear

Singular nouns used with numbers

Remember that in Cymraeg, the singular noun is used when follows directly after a number. For example:

  • saith neidr - seven snakes (not the plural nadroedd)
  • pedwar ci - four dogs (not cŵn)
  • wyth ceffyl - eight horses (not cefyllau)

Aspirate mutation following tri and chwe

Remember that nouns following tri, chwe take an aspirate mutation if they begin with p-, t-, c-:

  • tri phanda - three pandas (panda)
  • chwe theigr - six tigers (teigr)
  • tri chranc - three crabs (cranc)

Numbers + o + plural noun

You may also meet ...o... (of) with a number and the plural noun, especially with larger numbers, although this is generally not used in the course. This also requires a soft mutation following the o, as well as a knowledge of the plural form of nouns. For example:

  • dau ddeg o nadroedd - twenty snakes
  • deg o gŵn - ten dogs
  • cant o geffylau - a hundred horses

Months updated 2020-08-21

These lessons introduce the names of the months and the seasons.


Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults.


The Months

Some of the names of the months in Welsh are borrowed from Latin, eg May = Maius (Latin) => Mai (Welsh)


The word mis (month) precedes the name of the month, and the name of the month always starts with a capital letter:

  • mis Ebrill - April
  • mis Mai - May
  • mis Gorffennaf - July

To say in a particular month we add the word ym

  • ym mis Ebrill - in April
  • ym mis Mehefin - in June

Note that using the word mis in front of the names of the months is important, as the names of some of the months also mean other things in Welsh. For example:

  • Mawrth - Mars, the planet
  • dydd Mawrth - Tuesday
  • mis Mawrth - March
  • medi - harvesting, to harvest
  • mis Medi - September
  • yr hydref - autumn
  • mis Hydref - October

The mis is sometimes dropped when the context is very clear or when used with dates (covered later in the course). Apart from when using dates, it is best to use the mis, and this is what Duo does.

Note that the names of the months are all masculine in gender. The word mis itself is also masculine.


The Seasons

Note that the names of the seasons do not usually start with a capital letter unless they are part of the title of something or, of course, if they are used at the start of a sentence.

The seasons are usually used with y/yr:

  • y gwanwyn - spring
  • yr haf - summer
  • yr hydref - autumn (fall)
  • y gaeaf - winter

Note that the names of the seasons are all masculine in gender.

To say 'in autumn' or 'in the autumn', etc, we use yn y ...:

  • yn yr hydref - in autumn, in the autumn
  • yn y gaeaf - in winter, in the winter

Be careful to spell gwanwyn correctly, as there are some very similar-looking words:

  • y gwanwyn - spring
  • gwenwyn - poison
  • gwenyn, gwenynen - bees, a bee

Seeing or enjoying, etc, something doing something

We can say that we see or enjoy, etc, something in the process of doing something by using 'n/yn in front of the 'doing something':

  • Dw i'n hoffi gweld y ci'n chwarae. - I like seeing the dog playing.
  • Dych chi'n mwynhau gwylio'r plant yn peintio? - Do you enjoy watching the children painting?
  • Dw i ddim yn hoffi clywed y ci'n cyfarth! - I do not like hearing the dog barking!

How to remember the genders of the main units of time

Both eiliad (a second) and munud (a minute) can be either masculine or feminine, sometimes varying by dialect. However, if we ignore that for the sake of an aid to memory, there is a useful pattern to be seen in the alternating genders of units of time. (Here, b is benywaidd (feminine) and g is gwrwyaidd (masculine)):

  • eiliad (b) - a second
  • munud (g) - a minute
  • awr (b) - an hour
  • dydd, diwrnod (g) - day, a day
  • wythnos (b) - a week
  • mis (g) - a month
  • blwyddyn (b); [blwydd (b)] - a year; [a year of age]
  • degaid, degawd (g) - a decade
  • canrif (b) - a century
  • mileniwm (g) - a millennium

So, if you can remember the gender of one, you can work out the others.


Pronunciation reminder

Have you checked and practised your pronunciation recently? If not, go back over these pronunciation videos.

Try recording your voice saying the same words and then playing it back to compare your pronunciation with that on the videos.


Days of the Week updated 2021-09-22


Days of the week

On its own, the word dydd means 'day'. In combination with other words it is used in the names of the days of the week.

Most of the days of week are named after planets in Welsh, and some are also very similar to the days of the week in Latin and the Romance languages.

  • Sunday - dydd Sul - (Sul is an old word for the Sun, no longer used for that)
  • Monday - dydd Llun - (Llun is an old word for the Moon, no longer used for that).
  • Tuesday - dydd Mawrth - (Mawrth - the planet Mars)
  • Wednesday - dydd Mercher - (Mercher- the planet Mercury)
  • Thursday - dydd Iau - (Iau - Jupiter. Note that Iau starts with a capital 'i', not a lower case L)
  • Friday - dydd Gwener - (Gwener - Venus)
  • Saturday - dydd Sadwrn - (Sadwrn - Saturn)

Note - include dydd in the name of the day.


Morning and afternoon

  • bore = morning
  • prynhawn = afternoon

To say 'Monday morning', Tuesday afternoon' and so on we just put the name of the day after the word for the time of day:

  • bore dydd Llun = Monday morning, (but this is sometimes cut down to just bore Llun).

Similarly,

  • Tuesday afternoon = prynhawn dydd Mawrth (but this is sometimes cut down to just prynhawn Mawrth).

All the names of the days of the week can be combined in this way for morning or afternoon.


Night and evening

Nos can be combined with the names of the days of the week to mean 'Sunday night' and so on. It is also used in this way for the names of evenings:

  • nos Sadwrn - Saturday night or Saturday evening
  • nos Sul - Sunday night/evening
  • nos Iau - Thursday night/evening

Some names of days undergo a slight change (a soft mutation) when used with nos. The reason for this is explained later in the course, so just learn these for now:

  • nos Lun - Monday night/evening
  • nos Fawrth - Tuesday night/evening
  • nos Fercher - Wednesday night/evening
  • nos Wener - Friday night/evening

Note that we do not use dydd with nos - it has to be either one or the other, never both together.


For the days of the week, always combine the name with some other element

Note that there should always be something in front of the name of the day - dydd Xxx, bore dydd Xxx, bore Xxx, prynhawn dydd Xxx, nos Xxx, etc - do not use just the name of the day on its own, or it could be mistaken for the name of one of the planets.

Note that dydd, bore, prynhawn, nos do not usually take a capital letter in the names of days unless at the beginning of a sentence or as part of a special day (for example, Dydd Calan - New Year's Day).


'On' a particular day

To say that we are doing something 'on' Thursday, say, we do not use a separate word for 'on', we simply change the word dydd to ddydd:

  • Dw i'n gweithio ddydd Gwener. - I am working on Friday.

This change does not apply if we use bore or prynhawn:

  • Dw i'n gweithio prynhawn dydd Sul. - I am working on Sunday afternoon.
  • Dw i'n gweithio bore dydd Iau. - I am working on Thursday morning.

Note that this form is not used for habitual timings such as saying 'I work on a Friday', 'I work on Fridays' or 'Do you watch television on Sundays?' For that, we use the preposition ar:

  • Dw i'n gweithio ar ddydd Gwener. - I work on Fridays; I work on a Friday; I work Fridays.
  • Dw i'n mynd i Aber ar nos Lun. - I go to Aber on Monday evenings/on a Monday evening.

Note that ar is also used for 'on' with dates and with named holidays such as Dydd Nadolig (Christmas Day), Nos Galan (New Year's Eve) and so on.


Further information about learning Welsh is at http://www.duolingo.com/comment/13186004 and on the national LearnWelsh/DysguCymraeg website - http://learnwelsh.cymru


Days of the Week updated 2019-03-22


Days of the week

On its own, the word dydd means 'day'. In combination with other words it is used in the names of the days of the week.

Most of the days of week are named after planets in Welsh, and some are also very similar to the days of the week in Latin and the Romance languages.

  • Sunday - dydd Sul - (Sul is an old word for the Sun, no longer used for that)
  • Monday - dydd Llun - (Llun is an old word for the Moon, no longer used for that).
  • Tuesday - dydd Mawrth - (Mawrth - the planet Mars)
  • Wednesday - dydd Mercher - (Mercher- the planet Mercury)
  • Thursday - dydd Iau - (Iau - Jupiter. Note that Iau starts with a capital 'i', not a lower case L)
  • Friday - dydd Gwener - (Gwener - Venus)
  • Saturday - dydd Sadwrn - (Sadwrn - Saturn)

Note - include dydd in the name of the day.


Morning and afternoon

  • bore = morning
  • prynhawn = afternoon

To say 'Monday morning', Tuesday afternoon' and so on we just put the name of the day after the word for the time of day:

  • bore dydd Llun = Monday morning, (but this is sometimes cut down to just bore Llun).

Similarly,

  • Tuesday afternoon = prynhawn dydd Mawrth (but this is sometimes cut down to just prynhawn Mawrth).

All the names of the days of the week can be combined in this way for morning or afternoon.


Night and evening

Nos can be combined with the names of the days of the week to mean 'Sunday night' and so on. It is also used in this way for the names of evenings:

  • nos Sadwrn - Saturday night or Saturday evening
  • nos Sul - Sunday night/evening
  • nos Iau - Thursday night/evening

Some names of days undergo a slight change (a soft mutation) when used with nos. The reason for this is explained later in the course, so just learn these for now:

  • nos Lun - Monday night/evening
  • nos Fawrth - Tuesday night/evening
  • nos Fercher - Wednesday night/evening
  • nos Wener - Friday night/evening

Note that we do not use dydd with nos - * nos dydd Sul would be incorrect..


For the days of the week, always combine the name with some other element

Note that there should always be something in front of the name of the day - dydd..., bore dydd..., bore..., prynhawn dydd..., nos..., etc - do not use just the name of the day on its own, or it could be mistaken for the name of one of the planets.

Note that dydd, bore, prynhawn, nos do not usually take a capital letter in the names of days unless at the beginning of a sentence or as part of a special day (for example, Dydd Calan - New Year's Day).


'On' a particular day

To say that we are doing something 'on' Thursday, say, we do not use a separate word for 'on', we simply change the word dydd to ddydd:

  • Dw i'n gweithio ddydd Gwener. - I am working on Friday.

This change does not apply if we use bore or prynhawn:

  • Dw i'n gweithio prynhawn dydd Sul. - I am working on Sunday afternoon.
  • Dw i'n gweithio bore dydd Iau. - I am working on Thursday morning.

^Note that this form is not used for habitual timings such as saying 'I work on a Friday', 'I work on Fridays' or 'Do you watch televison on Sunday?' for that we use the preposition ar*:

  • Dw i'n gweithio ar ddydd Gwener. - I work on Fridays; I work on a Friday.
  • Dw i'n mynd i Aber ar nos Lun. - I go to Aber on Monday evenings/on a Monday evening.

Further information about learning Welsh is here and on the national LearnWelsh/DysguCymraeg website - http://learnwelsh.cymru


Days of the Week updated 2019-06-28


Days of the week

On its own, the word dydd means 'day'. In combination with other words it is used in the names of the days of the week.

Most of the days of week are named after planets in Welsh, and some are also very similar to the days of the week in Latin and the Romance languages.

  • Sunday - dydd Sul - (Sul is an old word for the Sun, no longer used for that)
  • Monday - dydd Llun - (Llun is an old word for the Moon, no longer used for that).
  • Tuesday - dydd Mawrth - (Mawrth - the planet Mars)
  • Wednesday - dydd Mercher - (Mercher- the planet Mercury)
  • Thursday - dydd Iau - (Iau - Jupiter. Note that Iau starts with a capital 'i', not a lower case L)
  • Friday - dydd Gwener - (Gwener - Venus)
  • Saturday - dydd Sadwrn - (Sadwrn - Saturn)

Note - include dydd in the name of the day.


Morning and afternoon

  • bore = morning
  • prynhawn = afternoon

To say 'Monday morning', Tuesday afternoon' and so on we just put the name of the day after the word for the time of day:

  • bore dydd Llun = Monday morning, (but this is sometimes cut down to just bore Llun).

Similarly,

  • Tuesday afternoon = prynhawn dydd Mawrth (but this is sometimes cut down to just prynhawn Mawrth).

All the names of the days of the week can be combined in this way for morning or afternoon.


Night and evening

Nos can be combined with the names of the days of the week to mean 'Sunday night' and so on. It is also used in this way for the names of evenings:

  • nos Sadwrn - Saturday night or Saturday evening
  • nos Sul - Sunday night/evening
  • nos Iau - Thursday night/evening

Some names of days undergo a slight change (a soft mutation) when used with nos. The reason for this is explained later in the course, so just learn these for now:

  • nos Lun - Monday night/evening
  • nos Fawrth - Tuesday night/evening
  • nos Fercher - Wednesday night/evening
  • nos Wener - Friday night/evening

Note that we do not use dydd with nos - * nos dydd Sul would be incorrect..


For the days of the week, always combine the name with some other element

Note that there should always be something in front of the name of the day - dydd..., bore dydd..., bore..., prynhawn dydd..., nos..., etc - do not use just the name of the day on its own, or it could be mistaken for the name of one of the planets.

Note that dydd, bore, prynhawn, nos do not usually take a capital letter in the names of days unless at the beginning of a sentence or as part of a special day (for example, Dydd Calan - New Year's Day).


'On' a particular day

To say that we are doing something 'on' Thursday, say, we do not use a separate word for 'on', we simply change the word dydd to ddydd:

  • Dw i'n gweithio ddydd Gwener. - I am working on Friday.

This change does not apply if we use bore or prynhawn:

  • Dw i'n gweithio prynhawn dydd Sul. - I am working on Sunday afternoon.
  • Dw i'n gweithio bore dydd Iau. - I am working on Thursday morning.

Note that this form is not used for habitual timings such as saying 'I work on a Friday', 'I work on Fridays' or 'Do you watch televison on Sunday?' for that we use the preposition ar:

  • Dw i'n gweithio ar ddydd Gwener. - I work on Fridays; I work on a Friday.
  • Dw i'n mynd i Aber ar nos Lun. - I go to Aber on Monday evenings/on a Monday evening.

Further information about learning Welsh is here and on the national LearnWelsh/DysguCymraeg website - http://learnwelsh.cymru


Going to updated 2021-09-22


A simple way of expressing the future using mynd i

To say that someone is 'going to' somewhere or to do something, the phrase mynd i (going to, to go to) can be used, just as in English.


For example, 'going to' a place:

  • Dw i'n mynd i Abertawe - I am going to Swansea
  • Dych chi'n mynd i Aberdaron - You are going to Aberdaron

Note that mynd i is not used for 'going to' a person (going to the doctor, for example). For that, we use mynd at.


By putting mynd i in front of another verb-noun, it can be used to form a statement of someone's current intention to carry out a future action::

  • Dw i'n mynd i siarad â Dewi - I am going to speak to Dewi.
  • Dw i'n mynd i godi. - I am going to get up. (codi)
  • Dw i'n mynd i fynd i'r Eisteddfod. - I'm going to go to the Eisteddfod. (mynd)
  • Dych chi'n mynd i ymweld â Sioned. - You are going to visit Sioned.

Note that siarad and ymweld are both followed by the preposition â (which becomes ag before a vowel). LIke mynd i, this is an example of some verbs needing to be followed by particular prepositions in order to complete or modify their meaning.


Soft mutation

Mutations are changes to some initial consonants of words in certain circumstances. Only nine consonants can take a mutation at all, and not all of them take every mutation. The previous paragraph has some examples of the most common mutation, the 'soft' mutation.

There are many causes of a soft mutation, only the most common of which are covered on this introductory course. In this section, the preposition i (to, for) which causes soft mutation of the word that directly follows it. For example, you will see above that codi has changed to godi following mynd i, and mynd to fynd.

Here is a table showing the soft mutations:

original letter soft mutation
p- b-
t- d-
c- g-
b- f-
d- dd-
g- -
m- f-
ll- l-
rh- r-

Remember - dd, ll and rh are all single letters in Welsh (along with ch, ff, ng, ph, th).

Note - when g- takes a soft mutation it vanishes, and that both b- and m- take a soft mutation to f-.


Some prepositions are routinely followed by a soft mutation

They are:

  • am, ar, at, gan; dros, drwy, wrth, dan; heb, hyd, i, o.

See - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8fjUdJqa5Hg


Church and Chapel

The chapel movement was very strong in Wales. As a result, "chapel" and "church" are not synonymous in Wales. As influence of the established Church of England diminished, the non-conformist chapels became the primary location of Christian worship in many places. In 1920, the Church of England was disestablished in Wales and the 'Church in Wales' was created as a separate Anglican body with no links to civil government.


Going to the usual place

When we are referring to places that we go to habitually, such as 'bed, 'chapel', 'work', 'school' etc, it is the convention in Welsh that i'r... ('to the...') is used. English is not consistent in this:

  • Mae Siân yn mynd i'r gwely - Siân is going to bed.
  • Dw i'n mynd i'r capel bob bore Sul. - I go to chapel every Sunday morning.
  • Mae'r plant yn mynd i'r ysgol. - The children are going to school.
  • Mae Mair yn mynd i'r ymarfer côr ar nos Lun. - Mair goes to choir practice on Monday evenings.
  • Mae e'n mynd i'r swyddfa. - He is going to the office.

Doing things on particular days

When we want to say that we are doing something 'on Monday', 'on Sunday' and so on, we usually simply change dydd to ddydd - there is no need to add anything else to mean 'on' in this case:

  • Dw i'n mynd i Aber ddydd Llun. - I'm going to Aber on Monday.

To say 'on Mondays', etc, when we mean we do something habitually on a day, we use ar as well:

  • Mae'r plant yn mynd i nofio ar nos Iau - the children go swimming on Thursday evenings
  • Dw i'n mynd i Aber ar ddydd Llun - I go to Aber on Mondays

Changes, or not, following question words

The adverbial questions Pryd?, Pam?, Ble/Lle? and Sut? (when it means How?) are not followed by a soft mutation of the verb. Nor are questions that begin with a preposition. They are followed by mae, not by ydy/yw, and they are followed by r-forms of bod*:

  • Pryd/Pam/Ble/Sut rwyt ti'n mynd? - When/Why/Where/How are you going?

(The r- is sometimes dropped in casual use, though...)


Sports

In British English, when there is a well-known sporting event coming up it is usual for it to be referred to as simply 'the rugby', 'the golf', 'the athletics', etc:

  • Wyt ti'n mynd i wylio'r rygbi heno? - Are you going to watch the rugby this evening?

Places1 updated 2021-09-22

When using Welsh in Wales you will come across place names which you may only have heard before in English. This unit introduces a few of them. It also covers a couple of many uses of the soft mutation.

Note - Following the usual practice in Wales, personal names are not translated or changed in spelling between Welsh and English. Where a place has a different name in both languages, though, we do translate them.

The Soft Mutation following i (to) and o (from)

You may have heard of mutations in the Welsh language. In this unit we introduce the first, and by far the most common of these - the soft mutation.

The prepositions i (to) and o (from) cause a soft mutation of the following word. This means that some consonants at the start of words 'soften'. Here is the complete list:

Original letter Soft mutated letter
p b
t d
c g
b f
d dd
g -
m f
ll l
rh r

(Note - the g vanishes when it undergoes soft mutation)

For example:

  • Dw i'n mynd i Dywyn. - I am going to Tywyn. (t => d)
  • Dw i'n dod o Lanelli. - I come from Llanelli. (ll => l)
  • Mae o'n dŵad o Fangor heddiw. - He is coming from Bangor today.
  • Dych chi'n mynd i Garno. - You are going to Carno. (c => g)

Note that dŵad is a regional variation of dod found in some mid- and north Wales dialects.

More information about the soft mutation, y treiglad meddal, can be found here (a Wikibooks article).


Placenames

We use placenames widely during the rest of the course to give context and variety when discussing travel, work, and so on. You will also often come across them in the Welsh media. Here are some that have separate Welsh and English names:

Enw Cymraeg English Name
Abergwaun Fishguard
Casnewydd Newport
Caergybi Holyhead
Caerfyrddin Carmarthen
Pwllheli Pwllheli*
Manceinion Manchester
Efrog Newydd New York
Amwythig Shrewsbury
Caergrawnt Cambridge
Y Bala Bala
Y Fenni Abergavenny
Y Bontfaen Cowbridge
Y Drenewydd Newtown
Castell-nedd Neath
Hendy Gwyn ar Daf Whitland

Like most places in Wales. Pwllheli has only a Welsh name. It is included here as it has a very high proportion of Welsh speakers, over 80% of its population at the last census.

Note that in the examples where the Welsh name includes y (the), that this is not reflected in the English name.

Note that some Welsh place names have more than one word where the English has only one, and vice versa.


A list of some English-language place names in Wales can be found here (Wikipedia article) and some in the rest of the world here (Wikipedia article).

If you want to know more about these places and where they are, just look in any good atlas or on the internet. Many will have their own web sites and articles on their history.


Many place-names have common descriptive elements in them, and it can add interest to any journey through Wales if you get to know some of them. A fuller list is available at https://getoutside.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/guides/the-welsh-origins-of-place-names-in-britain/, but here are some common ones:

Cymraeg Meaning
Aber Where one river flows into another body of water
Ban, Bannau Peak(s), beacon(s)
Bron Breast of a hill
Bryn Hill
Caer Fort
Cas Castle
Crug Hill, tump
Cwm Valley
Derw, Deri Oaks
Dinas Hill-fort
Dyffryn Valley, vale
Ffin Border, boundary
Isaf Lower, lowest
Llan Church, church land (often followed by the name of the saint to whom the church was dedicated, eg, Llangatwg - a place with a church dedicated to St Catwg)
Morfa Salt-marsh
Nant Brook, dingle
Pont Bridge
Porth Gate
Rhos Moor
Tyle Hill-side, ascent
Uchaf Upper, highest
Ystrad Vale

Present Tense 3 updated 2021-09-22

In this unit, other forms of the present tense of bod (to be) are introduced.


'You' - Ti and Chi

As in several other European lanaguages, Welsh has two forms of 'you', ti and chi, and different forms of verbs are used with each:

Ti is only used with an individual, never with more than one person:

  • When talking to an individual with whom you are on familiar terms, such as a friend, relative or close colleague.
  • When talking to a child.
  • When talking or praying to a deity.

Chi is used:

  • When addressing more than one person, familiar or not.
  • When talking with someone you don't know.
  • With an individual in formal settings.

The forms of bod (to be)

The pronouns we use are:

  • i - I
  • ti - you (singular familiar)
  • e, o - he (sometimes fe/fo)
  • hi - she
  • ni - we
  • chi - you (plural, and formal singular)
  • nhw - they

Note that for 'he', e is generally used in dialects in west, south and some of mid-Wales, o in north and other parts of mid-Wales.

Here is the pattern of the present tense of bod:

Positive Question Negative Translation
(ry)dw i (y)dw i? (dy)dw i ddim I am, am I?, I am not
rwyt ti wyt ti? dwyt ti ddim you (sing.) are..., etc.
mae e/o ydy e/o? dydy/dyw e/o ddim he is... etc.
mae hi ydy hi? dydy/dyw hi ddim she is... etc.
(ry)dyn ni ydyn ni? (dy)dyn ni ddim we are... etc.
(ry)dych chi (y)dych chi? (dy)dych chi ddim you (pl) are... etc.
maen nhw ydyn nhw? (dy)dyn nhw ddim they are... etc

(ry)dw i shows the fuller form in brackets (rydw) compared to the basic spoken form taught on this course (dw i). The fuller forms are sometimes taught in schools, and are used in the media, too.

Note in dialects in south, west and parts of mid-Wales the pronoun 'he' is usually e, while in north Wales and other parts of mid-Wales 'he' is usually o.

Note that on introductory courses using DysguCymraeg 'north' materials, you will be taught dan ni, dach chi, dan nhw, etc. This reflects local pronunciation.

Note that mae is also used with nouns, both plural and singular:

  • Mae'r plant yn chwarae. - The children are playing.
  • Mae Siôn a Siân yn licio cerdded. - Siôn and Siân like walking.
  • Mae'r car a'r beic yn las. - The car and the bike are blue.

Note that with verbs the third person plural form is only used with the pronoun nhw.

Note that Yw... is not used to start a question, only Ydy...? is used.

Note that the third person singular negatives dyw and dydy have the same meaning and are interchangeable.

Remember, to form the present tense we use the appropriate part of the verb to be (bod) + 'n/yn and the required verb. For example:

  • Dw i'n canu. - I am singing.
  • Wyt ti'n canu? - Are you singing?
  • Dyw e ddim yn canu. - He is not singing.

Courses in parts of north and mid-Wales may teach the forms dan ni and dach chi, etc, following local pronunciation. Those forms are accepted on this Duolingo course.


Emphatic sentences

In earlier section we saw that when identifying someone by their job or name, we put that first in the sentence:

  • Sam dw i. - I'm Sam.
  • Athro dych chi? - Are you a teacher?

In identifying sentences in the third person we use ydy/yw following the identifier, or with a plural, ydyn:

  • John yw e. - He's John.
  • Mecanic yw hi. - She is a mechanic.
  • Athrawes ydy hi? - Is she a teacher?
  • Ffermwyr ydyn nhw? - Are they farmers?

More on Yes and No

We have already met the responses Ydw - 'Yes (I am) and Nac ydw - 'No (I am not).

To form the 'Yes' and 'No' in other persons, take the question form and remove the pronoun:

  • Ydy hi'n canu? - Is she singing? - Ydy - Yes (she is); Nac ydy - No (she is not)
  • Dych chi'n cerdded, Megan a Siôn? - Ydyn - Yes (We are); Nac ydyn - No (we are not)
  • Ydyn nhw'n bwyta? - Ydyn - Yes (they are); Nac ydyn - No (they are not)

If the question starts with something other than the verb we use a much simpler yes/no system - Ie/Nage. For example:

  • Athrawes dych chi? Ie. - Are you a teacher? Yes.
  • John yw e? Nage, Sam.. - Is he John? No, Sam.
  • Athro ydy Siôn? Nage, trydanwr ydy e. - Is Siôn a teacher? No, he's an electrician.

PastWedi updated 2020-11-17

This unit teaches the present perfect tense, yr amser perffaith, using wedi.


This tense is used to describe something, saying that the activity has been completed - that is why the activity is 'perfect'!

This tense can be seen in English with 'have/has', and often, although not always, followed with the '-ed' verb-ending. For example:

  • I have swum 300 metres.
  • We have enjoyed lunch, thank you.
  • Siôn has eaten well this evening.
  • She has played well today.
  • They have enjoyed themselves.
  • She has paid the bill already.

Note that this tense is not the same as the simple past tense 'I swam', I enjoyed', 'I ate', 'I finished' - that is a different tense, the simple past, in both English and Welsh, and it is covered in later sections of the course.


In the Welsh present tense we use forms of bod with yn/'n

  • Dw i'n mynd - I am going
  • Maen nhw'n bwyta pasta - They are eating pasta.

There, yn/'n shows that the action is unfinished - it is still incomplete.

In Welsh, the present perfect tense pattern uses the same present tense forms of bod and we simply use wedi instead of yn/'n, to show that that action has been completed - 'I have gone.', 'They have eaten..,'

  • Dw i wedi nofio 300 metr. - I have swum 300 metres. (But not 'I swam...' - that is a different tense, the simple past).)
  • Dyn ni wedi mwynhau cinio. - We have enjoyed lunch. (But not 'We enjoyed...')
  • Mae Siôn wedi bwyta'n dda heno. - Siôn has eaten well this evening. (But not 'Siôn ate...')

Note that yn/'n is never used at the same time as wedi - the action cannot be incomplete and complete at the same time. For example, * Dw i'n wedi mynd would make no sense.

More examples:

  • Dw i wedi gorffen. - I have finished.
  • Mae'r plant wedi codi. - The children have got up.
  • Mae Sioned wedi yfed coffi. - Sioned has drunk a coffee.
  • Dyn ni wedi chwarae pêl-droed. - We have played football.
  • Dw i wedi mynd i siopa. - I have gone shopping.
  • Mae e wedi darllen y nofel. - He has read the novel.

Questions

Questions can be asked and answered in the same way as with the present tense:

  • Wyt ti wedi cael cinio? Ydw - Have you had lunch? Yes.
  • Ydy hi wedi mynd? Ydy. Has she gone? Yes.
  • Ydyn nhw wedi bod yno eto? Nac ydyn - Have they been there yet? No.

In parts of north Wales, and as taught in the 'north' versions of the intoductory and intermediate DysguCymraeg courses, Do/Naddo can be used in answers to questions in the present perfect tense with wedi:

  • Dan ni wedi bod yma o'r blaen? Do/Naddo. - Have we been here before? Yes/No.
  • Dach chi wedi gorffen y gwaith? Do/Naddo. - Have you finished the work? Yes/No.
  • Ydy o wedi dŵad i weld Siân? Do/Naddo. - has he come to see Siân? Yes/No.

Negatives

Negatives also work in the same way as with the present tense:

  • Dw i ddim wedi bod i Sbaen eto. - I have not been to Spain yet.
  • Dydyn nhw ddim wedi bod yn yr Almaen o'r blaen. - They have not been in Germany before.
  • Dydy'r plant ddim wedi bwyta wyau heddiw - the children haven't eaten any eggs today.

Golchi vs ymolchi - washing vs getting washed

ym- is quite a common verb prefix in Welsh. It often indicates a reflexive action - something that someone does to themselves. This is not always obvious in the English translation. In golchi (washing) and ymolchi (washing oneself, getting washed) it is very clear, though:

  • Mae hi wedi golchi'r car. - She has washed the car.
  • Mae hi wedi ymolchi. - She has got washed; She has washed herself; She has had a wash.

Dialects 1 updated 2021-09-22


'Identification' sentences

When we want to say what or who someone is - their name, their occupation or whether they are male or female and so on, this is termed an 'identification sentence'.

  • I'm Dewi
  • He is a teacher
  • Sioned is a mechanic
  • She is a girl

Remember that in Welsh, identification sentences use the emphatic construction, with the 'identity' being put first in the sentence.

Remember that with the third person verb this means that the 'identity' is followed by ydy/yw, never by mae:

  • Dewi dw i
  • Athro ydy o
  • Mecanig yw Sioned
  • Geneth ydy hi - (geneth - girl)
  • Pobydd dych chi - (pobydd - baker)

The five main Welsh dialect areas

A variety of dialects are used in the Welsh-language media, so it is useful to become at least a little familar with some of the main variants as you start to learn the language.

Although people often refer to there being two main variants of Cymraeg, this greatly over-simplifies the reality. There are four or five commonly-recognised main dialect areas (see more below).

The five generally recognised dialects are:

  • y Wendodeg - north-west Wales
  • y Bowyseg - north-east and northern mid-Wales
  • Iaith Sir Benfro - north Pembrokeshire Welsh
  • y Ddyfedeg - southern mid-Wales and south-west Wales (Dyfed)
  • Y Wenhwyseg - south and south-east Wales

A map of four of the five the main dialect areas is here although it includes the north Pembrokeshire dialect as part of the Dyfedeg dialect.

The dialect areas are not at all as distinct as the map may imply, and in many areas you may hear several words in use for the same thing, and several variations in the details of grammar. These often vary by the age of the person speaking, particularly as younger people tend to move around more for work and education, with the result that their language can tend to mix dialects and to standardise.

For examples of the actual complexity on the ground, look at examples such as these, which, although they cover only the vocabulary and not local variations in pronunciation and grammar, emphasise the lack of clear-cut dialect boundaries:

There are local dialect words and pronunciations for such everyday things as girl, boy, hedge, farm lane and so on. Milk can be llaeth, llâth, llefrith. Large/big is usually mawr, but pronounced /mowr/ in much of the south-west.

Here are some variations for 'table', 'grass', and 'iron': https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLz6oFM0_Iszwucu8_lmEhmk44elcxCCgB

Adre ('homewards') is often pronounced /adra/ in the north-west and the south-east and as /adre/ elsewhere, but it sometimes appears as tua thre (pronounced /sha thre/) in the south and south-east.

-au endings (eg dechrau, cefnau) are often pronounced /-a/, (/dechra, cefna/) in the north-west and south-east, but /-e/ (/dechre/, /cefne/) in the north-east, mid-Wales and the south-west.

Cael might be heard as /câl/ in the south-west and /ciêl, ciel/ in mid-Wales.

Roedd hi'n oer may be heard as /wedd hi'n wer/ in Pembrokeshire.

Gwybod is often /gwpod/ in south-east Wales, and dw i ddim yn gwybod tends to be sa i'n gwpod.

More information here - https://museum.wales/articles/2011-03-29/The-Dialects-of-Wales/


Here are some words introduced in this unit and in which broad area they tend to be more common:

English west and south Wales north Wales
boy crwt, bachgen hogyn (NW), bachgen (NE)
girl merch hogan (NW), geneth (NW/NE)
milk llaeth, /llâth/ llefrith
you are dych chi, /ych chi/, /ŷch chi/, /dech chi/ dach chi, /dech chi/
woman menyw dynes
is not dyw, dydy dydy
is yw, /odi/ ydy, ydi, /'di/
liking hoffi/licio/lico hoffi/licio
he is mae e, /ma' e/, /ma' fe/ mae o
you (singular, informal) ti ti, chdi
hi, how are things? /shwmae/ s'mae
a want, (wanting) eisiau, /isia/, /isie/, (moyn) /isio/
with gyda efo
to be able to gallu medru
coming dod dod, dŵad
out ma's, mas, allan allan
yes; no ie; nage ie, ia; naci
Where? Ble? Lle?, Ble?

Many other variants are also common, such as:

  • perth, sietin, clawdd, gwrych for 'hedge' in various areas

A very big topic that this course can only skim!

There are examples of several dialects here - https://museum.wales/articles/2011-03-29/The-Dialects-of-Wales/ Do not expect to be able to understand them yet, but you may pick up the variations in the various accents.


Extend updated 2021-04-11

This section of the course introduces some additional vocabulary.


Hungry and thirsty

In Welsh the idea of being hungry or thirsty is expressed by 'a want' of 'food/drink' using the word eisiau (a want) in along with bwyd/diod (food/drink):

  • Dych chi eisiau bwyd. - You are hungry.
  • Dw i eisiau diod. - I am thirsty.

A reminder of the full present tense of bod (to be)

Here is the full pattern of the present tense of bod - dw i, etc, again:

Positive Question Negative Translation
[ry)dw i (y)dw i? (dy)dw i ddim I am, Am I?, I am not
rwyt ti wyt ti? dwyt ti ddim You (sing) are.. etc.
mae e/o ydy e/o? dydy e/o ddim He is....etc.
mae hi ydy hi? dydy hi ddim She is....etc.
(ry)dyn ni ydyn ni? (dy)dyn ni ddim We are.... etc.
(ry)dych chi (y)dych chi? (dy)dych chi ddim You (pl) are.... etc.
maen nhw ydyn nhw? (dy)dyn nhw ddim They are....etc

(ry)dw i shows the full written form in brackets (rydw i) compared to the spoken form taught on this course (dw i).

Remember that mae is also used with nouns, both singular and plural:

  • Mae'r dyn yn mynd adre. - The man is going home.
  • Mae'r dynion yn mynd adre. - The men are going home
  • Mae'r plant yn mynd adre. - The children are going home.
  • Mae Siôn a Siân yn mynd adre. - Siôn and Siân are going home.

Home, at home, to home

There are three words to learn concerning home:

  • cartre - a home
  • gartre - at home
  • adre - (towards) home, home(wards) - used to convey some sort of movement towards or arrival at home.

All three will also be seen with a final -f, although it is rarely pronounced in colloquual Welsh.

  • Mae cartre Dewi yn Aber. - Dewi's home is in Aber.
  • Mae Dewi yn aros gartre heddiw. - Dewi is staying at home today.
  • Mae Sioned yn cerdded adre. - Sioned is walking home.
  • Mae Sioned yn cyrraedd adref erbyn saith o'r gloch fel arfer. - Sioned usually gets home by seven o'clock.

May I? updated 2021-01-24


Soft mutation

You may have heard of mutations in the Welsh language. In this unit we again use the first, and by far the most most common of these - soft mutation.

After certain words and patterns, some consonants at the start of words 'soften'. Here is the complete list:

Original letter Soft mutated letter
p b
t d
c g
b f
d dd
g -
m f
ll l
rh r

(Note that the g vanishes when it undergoes soft mutation)

The main reason for soft mutation is that it allows the language to flow better when spoken, although sometimes it is due to reasons of grammar.

More information about the soft mutation, y treiglad meddal, can be found here https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Welsh/Mutations#Soft_mutation.

As you go through the course you will come across some more of the main reasons for soft mutation. Just pick them up and practise them as you go. Above all, when speaking Welsh do not worry if you miss a mutation.

When you use a dictionary to look up a word you may need to take a possible mutation into account. Ofyn will not be in the dictionary, for example - you would need to look up Gofyn. Luckily, some on-line dictionaries such as www.gweiadur.com, and smartphone apps such as Ap Geiriaduron will handle mutated words.


May I?

Ga i...? is a very important phrase in Welsh meaning, simply:

  • 'May I ...' or 'Can I have (something)?'
  • 'May I ...' or 'Can I (do something)?'

We use Ga i...? to ask for things:

  • Ga i afal? - May I have an apple?

We also use it to ask for permission to do something:

  • Ga i fynd? - May I go? (notice the soft mutation here which has changed mynd (going, to go) to fynd

The object (mynd, here) of a short-form verb such as this always takes a soft mutation if it can. Some more examples - check that you can see where the soft mutation comes in:

  • Ga i goffi? - May I have a coffee? (coffi -> goffi)
  • Ga i fynd nawr? - May I go now?
  • Ga i goffi, plîs? - Can I have a coffee, please
  • Ga i bapur? - May I have a paper?
  • Ga i siwgr, plîs? - May I have some sugar, please? (note - s does not mutate)
  • Ga i ddiod? - May I have a drink?
  • Ga i dalu nawr? - Can I pay now?

If there is more than one word in the object phrase, just the first element takes the soft mutation:

  • Ga i lyfr mawr? - May I have a large book? (llyfr takes the mutation as the object of ga?)
  • Ga i'r llyfr? - May I have the book? (no mutation possible of 'r)
  • Ga i ddau lyfr? - May I have two books (dau takes the mutation because it is the first element of the object phrase, but the mutation of llyfr is for a different reason - it follows dau)

Ga i? is a question form of the verb-noun cael. This has several meanings, one of which is 'to be allowed to', and it is this meaning that is being used in Ga i...?


Answering

  • Ga i afal? Cei/Na chei. - May I have an apple? Yes/No. (ti-form)
  • Ga i afal? Cewch/Na chewch. - May I have an apple? Yes/No. (chi-form)

Note the aspirate mutation following na:

  • na + aspirate mutation + cewch => na chewch

Aspirate mutation

The aspirate mutation (treiglad llaes) is far less common than the soft mutation. It only affects three initial consonants, p, t, c:

  • p => ph
  • t => th
  • c => ch

Among other things, it follows a (and):

  • pannas a phys - parsnips and peas
  • trên a thractor - a train and a tractor
  • coffi a chacen - coffee and cake

Please

There are several ways of saying 'please':

  • Os gwelwch chi'n dda.
  • Os gwelwch yn dda - a slight variation.
  • Plîs - simple and widely used, especially informally
  • Os gweli di'n dda - The ti form.

Verb-nouns

The basic form of verbs that you will look up in a Welsh dictionary is called a 'verb-noun'. By the end of this unit you will have met, for example, gofyn, talu, hoffi, yfed, gwneud and several others. The nearest equivalent in English is the '-ing' form of words - asking, paying, liking,... or the 'to xxx' form - to ask, to pay, to like, ....

Note - if you are asked to translate this sort of word on its own, not as part of a longer phrase on this course, use the forms 'xxxing' or 'to xxx'. Do not answer with just 'xxx' (eat, like, drink, swim, etc) as those can often be mixed up with nouns (a swim, a drink, ...) or commands (eat!, drink!).


Britishisms - a cup of tea or 'cuppa'

'A cup of tea', or 'a cuppa' is a common thing to ask for in Britain. The Welsh equivalent is paned, or in some dialects disgled. 'Te'/'tea' need not be specified.

If you mean 'a cup of coffee', say, you should specify paned/disgled o goffi.


Colours updated 2018-12-31


Colours

Colours, as with other adjectives, follow the noun in Cymraeg. For example:

  • a blue bike => beic glas
  • black coffee => coffi du
  • a brown car => car brown

As with other adjectives, colours undergo soft mutation after feminine singular nouns:

  • y ci du, y gath ddu - the black dog, the black cat
  • y bwrdd coch, y gadair goch - the red table, the red chair
  • ci gwyn, cath wyn - a white dog, a white cat

Some colours have specific feminine forms which are often, but not always, used after feminine singular nouns. The feminine forms are the second in each pair:

  • gwyn, gwen
  • gwyrdd, gwerdd
  • melyn, melen

The feminine forms must also mutate after a feminine noun:

  • y ci gwyn, y gath wen - the white dog, the white cat
  • y bwrdd gwyrdd, y gadair werdd - the green table, the green chair
  • y tŷ melyn, y gegin felen - the yellow house, the yellow kitchen

Note that if a feminine noun is followed by an unbroken chain of adjectives, they each take a soft mutation:

  • y gath wen fawr - the big white cat

But:

  • y gath ddu a gwyn - the black and white cat (No mutation of gwyn as the chain of adjectives has been broken by a (and).)

Soft mutation of feminine nouns after y/'r (the)

Looking at the sentence above you will see that some nouns have mutated after y. This is because y/'r causes a weak (+) soft mutation of feminine nouns

(+) In a 'weak' soft mutation, there is no mutation of words beginning with ll- or rh-)

  • pabell, y babell - a tent, the tent
  • taten, y daten - a potato, the potato
  • cath, y gath - a cat, the cat
  • braich, y fraich - an arm, the arm
  • derwen, y dderwen - an oak-tree, the oak-tree
  • gwawr, y wawr - a dawn, the dawn
  • merch, y ferch - a girl, the girl
  • llaw, y llaw - a hand, the hand (llaw is feminine)
  • rhaw, y rhaw - a spade, the spade (rhaw is feminine)

There are no comprehensive rules as to which nouns are feminine, so it is best to look up and learn the genders at the same time that you learn the meanings. As you go on you will begin to spot some patterns, but look out for the exceptions.


Colour variations in Welsh

There are some other examples of occasional variations between the words for colours which you may come across:

  • Glas (blue) is also sometimes used for shades of bluey-green and sometimes for the idea of 'fresh green', as in newly grown grass and plants. Glaswellt is a word for 'grass'. People who are inexperienced in things may also be described as glas or termed gleision, similar to the English 'green', 'greenhorn' and 'fresher'.

  • Melyn (yellow) may be applied to shades of cream, beige or sandy colour.

  • Llwyd (grey) may also be applied to some shades of grey-ish or dull brown. For example, 'brown paper' used for wrapping is papur llwyd.


Numbers2 updated 2020-10-25

More on numbers


Changes in pump, chwech, cant when followed by adjectives or nouns

pump, chwech and cant drop their final letters (-p, -ch, -t) when they come before the nouns and adjectives that they are numbering:

  • pum car - five cars
  • chwe beic - six bikes
  • can person - a hundred people

Mutations after un, dau/dwy, tri, chwe:

  • Feminine nouns take a weak soft mutation after un (soft mutation, but no mutation of ll-, rh-).
  • dau and dwy both cause a soft mutation of following words.
  • tri, chwe cause an aspirate mutation of following words - p-, t-, c- are mutated to ph-, th-, ch- respectively. Note that the feminine forms tair, pedair do not cause a mutation.

So ((b) = feminine noun):

  • merch (b), un ferch, dwy ferch, tair merch, chwe merch - a girl, one girl, two girls, three girls, six girls
  • rhaw (b), un rhaw, dwy raw, tair rhaw, chwe rhaw - a spade, one spade, two spades, three spades, six spades
  • teisen (b), un deisen, dwy deisen, tair teisen, chwe theisen - a cake, one cake, two cakes, three cakes, six cakes
  • twll, un twll, dau dwll, tri thwll, chwe thwll - a hole, one hole, three holes, six holes
  • pêl (b), un bêl, dwy bêl, tair pêl, chwe phêl - a ball, one ball, two balls, three balls, six balls
  • pen, un pen, dau ben, tri phen, chwe phen - a head, one head, two heads, three heads, six heads

Note that feminine forms of numbers are also used with age:

  • Mae Siân yn ddwy (flwydd) oed. - -Siân is two years old. (The word for 'a year (of age)' - blwydd, a feminine noun - is often left out.)

These changes also apply to numbers

Note that these changes also apply to numbers. So:

  • dau ddeg - 20 (soft mutation following dau)
  • pum deg - 50 (last letter dropped)
  • chwe deg - 60 (last letter dropped)
  • can mil - 100000 (last letter dropped)

Britishisms -'sums'

In British English, the word 'sums' is often used to refer to the sort of basic arithmetic taught to children in primary schools - addition, subtraction, division and multiplication, etc. These are the words used to distinguish between the common terms in this area:

  • symiau - sums, arithmetic
  • rhifyddeg - arithmetic
  • mathemateg - mathematics

Weather updated 2020-02-13

Describing the weather

Note that for an abstract 'it', such as when referring time, distance or weather, we use the pronoun hi.

We use the construction Mae hi'n... (it is) with an adjective. Note that 'n/yn here causes a weak soft mutation of the adjective. (_ indicates a g being mutated away):

  • Mae hi'n gymylog - It is cloudy (cymylog)
  • Mae hi'n braf. - It is fine
  • Mae hi'n heulog. - It is sunny
  • Mae hi'n _wyntog iawn. - It is very windy (gwyntog)
  • Mae hi'n ofnadwy - It's terrible
  • Mae hi'n ddiflas - It's miserable (diflas)
  • Mae hi'n _wlyb - It is wet (gwlyb)

Note - the word braf resists mutation.


To say it was, the mae is changed to roedd:

  • Roedd hi'n stormus neithiwr. - It was stormy last night.

To say it will be, we use bydd hi:

  • Bydd hi'n oer yfory. - It will be cold tomorrow

What will the weather be like?

To ask 'What will something be like?' or 'What is something like?' we use sut?:

  • Sut bydd y tywydd yfory? - What will the weather be like tomorrow?
  • Sut mae'r tywydd yn Eryri heddiw? - What is the weather like in Snowdonia like today?

Morning, afternoon, etc

When saying 'this morning' or 'this afternoon' etc., the definite article y (the) is used (although it is often dropped), then the noun, then 'ma to mean 'this'. For example:

  • Mae hi'n braf y bore 'ma - It's fine this morning
  • Bydd hi'n wlyb prynhawn 'ma - It'll be wet this afternoon

For 'that' we can use, similarly, 'na:

  • Roedd hi'n wyntog y prynhawn 'na. - It was windy that afternoon.
  • Roedd hi'n oer iawn bore 'na. - It was very cold that morning.

There are words (adverbs) for some other particular times:

  • echdoe - the day before yesterday
  • echnos - the night/evening before last
  • ddoe - yesterday
  • neithiwr - yesterday evening; last night
  • heddiw - today
  • heno - this evening; tonight
  • yfory - tomorrow

And we can combine some of them:

  • bore ddoe - yesterday morning
  • prynhawn ddoe - yesterday afternoon
  • bore yfory - tomorrow morning
  • prynhawn yfory - tomorrow afternoon
  • nos yfory - tomorrow evening/night

For example:

  • Roedd y tywydd yn ofnadwy echdoe. - The weather was terrible the day before last.
  • Erbyn nos yfory, bydd hi'n wyntog. - By tomorrow evening, it will be windy.
  • Sut bydd y tywydd prynhawn yfory? - What will the weather be like tomorrow afternoon?
  • Sut roedd y tywydd bore echdoe? - What was the weather like the morning before last?

Soft mutations after nos in days of the week

Now that you have met the soft mutation a couple of times you can use it following nos with the days of the week where we did not cover them earlier in the course:

  • dydd Llun, (nos + Llun ->) nos Lun - Monday evening/night
  • dydd Mawrth, nos Fawrth - Tuesday evening/night
  • dydd Mercher, nos Fercher - Wednesday evening/night
  • dydd Gwener, nos Wener - Friday evening/night

So:

  • Erbyn nos Fercher bydd hi'n oer iawn - By Wednesday evening it will be very cold.

Too hot, too windy

To say 'too' in this context we use an adverb rhy. It causes soft mutation of the following word:

  • Mae hi'n rhy boeth. - It's too hot. (poeth)
  • Roedd hi'n rhy wyntog ddoe. - it was too windy yesterday. (gwyntog)
  • Bydd hi'n rhy wlyb i fynd allan heno. - It'll be too wet to go out this evening. (gwlyb)
  • Mae hi'n rhy oer. - It's too cold.

Note that rhy is not mutated by yn - the letters ll- and rh- resist mutation by yn.


yn again

Note that the 'n in the notes above is a shortened form of yn - this use of yn/'n, though, is not quite the same as the one which we have seen before getting to this section. This use of yn links to an adjective (cold, wet, stormy, red, fast) rather than linking to a verb-noun (going, swimming, buying, getting):

  • If yn/'n is linking to a verb-noun, there is no mutation.
  • If yn/'n is linking to an adjective or an adverb, there is a weak soft mutation (no mutation of ll- or rh-).

For example:

  • Mae hi'n darllen. - She is reading. - no mutation
  • Mae hi'n ddiflas. - It is miserable. - soft mutation diflas -> ddiflas
  • Mae'r llyfr yn dda. - The book is good. - soft mutation da -> dda

This will be covered again later in the course, too, so don't worry if it isn't absolutely clear yet.


Time updated 2020-08-09

When telling the time in Cymraeg, the traditional (vigesimal - 20-based) system of counting is used for some of the numbers:

  • 11 – un ar ddeg (one on ten)
  • 12 – deuddeg (two ten)
  • 15 - pymtheg
  • 20 – ugain
  • 25 – pump ar hugain (five on twenty)

Note that ugain gains an h- when used after ar

Remember that the singular form of the noun is always used if it comes directly after the number. Therefore, "five minutes" is pum munud.

Sometimes there is a change to the spelling of a number before nouns as noted here:

  • Un funud - un causes weak soft mutation of a following singular feminine noun.
  • Dwy funud - dau becomes dwy before feminine nouns. Also note that both dau and dwy cause soft mutation of a following word..
  • Tair munud - tri becomes tair when used before singular feminine nouns.
  • Pedair munud - pedwar becomes pedair when used before singular feminine nouns.
  • Pum munud - pump changes to pum when used before nouns.
  • Chwe munud - chwech changes to chwe when used before nouns.
  • Deng munud - deg may change to deng (traditionally - not always done now) when used before munud.

Note that in some areas, munud is a masculine noun, so you will find un munud, dau funud, tri munud, pedwar munud.


The Cymraeg for 'o’clock' is o’r gloch (literally - 'of the bell').

To ask 'What time is it?' you say Faint o’r gloch ydy hi?:

  • Mae hi’n un o’r gloch - It is one o’clock.
  • Mae hi’n saith o’r gloch - It is seven o’clock.
  • Mae hi’n wyth o’r gloch - It is eight o’clock.

Note that for an abstract 'it', such as when referring time, distance or weather, we use the pronoun hi.

We can also ask to confirm the time - 'Is it ... o'clock?':

  • Ydy hi'n un o'r gloch? - Is it one o'clock?
  • Ydy hi'n wyth o'r gloch? - Is it eight o'clock?

And we can add eto, meaning 'yet':

  • Ydy hi'n chwech o'r gloch eto? - Is it six o'clock yet?

Note that Mae hi’n... or Ydy hi'n...? causes a soft mutation to the number which follows:

  • Mae hi’n ddau o’r gloch - It’s two o’clock
  • Mae hi’n dri o’r gloch - It’s three o’clock
  • Mae hi’n bedwar o’r gloch - It’s four o’clock
  • Mae hi’n bump o’r gloch - It’s five o’clock
  • Mae hi’n ddeg o’r gloch - It’s ten o’clock
  • Mae hi’n ddeuddeg o’r gloch - It’s twelve o’clock
  • Ydy hi'n ddau o'r gloch? - Is it two o'clock?
  • Ydy hi'n dri o'r gloch? - Is it three o'clock?
  • etc...

Half past the hour is expressed as hanner awr wedi … (note that awr is always used) and 'quarter past' as chwarter wedi … (no awr):

  • Mae hi’n hanner awr wedi dau. - It is half past two.
  • Mae hi’n hanner awr wedi pump. - It is half past five.
  • Mae hi’n chwarter wedi chwech. - It is (a) quarter past six.
  • Mae hi’n chwarter wedi tri. - It is (a) quarter past three.

Quarter to the hour is chwarter i ... i causes soft mutation of the following word:.

  • Mae hi’n chwarter i dri - It is (a) quarter to three.
  • Mae hi’n chwarter i ddeg - It is (a) quarter to ten.
  • Mae hi’n chwarter i ddeuddeg - It is (a) quarter to twelve.

'Five', 'ten', 'twenty' and 'twenty-five' minutes are expressed as follows:

  • Mae hi’n bum munud i naw. - It’s five (minutes) to nine.
  • Mae hi’n bum munud wedi pedwar. - It’s five (minutes) past four.
  • Mae hi’n ddeg/ddeng munud i bedwar. - It’s ten (minutes) to four.
  • Mae hi’n ddeg/ddeng munud wedi pump. - It’s ten (minutes) past five.
  • Mae hi’n ugain munud wedi naw. - It is twenty (minutes) past nine.
  • Mae hi’n bum munud ar hugain i dri. - It is twenty-five (minutes) to three.

To say 'at' a particular time we use 'am', which causes soft mutation of a following word:

  • Am un o’r gloch - At one o’clock
  • Am ddau o’r gloch - At two o’clock
  • Am bum munud i ddeg - At five (minutes) to ten
  • Am ddeg munud wedi deg - At ten (minutes) past ten

We can also use this pattern to ask at what time something happens:

  • Am faint o'r gloch wyt ti'n mynd adre? - At what time are you going home?
  • Am faint o’r gloch mae Siôn yn mynd i'r dafarn? - At what time is Siôn going to the pub?
  • Am faint o'r gloch mae Eleri'n mynd i nofio? - At what time is Eleri going swimming?
  • Am faint o'r gloch dych chi'n codi? - At what time are you getting up?

Note also:

  • Mae hi’n hanner dydd - It is midday.
  • Mae hi’n hanner nos - It is midnight.

Possession Gyda updated 2021-09-22

This unit looks at how we indicate possession in Welsh - it covers the pattern using gyda, as explained below.

Note - If you are learning the gan pattern, you can still use that in this unit to answer English to Welsh translations.


One thing belonging to another

Possession of one thing by another is generally indicated simply by word order:

  • het y dyn - (= the hat of the man) => the man's hat
  • het Owen (= the hat of Owen) => Owen's Hat
  • pannas Owen (= the parsnips of Owen) => Owen's parsnips
  • cath Olwen - Olwen's cat
  • tŷ mawr Siôn a Sioned - Siôn and Sioned's large house
  • siop fach Gruff - Gruff's little shop
  • drws y siop - the shop's door
  • athrawon yr ysgol - the school's teachers

To have

In Welsh, as in other Celtic languages, there is no simple verb for 'having, to have' in the sense of posession.

Instead, we use a roundabout construction which literally translates as 'There is an xxx with yyy'. So, instead of 'I have a car', we use the pattern equivalent to 'There is with me a car' or 'There is a car with me'.

In this pattern, there are two words which are used for 'with', gyda or gan. Using 'gyda' is covered in this unit, how to use gan is covered in another, parallel unit:

  • Mae car gyda fi - (There is a car with me) => I have a car
  • Mae cath gyda Sioned - Sioned has a cat
  • Mae pannas gydag Owen - (There are some parsnips with Owen) => Owen has some parsnips

Note that gyda changes to gydag in front of vowels - apart from that it does not need to change.


In general, dialects in north and north-west Wales more often use gan, putting it in front of the thing possessed:

  • Mae gan Siân gar

In most south Wales dialects, the tendency is to use gyda, at least in informal use, and to keep it after the thing owned:

  • Mae car gyda Siân

However, gan can be used after the thing owned - there is no hard and fast rule except that if the possessive phrase comes between the verb and its subject, the thing owned, there has to be a soft mutation:

  • Mae gynno fo gar
  • Mae gan Owen bannas
  • Mae gan Owen gath

You will come across both patterns in the media and when meeting people, so you need to become familiar with both.


Note that cael is not used in the sense of possessing something.


Questions - Do you have a...?

To ask a question we use the pattern: "Is there a xxx with you?". The word Oes? is used to start a question about the existence of something:

  • Oes teigr yn yr ardd? - Is there a tiger in the garden?

So, when asking whether someone has something:

  • Oes car gyda chi? - car
  • Oes car gyda ti?
  • Oes cath gydag Olwen? - cat
  • Oes cath gyda nhw?

As usual in Welsh, the 'yes' and 'no' come from the question form of the verb being used:

  • Oes - yes
  • Nac oes no

  • Oes car gyda Dewi. Oes, mae Ford gyda fe. - Does Dewi have a car? Yes, he has a Ford. Oes cath gydag Olwen? Nac oes, mae dau gi gyda hi - Does Olwen have a cat? No, she has two dogs.


Negatives - You don't have a...

For a negative statement we use the pattern: 'There is no car with me/you/etc':

  • Does dim car gydag Owen. - 'Owen doesn't have a car.'
  • Does dim cath gydag Owen.
  • Does dim car gyda fe/fo.
  • Does dim car gyda ni.
  • Does dim ci gyda Siân.

Gyda is followed by an aspirate mutation

Note that when gyda is used as 'with', it is followed by an aspirate mutation:

  • Mae Owen yn bwyta cig gyda phannas. - Owen eats meat with parsnips.
  • Dw i ddim yn hoffi llaeth gyda the. - I do not like milk with tea.
  • Dw i yn y siop gyda chariad Sioned. - I am in the shop with Sioned's boyfriend.

Possession Gan updated 2021-09-22

This unit looks at how we indicate possession in Welsh - it covers the pattern using gan, as explained below.

Note - If you are learning the gyda pattern, you can still use that in this unit to answer English to Welsh translations.


One thing belonging to another

Possession of one thing by another is generally indicated simply by word order:

  • het y dyn - (= the hat of the man) => the man's hat
  • het Owen (= the hat of Owen) => Owen's Hat
  • pannas Owen (= parsnips of Owen) => Owen's parsnips
  • cath Olwen - Olwen's cat
  • tŷ mawr Siôn a Sioned - Siôn and Sioned's large house
  • siop fach Gruff - Gruff's little shop
  • drws y siop - the shop's door
  • athrawon yr ysgol - the school's teachers

To have

In Welsh , as in other Celtic languages, there is no simple verb for 'having, to have' in the sense of possession

Instead, we use a roundabout construction which literally translates as 'There is a xxx with yyy'. So, instead of 'I have/own a car', we use the pattern equivalent to 'There is a car with me' or 'There is with me a car'

In this pattern, there are two words which are used for 'with', gyda or gan. The pattern with 'gyda' is covered another, parallel unit on this course. This unit deal with how to use gan for possession.

  • Mae gen i gar - (There is with me a car) => I have a car
  • Mae gan Sioned gath - Sioned has a cat
  • Mae gan Owen bannas - (There are with Owen some parsnips) => Owen has some parsnips

To use this construction with a pronoun we need to know that gan changes according to the pronoun it is referring to:

  • gen i - with me
  • gen ti - with you
  • gynno/ganddo fo/fe - with him
  • gynni/ganddi hi - with her
  • gynnon ni - with us
  • gynnoch chi - with you
  • gynnyn/ganddyn nhw - with them

Note the gynn-, gandd- variants - both are in common use. You may sometimes come across some other variations, but we do not cover them on this course.

Note that gan does not change if not used with a pronoun:

  • gan y ferch
  • gan Sioned

With gan, this often comes before the thing being owned, and this change in word order causes a soft mutation of the thing owned:

  • Mae gen i gar. - I have a car.
  • Mae gynnon ni gath. - We have a cat.
  • Mae gynno fo bannas. - He has some parsnips.
  • Mae gan Morgan dŷ mawr. - Morgan has a large house.

However, gan can be also used after the thing owned. There is no hard and fast rule except that if the gan comes in front of the thing owned, there has to be a soft mutation, as in the examples above


In general, dialects in mid-, north and north-west Wales more often use gan, putting it in front of the thing owned:

  • Mae gynno fo gar.

In most west and south Wales dialects, the tendency is to use gyda, at least in informal use, and to keep it after the thing owned:

  • Mae car gyda fe.

You will come across both patterns in the media and when meeting people, so you need to become familiar with both.


Note that cael is not used in the sense of possessing something.


Questions - Do you have a...?

To ask a question we use the pattern: "Is there a xxx with you?". The word Oes? is used to start a question about the existence of something:

  • Oes teigr yn yr ardd? - Is there a tiger in the garden?

So, when asking whether someone has something:

  • Oes gen i gar? - car
  • Oes gen ti gar?
  • Oes gynno/ganddo fo/fe gar?
  • Oes gynni/ganddi hi gar?
  • Oes gynnon ni gath? - cat
  • Oes gynnoch chi gath?
  • Oes gynnyn/ganddyn nhw gath?

The Oes gyn...? forms may be contracted in informal speech and writing to Sgen i/Sgynni hi/Sgynnoch chi/etc...?

As usual in Welsh, the 'yes' and 'no' come from the question form of the verb being used:

  • Oes - yes
  • Nac oes - no

  • Oes gan Dewi gar. Oes, mae gynno fo Ford. - Does Dewi have a car? Yes, he has a Ford. Oes gan Olwen gath? Nac oes, mae gynni hi ddau gi. - Does Olwen have a cat? No, she has two dogs.


Negatives - You don't have a...

For a negative statement we use the pattern: 'There is with me/you/Siân no car'. Note that here the word dim takes the soft mutation:

  • Does gan Owen ddim car. - 'Owen doesn't have a car.'
  • Does gen ti ddim car.
  • Does ganddo fe ddim car.
  • Does gynni hi ddim cath.
  • Does gynnoch chi ddim cath.
  • Does ganddyn nhw ddim cath.

The Does gyn... ddim? forms may be contracted in informal speech and writing to Sgen i/Sgynni hi/Sgynnoch chi/etc... ddim....


This is very well explained in the Big Welsh Challenge - Practice with the Tutor


Shapes and colours updated 2020-10-26

This is a small unit about some shapes in Welsh. Colours are also reviewed.

Remember some common guidelines:

  • Adjectives generally follow the noun.
  • A few adjectives usually come before the noun, causing a soft mutation of the noun. For example, hen, prif, holl, cryn.
  • A feminine noun causes a following adjective to take a soft mutation.
  • Where a feminine noun is followed by an unbroken series of adjectives, they all take a soft mutation.
  • Adjectives of size come before adjectives of colour.
  • The adjective arall/eraill (other) comes last in a sequence.

There is a more complicated sequence of types of adjective, but that is not likely to be very useful until you study more advanced Welsh.


Countries updated 2020-02-20

This section introduces some names of countries, and how to say 'to', 'from' and 'in' places. It revises the soft mutation and introduces the nasal mutation.


To and from - i and o with soft mutation

When saying "to somewhere" or "from somewhere" in Cymraeg, the prepositions i ('to') and o ('from, of') are used.

Note the soft mutation after i and o - this happens whenever i is used to mean 'to', and where o is used to mean 'from' or 'of'.

For example:

  • i Gymru - to Wales
  • i Lydaw - to Brittany
  • o Batagonia - from Patagonia
  • o Gaerdydd - from Cardiff
  • i Lanidloes - to Llanidloes
  • i Ros - to Rhos
  • o Lundain - from London
  • o Ddolgellau - from Dolgellau
  • i Fangor - to Bangor

Countries and Oceans

Some places in Cymraeg have y/yr in front of them. For example:

  • yr Almaen - Germany
  • yr Eidal - Italy
  • yr Alban - Scotland
  • yr Aifft - Egypt
  • y Swistir - Switzerland

This is the same for the use of 'the' in English sometimes:

  • yr Antarctig - the Antarctic
  • y Caribî - the Caribbean

Although Welsh has a word for 'ocean', 'cefnfor', seas and oceans are usually named using the Welsh for 'sea', môr

  • Y Môr Celtaidd - The Celtic/Irish Sea
  • Môr Iwerydd - The Atlantic Ocean (in current general usage - other forms are sometimes used)

Yn - reminders

Remember that yn as a preposition meaning 'in' does not get abbreviated to 'n. When it is used as a particle to link to verbs or to nouns and adjectives, it does get abbreviated:

  • Dw i yn Aber - I am in Aber - no abbreviation
  • Dw i'n mynd - I am going - abbreviation
  • Dw i'n hapus - I am happy - abbreviation

Remember that yn never causes soft mutation of words beginning with ll- or rh-, no matter what function it has in the sentence:

  • Dydy Siôn ddim yn llon iawn yn Llundain neu yn Rhos. - Siôn is not very cheerful in London or in Rhos.

Nasal mutations following yn when it is a preposition meaning 'in'

When yn means 'in', and only then, it causes a nasal mutation of several letters (never a soft mutation) and can undergo changes itself.

Here is the nasal mutation - note the pattern where there is an -h- in the first three in the list, but no -h- in the second three:

  • P- -> Mh-
  • T- -> Nh-
  • C- -> Ngh-
  • B- -> M-
  • D- -> N-
  • G- -> Ng-

Only when it means 'in', yn changes to ym before m-, and to yng before ng-. Here are some examples with some names of Welsh towns showing both the nasal mutation and the changes to yn:

  • Pwllheli - ym Mhwllheli - in Pwllheli
  • Tywyn - yn Nhywyn - in Tywyn
  • Caerdydd - yng Nghaerdydd
  • Bangor - ym Mangor
  • Dolgellau - yn Nolgellau
  • Garn - yng Ngarn

Other - Arall, Eraill

The adjective arall (other, another) has a plural form eraill which must be used with plural nouns:

  • y ferch arall; y merched eraill - the other girl; the other girls
  • gwlad arall; gwledydd eraill - another country; other countries

The Welsh flag, The Scottish team, ...

There is a particular pattern to use when describing 'the something of ' or 'the something.

Remember how we say 'Owen's car':

  • car Owen - Owen's car (= 'the car of Owen')

The equivalents of 'the' and 'of' in the awkward-sounding, expanded English version are not needed in the Welsh:

  • blows Sioned - Sioned's blouse (= 'the blouse of Sioned')
  • tŷ fy mam - my mother's house (= 'the house of my mother')

Similarly, 'the Welsh team' ('the team of Wales') translates as tîm Cymru - no y/yr/'r:

  • tîm Norwy - the Norwegian team
  • tîm Ffrainc - the French team
  • baner yr Alban - the Scottish flag

Note that the yr is only there in the third example because yr Alban is the word for 'Scotland'.

  • baner Cymru - the Welsh flag ('the flag of Wales')
  • tîm Lloegr - the English team
  • cefn gwlad Ffrainc - the French country-side

So:

  • lliw baner Cymru - the colour(s) of the Welsh flag

There is still no y/yr/'r in the Welsh phrase.


Travelling updated 2021-01-24

This unit introduces some vocabulary and patterns to use about travelling.


Where?

To ask 'Where?', we use Ble?. In some mid-and north Wales dialects you will come across Lle? instead:

  • Ble dych chi'n mynd ar eich gwyliau? - Where are you going on your holiday?
  • Ble mae hi'n mynd i gwrdd â Dewi? - Where is she going to meet Dewi?
  • Lle dach chi'n aros nos yfory? - Where are you staying tomorrow night?
  • Lle bydd y cynhebrwng? - Where will the funeral be?

Here is... There is...

If you want to show something or point out something to somebody, as in 'Here is a good place to sit', 'This is a nice cake', we use:

  • Dyma... - 'Here is...' or 'This is...'

A similar word is used for 'There is his car', That is a nice cake':

  • Dyna... - There is...' or 'That is...'

Both words are followed by a soft mutation:

  • Dyma gadair gyfforddus - Here's a comfortable chair (cadair)
  • Dyma drên - Here is/This is a train. (trên)
  • Dyma'r cacen! - This is the cake!
  • Dyma gacen - Here's a cake.
  • Dyna Hefin! - There's Hefin!
  • Dyna westy ddrud - There's an expensive hotel. (gwesty)

Superlative (-est) forms of adjectives

This section introduces the word nesa, meaning 'next' or 'nearest'. The fuller form of this is nesaf, but the final -f is often dropped in colloquial speech and writing.

This is an example of a superlative adjective, the '-est' form such as nearest, closest, best, furthest, dearest, greenest, biggest and so on.

Superlative adjectives ending in -a are not always shown in a Welsh dictionary, so remember to look them up with an ending of -af.


Doing something 'next/last month'

Remember that when saying we are doing something on a particular day we mutate dydd... to ddydd.... This is because ddydd Llun, say, is being used as an adverb to say when we are doing it. We do the same with mis nesa (next month) and mis diwetha (last month) if we use those in the same way:

  • Dw i'n mynd ar wyliau ddydd Gwener. - I am going on holuday on Friday.
  • Mae hi'n mynd ar wyliau fis nesa. - She is going on holiday next month.
  • Aethon ni i'r Alban fis diwetha. - We went to Scotland last month.

Past Mynd 1 updated 2019-11-02

The simple past of mynd

(For those people who already know some Welsh, note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - responses without the pronouns may not be accepted.)


The simple past

The simple past tense, for example:

  • I went
  • You went

is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

  • I have gone
  • You have gone

The irregular verbs

The four verbs in this unit and the others close to it in the course are 'irregular' - they do not follow the normal pattern in forming their tenses. The four verbs here are:

  • mynd (going, to go),
  • dod (coming, to come),
  • gwneud (making, to make; doing, to do) and
  • cael (getting, to get; having, to have).

I went, You went

In the short-form of the verbs, which you are meeting in these units for the first time on this course, there is no form of bod being used to help to form the expression. It is simply the verb followed by the person carrying out the action:

  • Es i - I went
  • Est ti - You went (singular informal 'you')
  • Aethoch chi - You went (formal or plural 'you')

In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb:

  • Mi es i - I went
  • Mi est ti - You went (informal singular 'you')
  • Mi aethoch chi - You went (formal or plural 'you')

In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


Questions and Yes/No

We form the question simply by adding a question mark in writing, and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking. The simple past of mynd has no initial consonant to mutate:

  • Es i yno gyda ti? - Did I go there with you?
  • Est ti i'r parti? - Did you go to the party?
  • Aethoch chi i Aber? - Did you go to Aber?

In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

  • Do = Yes
  • Naddo = No

  • Aethoch chi i'r parti? Do. - Did you go to the party ? Yes.

  • Est ti i Aber gyda/efo Siân? Naddo, gyda/efo Siwan. - Did you go to Aber with Siân? No, with Siwan.

Negatives

Simply use ddim for a negative - the simple past of mynd has no initial consonant to mutate:

  • Es i ddim i'r dafarn - I didn't go to the pub
  • Aethoch chi ddim i Aber ddoe - You didn't go to Aber yesterday

The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

  • Es i
  • Est ti
  • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Aethon ni
  • Aethoch chi
  • Aethon nhw

Simple past of dod:

  • Des i
  • Dest ti
  • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Daethon ni
  • Daethoch chi
  • Daethon nhw

Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

  • Gwnes i
  • Gwnest ti
  • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Gwnaethon ni
  • Gwnaethoch chi
  • Gwnaethon nhw

Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

  • Ces i
  • Cest ti
  • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Caethon/Cawson ni
  • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
  • Caethon/Cawson nhw

Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

You may well meet some variations of this pattern in these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


On Monday, On Tuesday, etc

To say that we did something on a day we mutate the word dydd to ddydd:

  • Es i yno ddydd Sadwrn - I went there on Saturday
  • Aeth Siân i'r dref ddydd Sul - Siân went to town on Sunday.

Note that we do not use ar for this - strictly, ar ddydd Sul means 'on Sundays', not 'on Sunday'.

Note that we do use ar with a particular date:

  • Es i yno ar y pedwerydd o Fai. - I went there on the fourth of May.


Past Dod 1 updated 2019-11-02

The simple past of dod

(For those people who already know some Welsh, note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - responses without the pronouns may not be accepted.)


The simple past

The simple past tense, for example:

  • I came
  • You came

is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

  • I have come
  • You have come

The irregular verbs

The four verbs in this unit and the others close to it in the course are 'irregular' - they do not follow the normal pattern in forming their tenses. The four verbs here are:

  • mynd (going, to go),
  • dod (coming, to come),
  • gwneud (making, to make; doing, to do) and
  • cael (getting, to get; having, to have).

I came, You came

In the short-form of the verbs, which you are meeting in these units for the first time on this course, there is no form of bod being used to help to form the expression. It is simply the verb followed by the person carrying out the action:

  • Des i - I came
  • Dest ti - You came (singular informal 'you')
  • Daethoch chi - You came (formal or plural 'you')

In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb:

  • Mi ddes i - I came
  • Mi ddest ti - You came (informal singular 'you')
  • Mi ddaethoch chi - You came (formal or plural 'you')

In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


Questions and Yes and No

We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing, and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

  • Ddes i yma gyda ti? - Did I come here with you?
  • Ddest ti i'r tŷ? - Did you come to the house?
  • Ddaethoch chi i Aber ddoe? - Did you come to Aber yesterday?

In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

  • Do = Yes
  • Naddo = No

  • Ddaethoch chi yma ddoe? Do. - Did you come here yesterday? Yes.

  • Ddest ti i Aber gyda/efo Siân? Naddo, gyda/efo Siwan. - Did you come to Aber with Siân? No, with Siwan.

Negatives

Simply use the mixed mutation (soft in the case of dod) with ddim for a negative::

  • Ddes i ddim yma tan 2010. - I didn't come here until 2010.
  • Ddaethoch chi ddim i Aber ddoe. - You didn't come to Aber yesterday.

The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

  • Es i
  • Est ti
  • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Aethon ni
  • Aethoch chi
  • Aethon nhw

Simple past of dod:

  • Des i
  • Dest ti
  • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Daethon ni
  • Daethoch chi
  • Daethon nhw

Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

  • Gwnes i
  • Gwnest ti
  • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Gwnaethon ni
  • Gwnaethoch chi
  • Gwnaethon nhw

Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

  • Ces i
  • Cest ti
  • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Caethon/Cawson ni
  • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
  • Caethon/Cawson nhw

Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


On Monday, On Tuesday, etc

To say that we did something on a day we mutate the word dydd to ddydd:

  • Des i yma ddydd Sadwrn - I came here on Saturday
  • Daeth Siân i'r dref ddydd Sul - Siân came to town on Sunday.

Note that we do not use ar for this - strictly, ar ddydd Sul means 'on Sundays', not 'on Sunday'.

Note that we do use ar with a particular date:

  • Des i yma ar y pedwerydd o Fai. - I came here on the fourth of May.

Past Cael 1 updated 2020-07-11

The simple past of cael

(For those people who already know some Welsh, note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - responses without the pronouns may not be accepted.)


The simple past

The simple past tense, for example:

  • I got
  • You got

is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

  • I have got
  • You have got

The irregular verbs

The four verbs in this unit and the others close to it in the course are 'irregular' - they do not follow the normal pattern in forming their tenses. The four verbs here are:

  • mynd (going, to go),
  • dod (coming, to come),
  • gwneud (making, to make; doing, to do) and
  • cael (getting, to get; having, to have).

I got, You got

In the short-form of the verbs, which you are meeting in these units for the first time on this course, there is no form of bod being used to help to form the expression. It is simply the verb followed by the person carrying out the action.

These are the forms taught in the introductory DysguCymraeg courses:

  • Ces i - I got
  • Cest ti - You got (singular informal 'you')
  • Cawsoch chi - You got (formal or plural 'you')

You may also come across:

  • Caethoch chi - You got

In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb (only when it is a statement, not a question or a negative), especially for emphasis. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb. These are the forms taught in the introductory DysguCymraeg 'north' courses:

  • Mi ges i - I got
  • Mi gest ti - You got (informal singular 'you')
  • Mi gaethoch chi - You got (formal or plural 'you')

In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi.

You may also come across ges i, gest ti, gaethoch chi, where the soft mutation remains in a positive statement even though the particle fe/mi is not used.


Soft mutation following a short-form verb

Note that the object of a short-form verb, the thing that has been got/sold/bought/etc, takes a soft mutation:

  • Ces i goffi - I got/had a coffee (coffi)
  • Cest ti ddillad newydd - You got/had some new clothes (dillad)
  • Cawsoch chi lyfr newydd - You got a new book (llyfr)

Questions and Yes/No

We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

  • Ges i goffi? - Did I have a coffee?
  • Gest ti ddillad? - Did you get some clothes?
  • Gawsoch/Gaethoch chi hwyl yno? - Did you have fun there?

In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

  • Do = Yes
  • Naddo = No

  • Gawsoch/Gaethoch chi dywydd braf yno? Do. - Did you have fine weather there? Yes.

  • Gest ti hwyl yn Aber? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy oer. - Did you have fun in Aber? No, it was too cold.

Negatives

Simply use the mixed mutation (aspirate in the case of cael) with ddim for a negative:

  • Ches i ddim tywydd braf yno - I didn't have any fine weather there
  • Chawsoch/Chaethoch chi ddim dillad newyd i'ch pen-blwydd - You didn't get any new clothes for your birthday

Note that the soft mutation is taken by dim => ddim.


The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

  • Es i
  • Est ti
  • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Aethon ni
  • Aethoch chi
  • Aethon nhw

Simple past of dod:

  • Des i
  • Dest ti
  • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Daethon ni
  • Daethoch chi
  • Daethon nhw

Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

  • Gwnes i
  • Gwnest ti
  • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Gwnaethon ni
  • Gwnaethoch chi
  • Gwnaethon nhw

Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

  • Ces i
  • Cest ti
  • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Caethon/Cawson ni
  • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
  • Caethon/Cawson nhw

Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

You may well meet some variations of this pattern in these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


Family1 updated 2021-01-24

In this unit, the possessive pronouns are introduced.


A summary table of mutations

Some mutations of initial letters in Welsh have already been introduced. In this section on possessive pronouns all three mutations are going to be used. Here is a summary table of mutations that you can copy and keep somewhere convenient for reference.

Letter Soft Nasal Aspirate
p b mh ph
t d nh th
c g ngh ch
b f m
d dd n
g - ng
m f
ll * l
rh * r

Note that:

  • Letters not shown do not take a mutation.
  • Not all the letters take all the mutations.
  • In soft mutation, an initial g- is removed.
  • b- and m- both take a soft mutation to f-.
  • In a 'mixed' mutation, as explained in the relevant course notes about negative verbs, p-, t-, c- take an aspirate mutation and the others take a soft mutation.
  • In a very few circumstances, as explained in the relevant course notes, ll- and rh- (marked here with asterisks) resist a soft mutation. This is sometimes known as a 'weak' soft mutation.

More details about the mutations can be found here http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/learnwelsh/pdf/welshgrammar_mutations.pdf or here http://clwbmalucachu.co.uk/cmc/cheat/cheat_mutations.htm.


The possessive pronouns - my, your, etc

After several possessive pronouns, there is a mutation.

  • After fy (my), there is a nasal mutation.
  • After dy (your) and ei (his), there is a soft mutation.
  • After ei (her), there is an aspirate mutation. Also, ei (her) adds h- if the following word starts with a vowel (a e i o u w y in Welsh).
  • After ein (our) and eu (their) an h- is added to a following word if it starts with a vowel.

After the thing being owned, there is sometimes also an echoing pronoun, which emphasises or clarifies who is owning it, especially with 'his' vs 'hers'. These are optional, unless required to be certain of meaning. They are shown below in the list below:

  • Fy ... i - my (+ nasal mutation)
  • Dy ... di your (+ soft mutation)
  • Ei ... e/o - his (+ soft mutation)
  • Ei ... hi - her, (+ aspirate mutation, or + h- to following vowel-words)
  • Ein ... ni - our (plus h- to following vowel-words)
  • Eich ... chi - your
  • Eu ... nhw - their (plus h- to following vowel-words)

Remember that dy (your) is related to ti (you - familar and singular) and that eich (your) is related to chi (you - any plural, or unfamilar singular).

Some examples:

  • fy nghar (i) - nasal mutation
  • dy gar (di) - soft mutation
  • ei gar (o/e) - soft mutation
  • ei char (hi) - aspirate mutation
  • ein car (ni)
  • eich car (chi)
  • eu car (nhw)

And now, showing the h- added after some possessives:

  • fy athro (i)
  • dy athro (di)
  • ei athro (o/e)
  • ei hathro (hi) - + h-
  • ein hathro ni - + h-
  • eich athro (chi)
  • eu hathro (nhw) - + h-

Other examples:

  • fy ngŵr (i) - my husband
  • dy chwaer (di) - your sister
  • dy frawd (di) - your brother
  • ei fodryb (e/o) - his aunt
  • ei modryb (hi) - her aunt
  • ei hanti (hi) - her aunt
  • eu brawd (nhw) - their brother
  • eich gwraig/gŵr/chwaer/brawd (chi) - your wife/husband/sister/brother
  • eu hewythr/hwncl (nhw) - their uncle

Grandparents

There are two pairs of words used for Grandmother/Grandfather: Nain/Taid and Mam-gu/Tad-cu.

Typically, Nain/Taid is more often used in northern dialects and Mam-gu/Tad-cu in southern areas. In practice, though, it can vary between families even in the same area.


Knowing people and places and knowing facts.

In Welsh, as in several other modern languages, there are two different words used for 'knowing':

  • gwybod - knowing facts
  • nabod - knowing people and places

So:

  • Dw i'n gwybod ei lyfr e'n dda iawn. - I know his book very well.
  • Mae Dewi'n gwybod sut mae'r injan yn gweithio - Dewi knows how the engine works.
  • Wyt ti'n nabod Siân? - Do you know Siân?
  • Wyt ti'n gwybod sut mae Siân? - Do you know how Siân is?
  • Ydy Dewi'n nabod y dref? Does Dewi know the town?
  • Ydy Dewi'n gwybod sut i gyrraedd y llyfrgell? - Does Dewi know how to get to the library?

Past Mynd 2 updated 2020-06-05

The simple past of mynd

(For those people who already know some Welsh, note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - responses without the pronouns may not be accepted.)

In this skill we practise the forms for 'he/she', nouns, 'we and 'them'.


The simple past

The simple past tense, for example:

  • We went
  • They went

is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

  • We have gone
  • Siân has gone

The irregular verbs

The four verbs in this unit and the others close to it in the course are 'irregular' - they do not follow the normal pattern in forming their tenses. The four verbs here are:

  • mynd (going, to go),
  • dod (coming, to come),
  • gwneud (making, to make; doing, to do) and
  • cael (getting, to get; having, to have).

We went, He/She/The children went, They went

Remember that there is no form of bod being used to help to form the expression. It is simply the verb followed by the person carrying out the action.

  • Aeth Siôn - Siôn went
  • Aeth hi/e/o - She/He went
  • Aethon ni - We went
  • Aethon nhw - They went

**Remember that the third person singular verb is used with both singular and plural nouns:

  • Aeth Sioned, Hefin a'r plant i Aber. - Sioned, Hefin and the children went to Aber.
  • Aeth y tri dyn i siopa. - The three men went shopping.

In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives:

  • Mi es i - I went
  • Mi est ti - You went (informal singular 'you')
  • Mi aethoch chi - You went (formal or plural 'you')

In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


Questions and Yes and No

We form the quesiton simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

  • Es i yno gyda ti? - Did I go there with you?
  • Est ti i'r parti? - Did you go to the party?
  • Aethoch chi i Aber? - Did you go to Aber?

In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

Do = Yes
Naddo = No

  • Aethoch chi yno ddoe? Do. - Did you go there yesterday? Yes.
  • Aeth e i Aber gyda/efo Siôn? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy oer. - Did he go to Aber with Siôn? No, it was too cold.

Negatives

Simply ddim for a negative (no consonants to mutate in these forms of mynd):

  • Aethon ni ddim yno - We didn't go there
  • Aeth Siân ddim i Aber - Siân did not go to Aber

The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

  • Es i
  • Est ti
  • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Aethon ni
  • Aethoch chi
  • Aethon nhw

Simple past of dod:

  • Des i
  • Dest ti
  • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Daethon ni
  • Daethoch chi
  • Daethon nhw

Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

  • Gwnes i
  • Gwnest ti
  • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Gwnaethon ni
  • Gwnaethoch chi
  • Gwnaethon nhw

Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

  • Ces i
  • Cest ti
  • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Caethon/Cawson ni
  • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
  • Caethon/Cawson nhw

Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


On Monday, On Tuesday, etc

To say that we did something on a day we mutate the word dydd to ddydd (although this is not always done in casual Welsh):

  • Aethon ni i Aber ddydd Sadwrn - We went to Aber on Saturday
  • Aeth hi ddydd Sul - She went on Sunday.

Note that we do not use ar for this - strictly, ar ddydd Sul means 'on Sundays', not 'on Sunday'.

Note that we do use ar with a particular date:

  • Aeth o yno ar y pedwerydd o Fai. - He went there on the fourth of May.

Past Dod 2 updated 2020-08-22

The simple past of dod

In this section we cover the remaining parts of the simple past of dod - he/she, we, they, etc.


The simple past

Remember that the simple past tense, for example:

  • We came
  • She came

is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

  • We have come
  • She has come

He/She, etc came, We came, They came

Following on from the earlier section:

  • Daeth e/hi - He/She came
  • Daeth Siân/y plant - Siân/The children came
  • Daethon ni - We came
  • Daethon nhw - They came

In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb (here it is d- to dd-):

  • Mi ddaeth hi/e/o
  • Mi ddaethon ni
  • Mi ddaethon nhw

In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


Questions and Yes/No

We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing, and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

  • Ddaeth o i Aber? - Did he come to Aber?
  • Ddaethon ni yma ddoe? - Did we come here yesterday?
  • Ddaethon nhw â hi? - Did they bring her?

In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

  • Do = Yes
  • Naddo = No

  • Ddaethon nhw yma? Do. - Did they come here? Yes.

  • Ddaeth hi i Aber? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy oer. - Did she come to Aber? No, it was too cold.

Negatives

Simply use the mixed mutation (soft in the case of dod here) with ddim for a negative:

  • Ddaethon ni ddim i gladdu Caesar - We did not come to bury Caesar
  • Ddaeth hi ddim â dillad newydd - She didn't bring any new clothes

The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

  • Es i
  • Est ti
  • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Aethon ni
  • Aethoch chi
  • Aethon nhw

Simple past of dod:

  • Des i
  • Dest ti
  • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Daethon ni
  • Daethoch chi
  • Daethon nhw

Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

  • Gwnes i
  • Gwnest ti
  • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Gwnaethon ni
  • Gwnaethoch chi
  • Gwnaethon nhw

Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

  • Ces i
  • Cest ti
  • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Caethon/Cawson ni
  • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
  • Caethon/Cawson nhw

Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


Simple Past Cael 2 updated 2020-07-11

The simple past of cael

In this section we cover the remaining parts of the simple past of cael - he/she, we, they, etc.


The simple past

Remember that the simple past tense, for example:

  • We got
  • She got

is not the same as the present perfect tense which was covered earlier:

  • We have got
  • She has got

He/She, etc got, We got, They got

Following on from the earlier section, there are two main versions of the remaining forms currently taught. (It is quite common in the colloquial language for these forms to take a soft mutation, even in the positive statement).

These are the forms taught in the introductory DysguCymraeg 'south' courses:

  • Cafodd e/hi - He/She got
  • Cawson ni - We got
  • Cawsoch chi - You got
  • Cawson nhw - They got

And you may also come across:

  • Caeth o/hi - He/She got
  • Caethon ni - We got
  • Caethoch chi - You got
  • Caethon nhw - They got

In parts of north and mid-Wales, the mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb.

These are the forms taught in the introductory DysguCymraeg 'north' courses:

  • Mi gaeth hi/o
  • Mi gaethon ni
  • Mi gaethoch chi
  • Mi gaethon nhw

In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.

You may also come across gaeth e, gaethoch chi, etc, where the soft mutation remains even though the particle mi/fe is not used.


Soft mutation following a short-form verb

Note that the object of a short-form verb, the thing that has been got/sold/bought/kicked/etc, takes a soft mutation:

  • Cafodd hi goffi. - She got/had a coffee. (coffi)
  • Cawson ni ddillad newydd. - We got/had some new clothes. (dillad)
  • Mi gaethon nhw lyfr newydd. - They got a new book. (llyfr)

Questions and Yes/No

We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing, and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

  • Gaeth o goffi? Gafodd e goffi? - Did he get a coffee?
  • Gaethon ni de?, Gawson ni goffi? - Did we have/get tea?
  • Gawson nhw ginio? - Did they have lunch/dinner?

In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

  • Do = Yes
  • Naddo = No

  • Gaethon nhw dywydd braf yno? Do. - Did they have some fine weather there? Yes.

  • Gafodd hi hwyl yn Aber? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy oer. - Did she have fun in Aber? No, it was too cold.

Negatives

Simply use the mixed mutation (aspirate in the case of cael) with ddim for a negative:

  • Chaethon ni ddim tywydd braf yno. - We didn't have any fine weather there.
  • Chaeth hi ddim dillad newydd i'w phen-blwydd. - She didn't get any new clothes for her birthday.

Note that the soft mutation is taken by dim => ddim.


The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

  • Es i
  • Est ti
  • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Aethon ni
  • Aethoch chi
  • Aethon nhw

Simple past of dod:

  • Des i
  • Dest ti
  • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Daethon ni
  • Daethoch chi
  • Daethon nhw

Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

  • Gwnes i
  • Gwnest ti
  • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Gwnaethon ni
  • Gwnaethoch chi
  • Gwnaethon nhw

Simple past of cael (note that these forms are sometimes seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

  • Ces i
  • Cest ti
  • Cafodd/Caeth e/o/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Cawson/Caethon ni
  • Cawsoch/Caethoch chi
  • Cawson/Caethon nhw

Note that in parts of mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


Family2 updated 2020-12-29


Possessive pronouns

To say 'my this', 'your that', 'our something else', and so on, we use possessive pronouns. These come in two parts in Welsh, one coming before the thing being owned, and one, optionally, after:

  • fy ... i - my
  • dy... di - your
  • ei ... e/o - his, its.
  • ei ... hi - hers, its
  • ein ... ni - our
  • eich ... chi - your
  • eu ... nhw - their

The second, optional, part of the possessive pronoun is often used for emphasis, or to differentiate between his and hers. For example:

  • fy ffilm i - my film, my film
  • fy ffilm - my film (leaving out the optional second part)
  • ei seidr e/o - his cider, his cider
  • ei seidr hi - her cider, her cider
  • ein nai ni - our nephew, our nephew
  • ein nith - our niece
  • eich car chi - your car, your car
  • eu car coch newydd nhw - their new red car, their new red car
  • eu car - their car

Mutations caused by some possessive pronouns

After some of the possessive pronouns, there is also a mutation of the first letter of the word which follows them:

  • After fy (my) - a nasal mutation.
  • After dy (your) and ei (his) - a soft mutation.
  • After ei (her) - an aspirate mutation.

After some of them, there is an additional h- breath sound (the same as 'h-' in 'has, happy', etc) in front of any vowels (a- e- i- o- u- w- y-) at the start of a following word:

  • ei - her
  • ein - our
  • eu - their

(If it helps, think of it as 'hemphasising' the vowel.)

Here is a summary of the changes:

  • Fy ... i + nasal mutation (my)
  • Dy ... di + soft mutation (your)
  • Ei ... e/o + soft mutation (his)
  • Ei ... hi + aspirate mutation/h- in front of vowels (her)
  • Ein ... ni + h- in front of vowels (our)
  • Eich ... chi (your) (no changes!)
  • Eu ... nhw + h- in front of vowels (their)

Some examples:

  • fy nhad-cu - my grand-father
  • fy meic i - my bike
  • fy nghefnder Dewi - my cousin Dewi (cefnder - a male cousin)
  • fy *nghyfnither Sioned - my cousin Sioned (cyfnither - a female cousin)
  • fy llyfrau - my books
  • fy llyfrau a dy lyfrau - my books and your books
  • ei lyfrau a'i llyfrau - his books and her books
  • ei chath hi a'i gi o - her cat and his dog
  • ei harth - her bear
  • ei arth a'i hafal - his bear and her apple
  • ei ffilm o am ei naid barasiwt hi - his film about her parachute jump
  • ein harth, ei hafal a'i gi - our bear, her apple and his dog
  • eich car chi, dim fy nghar i - your car, not my car
  • Mae eu hafalau'n ddrud iawn. - Their apples are very expensive.
  • Mae eu harth a dy feic yn beryglus iawn. - Their bear and your bike are very dangerous.
  • Pam mae dy lyfrau di yn fy mag i? - Why are your books in my bag?

Note how a + ei is shortened to a'i. This can be seen with other combinations of prepositions and possessives, too:

  • a + ei => a'i
  • a + ein => a'n
  • a + eich => a'ch
  • a + eu => a'u
  • gyda + ei => gyda'i
  • efo + ein => efo'n
  • o + eich => o'ch
  • â + ein => â'n
  • â + eu => â'u
  • i + ein => i'n
  • etc

Note that after i (to/for) there is a different form with ei/eu:

  • i + ei -> i'w
  • i + eu -> i'w

So:

  • Dw i'n mynd efo'i ffrindiau o - I'm going with his friends
  • Mae e'n mynd i'w thŷ - He is going to her house
  • Maen nhw'n prynu tatws i'w mam nhw - They are buying potatoes for their mother.
  • Dw i'n dawnsio gyda'u brawd nhw - I am dancing with their brother

Table of the mutations

As a reminder, here is a summary of the Welsh mutations of initial letters:

Letter Soft Nasal Aspirate
p b mh ph
t d nh th
c g ngh ch
b f m
d dd n
g - ng
m f
ll * l
rh * r

Note that:

  • Letters not shown do not take a mutation.
  • Not all the letters take all the mutations.
  • In soft mutation, an initial g- is removed.
  • b- and m- both take a soft mutation to f-.
  • In a 'mixed' mutation, as explained in the relevant course notes about negative verbs, p-, t-, c- take an aspirate mutation and the others take a soft mutation.
  • In a very few circumstances, as explained in the relevant course notes, ll- and rh- (marked here with asterisks) resist a soft mutation. This is sometimes known as a 'weak' soft mutation.

Past Gwneud 1 updated 2019-11-02

The simple past of gwneud

Gwneud is another of the common irregular verbs in Welsh, and its simple past tense follows the same pattern as the others.

I made, You made

  • Gwnes i - I made/did
  • Gwnest ti - You made/did (singular informal 'you')
  • Gwnaethoch chi - You made/did (formal or plural 'you')

In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb:

  • Mi wnes i - I made/did
  • Mi wnest ti - You made/did (informal singular 'you')
  • Mi wnaethoch chi - You made/did (formal or plural 'you')

In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


Soft mutation following a short-form verb

Note that the object of a short-form verb, the thing that has been made/got/sold/etc, takes a soft mutation:

  • Gwnes i goffi - I made a coffee (coffi)
  • Gwnest ti ddillad newydd - You made some new clothes (dillad)
  • Gwnaethoch chi fwrdd newydd - You made a new table (bwrdd)

Questions and Yes and No

We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

  • Wnes i goffi? - Did I make a coffee?
  • Wnest ti ddillad? - Did you make some clothes?
  • Wnaethoch chi'r cinio? - Did you make the lunch/dinner?

In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

  • Do - Yes
  • Naddo - No

  • Wnaethoch chi swper neithiwr? Do. - Did you make supper yesterday evening? Yes.

  • Wnest ti'r sied ddoe? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy oer. - Did you make the shed yesterday? No, it was too cold.

Negatives

Simply use the mixed mutation (soft in the case of gwneud) with ddim for a negative:

  • Wnes i ddim swper neithiwr. - I didn't make any supper yesterday evening.
  • Wnaethoch chi ddim dillad newydd. - You didn't make any new clothes.

The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

  • Es i
  • Est ti
  • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Aethon ni
  • Aethoch chi
  • Aethon nhw

Simple past of dod:

  • Des i
  • Dest ti
  • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Daethon ni
  • Daethoch chi
  • Daethon nhw

Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

  • Gwnes i
  • Gwnest ti
  • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Gwnaethon ni
  • Gwnaethoch chi
  • Gwnaethon nhw

Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

  • Ces i
  • Cest ti
  • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Caethon/Cawson ni
  • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
  • Caethon/Cawson nhw

Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


Past Gwneud 2 updated 2019-11-02

The simple past of gwneud

In this section we cover the remaining parts of the simple past of gwneud - he/she, we, they, etc.


He/She, etc made/did, We made/did, They made/did

Following on from the earlier section:

  • Gwnaeth e/hi - He/She made/did
  • Gwnaeth Siân/y plant - Siân/The children made/did
  • Gwnaethon ni - We made/did
  • Gwnaethon nhw - They made/did

In parts of north and mid-Wales, Mi may be added in front of the verb, especially for emphasis. It is only used with a positive statement, never with questions or negatives. Mi causes a soft mutation of the verb.:

  • Mi wnaeth hi/e/o
  • Mi wnaethon ni
  • Mi wnaethon nhw

In other areas of Wales you may come across Fe being used instead of Mi, although this is perhaps less common nowadays.


Soft mutation following a short-form verb

Note that the object of a short-form verb, the thing that has been made/bought/sold, takes a soft mutation:

  • Gwnaeth hi goffi. - She made a coffee. (coffi)
  • Gwnaethon ni ddillad newydd. - We made some new clothes. (dillad)
  • Gwnaethon nhw fwrdd newydd. - They made a new table. (bwrdd)

Questions and Yes and No

We form the question simply by adding a soft mutation at the start of the verb, a question mark at the end of the sentence in writing and by raising the tone at the end of the sentence when speaking:

  • Wnaeth o goffi? - Did he make a coffee?
  • Wnaethon ni'r gadair? - Did we make the chair?
  • Wnaethon nhw ginio? - Did they make lunch/dinner?

In the simple past tense there is only one form of Yes and one form of No

Do = Yes
Naddo = No

  • Wnaethon nhw'r goffi? Do. - Did they make the coffee? Yes.
  • Wnaeth hi ginio iddyn nhw? Naddo, roedd hi'n rhy brysur. - Did she make lunch for them? No, she was too busy.

Negatives

Simply use the mixed mutation (soft in the case of gwneud here) with ddim for a negative:

  • Wnaethon ni ddim coffi. - We didn't make any coffee.
  • Wnaeth hi ddim dillad newydd. - She didn't make any new clothes.

The full simple past conjugations of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael

For reference, the full pattern of the simple past tense of mynd, dod, gwneud and cael in the general colloquial language is as follows, starting with mynd:

  • Es i
  • Est ti
  • Aeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Aethon ni
  • Aethoch chi
  • Aethon nhw

Simple past of dod:

  • Des i
  • Dest ti
  • Daeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Daethon ni
  • Daethoch chi
  • Daethon nhw

Simple past of gwneud (note that the initial g- is sometimes dropped in the colloquial language, and that if that happens the -w- is often not pronounced either):

  • Gwnes i
  • Gwnest ti
  • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Gwnaethon ni
  • Gwnaethoch chi
  • Gwnaethon nhw

Simple past of cael (note that these forms are often seen with the mutation c- -> g- in the colloquial language):

  • Ces i
  • Cest ti
  • Caeth/Cafodd e/hi/Siân/y plant
  • Caethon/Cawson ni
  • Caethoch/Cawsoch chi
  • Caethon/Cawson nhw

Note that in parts of Mid- and north Wales these are often used and taught with a preceding particle mi and a soft mutation. For example: mi gaethon nhw.

You may well meet some variations in the patterns of these four irregular verbs, especially in informal speech and in the various dialects.

Note that there are also different forms which are used in formal written Welsh. This course does not cover those.


Past Short updated 2020-08-22


The Simple past tense

There are two common ways of forming the simple past:

  • By adding the appropriate ending to the stem of a verb to make a 'short-form' verb.
  • By using the simple past of gwneud (doing, making) as an auxiliary verb to make a 'long-form' verb.

This section of the course shows how to use the first method, adding a simple past tense ending to the stem of the verb.

Note that there are other ways of creating the simple past tense in some dialects, but this course does not cover them.


The short-form simple past tense

The short-form past tense uses the stem of the verb. This is usually formed by removing:

  • -a, -i, -o, -u, -eg, -ed, -an, -yd, -yll

from the final syllable of the verb-noun.

For example:

  • busnesa -> busnes- (meddling, to meddle)
  • cefnogi -> cefnog- (supporting)
  • ffonio -> ffoni- - (phoning)
  • tynnu -> tynn- (pulling)
  • rhedeg -> rhed- (running, to run)
  • cerdded -> cerdd- (walking)

For other verbs there is often no change:

  • darllen -> darllen- (reading)
  • siarad -> siarad- (speaking)

There are some common exceptions. For example:

  • gweld -> gwel- (seeing)
  • sefyll -> saf- (standing)
  • aros -> arhos- (waiting)
  • cyrraedd -> cyrhaedd- (arriving at)
  • dal -> dali- (catching)
  • gorffen -> gorffenn- (finishing)
  • gadael -> gadaw- (leaving)
  • gwrando -> gwrandaw- (listening)

(For other stems, check in, for example, www.gweiadur.com , or Y Llyfr Berfau (by Geraint Lewis).)

Note that there are some dialect variations of some of these stems.


The past endings are added to the stem:

  • -ais i - I
  • -aist ti - you (informal singular)
  • -odd e/o/hi/Siân/y plant - he/she/Siân/the children
  • -on ni - we
  • -och chi - you (formal, plural)
  • -on nhw - they

For example, with canu (singing, stem can-):

  • Can- + -ais => Canais i - I sang
  • Canaist ti - you sang
  • Canodd e/hi/Siân/y plant - he/she/Siân/the children sang
  • Canon ni - we sang
  • Canoch chi - you sang
  • Canon nhw - they sang

Some examples:

  • Siaradais i â Siân - I spoke to Siân
  • Cerddais i gyda Siôn - I walked with Siôn
  • Gwelon ni gathod - We saw some cats
  • Mi welodd y cathod ni - The cats saw us
  • Darllenoch chi lyfrau ddoe - You read some books yesterday
  • Mwynhaoch chi'r ddrama. - You enjoyed the play
  • Mi ddalion nhw'r trên. - They caught the train.

Note that short form verbs cause a soft mutation of their object.

  • Mi brynodd o lyfr. - He bought a book (llyfr)
  • Gwylion nhw raglen - They watched a programme (rhaglen)

Questions

The verb takes a soft mutation if possible, otherwise it's just intonation. (Mi is never used before a question):

  • Siaradais i â Siân? - Did I speak to Siân?
  • Gerddais i gyda Siôn? - Did I walk with Siôn?
  • Welon ni gathod - Did we see any cats?
  • Ddarllenoch chi lyfrau ddoe? - Did you read any books yesterday?

The answers in this tense are simple:

  • do - yes (I did)
  • naddo - no (I did not)

Negatives

We mutate the verb (soft or aspirate, as in the present or future short forms) and add ddim. The ddim takes the soft mutation as the start of the object of the verb:

  • Siaradais i ddim â Siân - I didn't talk to Siân
  • Cherddais i ddim gyda Siôn - I didn't walk with Siôn
  • Welon ni ddim cathod - We did not see any cats
  • Ddarllenoch chi ddim llyfrau ddoe - You didn't read any books yesterday

We cannot use ddim followed by anything definite - a proper noun, a pronoun, 'r/yr/y (the), etc, and so o is used between them, giving the combination mo:

  • ddim + o => mo
  • Welais i mo Siân. - I did not see Siân.

mo is followed by a soft mutation, just like o:

  • Welais i mo'i llyfr hi. - I did not see her book.
  • Welodd Siân mo'r cathod. - Siân did not see the cats.
  • Anfonodd o mo'r llythyr at Eleri. - He didn't send the letter to Eleri.
  • Chyrhaeddon ni mo Gaerdydd ddoe. - We did not reach Cardiff yesterday.
  • Thalon ni mo fil Sioned. - We did not pay Sioned's bill.
  • Welodd e mo dŷ fy modryb. - He did not see my aunt's house.
  • Thalodd e mo'u dyled. - He did not pay their debt.

Auxiliary Past Gwneud updated 2019-10-05

This unit covers the simple past tense, yr amser gorffennol.

(For those who already know some Welsh, note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - translations without the pronouns will not be accepted)


The Simple past tense

There are two common ways of forming the simple past:

  • By adding the appropriate ending to the stem of a verb, making a 'short-form' verb.
  • By using the simple past of gwneud (doing, making) as an auxiliary verb to make a 'long-form' verb.

This section of the course shows how to use the second method, using gwneud.


Using the simple past of gwneud to create a simple past of other verbs

This simple past of gwneud, which was covered a little earlier in the course, can be used to form a simple past tense of other verbs. This method is widely used all over Wales, especially in conversation.

Remember that the object of a short-form verb takes a soft mutation. In this case, the object of gwneud is the verb-noun for which we are creating the simple past tense. Using the example of canu:

  • Gwnes i ganu - I sang
  • Gwnest ti ganu - You sang
  • Gwnaeth e/hi/Siân/y plant ganu - He/she/Siân/the children sang
  • Gwnaethon ni ganu - We sang
  • Gwnaethoch chi ganu - You sang
  • Gwnaethon nhw ganu - They sang

The initial g- is often dropped in speech and the remaining w- may only be lightly pronounced, if at all.

In parts of north and mid-Wales, the particle mi is often added at the start of the phrase. Mi causes a soft mutation:

  • Mi wnes i ganu - I sang, I did sing
  • Mi wnaeth o ganu - he sang
  • Mi wnaeth Siân ganu - Siân sang

Some examples:

  • Gwnes i siarad â Sian - I spoke to Siân
  • Mi wnes i gerdded efo Siôn - I walked with Siôn
  • Mi wnaeth y gath ladd yr aderyn. - The cat killed the bird.
  • Gwnaethoch chi brynu llyfr ddoe. - You bought a book yesterday.
  • Gwnest ti ddarllen y llyfrau ddoe. - You read the books yesterday.

Questions

As with the past of gwneud earlier in the course, just use the soft mutated form of gwnes i, etc and raise the tone at the end of the question:

  • Wnes i siarad â Sian? - Did I speak to Siân?
  • Wnest ti gerdded gyda/efo Siôn? - Did you walk with Siôn?
  • Wnaeth o weld cathod yno? - Did he see any cats there?
  • Wnaethoch chi ddarllen llyfrau ddoe - Did you read any books yesterday?

Remember that Fe/Mi is never used with a question.


The answers to any question in the simple past are the same:

  • do - yes
  • naddo - no

  • Wnaethoch chi ddarllen y nofel 'na? Do. - Did you read that novel? Yes (I/we did).

  • Wnaethon nhw nofio yn môr ddoe? Naddo, roedd y dŵr yn rhy oer. - Did they swim in the sea yesterday? No, the water was too cold.

Negatives

As with other negatives, we mutate the verb (soft mutation in the case of gwneud) and add ddim. The ddim takes the soft mutation as the start of the object of the gwneud verb, so we do not mutate the verb-noun which follows it:

  • Wnes i ddim siarad â Sian - I didn't speak to Siân
  • Wnes i ddim cerdded gyda/efo Siôn - I did not walk with Siôn. (no mutation of cerdded)
  • Wnaethoch chi ddim darllen llyfrau ddoe - You did not read any books yesterday. (no mutation of darllen)

Reflexive Pronouns updated 2020-07-28

Note: Please do this lesson a few times to practise with different pronouns.


Reflexive verbs

There are a number verbs in Cymraeg that start with the prefix ym-. They are called reflexive verbs, berfau atblygol. The person carrying out the action also receives the action. Their reflexive nature is not always obvious in the English translation. Notice the soft mutation within the word after the prefix ym-.

  • golchi - to wash => ymolchi - to wash oneself
  • dangos - to show => ymddangos - to appear, or to show oneself
  • gweld - to see => ymweld - to visit
  • lladd - to kill => ymladd - to fight
  • gwrthod - to refuse => ymwrthod - to reject
  • gadael - to leave (something or somewhere) => ymadael - to leave, to part company from someone or something (often with a sense of some personal movement)

Reflexive pronouns

Reflexive pronouns, and their use with verbs in Cymraeg, differ greatly from their English counterparts.

Reflexive pronouns are used when ym- forms of verbs do not exist. They are made up of the possessive pronouns learnt in the previous unit, and the word in Cymraeg for self, hun. For example:

  • Siarad â fy hun - To speak to myself
  • Gwrando ar dy hun - Listening to yourself
  • Gofalu am eu hun - To look after themselves
  • Gweithio i'ch hun - Working for yourselves

They can also be used with possessive pronouns to indictate 'my/your/their/... own (thing)':

  • Ble mae dy esgidiau dy hun? - Where are your own shoes?
  • Dw i'n hoffi fy nghoginio fy hun. - I like my own cooking.
  • Mae eu tŷ eu hun yn Aber. - Their own house is in Aber.

Variations

There is some variation in hun between the various dialects in Wales. In one form, as explained above, the word hun is used for '-self/-selves' regardless of which person it applies to.

In a variation, hunan, is used instead of hun in the singular (me, you, him, her) , and hunain is used for the plurals (us, you, them). The hunan/hunain form is perhaps more common in south and west Wales dialects, although both forms can be found all over Wales.

So, in summary:

  • fy hun - myself
  • dy hun - yourself (singular informal)
  • ei hun - him/herself
  • ein hun - ourselves
  • eich hun - yourself (formal)/yourselves
  • eu hun - themselves

And:

  • fy hunan
  • dy hunan (singular informal)
  • ei hunan
  • ein hunain
  • eich hunan (yourself, singular formal)); eich hunain (yourselves)
  • eu hunain

The first lesson uses hun and the second lesson uses hunan/hunain.


Must&MustNot updated 2021-09-22


Must

To say that somebody must or has to to do something in English is expressed with the pattern rhaid i... in Welsh.

The standard pattern in the colloquial language is Rhaid i followed by a pronoun or proper name, followed by a verb-noun with soft mutation.

  • Rhaid i fi fynd. - I have to go, I must go.
  • Rhaid i Dylan fwyta. - Dylan must eat.
  • Rhaid i chi fwydo Dylan. - You must feed Dylan.
  • Rhaid i ni ddeffro Dylan. - We must wake Dylan up.

Mae rhaid...

Sometimes Mae... appears in front of rhaid. This is generally omitted in colloquial Welsh unless you want to emphasise the phrase:

  • Mae rhaid i Eleri dalu. - Eleri has to pay.

Some pronouns cause changes to the preposition ’i’

English Welsh
I must go Rhaid i fi/mi fynd
You (sing.) must go Rhaid i ti fynd
He must go Rhaid iddo fe/fo fynd
She must go Rhaid iddi hi fynd
We must go Rhaid i ni fynd
You (plural) must go Rhaid i chi fynd
They must go Rhaid iddyn nhw fynd

Questions

The question begins with Oes

Do you have to go? = Oes rhaid i chi fynd? (literally - Is there a necessity for you to go?)

  • The positive answer is Oes
  • The negative answer is Nac oes

  • Oes rhaid i Eleri dalu? Oes/Nac oes. - Must Eleri pay? Yes. (she must)

  • Oes rhaid iddyn nhw ymadael nawr? Oes. - Do they have to leave now? Yes. (they must)

If you want to emphasies what they must do, use Oes, mae rhaid ...:

  • Oes rhaid iddyn nhw fynd nawr? Oes, mae rhaid iddyn nhw fynd nawr neu byddan nhw'n colli'r trên adre. - Do they have to go now? Yes, they must go now or they will miss the train home.

Two negatives - 'Don't have to' and 'Must not'

Don't have to

This negative starts with Does dim rhaid ... and corresponds to ... don't have to ...:

  • Does dim rhaid i chi fynd. - You don’t have to go.
  • Does dim rhaid i Eleri dalu. - Eleri doesn't have to pay.
Must not

Another negative phrase ...must not... has a completely different meaning and is written in a different way. Here, we use peidio â/ag, with the meaning 'to not do' something. (ag is used before a vowel):

  • Rhaid i chi beidio â mynd. - You must not go. (literally - 'You must refrain from going')
  • Rhaid i chi beidio ag yfed. - You must not drink.

Note that peidio takes a soft mutation after the rhaid i... pattern.

Note that the preposition â causes an aspirate mutation of a following word beginning with p, t, c:

  • Rhaid iddyn nhw beidio â cherdded adre. - They must not walk home. (cerdded)
  • Rhaid iddo fe beidio â thalu'r tro 'ma. - He mustn't pay this time. (talu)
  • Rhaid i ti beidio â phrynu anrhegion. - You must not buy any presents. (prynu)

You will come across the â/ag being dropped in casual speech and writing, in which case there is no adpirate mutation:

  • Rhaid iddo fe beidio talu. - He must not pay.

Other uses of i fi, i ti, iddi hi, etc in the i-dot patterns

There are many other patterns which use i fi and so on to create various meanings. We introduce one here which means 'since I, you, they, etc did something'. Note that the verb-noun that follows takes a soft mutation just as with the rhaid i... pattern:

  • Ers i ti fynd dw i wedi colli dy rif ffôn. - Since you went I have lost your phone number.
  • Ers iddo fe brynu'r car newydd, mae o wedi cael llawer o hwyl. - Since he bought the new car, he has had a lot of fun.

Note that if there is no following verb-noun, there is no use of i:

  • Dw i ddim wedi gweld Dewi ers mis Mai. - I have not seen Dewi since May.
  • Dydy hi ddim bod i Aber ers ei phen-blwydd. - She has not been to Aber since her birthday.

Order updated 2021-09-22


A simple sequence of events

'Before I did this, we did that'. 'After doing one thing, I will do another'. 'Before I go somewhere, they will do something'. These are all examples of simple sequences of events.

In this unit, the words cyn and ar ôl are taught, meaning before and after:

  • cyn mynd - before going
  • ar ôl bwyta - after eating.

These phrases are "tenseless" - that is to say that when translating them, it is some other part of the sentence which will point to the tense of the whole expression. For example:

  • Ar ôl codi, ces i gawod. - After getting up, I had a shower

When they are used in a pattern saying that somebody does or did, etc something before or after something else, they are used in a pattern that is similar to rhaid i ('must'), using i fi, i ti, iddo fe and so on.

Note that this pattern, the 'i-dot pattern', is common in Welsh in a variety of contexts. It has been covered earlier in the course with rhaid i... and ers i....

Remember that the i-dot pattern is followed by a soft mutation of the verb-noun.

For example:

  • Ar ôl i fi godi, est ti i'r siop. - After I had got up, you went to the shop.

In this example, est ti, (the past tense of mynd, 'going, to go') meaning 'you went', will mean that the action codi was also in the past. It cannot be * 'After I get up, you went to the shop' as the tenses are mismatched - the sequence makes no sense.

  • Cyn i fi fynd i'r gwely, siaradais i â Siôn yn Gymraeg - Before I went to bed, I spoke to Siôn in Welsh.

In this example, the siaradais i (being in the past tense) meaning "I spoke" will mean that the fynd is translated as "went". Again, this sentence cannot be translated as * 'Before I go to bed, I spoke Welsh' as the tenses don't match up.

  • Symudoch chi i Gymru cyn i chi gael y plant. - You moved to Wales before you had the children. or You had moved to Wales before you had the children.

In that example, the governing tense is introduced first - 'you moved', in the past. It cannot be translated as "You moved to Wales before you 'have the children' as the first part, 'you moved', tells you that cyn i chi gael needs to be translated as 'before you had (or had had) the children'.

Note that we do not use yn or wedi in these i-clauses.

If there is no pronoun, we just use i:

  • cyn i Dewi fynd - before Dewi goes/went/had gone
  • Cyn i Sioned ddod i Aber, roedd hi'n byw yn Llanidloes. - Before Sioned came to Aber she was living in Llanidloes.
  • Cyn i Dewi fynd, rhaid iddo fe dalu'r bil. - Before Dewi goes, he has to pay the bill.
  • Ar ôl i Dewi orffen y gwaith, bydd e'n mynd adre. - After Dewi finishes the work, he will go home.

Similarly, when moving from English to Welsh:

  • 'Before we moved to Aber, we lived in Rhos'

means that 'we lived in Rhos' can be translated in the imperfect:

  • ...ro'n ni'n byw yn Rhos

There is no tense in the cyn i ni... pattern itself, so the sentence becomes simply:

  • Cyn i ni symud i Aber, ro'n ni'n byw yn Rhos

Now consider 'Before we move to Aber, we will visit Patagonia'. Cyn i ni symud... stays the same - no tense in the expression - and it is just the 'visiting' which needs to be put into the future:

  • Cyn i ni symud i Aber, byddwn ni'n ymweld â Phatagonia - Before we move to Aber, we will visit Patagonia.

With the past again:

  • Cyn i ni symud i Aber, ro'n i wedi gweithio ym Mangor - Before we moved to Aber, I had worked in Bangor.

On its own then, a phrase such as cyn i ni symud could translate as 'before we moved', 'before we had moved' or as 'before we move' - all are potentially correct until the phrase is put next to one with a tense in it.


Commands 1 updated 2020-11-26


Giving commands

Cymraeg, along with many other European languages, has separate command forms of the verb.

Firstly, we have to identify the stem of the verb. Looking at the basic for of the verb, the 'verb-noun', as found in dictionaries, we can, in general, remove the following endings if they are present:

  • -a, -i, -o, -u, -eg, -ed, -an, -yd, -yll

For example:

  • bwyta -> bwyt-
  • coginio -> cogini-
  • canu -> can-
  • rhedeg -> rhed-
  • cerdded -> cerdd-

If the word does not end with one of those endings, the stem is usually the same as the basic form

  • chwarae -> chwarae-
  • edrych -> edrych-
  • eistedd -> eistedd-
  • deall -> deall-

Once we have the stem, we generally add one of two endings to give us the command form:

  • -a is added for the familiar, singular ti form
  • -wch is added for the plural or formal chi form

This section of the course practises the plural or formal -wch form.

For convenience on this course, we will generally add an exclamation mark after the commands to make them easier to identify. For example:

  • bwyta!, bwytwch! - eat!
  • coginia!, coginiwch! - cook!
  • cana!, canwch! - sing!
  • rheda!, rhedwch! - run!
  • cerdda!, cerddwch! - walk!

There are several more detailed rules for finding stems and there are some irregular command forms too. Here are some common ones:

  • aros (arhos-) - arhosa!, arhoswch! - wait!
  • ennill (enill-) - enilla!, enillwch! - win!
  • gorffen (gorffenn-) - gorffenna!; gorffennwch! - finish!
  • gweld (gwel-) - gwela!, gwelwch! - see!
  • sefyll (saf-) - saf!; sefwch! - stand up!
  • troi (tro-) - tro!, trowch! - turn!

And very importantly, these irregular command forms:

  • bod - bydd!; byddwch! - be!
  • mynd - cer/dos!; cerwch/ewch! - go!
  • dod - dere/tyrd/ty'd!; dewch/dowch! - come!
  • gwneud - gwna!; gwnewch! - do!, make!

Note that cael has no command forms.

Other exceptional forms will come up from time to time in the course, so keep an eye on the pop-up hints. For example:

  • gwrando (gwrandaw-) - gwranda!, gwrandewch! - listen!

Soft mutation after a command

The command forms are short-form verbs, so if they are followed by an object, that object takes a soft mutation, as usual:

  • Dwedwch rywbeth! - Say something! (rhywbeth)
  • Darllena lyfr! - Read a book! (llyfr)

Telling someone not to do something

We can tell somebody to eat their vegetables - Bwytwch eich llysiau! - but we often need to tell someone not to do something, too.

Paid! and Peidiwch! are command forms from the verb-noun peidio ('to refrain from') and we use those as negative commands:

  • Peidiwch â bwyta'r glo! - Don't eat the coal!
  • Peidiwch â bwyta'r madarch 'na! - Don't eat those mushrooms!

Note that Paid â...! and Peidiwch â...! are translated into English as 'Don't...!' or 'Do not...!, (not as * 'Refrain from...!')

Peidio and its forms are followed by the preposition â, although it is often omitted in casual speech. Where it is used, â is followed by an aspirate mutation of p-, t-, c-:

  • Peidiwch â phrynu...! - Don't buy...! (prynu)
  • Peidiwch â thalu...! - Don't pay...! (talu)
  • Peidiwch â chwyno am...! - Don't complain about...! (cwyno)

Remember that â changes to ag before vowels:

  • Peidiwch ag edrych i lawr! - Don't look down!

Remember not to mix ti and chi in the same sentence

It would be strange to mix familiar ti and formal/plural chi forms when addressing someone, so stick to one form or the other in a sentence:

  • Pryna lysiau ar dy ffordd adre, wnei di? - Buy some vegetables on your way home, will you? (ti-forms)
  • Prynwch lysiau ar eich ffordd adre, wnewch chi? - Buy some vegetables on your way home, will you? (chi-forms)

Not all words get translated one-for-one between English and Welsh

This is a convenient place to mention that not all words get translated one-for-one between English and Welsh. Here are some examples:

  • sefyll - to stand (up), standing (up), - no need for the 'up' in the Welsh
  • eistedd - to sit (down), sitting (down)
  • trowch i'r chwith/dde - to turn (to the) left/right (the 'to the' is optional in the English)
  • mynd heibio i - to go past (the i is required in the Welsh)
  • gyferbyn â - opposite (the â is not translated)
  • mynd â - to take, taking
  • dod â - to bring, bringing
  • garddio - to garden, to do the garden(ing) (no need to translate the 'to do' here)

To read more about command forms, visit http://clwbmalucachu.co.uk/cmc/cheat/cheat_commands.htm


Commands2 updated 2021-09-22


Giving commands

Cymraeg, along with many other European languages, has separate command forms of the verb.

Firstly, we have to identify the stem of the verb. Looking at the basic for of the verb, the 'verb-noun', as found in dictionaries, we can, in general, remove the following ending if they are present:

  • -a, -i, -o, -u, -eg, -ed, -an, -yd, -yll

For example:

  • bwyta -> bwyt-
  • coginio -> cogini-
  • canu -> can-
  • rhedeg -> rhed-
  • cerdded -> cerdd-

If the word does not end with one of those endings, the stem is usually the same as the basic form

  • chwarae -> chwarae-
  • edrych -> edrych-
  • eistedd -> eistedd-
  • deall -> deall-

Once we have the stem, we generally add one of two endings to give us the command form:

  • -a is added for the familiar, singular form
  • -wch is added for the plural or formal form

This section of the course practises the familar -a form.

For convenience on this course, we will generally add an exclamation mark after the commands to make them easier to identify. For example:

  • bwyta!, bwytwch! - eat!
  • coginia!, coginiwch! - cook!
  • cana!, canwch! - sing!
  • rheda!, rhedwch! - run!
  • cerdda!, cerddwch! - walk!

There are several more detailed rules for finding stems and there are some irregular command forms too. Here are some common ones:

  • aros (arhos-) - arhosa!, arhoswch! - wait!
  • ennill (enill-) - enilla!, enillwch! - win!
  • gorffen (gorffenn-) - gorffenna!; gorffennwch! - finish!
  • gweld (gwel-) - gwela!, gwelwch! - see!
  • gwrando (gwrandaw-) - gwranda!, gwrandewch! - listen!
  • sefyll (saf-) - saf!; sefwch! - stand up!
  • troi (tro-) - tro!, trowch! - turn!

And very importantly, these irregular command forms:

  • bod - bydd!; byddwch! - be!
  • mynd - cer/dos!; cerwch/ewch! - go!
  • dod - dere/tyrd/ty'd!; dewch/dowch! - come!
  • gwneud - gwna!; gwnewch! - do!, make!

Note that cael has no command forms.

Other exceptional forms will come up from time to time in the course, so keep an eye on the pop-up hints. For example:

  • gwrando (gwrandaw-) - Gwranda! Gwrandewch! - Listen!

Soft mutation after a command

The command forms are short-forms verbs, so if they are followed by an object, that object takes a soft mutation, as usual:

  • Dwedwch rywbeth! - Say something! (rhywbeth)
  • Darllena lyfr! - Read a book! (llyfr)

Telling someone not to do something

We can tell somebody to eat their vegetables - Bwyta dy lysiau! - but we often need to tell someone not to do something, too.

Paid! and Peidiwch! are command forms from the verb-noun peidio (to refrain from) and we use those as negative commands:

  • Paid â bwyta'r glo! - Don't eat the coal!
  • Paid â bwyta'r madarch 'na! - Don't eat those mushrooms!

Note that Paid â...! and Peidiwch â...! are translated into English as 'Don't...!' or 'Do not...!, (not as * 'Refrain from...!')

Peidio and its forms are followed by the preposition â, although it is often omitted in casual speech. Where it is used, â is followed by an aspirate mutation of p-, t-, c-:

  • Paid â phrynu...! - Don't buy...! (prynu)
  • Paid â thalu...! - Don't pay...! (talu)
  • Paid â chwyno am...! - Don't complain about...! (cwyno)

Remember thatâ changes to ag before vowels:

  • Paid ag edrych i lawr! - Don't look down!

As you would expect from the endings, paid â! is the informal singular form, and peidiwch â is the formal or plural form.


Not all words get translated one-for-one between English and Welsh

This is a convenient place to mention that not all words get translated one-for-one between English and Welsh. Here are some examples:

  • sefyll - to stand (up), standing (up), - no need for a separate word for 'up' in the Welsh
  • eistedd - to sit (down), sitting (down)
  • trowch i'r chwith/dde - turn (to the) left/right (the 'to the' is optional in the English)
  • mynd heibio i - go past (the i is usual in the Welsh)
  • gyferbyn â - opposite (the â is not translated)
  • mynd â - to take, taking
  • dod â - to bring, bringing

To read more about command forms, visit this site.

Revision1 updated 2020-08-12


The aim of this section is to revise patterns already covered, to extend their application, and to introduce additional vocabulary.


Newydd - has/have just

Earlier in the course you met the use of wedi to say that you 'have done' something:

  • Dw i wedi cyrraedd yr ysgol - I have arrived at school.

To say that we have just done something, we can simply replace the wedi with newydd followed by a soft mutation of the verb-noun:

  • Dw i newydd gyrraedd yr ysgol. - I have just arrived at school.
  • Dw i newydd brynu beic. - I have just bought a bike.
  • Ydy Dewi newydd ddod adre? - Has Dewi just come home?
  • Ydy Mair yn mynd allan heno? Ydy, mae hi newydd ymadael - Is Mair going out this evening? Yes, she has just left.

Sport updated 2020-08-16

This is a unit on sport.


While the efforts of the national rugby team are probably given the most coverage, there are many other sports played in Wales at every level.

The national football (soccer) team has seen a significant renaissance in recent years, briefly appearing above its neighbour England in the top ten rankings.


Emphatic sentences

As a reminder, the emphatic sentence pattern is used in some of the examples here. The thing being emphasised changes is put at the start of the sentence instead of the main verb:

  • Nhw ydy'r pencampwyr! - 'They are the champions!'

Perfect vs Simple Past

Remember that a past with wedi, such as:

  • Dyn ni wedi ennill. - We have won.
  • Mae Dewi wedi ennill. - Dewi has won.

needs to be translated into an English 'perfect' tense, with 'has/have'. Whereas:

  • Enillon ni - We won
  • Gwnaethon ni ennill - We won

are in the 'simple past' tense and should not include 'has/have' in their translation.

Note, too, that the stem of ennill (double n) is enill- (single n).


National and other sports teams

When we say 'The Welsh rugby team' we usually translate this using a pattern without a matching 'yr/y/'r in Welsh:

  • Tîm rygbi Cymru - 'The rugby team of Wales', but usually put into English as -> 'The Welsh rugby team'.
  • Tîm hoci Cymru - The Welsh hockey team
  • Tîm sboncen Lloegr - The English squash team
  • Tîm criced Morganwg - The Glamorgan cricket team
  • Tîm tennis y Drenewydd - The Newtown tennis team

But if an adjective for the country or town, etc, that they come from is used, the pattern is this:

  • Tîm rygbi Cymreig - a Welsh rugby team (= any rugby team from Wales)
  • Tîm pêl-droed Seisnig - an English football team

If the name of the country, etc, is used, it follows the preposition o:

  • tîm hoci o India - A hockey team from India
  • tîm tennis o'r Drenewydd - a tennis team from Newtown; a Newtown tennis team
  • tîm rygbi o Bont-y-pŵl - a rugby team from Pontypool; a Pontypool rugby team

The Six Nations Championship

'The Six Nations' (Y Chwe Gwlad), as it is known informally, is an annual international rugby tournament between Wales, England, Scotland, Ireland, France and Italy. Look on the web for more information about this year's games and locations.


Opinions updated 2020-12-07


This unit introduces some new adjectives to describe people and things, as well as some more colours.


'Weak' soft mutation after yn

Remember the use of the soft mutation after yn when it is used to introduce an adjective:

  • Mae e'n denau - He is thin (tenau)
  • Roedd Siân yn rhedeg yn gyflym - Siân used to run fast (cyflym)
  • Mae'r gerddi'n breifat - The gardens are private (preifat)

But note that this use of yn does not cause soft mutation in words beginning with the letters ll- or rh-:

  • Mae Siôn yn byw'n lleol - Siôn lives locally
  • Bydd y theatr yn llawn heno - The theatre will be full tonight
  • Roedden nhw'n mynd i'r dafarn yn rhy aml - They used to go to the pub too often
  • Dydy'r bwyty 'na ddim yn rhad o gwbl! - That restaurant isn't cheap at all!

This particular soft mutation, where ll- and rh- resist the soft mutation, is sometimes known as the 'weak soft mutation'. Although it does not apply to many situations, some of these are quite common, although you may not have met all of them yet. It applies to:

  • y (the) in front of feminine nouns.
  • un (one) in front of feminine nouns.
  • yn when introducing nouns and adjectives.
  • mor, cyn, but only where these mean 'as' or 'so' in front of adjectives.

What do you think of...

We are often asked what we think of or about things. The usual construction in Welsh is to use meddwl + o. Remember that meddwl should be mutated in this pattern following Beth...? or Be ...? (although not everybody remembers to do so!) and the ei that causes it may occasionally be left in, especially in writing:

  • Beth wyt ti'n feddwl o'r etholiad? - What do you think of/about the election?
  • Beth oeddech chi'n feddwl o Ceri Lingo fel Prif Weinidog? - What did you think of Ceri Lingo as First Minister?
  • Be fyddan nhw'n feddwl o Dewi fel eu cynghorydd? - What will they think of Dewi as their councillor?
  • Beth fydd eich mab yn ei feddwl o'ch tŷ newydd? - What will your son think of your new house?
  • Be fydd Siân yn feddwl o lythyr Dewi? - What will Siân think about Dewi's letter?

Note that when talking about what people thought about something in the past (what did they think) we usually use the imperfect (beth oedden nhw'n ei feddwl o...) rather than the simple past. This is because 'thinking about' tends to be a continuing, longer lasting process than just a one-off event such as 'going to somewhere'.

Note that we use meddwl o when asking about or giving an opinion, but meddwl am, when, say, thinking about doing something:

  • Maen nhw'n meddwl am symud tŷ'n fuan - They are thinking about moving house soon.
  • Dw i'n meddwl am ymarfer fy Ngymraeg heno yn lle defnyddio Saesneg gymaint - I am thinking about practising my Welsh this evening instead of using English so much.

What sort of place was it? What is someone like?

We have seen sut? with a verb so far, causing no mutation, and meaning simply 'How...?:

  • Sut mae hi? - How is she?
  • Sut mae? - How are you? How are things? - as a greeting
  • Sut roedd eich gwyliau? - How were your holidays?
  • Sut prynoch chi'ch car newydd? - How did you buy your new car?

We can also use it in front of a noun or a name to ask 'What sort of place/person is xxx?' 'What is xxx like?' In this case, sut causes a soft mutation if it comes directly before a noun:

  • Sut le ydy Aber? - What sort of a place is Aber? What is Aber like? (lle -> le)
  • Sut un ydy Dewi Lingo? - What is Dewi Lingo like?
  • Sut berson ydy Hefin? - What sort of a person is Hefin? (person -> berson)
  • Sut un yw'r tŷ 'na? - What is that house like?
  • Sut roedd y tywydd yn Aber ddoe? - What was the weather like in Aber yesterday?

An example of a fixed expression - gyda'r nos

Welsh has many idiomatic or fixed expressions where a literal translation does not help to understand the actual meaning. One that is very widely used all over Wales is:

  • gyda'r nos - in the evening; evening

For example:

  • Mae o'n hoffi mynd allan gyda'r nos. - He likes to go out in the evening.
  • Ydy'r siop ar agor gyda'r nos? - Is the shop open in the evening?
  • Roedd Sam allan drwy'r gyda'r nos. - Sam was out all evening.

Money updated 2021-09-22

Money

The monetary units in British currency, punt (pound) and ceiniog (penny), are feminine nouns in Welsh, so we use the feminine versions of the numbers two, three and four for money:

  • dwy geiniog, dwy bunt - two pence, two pounds
  • tair ceiniog, tair punt - three pence, three pounds
  • pedair ceiniog, pedair punt - four pence, four pounds

Since there is no indefinite article 'a' in Welsh, a sentence like '£10 (ten pounds) a bottle' is translated in Welsh as £10 y botel.

  • Faint yw'r losin? Dau ddeg ceiniog y pecyn. - How much are the sweets? Twenty pence a packet.
  • Mae'r tatws 'ma'n costio punt y cilo. - These potatoes cost a pound a kilo.
  • Mae'r tatws 'na'n yn costio pum deg ceiniog y pwys. - Those potatoes cost fifty pence a pound.

To say that you can buy something for some amount of money, use am:

  • Mae e'n gwerthu y gadair am bunt. He is selling the chair for a pound.
  • Mae e'n talu pum punt am y cloc. - He is paying five pounds for the clock.

Note that:

  • punt is a pound (£) currency (feminine noun)
  • pwys is a pound (lb) weight (masculine noun)

So:

  • Mae'r tatws 'na'n costio pedair punt am bedwar pwys! - Those potatoes cost four pounds for four pounds! (£4 for 4lbs)

Plurals - punnau and punnoedd

It is quite acceptable these days to use the singular punt with larger amounts of money:

  • dau ddeg punt - twenty pounds
  • pedwar deg pedair punt - forty-four pounds

However, it is also still common to use the plurals punnau (with o, usually for specific amounts) and punnoedd (usually for non-specific amounts, but otherwise with o, too).

Note that the feminine forms of the final part of the numbers are used when they are followed by o bunnau:

  • dau ddeg tair o bunnau - twenty-three pounds
  • pedwar deg pedair o bunnau - forty-four pounds
  • Gwnes i wario cant o bunnau ddoe. - I spent a hundred pounds yesterday. (a definite amount)
  • Mae hwnna'n werth miloedd o bunnoedd! - That's worth thousands of pounds! (an indefinite amount)
  • Mae e'n gwario degau o bunnoedd ar barcio bob wythnos. - He spends tens of pounds on parking every week. (an indefinite amount)

Traditional 20-based numbers may also still be seen occasionally:

  • ugain o bunnau - twenty pounds
  • deugain o bunnau - forty pounds
  • hanner cant o bunnau - fifty pounds
  • trigain o bunnau - sixty pounds
  • pedwar ugain o bunnau - eighty pounds
  • pedwar ar bymtheg a phedwar ugain o bunnau - ninety-nine pounds

This last example is perhaps why people are now much more keen to use the newer decimal system of numbering for day-to-day purposes!


Other currencies

For other currencies we have:

  • Doler a sent - Dollar and cent
  • Ewro a sent - Euro and cent

Both doler and sent are feminine nouns and so will use the feminine numbers above. Ewro is a masculine noun so will use masculine numbers.

  • Pedair doler pedair sent - $4.04
  • Pedwar ewro pedair sent - €4.04

This, these, that and those

Often, we will want to ask 'How much is that?', 'How much are those?'. These are the words to use:

  • hwn - this one, this (masculine/indeterminate)
  • hon - this one, this (feminine)
  • hwnna, hwnnw - that one, that (masculine/indeterminate)
  • honno - that one, that (feminine)
  • y rhain - these, these ones
  • y rheina - those, those ones

  • Faint ydy'r rhain? - How much are these?

  • Faint yw hon? - How much is this one? (something which you know if feminine - sgert, cath, cadair,...)
  • Faint yw'r rheina? How much are those?
  • Faint bydd y rheina fis nesaf? - How much will those be next month?
  • Beth yw hwn? - What's this? (something of indeterminate gender)

There are some variants of these, especially in some dialects and in more formal writing.

The h- words can also be used as demonstrative adjectives:

  • y ci hwn; y ci 'ma - this dog
  • y gath hon, y gath 'ma - this cat
  • y ci hwnnw; y ci 'na - that dog
  • y gath honno; y gath 'na - that cat

There are other words that we use for intangibles, abstract concepts that we cannot physically touch:

  • hyn - this
  • hynny - that

For example:

  • Mae hyn yn wir - This is true
  • Doedd hynny ddim yn glyfar iawn! - That wasn't very clever!
  • Dydy hyn/hynny ddim yn deg - This/That isn't fair.
  • Mae hyn yn anodd! Nac ydy, mae hynny'n anos o lawer! - This is difficult! No it isn't, that's much harder!

Note that as demonstrative adjectives they can used with plurals:

  • y llyfrau 'ma; y llyfrau hyn - these books
  • y llyfrau 'na; y llyfrau hynny - those books

Health updated 2021-09-22

Being ill

The way of asking if someone is ill in Welsh is to say:

  • Beth sy'n bod arnoch chi? - What's the matter with you?
  • Beth sy'n bod arnat ti? - What's the matter with you?

If you have a generalised illness such as a cold, the standard pattern to use is:

  • Mae annwyd arna i. - I have a cold

Note that in northern dialects the possessive pattern with gan is used rather than using ar. The gan, etc comes before the noun:

  • Mae gen i annwyd.

If you have a specific localised pain, such as sore throat, the answer is similar to the natural English sentence and we use gyda or gan, as in the Welsh possessive patterns. (This pattern is also used for a generalised illness in northern dialects):

  • Mae gwddw tost gyda fi or Mae gen i wddw sâl - I have a sore throat.

Note that in the second phrase, the gen i has come between the mae... and the gwddw sâl/tost and so it causes a mutation of gwddw to wddw. This is the same cause of a soft mutation as was explained in the notes for 'Possession' earlier in the course.

The following ailments in Cymraeg, particularly where they affect the whole body or are some sort of internal infection, are usually on (ar) us instead of with (gyda/gan) us. (Not in northern dialects, though.) These include:

  • annwyd - a cold
  • peswch - a cough
  • gwres - a temperature
  • twymyn - a fever
  • y ddannoedd/ddannodd - toothache
  • feirws - a virus
  • haint - a bug
  • y ffliw - the flu

A conjugation of ar is needed for each pronoun and works like this:

English Cymraeg Example Translation
I have Mae ... arna i Mae annwyd arna i I have a cold
You have Mae ... arnat ti Mae peswch arnat ti You have a cough
He has Mae ... arno fe/fo Mae'r ddannodd arno fe/fo He has toothache
She has Mae ... arni hi Mae feirws arni hi She has a virus
We have Mae ... arnon ni Mae haint arnon ni We have a bug
You have Mae ... arnoch chi Mae gwres arnoch chi You have a temperature
They have Mae ... arnyn nhw Mae annwyd arnyn nhw They have a cold
Siân has Mae ... ar Siân Mae peswch ar Siân Siân has a cough

Some examples:

  • Mae annwyd arnoch chi. - You have a cold.
  • Mae'r ffliw arnyn nhw. - They have got the flu.
  • Mae'r ddannodd ofnadwy arna i. - I have terrible toothache.
  • Mae gwres ar Siân. - Siân's got a temperature.

But in northern dialects:

  • Mae gan Siân wres. - Siân has got a temperature.

Asking questions about health

With many diseases and complaints we can simply ask about their existence by using Oes...? as usual when asking about the existence of indefinite things:

  • Oes annwyd arnat ti? Oes/Nac oes. - Do you have a cold? Yes/No.
  • Oes gwres ar Siân? Oes/Nac oes. - Has Siân got a temperature? Yes/No.
  • Oes pen tost gyda fe? Oes/Nac oes. - Does he have a headache? Yes/No.

In northern dialects:

  • Oes gen ti annwyd? Oes/Nac oes. - Do you have a cold? Yes/No.
  • Oes gan Siân wres? Oes/Nac oes. - Has Siân got a temperature?

However, some diseases in Welsh usually come with a definite article, even though there may not be in English. For example:

  • (y) ffliw - (the) flu
  • y frech goch - measles
  • clefyd y gwair - hayfever
  • y ddannodd - toothache

We do not use Oes...? as a question about definite things in Welsh, so we have to use Ydy...? with these 'definite' complaints instead:

  • Ydy'r ffliw arnoch chi? Ydy/Nac ydy. - Have you got (the) flu? Yes/No.
  • Ydy'r frech goch arnyn nhw? Ydy/Nac ydy. - Have they got measles? Yes/No.
  • Ydy clefyd y gwair ar Sam heddiw? Ydy/Nac ydy. - Has Sam got hayfever today ? Yes/No.

Alternative forms in parts of north Wales

As mentioned, in the 'north' versions of the DysguCymraeg Mynediad and Sylfaen courses, the preposition gan is taught instead of both gyda and ar for ailments and injuries, reflecting local usage. The conjugation of gan was covered earlier in the course in 'Possession Gan'.

There are also some different forms for some common ailments.

Some examples:

  • Mae gen i gur pen. - I have a headache.
  • Mae gen ti boen bol. - You have a stomache ache.
  • Roedd gynnoch chi beswch. - You had a cough.
  • Oedd gen ti bigyn clust. - Did you have earache?
  • Oes gynno fo ddolur gwddf? - Does he have a sore throat?

Unless there is a specific alternative form, *poen * is usually used:

  • poen braich - a sore arm
  • poen bawd - a sore thumb

Note that there are also abbreviated forms. For example:

  • Sgen i ddim annwyd. - I do not have a cold.
  • Sgen ti ffliw? - Have you got flu?
  • Sgynno fo ffliw? - Does he have flu?
  • Sgynni hi boen clun? - Has she got a sore hip?
  • Sgynni hi ddim dolur gwddw. - She doesn't have a sore throat.
  • etc

Revision2 updated 2020-08-12


The aim of this section is to revise patterns already covered, to extend their application, and to introduce additional vocabulary.


This skill revises some of the elements of the previous skills, in particular: Opinions; May I; Health; and Money.


The phrase 'Dawel Nos' in this unit is the Welsh title for the famous carol 'Stille Nacht' (Silent Night)


Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.


Can&When updated 2020-12-07

Being able to ...

The simplest way to express 'to be able' or 'can' is to use the verb-nouns gallu or medru.

This is usually used with form of bod 'to be':

  • Dw i'n gallu... - I am able to/I can...
  • Dych chi'n gallu... - You are able to/You can...
  • Dw i ddim yn medru... - I am not able to/I cannot...
  • Ydy e'n gallu...? - Can he...?

Adding another verb-noun directly after gallu/medru tells us what it is that the person can do:

  • Dw i'n gallu nofio'n gyflym. - I can swim fast.
  • Byddi di'n gallu gyrru car yn fuan. - You will soon be able to drive a car.
  • Roedd Siân yn medru sgïo'n dda iawn. - Siân used to be able to ski very well.

In parts of north Wales, medru is often used instead of or alongside gallu:

  • Roedd o'n medru dringo'n dda. - He used to be able to climb very well.
  • Doedd Eleri ddim yn medru coginio o gwbl. - Eleri couldn't cook at all.
  • Dach chi'n medru gyrru lori? - Can you drive a lorry?

We can also ask what someone is able to do:

  • Beth dych chi'n gallu wneud? - What can you do?

Note that gwneud should be mutated in this construction. This is because of an ei which is usually left out in colloquial speech:

  • Beth mae Siôn yn gallu (ei) wneud? - What can Siôn do?

Note that you will come across Be? as a shortened form of Beth?.

As the thing that we are asking about Siôn's ability to do is vague or indeterminate, the masculine gender is assumed for it, so the ei (masculine) causes a soft mutation of gwneud.

Note that in this question Beth...? is followed by mae:

  • Beth bydda i'n gallu wneud yfory? - What will I be able to do tomorrow?
  • Beth mae'r plant yn gallu wneud yn yr ardd nawr? - What can the children do in the garden now?
  • Be mae hi'n medru wneud o bapur? - What can she make out of paper?
  • Be mae Dewi'n medru wneud o'r bren 'na? What can Dewi make from that wood?

Another accent or diacritic - the diaeresis, y didolnod

We have already met some words which use a vowel with a circumflex accent (to bach or acen grom) to show that the vowel is always pronounced as a long vowel: dŵr, tŷ, ffôn, gêm, ...

A less common but important accent is the didolnod (diaeresis or 'double dot'), which looks the same as a printed German umlaut. In Welsh, it signifies that the vowel is to be pronounced as a separate long vowel in the emphasised syllable and not as part of a diphthong. Some examples:

  • sgïo (skiing) - prounounced as sgï-o, with the emphasis on the sgï- and a long vowel.
  • Gwenllïan (a woman's name) - pronounced as Gwen-llï-an, with the emphasis on the -llï- with a long vowel.
  • gwnïo (sewing) - pronounced as gw-nï-o, with the emphasis on the -nï- with a long vowel.
  • gweddïo (praying) - pronounced as gwe-ddï-o, with the emphasis on -ddï- with a long vowel.

It can be quite hard to spot in some fonts, so be careful to look out for it. Because it uses the same symbol as the umlaut, it is usually readily available on most keyboard layouts - just look on the web for how to get that accent on your particular device. On phones and tablets it can usually be found by keeping the character key pressed for a short while until a pop-up menu of accented characters appears. The same trick is usually available on MacOS keyboards, too.

Ever or never - byth, erioed

byth and erioed are used to mean both 'ever' and 'never', depending on the context. In a negative sentence they can be used in place of ddim to mean 'never'. They are used with particular tenses:

  • erioed is used with completed tenses in the past - the present perfect, the simple past and the pluperfect.
  • byth is used with other tenses - the present, future, imperfect past and the conditional.

For example:

  • Dyw hi byth yn mynd yno. Dyw hi ddim yn mynd yno byth. - She never goes there.
  • Doedd hi byth yn mynd yno. Doedd hi ddim yn mynd yno byth. - She never used to go there.
  • Fydd hi byth yn mynd yno. - She will never go there.
  • Dyw hi erioed wedi mynd yno. Dyw hi ddim wedi mynd yno erioed. - She has never been there.
  • Aeth hi yno erioed? - Did she ever go there?
  • Doedd hi erioed wedi bod yno. - She had never been there.

Describe1 updated 2020-12-27

Soft mutation of adjectives following feminine nouns

Remember that feminine nouns trigger soft mutation of following adjectives. Also remember that the order is usually noun, adjective. For example:

  • Y llygoden fawr - The big mouse (not mawr)
  • Y ddafad fach - The small sheep (not bach)
  • Yr arth gyflym - The fast bear => (not cyflym)

Note that the mutation also applies to more than one following adjective:

  • Y llewes fawr gyflym - The big fast lioness

A special case - the verb following Pwy?

In questions stating with Pwy? (Who?) we cannot use mae or ydy in the present tense unless we are talking about something/someone specific - 'the fastest, the slowest', 'the teacher', the electrician', etc.. Instead, a special form is used - sy:

  • Pwy ydy'r athro? Dewi ydy'r athro - Who is the teacher? Dewi is the teacher.
  • Pwy yw'r cogydd heddiw? Hefin yw'r cogydd - Who is the cook today? Hefin is the cook.

But:

  • Pwy sy'n mynd i Aber? Siân sy'n mynd - Who is going to Aber? It's Siân who's going
  • Pwy sy'n ennill? Hefin sy'n ennill ar hyn o bryd - Who is winning? Hefin's winning at the moment.
  • Pwy sy wedi coginio'r brecwast heddiw? Dewi sy wedi coginio'r brecwast. - Who has cooked the breakfast today? It's Dewi who cooked breakfast.
  • Pwy sy gyda char coch? - Who's got a red car?
  • Pwy sy gan gath? - Who has a cat?

Note that gyda is followed by an aspirate mutation, and gan by a soft mutation.

This is also covered later in the course in the topic on 'Emphasis'.


Which ...?

The question word most closely matching the English 'Which?' is 'Pa?. It can also be used for 'What?' in some contexts where there is a choice between one or more. It is followed by a soft mutation. Note that, like Pwy?, it must sometimes be followed by sy in the present tense:

  • Pa grys wyt ti eisiau? - Which shirt do you want?
  • Pa liw oedd llygaid y gath? - What colour were the cat's eyes?
  • Pa lyfr oedd ar y bwrdd?* - Which book was on the table?
  • Pa drên sy'n mynd i Aber? - Which train goes to Aber?

It is also be used in the questions "Which one?' (Pa un, P'un) and 'Which ones? (Pa rai?):

  • Pa un fydd yn ennill? - Which one will win?
  • Pa rai ydy'r gorau? - Which ones are the best?
  • Pa rai wyt ti eisiau? - Which ones do you want?
  • P'un sy'n mynd i Aber? - Which one goes to Aber?

FutureBod updated 2021-09-22

The future tense of bod

This unit introduces the future tense of the verb bod (to be, being).


The future tense of bod is used either on its own, to mean 'I will be', 'You will be', etc, or to help to form the future of other verbs such as 'I will be eating', 'You will be running', etc.

Here are the future forms of bod:

  • Bydda i - I will be
  • Byddi di - You will be (Note that ti changes to di in the future tense)
  • Bydd e/o/hi/y plant - He/She/The children will be
  • Byddwn ni - We will be
  • Byddwch chi - You will be
  • Byddan nhw - They will be (Note that this form is only used with the pronoun nhw)

As with the present tense of bod, the future of bod can be used with 'n/yn and a verb-noun to create a future tense of other verbs:

  • Dw i'n bwyta - I am eating, I eat
  • Bydda i'n bwyta - I will be eating, I will eat.
  • Bydd y plant yn bwyta pysgod heno - The children wil be eating fish this evening.
  • Byddwch chi'n mynd i Fangor yfory - You'll be going to Bangor tomorrow
  • Byddan nhw'n ymweld â Siân ddydd Sul - they will be visiting Siân on Sunday.

Questions and answers

When asking a question, the first letter of a verb takes a soft mutation:

  • Fydda i? - Will I be?
  • Fyddi di? - Will you be?
  • Fydd e'n ymweld â Siân yfory? - Will he be visiting Siân tomorrow?
  • Fyddan nhw'n codi'n gynnar yfory? - Will they get up early tomorrow?

When answering 'Yes' we use the usual form of the positive statement, but without a pronoun.

When answering 'No', we use Na... + (mixed mutation) + the form of the statement:

  • Fydd hi'n mynd? Bydd/Na fydd. - Will she be going? Yes/No.
  • Fyddan nhw'n ymweld â Siân yfory? Byddan/Na fyddan. - Will they be visiting Siân tomorrow? Yes/No (they).
  • Fyddwch chi'n mwynhau'r parti? Bydda/Na fydda; Byddwn/Na fyddwn. - Will you enjoy the party? Yes/No (I); Yes/No (we).
  • Fyddi di'n gwneud swper? Bydda/Na fydda. - Will you be making supper? Yes/No (I).

Negatives

To negate a verb, the first letter takes a mixed mutation and ddim is added after the pronoun.

In the mixed mutation:

  • The letters p-, t-, c- take an aspirate mutation.
  • The letters b-, d-, g-, m-, ll-, rh- take a soft mutation (since they cannot take an aspirate mutation).

In the case of the future of bod this means that the b- takes a soft mutation to f-:

  • Fydda i ddim - I will not be
  • Fyddi di ddim - You will not be
  • Fydd e/o/hi/y plant ddim - He/She/The children will not be
  • Fyddwn ni ddim - We will not be
  • Fyddwch chi ddim - You will not b
  • Fyddan nhw ddim - They will not be

So:

  • Fydda i ddim yn mynd i'r parti heno - I won't be going to the party tonight.
  • Fydd y plant ddim yn mynd i'r ysgol yfory - The children will not be going to school tomorrow.
  • Fyddan nhw ddim yn mynd i'r parc, chwaith. - They won't be going to the park, either.

Os with the future tense

In English it is usual to use the present tense followed by the future tense in an if-statement such as 'If it rains tomorrow I will stay at home. In Welsh, though, use the future tense for both parts of the sentence:

  • Os bydd hi'n bwrw glaw yfory, bydda i'n aros gartre. - If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home.
  • Byddwn ni'n mynd i'r sinema yfory, os bydd digon o arian gyda ni. - We will go to the cinema tomorrow, if we have enough money.

This is another example of where the two languages use different patterns and structures to convey the same meaning.


Britishisms - revising, to revise

In British English, one of the common meanings of 'revising' is to go over previously learned materials in order to strengthen our knowledge of them. For example, we might 'revise' our knowledge of the simple past tense of the main irregular verbs in advance of a Welsh exam. In Welsh we use adolygu for this meaning of 'revising'. It is not the same as 'studying' (astudio).


Places2 updated 2021-02-15


Saying 'there'

Welsh has several words for 'there' as in:

  • I have been there, too.
  • She goes there a lot.
  • We'll meet there tomorrow.

where 'there' is not necessarily specified in the sentence but perhaps has been mentioned earlier in the conversation. Two common words are:

  • yna, 'na - where 'na is just a common contraction of yna.
  • yno

While yna/'na is also used in other situations to mean 'then' or 'that', yno is only ever used to mean 'there'.

  • Es i yno y llynedd. - I went there last year.
  • Mae hi'n mynd yno'n aml. - She often goes there.
  • Byddwn ni'n cwrdd yno yfory. - We'll meet there tomorrow.

What sort of place was it? What is someone like?

We have seen sut? with a verb so far, causing no mutation, and meaning simply 'How...?:

  • Sut mae hi? - How is she?
  • Sut mae? - How are you? How are things? - as a greeting
  • Sut roedd eich gwyliau? - How were your holidays?
  • Sut prynoch chi'ch car newydd? - How did you buy your new car?

We can also use it in front of a noun or a name to ask 'What sort of place/person is xxx?' 'What is xxx like?' In this case, sut causes a soft mutation if it comes directly before a noun:

  • Sut le ydy Aber? - What sort of a place is Aber? What is Aber like? (lle -> le)
  • Sut un ydy Dewi Lingo? - What is Dewi Lingo like?
  • Sut berson ydy Hefin? - What sort of a person is Hefin? (person -> berson)
  • Sut un yw'r tŷ 'na? - What is that house like?
  • Sut roedd y tywydd yn Aber ddoe? - What was the weather like in Aber yesterday?

Revision3 updated 2020-08-12

The aim of this section is to revise patterns already covered, to extend their application, and to introduce additional vocabulary.

Prepositions causing soft mutation

The prepositions that cause soft mutation in the immediately following word are:

  • am, ar, at
  • dros, drwy, dan (+)
  • i, o, wrth
  • heb, hyd, gan

(+) and their variants tros, trwy, tan


Writing to, Going to

When saying to a person (rather than a place) with certain verbs, such as writing to or going to them, we use at instead of i for 'to':

  • mynd i Gaerdydd; mynd at y meddyg - going to Cardiff; going to the doctor
  • ysgrifennu i'r cyngor, ysgrifennu at Mr Williams - wring to the council, writing to Mr Williams
  • Similarly with anfon, gyrru, postio, etc The preposition at conjugates as follows:
Conjugation of at English
ata i to me
atat ti to you (singular familiar)
atoch chi to you (plural, formal)
ati hi to her
ato fe/fo to him
aton ni to us
atyn nhw to them
at rywun to someone
at Rhys to Rhys

Note that at is one of the prepositions that are followed by a soft mutation.

Remember that personal names resist mutation.

Note that the preposition only conjugates when used with a pronoun, not with a noun:

  • Dw i'n ysgrifennu at Sioned. - I am writing to Sioned.
  • Dw i'n ysgrifennu ati hi. - I am writing to her.
  • Mae Dewi'n mynd at y deintydd. - Dewi is going to the dentist.
  • Mae Dewi'n mynd ato fo. - Dewi is going to him.

Opinions2 updated 2021-09-22


I think that...

We look at the construction: I think that... For example:

  • Dw i'n meddwl bod Sioned yn hapus. - I think that Sioned is happy.
  • Mae e'n meddwl bod Owen yn hoffi pannas. - He thinks that Owen likes parsnips.
  • Dyn ni'n meddwl bod y ddrama'n wych. - We think that the play is excellent.

Here, bod is used to introduce our opinion, in the way that 'that' can be used in English, as in those examples.


With a slightly modified pattern we can also use a pronoun at the start of what we think about someone. For example:

  • Dw i'n meddwl ei fod e'n hapus - I think that he is happy.

The variant of bod used in this pattern varies according to the pronoun being used - but only in the examples in bold type in the table below. (The pronouns in brackets may be dropped):

English Welsh
....that I am... ...(fy) mod i'n......
....that you are... ...(dy) fod ti'n......
....that he is... ...(ei) fod e/o'n......
....that she is... ...(ei) bod hi'n......
....that we are... ...(ein) bod ni'n......
....that you are... ...(eich) bod chi'n......
....that they... ...(eu) bod nhw'n......

Some more examples:

  • Mae Siôn yn meddwl bod Sioned yn hapus. - Siôn thinks that Sioned is happy.
  • Dw i'n meddwl bod y pannas yn ddrud. - I think that the parsnips are expensive.
  • Dych chi'n meddwl ei fod e'n olygus? - Do you think that he's handsome?
  • Rwyt ti'n meddwl fy mod i'n gyrru'n gyflym. - You think that I am driving fast.
  • Mae nhw'n dweud dyfod ti'n fedrus. - They say that you are skillful.
  • Dw i'n credu eu bod nhw'n byw ym Mangor erbyn hyn. - I believe that they are living in Bangor now.

More words that use this pattern

So far we have seen this pattern with meddwl, and then with dweud and credu. It is in fact used quite widely, including with the following:

  • gobeithio ... - hopefully ...
  • efallai/falle/ella ... - perhaps ...
  • siŵr/sicr ... - sure ...
  • er ... - although ...
  • wrth gwrs ... - of course ...

  • Gobeithio fy mod i wedi llwyddo. - Hopefully I have succeeded.

  • Mae Siôn yn gobeithio bod Sioned yn gweithio'n galed heddiw. - Siôn is hoping that Sioned works hard today.
  • Maen nhw'n siŵr ei fod e'n onest. - They are sure that he is honest.
  • Efallai ei bod hi'n bwrw glaw yn Llundain ar hyn o bryd. - Perhaps it is raining in London at the moment.
  • Er ei bod hi'n bwrw glaw, dw i'n mynd allan eto. - Although it's raining, I'm going out again.
  • Wrth gwrs fy mod i'n mynd i bysgota eto, pam lai? - Of course I'm going fishing again, why not?

The pattern is the same in the imperfect

Even if the hoping, thinking, saying and so on was happening in the past, the pattern with bod stays the same:

  • Ro'n i'n meddwl ei fod e'n onest. - I thought that he was honest.
  • Roedd e'n gobeithio ei bod hi'n gweithio'n galed. - He used to hope that she was working hard.
  • Ro'n nhw'n sicr ei fod e'n onest - They were sure that he was honest.
  • Roedd Sioned yn gobeithio ei fod e ar ei ffordd. - Sioned was hoping that he was on his way.

Note that we use the imperfect rather than the simple past for past feelings, thoughts, etc, as they are generally continual in nature:

  • Ro'n i'n meddwl ei fod e'n hyfryd. - I thought that he was lovely.
  • Roedd hi'n gobeithio bod y trên ar amser. - She hoped that the train was on time.

The pattern can be used with wedi instead of 'n/yn

By using wedi instead of 'n/yn we can put the second clause into the present perfect or pluperfect tenses:

  • Dw i'n meddwl ei bod hi wedi mynd adre. - I think that she has gone home. (present perfect)
  • Ro'n i'n meddwl ei bod hi wedi mynd adre. - I thought that she had gone home. (pluperfect)
  • Dwedodd Owen fod y dyn wedi prynu gormod o bannas. - Owen said that the man had bought too many parsnips. (pluperfect)

Note that this pattern with bod, etc is not used with the future or conditional tenses.


Imperfect updated 2020-05-10


The imperfect tense

The imperfect is 'I was, You were', etc. It is used to describe things which went on over a period of time in the past, or which were habitual:

  • Ro'n i'n hapus yn yr ysgol - I was happy at school
  • Roedd Dewi yn mynd i'r dre bob nos Gwener - Dewi used to go to town every Friday evening

Here is the full pattern. Note that the spoken form is often shortened for some forms compared to the longer (written) form.

English Welsh Sentence
I was Ro'n (Roeddwn) i Ro'n i'n hapus.
You were Ro't (Roeddet) ti Ro't ti'n hapus.
He was Roedd e/o Roedd o'n hapus.
She was Roedd hi Roedd hi'n hapus.
We were Ro'n (Roedden) ni Ro'n ni'n hapus.
You were Ro'ch (Roeddech) chi Ro'ch chi'n hapus.
They were Ro'n (Roedden) nhw Ro'n nhw'n hapus.

Questions

The question is formed by dropping the initial r:

  • O't ti yno? - Were you there?
  • Oeddech chi yn y neuadd? - Were you in the hall?

Negatives

The negative is formed by replacing the initial r with a d:

  • Do't ti ddim yno. - You were not there.
  • Doedd Siôn ddim yn y siop. - Siôn was not in the shop.

Yes and No

'Yes' and 'No' are formed from the question, dropping the pronoun for the affirmative and adding Nac for the negation:

  • O'ch chi ar y bws ddoe? O'n. - Were you on the bus yesterday? Yes (I was) or Yes (we were).
  • O'ch chi ar y bws ddoe? Nac o'n. - Were you on the bus yesterday? No.
  • Oedd Dewi yn yr ysgol ddoe? Nac oedd. - Was Dewi at school yesterday? No.

Using arfer

The verb-noun arfer (being used to) can be used with the imperfect to mean that somebody used to do something habitually. It is not actually needed in Welsh to convey that meaning, but if it is used in Welsh is should always be translated into English as 'used to':

  • Ro'n i'n nofio bob dydd. => I swam every day; I used to swim every day.
  • Ro'n i'n arfer nofio bob dydd. => I used to swim every day.
  • Roedd hi'n chwarae pêl-droed ar ddydd Sadwrn. - She played football on Saturdays; She used to play football on Saturdays.
  • Roedd hi'n arfer chwarae pêl-droed ar ddydd Sadwrn. - She used to play football on Saturdays.

Emphatic sentences in the imperfect

Earlier in the course, emphatic sentences were introduced for describing someone's name, job, role, and so on, with yw/ydy following after the thing being emphasised. In the unemphatic sentence, the verb starts the sentence (mae here):

  • Mae e'n gweithio fel canwr - He works as a singer. (unemphatic)
  • Canwr ydy e. - He is a singer. (emphasising 'singer')

In the imperfect, there is also a difference in the verb-forms used, but it is less obvious:

  • Roedd e'n gweithio fel canwr - He used to work as a singer. (unemphatic, using r- form)
  • Canwr oedd e. - He used to be a singer. (emphatic, r- has been dropped)

pan - when (conjunction)

The word pan is used for 'when' when it is a conjunction joining two phrases or when introducing a time when something happened::

  • I liked Aber when I lived there.
  • When I was at school I used to enjoy maths.

pan causes a soft mutation of an immediately following word, or the dropping of r- from forms of bod:

  • Pan brynais i'r car, roedd e'n rhad iawn. - When I bought the car, it was very cheap. (prynais => brynais)
  • Ro'n i'n mwynhau darllen nofel pan ganodd y ffôn - I was enjoying reading a novel when the phone rang. (canodd => ganodd)
  • Pan o'n i'n rhedeg, ro'n i'n gyflym iawn. - When I used to run, I was very fast. (ro'n => o'n)

Describe Place updated 2019-10-16

These lessons support Cwrs Sylfaen Uned 5

Using adjectives to describe places and people is reviewed.


Using adjectives

Remember that following mae e, dw i, etc, the pattern is yn/'n + adjective (with weak soft mutation).

Remember that the weak soft mutation following yn/'n means that words beginning ll-, rh- do not mutate.

For example:

  • Mae e'n foel. - He is bald. (moel)
  • Mae'r bryn yn foel. - The hill is bare. (moel - 'bare' when describing a hill)
  • Dyn ni'n bwysig. - We are important. (pwysig)
  • Roedd hi'n rhugl yn Gymraeg. - She was fluent in Welsh.
  • Mae'r bws yn llawn. - The bus is full.

Remember that where the adjective follows a noun directly, it mutates if the noun is feminine and singular:

  • bwrdd coch - a red table (bwrdd - masculine)
  • cadair goch - a red chair (cadair - feminine)
  • cadeiriau coch - red chairs (cadeiriau - plural)

Sometimes an adjective can be a phrase of more than one word:

  • ar wahân - a detached house (ar wahân - detached)
  • wy wedi'i ffrio - a fried egg (wedi'i ffrio - fried)

Using the 'possession' pattern to describe people

Welsh has no straightforward verb for 'having, possessing, owning' and so we use a roundabout pattern:

  • Mae gynni hi gar coch. - She has a red car.
  • Mae tŷ ar wahân mawr gyda nhw. - they have a large detached house.

This can also be used for personal descriptions:

  • Mae gyda fe natur hyfryd. - He has a lovely nature.
  • Mae ganddi hi wallt byr. - She has short hair
  • Mae gwallt tywyll gyda'r teulu 'na. - That family have dark hair.
  • Mae trwyn syth ganddo fe. - He has a straight nose.

It looks good/awful/interesting/..,

To describe the look or appearance of somethingWe can just use edrych (looking):

  • Mae'r tŷ'n edrych yn dywyll. - The house looks dark.

A more idiomatic expression uses golwg (a look, appearance), a feminine noun, with the preposition ar:

  • Mae golwg dywyll ar y tŷ. - The house looks dark.
  • Mae golwg hyfryd ar yr ardd. - The garden looks lovely.

(When used as a noun meaning (the sense of) sight, golwg usually takes masculine gender.)


Problems updated 2020-09-15


What's the matter?

In previous lessons we learned the question:-

  • Beth sy'n bod arnoch chi? - 'What's the matter with you?' or 'What's wrong with you?'

The positive statement follows the same pattern:

  • Mae rhywbeth yn bod arna i. - There is something the matter with me
  • Mae rhywbeth yn bod ar y car - There is something wrong with the car
  • Roedd rhywbeth yn bod ar Siôn ddoe - There was something the matter with Siôn yesterday

This and similar idiomatic patterns do not translate literally into English and keep the same meaning - a common challenge when learning another language.


Some other idiomatic patterns

It is about time that we learned another couple of idiomatic patterns:

  • Mae'n hen bryd i ni ddysgu patrwm newydd - 'It is about time that we learned a new pattern' or 'It is high time that we learned a new pattern'

This is another pattern that uses i in this way, and so the pattern is a familiar one:

  • Rhaid i ni ddysgu... - We must/have to learn...
  • Mae'n hen bryd i ni ddysgu... - It is about/high time that we learned...

There are many of these i-based patterns used in Welsh, and they are sometimes known as i-dot patterns, after a Welsh name of the letter i - i-dot.

  • i + pronoun/noun + verb-noun (with soft mutation)

When we use mae at the front of these patterns it is usually either:

  • Mae'n...., or
  • Mae hi'n... rather than using e/o/fe/fo

Remember that the form of i has to change with some pronouns:

  • Mae'n hen bryd iddi hi fynd adre - It's high time that she went home
  • Rhaid iddo fo brynu tocyn - he must buy a ticket

Fault and blame

Another pattern that does not translate directly to or from English is about fault or blame.

This usually uses an emphatic construction, with the person or thing being blamed coming first in the sentence. The word for 'fault, blame' is bai, and the English can be phrased in several ways:

  • Ar Siôn mae'r bai. - 'Siôn is at fault', or 'It is Siôn's fault' or, 'The blame lies with Siôn', etc

Remember that the preposition ar, like i, changes when used with pronouns:

  • Arna i mae'r bai. - It's my fault.
  • Arnoch chi mae'r bai. - You are to blame.
  • Ar y cwmni bws mae'r bai. - The fault lies with the bus company.
  • Arnon ni i gyd mae'r bai. - We are all to blame.

For questions and negatives:

  • Ar bwy mae'r bai?; Pwy sy ar fai? - Who is to blame?
  • Dim arna i mae'r bai! - It's not my fault!
  • Nage, dim ar Dewi mae'r bai; Nage, dim Dewi sy ar fai. - No, it's not Dewi's fault.

Answering Yes and No to an emphatic question.

Remember that the simplest Yes/No in Welsh - Ie/Nage (or Ia/Naci in northern dialects) - is used in response to an emphatic question - a question that does not start with a verb:

  • Meddyg yw e? Ie. - Is he a doctor? Yes.
  • I Aber dach chi'n mynd? Naci, i'r Bala. - Are you going to Aber? No, to Bala.
  • Siôn ydy hwnna? Nage, Dewi ydy o. - Is that Siôn? No, he's Dewi.
  • Nage, dim ar y cwmni mae'r bai.* - No, it's not the company's fault.

Prefer updated 2021-09-22


How to express a preference

'I prefer...' in Welsh is mae'n well gyda fi... or mae'n well gen i...:

  • Mae'n well gyda fi seidr na chwrw. - I prefer cider to beer.
  • Mae'n well gen i seidr na chwrw. - I prefer cider to beer.
  • Mae'n well gyda fi bysgod na chig. - I prefer fish to meat.
  • Mae'n well gen i bys na chennin. - I prefer peas to leeks.

Note that there is a soft mutation after well gyda fi/gen i, and an aspirate mutation after na.

A summary table of initial mutations in Welsh is here - https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Welsh/Mutations.


There are two ways of talking about things you hate:

  • The simplest way is to use the verb-noun casáu (hating, to hate):

    • Dw i'n casáu nadroedd - I hate snakes.
  • The other way is to the use the same sort of construction as in 'I prefer...':

    • Mae'n gas gyda fi nadroedd, or
    • Mae'n gas gen i nadroedd

How to say 'I had better...'

A very similar construction is used to say that someone had better do something - be careful to note the difference:

  • Mae'n well gyda fi fwydo'r ci na'r gath - I prefer to feed the dog than the cat.
  • Mae'n well i fi fwydo'r ci - I had better feed the dog

Some more examples:

  • Mae'n well iddyn nhw fynd adre erbyn hanner nos. - They had better go by midnight.
  • Mae'n well i Siân fwydo'r cathod cyn mynd allan. - Siân had better feed the cats before going out.
  • Mae'n well gyda Dewi fynd allan, ond mae'n well iddo fe orffen paentio'r lolfa heno. - Dewi prefers going out, but he had better finish painting the lounge this evening.

Favourite things

The word for 'favourite' is hoff and, unusually in Welsh, this adjective comes before the noun (like hen, 'old'). Putting an adjective in front of a noun causes a soft mutation of the noun.

When talking about a favourite thing it is usual to use the emphatic pattern, putting either the 'favourite thing' phrase or the 'thing' that is favourite first in the sentence:

  • Hufen iâ yw fy hoff fwyd. - .Ice-cream is my favourite food. (bwyd - a food)
  • Fy hoff beth yw hufen iâ. - My favourite thing is ice-cream.
  • Cerdded oedd ein hoff weithgaredd. - Walking was our favourite pastime. (gweithgaredd - a pastime)
  • Yr hen felin oedd eu hoff le. - The old mill was their favourite place. (melin - a mill; lle - a place)
  • Eu hoff bwnc yn y brifysgol oedd archeoleg. - Their favourite subject at university was archaeology.

A pet hate

My 'pet hate' is 'the thing that I hate the most'. In Welsh, this is expressed by using the phrase cas beth. cas is an adjective, and when used in front of the noun, as in this particular phrase it causes a soft mutation of the noun that follows it, peth.

When talking about a 'pet hate' it is usual to put that phrase at the start of the sentence:

  • Fy nghas beth ydy llygod mawr. - My pet hate is rats; The thing that I hate the most is rats.
  • Ei chas beth yw codi'n gynnar yn y bore. - Her pet hate is getting up early in the morning; The thing she hates the most is getting up early in the morning.

Asking for 'some'

'Some' in this context may mean 'a small amount of' an uncountable material or 'a small number' of countable things. There are several ways of expressing these, but a couple of common ones are to use peth (for 'amount') and rhai (for countable items). Remember that the object of a short-form verb takes a soft mutation:

  • Mae dy hufen iâ'n edrych yn dda. Ga i beth? - Your ice-cream looks good, may I have some/a little?
  • Mae'r afalau hynny'n edrych yn flasus. Ga i rai? - Those apples look tasty. May I have some/a few?

Extend1 updated 2019-11-14

Years in the date

This is usually expressed simply in Welsh. For example:

  • 1962 in English 'nineteen sixty-two' in Welsh is 'a thousand nine six two' = mil naw chwech dau

  • mil saith pump chwech - 1756

  • mil pump dim saith - 1507

However the pattern for the new milennium has altered:

  • dwy fil - 2000
  • dwy fil ac un - 2001
  • dwy fil a dau - 2002
  • dwy fil a deg - 2010
  • dwy fil un deg un - 2011
  • dwy fil un deg dau - 2012
  • etc...

TheNews updated 2020-07-06

How to construct a passive

This unit looks at the passive voice as often used in news reports, that is, how we describe things that have happened to somebody, as opposed to what they have done themselves.

The good news is that, unlike many other languages, Welsh has no passive voice built in to its verb system, so there is no extra set of verb endings to learn! Instead, in the colloquial register of the language, we use a workaround using cael (getting, to get):

  • Cafodd y car ei ddwyn. (literally, 'The car had its stealing') - The car was stolen.
  • Mi gaeth y dyn ei arestio. ('The man had his arresting') - The man was arrested.
  • Pryd caeth y dyn ei arestio? - When was the man arrested?
  • Bydd y car yn cael ei drwsio. - The car will be repaired. (trwsio - repairing)
  • Mae'r dyn yn cael ei arestio. - The man is being arrested.
  • Cafodd lladron eu harestio. - Some thieves were caught.

Remember that some of the possessive pronouns (ei (her), ein, eu) cause the addition of h- at the front of a word beginning with a vowel. Note that the 'echoing' pronoun sometimes used in the possessive pattern (...ei char hi) is not used in this pattern:

  • Cafodd Siân ei hanafu yn y ddamwain. - Siân was injured in the accident.
  • Mi gaethon ni ein henwebu gan ein rhieni. - we were nominated by our parents.
  • Cân nhw eu hoedi. - they will be delayed.

So, if you know how to use cael, you can use it to create passive sentences.


If we want to say that something was done to someone by someone else, we use the preposition gan, here meaning 'by'. Gan causes soft mutation:

  • Cafodd lladron eu hela gan yr heddwas. - Some thieves were chased by the policeman. (hela - chasing, hunting)
  • Mi gaeth y gemau eu dwyn gan leidr. - The gems were stolen by a burglar. (lleidr - burglar, thief)
  • Ces i fy nharo gan gar. - I was hit by a car. (taro - hitting, to hit)

There is another workaround that you may hear of for making a passive - that uses the 'impersonal' forms of verbs, but that is usually only used in more formal registers of Welsh, and we do not cover it in this course.


Translating standalone verb-nouns - a reminder

Remember that if you are asked to translate a verb-noun such as bwyta, hoffi, yfed on its own, not as part of a longer phrase, back into English on this course you should use the forms 'xxxing' or 'to xxx'. Do not answer with just 'xxx' (eat, like, drink, swim, etc) as those forms can often be mixed up with nouns (a swim, a drink, ...) or commands (eat!, drink!). When you look them up in a dictionary the distinction is made clear, but we cannot do that on this course.)


BroughtUp updated 2021-02-06

This unit shows how to use the passive in the past.


A passive in the simple past tense

To say I was born in Welsh, we use a roundabout construction - I had my birthing:

  • Ces i... - I had...
  • ...fy ngeni - ...my birthing

So:

  • Ces i fy ngeni - I was born

We use the same construction for being brought up (magu):

  • Ces i fy magu - I was brought up
  • Mi ges i fy magu - I was brought up

For all other persons the construction is the same:

  • Mi gest/Cest ti dy eni a dy fagu yng Nghymru. - you were born and brought up in Wales.
  • Mi gaeth/Cafodd Dewi ei eni yn Abertawe. - Dewi was born in Swansea.
  • Mi gaethon/Cawson ni ein magu yn Aber. - We were brought up in Aber.
  • Mi gaethoch/Cawsoch chi eich geni yn Abertawe. - You were born in Swansea.

This construction is also useful for events such as being paid, being seen, getting arrested, and so on....:

  • Mi ges/Ces i fy nhalu ddoe - I was paid yesterday (talu)
  • Mi gaeth/Cafodd Siân ei gweld gyda Dewi yn Aber ddydd Llun. - Siân was seen with Dewi in Aber on Monday.
  • Mi gaeth/Cafodd y lladron eu harestio yn y Rhyl wythnos diwethaf - The thieves were arrested in Rhyl last week.

Remember the different mutations after the various possessive pronouns:

  • fy + nasal
  • dy + soft
  • ei (his) + soft
  • ei (her) + aspirate/h-vowel
  • ein + h-vowel
  • eich + no mutation
  • eu = + h-vowel

The h-vowel occurs when an h- is added in front of a vowel:

  • Mi gaeth hi ei hachub - She was rescued (achub)
  • Cawson ni ein henwi - We were named (enwi)
  • Mi gaethon nhw eu hufuddhau - They were obeyed (ufuddhau)

Some examples:

  • Mi ges i fy ngeni ym Mhorthmadog- - I was born in Porthmadog-
  • Mi gest ti dy dalu ddoe. - You got paid yesterday.
  • Cafodd Siân ei phenodi i swydd dda iawn. - Siân got appointed to a very good job.
  • Mi gaeth Ffred ei alw gan ei fòs. - Ffred was called by his boss.
  • Cafodd y plant eu haddysgu ym Mangor. - The children were educated in Bangor.
  • Cawson ni ein gwahodd i'r parti. - We were invited to the party.

If we want to say that we were seen/paid/brought up/ arrested, etc by someone, we use the word gan (+ soft mutation):

  • Cafodd y lladron eu harestio gan yr heddlu. - The thieves were arrested by the police.
  • Mi gaeth Siân ei magu gan fam ei thad. - Sîân was brought up by her father's mother.
  • Mi gaeth ein bil ei dalu gan Gwmni Mawr ddoe. - Our bill was paid by Cwmni Mawr yesterday.

Favours updated 2019-08-25


This unit teaches the conjugated forms in the future tense of the verb gwneud ('doing, to do, making, to make'), which can be used to say, for example:

  • Gwna i gacen. - I will make a cake.
  • Gwnewch chi'r cinio heno. - You will make the dinner this evening.

Future of gwneud (doing, making)

English Statement Question Negative
I will do Gwna i Wna i? Wna i ddim
You will do (informal singular) Gwnei di Wnei di? Wnei di ddim
He will do Gwnaiff e (SW) / Gwneith o (NW) Wnaiff e? (SW) / Wneith o? (NW) Wnaiff e ddim (SW) / Wneith o ddim (NW)
She will do Gwnaiff hi (SW) / Gwneith hi (NW) Wnaiff hi? (SW) / Wneith hi? (NW) Wnaiff hi ddim (SW) / Wneith hi ddim (NW)
We will do Gwnawn ni Wnawn ni? Wnawn ni ddim
You will do (formal, plural) Gwnewch chi Wnewch chi? Wnewch chi ddim
They will do Gwnân nhw Wnân nhw? Wnân nhw ddim

Yes and No

Forms of the verb to do/make are used for 'Yes' and 'No' in the short future forms for most verbs.

English Yes Welsh English No Welsh
Yes (I will) Gwna(f) No (I will not) Na wna(f)
Yes (you will) Gwnei No (you will not) Na wnei
Yes (he will) Gwnaiff# No (he will not) Na wnaiff#
Yes (she will) Gwnaiff# No (she will not) Na wnaiff#
Yes (we will) Gwnawn No (we will not) Na wnawn
Yes (you (pl) will) Gwnewch No (you (pl) will not) Na wnewch
Yes (they will) Gwnân No (they will no)t Na wnân

'#' Northern dialects tend to use Gwneith/Na wneith

For example:

  • Wnei di frecwast? Gwna/Na wna. - Will you make breakfast? Yes/No.
  • Ei di adre nes ymlaen? Gwna/Na wna. - Will you go home later? Yes/No.
  • Fwytwch chi'r pannas? Gwnawn/Na wnawn. - WIl you eat the parsnips? Yes/No.

Future of cael (getting, being allowed to)

English Statement Question Negative
I will get Ca i Ga i? Cha i ddim
You will get (informal singular) Cei di Gei di? Chei di ddim
He will get Caiff e (SW) / Ceith o (NW) Gaiff e? (SW) / Geith o? (NW) Chaiff e ddim (SW) / Cheith o ddim (NW)
She will get Caiff hi (SW) / Ceith hi (NW) Gaiff hi? (SW) / Geith hi? (NW) Chaiff hi ddim (SW) / Cheith hi (NW) ddim
We will get Cawn ni Gawn ni? Chawn ni ddim
You will (formal, plural) Cewch chi Gewch chi? Chewch chi ddim
They will get Cân nhw Gân nhw? Chân nhw ddim

When answering Yes/No to questions using cael we use suitable forms of cael rather than of gwneud:

  • Ga i fynd? Cei/Cewch. - May I go? Yes.
  • Gaiff hi fynd? Caiff. - May she go? Yes.
  • Cawn, cawn ni fynd. - Yes, we may go.
  • Gawn ni fynd? Na chewch. - May we go? No.

Emphasise1 updated 2020-11-04


Emphatic sentences

In an emphatic sentence the word order changes so that the subject comes first. For example, early in the course we met:

  • Megan ydw i - I am Megan
  • Athrawes yw Megan - Megan is a teacher

Now, instead of emphasising Megan's name or occupation we can emphasise that, for example, Megan who is in a particular place:

  • Megan sy yma - 'It is Megan who is here', or 'Megan is here'
  • Dewi sy yma, hefyd - Dewi is here, too.
  • Fi sy'n prynu'r car 'na heddiw - It's me who's buying that car today

Note that this requires a different form of the verb - instead of mae or ydy/yw - sy (you may also see the full form of sy - sydd).

Note that sy is only used for this purpose in the present tense. In the future tense we use fydd, and in the imperfect we use oedd.

Note that nowadays the English pattern 'It is I who is...', It is she who is...' is rarely used in English except in very formal situations, so despite it's being grammatically correct, it is not used on this course. We use the less formal 'It is me/us/her who...', which is a better match for the informal register of Welsh taught on this course.


Emphasising who it is who owns something

So far we have met:

  • Mae pensil gyda fi. - I have a pencil.
  • Oes pensil gyda ti? - Do you have a pencil?

Now I pick up a pencil that I think is yours, not mine, not Dewi's. I want to ask 'Is this your pencil? There is a very irregular verb that we use for this: - biau (sometimes seen as piau). biau is only used with an emphatic pattern.

In the colloquial language this pattern is:

  • Chi sy biau hwn? - Is this yours?
  • Dewi sy biau'r pensil 'ma? - Is this pencil Dewi's?

To state who owns it, we just drop the question mark and we do not lift our voice towards the end of the question:

  • Dewi sy biau'r pensil 'na. - Dewi owns that pencil.

Note that you will also come across the pattern without sy being used - that is perfectly valid, too, and it is in fact the normal pattern in more formal Welsh, as the sy is not strictly necessary. Where sy is used, there is no 'n/yn following sy - biau is a verb, not a verb-noun.


Extend2 updated 2019-05-18


Is it a verb or is it a noun?

When we mention verbs-nouns such as bwyta, cerdded, mynd and so on it is normal to think of them as meaning 'to eat, 'to walk', to go' - this is what we are used to in English.

In Welsh, things are a little different. The 'verbs' in this basic form are actually closer in meaning to teh English forms 'eating, 'walking', 'singing', and they can also be used as nouns:

  • Dw i'n mynd i wrando ar y canu - I am going to listen to the singing/playing

These verb-nouns are very flexible:

  • Dw i'n hoffi gwylio'r rasio ar y teledu - I like watching the racing on the TV
  • Dyn ni'n hoffi bwyta allan - We like eating out
  • Roedd y canu yn y cyngerdd neithiwr yn wych - the singing at the concert last night was excellent

'He had done something' - the pluperfect tense

Earlier in the course we covered how to use wedi to say that someone has done something:

  • Mae e wedi darllen y llyfr. - He has read the book.

We also covered the imperfect tense:

  • Roedd e'n darllen bob dydd. - He used to read every day.
  • Roedd hi'n bwrw glaw. - It was raining.

These can be combined to make the pluperfect tense - 'had done' something. We use wedi with roedd, etc:

  • Roedd e wedi darllen y llyfr yn barod. - He had read the book already.
  • Roedd hi wedi mynd i'r sinema cyn mynd i'r bwyty. - She had gone to the cinema before going to the restaurant.
  • Roedd hi wedi bwrw glaw yn y nos. - It had rained in the night.
  • Ro'n i wedi gwneud y golchi'n barod. - I had done the washing already.

Aspirate mutation

The aspirate mutation affects only the initial letters p-, t-, c-:

  • p- -> ph-
  • t- -> th-
  • c- -> ch-

There are several causes of the aspirate mutation of p, t, c in modern Welsh. Here is a summary of the causes covered in this course:

  • Negative short-form verbs (although this is not always observed, especially among younger people)
  • After ei... when it means 'her...'
  • After â, gyda, tua
  • After a when it means 'and'
  • After na when it means 'than'
  • After the numbers tri, chwe (remember that chwech drops the final -ch)

Future Gwneud 1 updated 2018-10-25

Future with Gwneud

This unit supports Cwrs Sylfaen 18


The short-form future tense of gwneud

We have already met the future using forms of the verb 'bod':

  • Bydda i'n gwneud bwrdd yfory. - I will be making a table tomorrow.
  • Byddi di'n gwneud y swper heno - You will be making supper this evening.

Instead of using the future of bod to make the future tense, we can also use a 'short-form' future of gwneud and other verbs without using bod. This is especially common with gwneud, mynd, dod and cael.

The 'short-form' future implying a single future action is formed using the stem of the verb, in the same way as the past tense, and adding the appropriate future tense endings.

The future tenses of gwneud, mynd, dod and gwneud all look quite similar. but with a few differences. Here they are in a summary table:

Mynd Dod Cael Gwneud
A(f) i Do(f) i Ca i Gwna i
Ei di Doi di Cei di Gwnei di
Aiff/Eith e/o/hi Daw e/o/hi Caiff/Ceith e/o/hi Gwnaiff/Gwneith e/o/hi
Awn ni Down ni Cawn ni Gwnawn ni
Ewch chi Dewch chi Cewch chi Gwnewch chi
Ân nhw Dôn nhw Cân nhw Gwnân nhw

Note:

  • In the i forms the final -f is optional.
  • In e/o/hi forms there are two versions shown. The second is common in parts of mid- and north Wales.
  • Remember that, as with Ga i...? and the short-form past tense, the object of short-form verb takes a soft mutation.
  • The positive short-forms of cael and gwneud often take a soft mutation in the colloquial language.

Examples:

  • Gwna i ginio i ni heno. - I will make dinner for us this evening. (cinio)
  • Gwnei di degan yfory - You will make a toy tomorrow. (tegan)
  • Gwnaiff hi lanast yn y lolfa - SHe wil make a mess in the lounge.
  • Gwnewch chi fwrdd wythnos nesa. - You will make a table next week. (bwrdd)

The positive statement marker mi/fe is sometimes added at the start of the sentence in some dialects. Whn they are used, mi/fe causes a soft mutation of the verb:

  • Mi wna i ginio. - I will make lunch/dinner.
  • Fe wnân nhw degan. - They will make a toy.

Questions and answers

As with the future of bod, to ask a question we use a soft-mutated form of the verb:

  • Wna i? - Will I do/make?
  • Wnei di? - Will you do/make?
  • Wnaeth/Wneith e/o/hi? - Will he/she do/make?
  • Wnawn ni? - Will we do/make?

In the short future tenses, the 'yes' answer is the positive of the future of gwneud and the 'no' answer is the negative.

  • Wnei di ginio? Gwna/Na wna. - Will you make dinner? Yes/No. (I will/won't)
  • Wna i degan i ti? Gwna, wrth gwrs!/Na wna. - Will I make a toy for you? Yes, of course!/No.
  • Wnewch chi gadair? Gwna/Na wna. (I) Gwnawn/Na wnawn. (we) - Will you make a chair? Yes/No.
  • Wnân nhw elw eleni? Gwnân/Na wnân - Will they make a profit this year? Yes/No.

Negatives

Negative statements start with a mixed mutation, as usual. (aspirate of p-, t-, c-, soft of the rest - with gwneud, then, it is a soft mutation) Note that the soft mutation of the object here is taken by dim => ddim:

  • Wna i ddim cinio. - I will not make lunch/dinner.
  • Wnei di ddim tegan. - You will not make a toy.
  • Wnewch chi ddim cadair - You will not make a chair.
  • Wnân nhw mo'r bwrdd mewn pryd. - They won't make the table in time.

Remember that we must use mo (not ddim) with definite objects of a negative verb.


Future Mynd 1 updated 2018-10-25

The short-form future tense of mynd

The 'short-form' future implying a single future action is formed using the stem of the verb, in the same way as the past tense, and adding the appropriate future tense endings.

The future tenses of mynd, dod, cael and gwneud are irregular and all look quite similar, but with a few differences. Here they are in a summary table:

Mynd Dod Cael Gwneud
A(f) i Do(f) i Ca i Gwna i
Ei di Doi di Cei di Gwnei di
Aiff/Eith e/o/hi Daw e/o/hi Caiff/Ceith e/o/hi Gwnaiff/Gwneith e/o/hi
Awn ni Down ni Cawn ni Gwnawn ni
Ewch chi Dewch chi Cewch chi Gwnewch chi
Ân nhw Dôn nhw Cân nhw Gwnân nhw

Note:

  • In the i forms the final -f is optional.
  • In e/o/hi forms there may be two versions shown. The second is common in parts of mid- and north Wales.
  • You may come across some local variations of these in different parts of Wales.
  • The positive short-forms of cael and gwneud often take a soft mutation in the colloquial language.

Examples:

  • A i i Gaerdydd heno. - I will go to Cardiff this evening
  • Ei di i Gaerdydd yfory. - You will go to Cardiff tomorrow.
  • Ewch chi i Aber wythnos nesa. - You will go to Aber next week.

Note that with 'I-forms' there is a second, different i meaning 'to':

  • A i i Lundain - I will go to London.

The positive statement marker mi/fe is sometimes added at the start of the sentence in some dialects.

  • Mi a i i Gaerdydd. - I will go to Cardiff.
  • Fe ei di i'r Fenni heno. - You will go to Abergavenny this evening.

Questions and answers

As with the future of bod, to ask a question we use a soft-mutated form of the verb, but thsi does not apply with these forms of mynd. so we must rely on the quesiton mark and intonation to identify a question

  • A i? - Will I go?
  • Ei di? - Will you go?
  • Ewch chi? - Will you go?

In the short future tenses, the 'yes' answer is the positive of the future of gwneud and the 'no' answer is the negative.

  • A i i Gaerdydd? Gwna/Na wna. - Will I go to Cardiff? Yes/No. (I will/won't)
  • Ei di i Aber? Gwna, wrth gwrs!/Na wna. - Will you go to Aber? Yes, of course!/No. (I)
  • Ewch chi â nhw i'r Fenni? Gwna/Na wna. (I) Gwnawn/Na wnawn. (we) - Will you take them to Abergavenny? Yes/No.

Negatives

Negative verbs start with a mixed mutation, as usual. (aspirate of p-, t-, c-, soft of the rest).

Note that the soft mutation of the object here is taken by dim => ddim:

  • A i ddim i Aber heno. - I will not go to Aber this evening.
  • Ei di ddim i Aber yfory. - You will not go to Aber tomorrow.
  • Ewch chi ddim â nhw - You will not take them.

Future Dod 1 updated 2020-12-13

The short-form future tense of dod

The 'short-form' future implying a single future action is formed using the stem of the verb, in the same way as the past tense, and adding the appropriate future tense endings.

The future tenses of gwneud, mynd, dod and gwneud all look quite similar, but with a few differences. Here they are in a summary table:

Mynd Dod Cael Gwneud
A(f) i Do(f) i Ca i Gwna i
Ei di Doi di Cei di Gwnei di
Aiff/Eith e/o/hi Daw e/o/hi Caiff/Ceith e/o/hi Gwnaiff/Gwneith e/o/hi
Awn ni Down ni Cawn ni Gwnawn ni
Ewch chi Dewch chi Cewch chi Gwnewch chi
Ân nhw Dôn nhw Cân nhw Gwnân nhw

Note:

  • In the i forms the final -f is optional.
  • In e/o/hi forms there are two versions shown. The second is common in parts of mid- and north Wales.
  • You may come across some other local variations of these in different parts of Wales.

Examples:

  • Do i i Gaerdydd heno. - I will come to Cardiff this evening
  • Doi di i Gaerdydd yfory. - You will come to Cardiff tomorrow.
  • Dewch chi i Aber wythnos nesa. - You will come to Aber next week.

The positive statement marker mi/fe is sometimes added at the start of the sentence in some dialects.

  • Mi ddo i i Gaerdydd. - I will come to Cardiff.
  • Fe ddoi di i'r Fenni heno. - You will come to Abergavenny this evening.

Questions and answers

As with the future of bod, to ask a question we use a soft-mutated form of the verb:

  • Ddo i? - Will I come?
  • Ddoi di? - Will you come?
  • Ddewch chi? - Will you come?

In the short future tenses, the 'yes' answer is the positive of the future of gwneud and the 'no' answer is the negative.

  • Ddo i i Gaerdydd? Gwna/Na wna. - Will I come to Cardiff? Yes/No. (I will/won't)
  • Ddoi di i Aber? Gwna, wrth gwrs!/Na wna. - Will you come to Aber? Yes, of course!/No. (I)
  • Ddewch chi â nhw i'r Fenni? Gwna/Na wna. (I) Gwnawn/Na wnawn. (we) - Will you bring them to Abergavenny? Yes/No.

Negatives

Negative verbs start with a mixed mutation, as usual. (aspirate of p-, t-, c-, soft of the rest).

Note that the soft mutation of the object here is taken by dim => ddim:

  • Ddo i ddim i Aber heno. - I will not come to Aber this evening.
  • Ddoi di ddim i Aber yfory. - You will not come to Aber tomorrow.
  • Ddewch chi ddim â nhw. - You will not bring them.

Future Cael 1 updated 2018-10-25

The short-form future tense of cael

The 'short-form' future implying a single future action is formed using the stem of the verb, in the same way as the past tense, and adding the appropriate future tense endings.

The future tenses of mynd, dod, cael and gwneud are all irregular but look quite similar, although with a few differences. Here they are in a summary table:

Mynd Dod Cael Gwneud
A(f) i Do(f) i Ca i Gwna i
Ei di Doi di Cei di Gwnei di
Aiff/Eith e/o/hi Daw e/o/hi Caiff/Ceith e/o/hi Gwnaiff/Gwneith e/o/hi
Awn ni Down ni Cawn ni Gwnawn ni
Ewch chi Dewch chi Cewch chi Gwnewch chi
Ân nhw Dôn nhw Cân nhw Gwnân nhw

Note:

  • In the i forms the final -f is optional.
  • In e/o/hi forms there are two versions shown. The second is common in parts of mid- and north Wales.
  • You may come across some local variations of these in different parts of Wales.
  • The positive forms of cael and gwneud often have a soft mutation in the colloquial language.

Examples:

  • Ca/Ga i bryd o fwyd heno. - I will have a meal this evening.
  • Cei/Gei di ffôn newydd yfory. - You will get a new phone tomorrow.
  • Cewch/Gewch chi gadeiriau newydd wythnos nesa. - You will get new chairs next week.

The positive statement marker mi/fe is sometimes added at the start of the sentence in some dialects. They casue a soft mutaion of the verb

  • Mi ga i bryd o fwyd heno. - I will have a meal this evening.
  • Fe gei di ffôn newydd yfory. - You will get a new phone tomorrow.

Questions and answers

As with the future of bod, to ask a question we use a soft-mutated form of the verb:

  • Ga i? - Will I get?
  • Gei di? - Will you get?
  • Gewch chi? - Will you get?

The 'yes' and 'no' answers are taken from the positive and negative statement forms:

  • Ga i bryd o fwyd heno? Ca/Na cha. - Will I have a meal this evening? Yes/No. (=I will/won't)
  • Gei di fynd yfory? Ca, wrth gwrs!/Na cha.* - Will you be allowed to go tomorrow? Yes, of course!/No.
  • Gewch chi'r cadeiriau newydd wythnos nesa. - Will you get new chairs next week. Ca/Na cha. (I) Cawn/Na chawn.* (we)
  • Gaiff e swydd newydd? Caiff/Na chaiff. - Will he get a new job? Yes/No. (he)
  • Ga i frechdan? Cewch/Cei/Na chewch/Na chei. - May I have a sandwich? Yes/No. (you)

Negatives

Negative verbs start with a mixed mutation, as usual. (aspirate of p-, t-, c-, soft of the rest).

Note that the soft mutation of the object here is taken by dim => ddim:

  • Cha i ddim cinio heno. - I will not have dinner this evening.
  • Chei di ddim brecwast yfory. - You will not have breakfast.
  • Chewch chi ddim gwaith wythnos nesa. - You will not get any work next week.

FutShort updated 2020-06-19


Shall and will

Remember that although 'shall' and 'will' are nowadays considered more or less equivalent in the future tense in English, this course generally only uses 'will' in translations of the future tenses - this is purely for the sake of simplicity.


The Simple future tense

There are two common ways of forming the simple future:

  • By adding the appropriate ending to the stem of a verb, making a 'short-form' verb.
  • By using the simple future of gwneud (doing, making) as an auxiliary verb to make a 'long-form' verb.

This section of the course shows how to use the first method, adding a future ending to the stem of a verb.


The 'short form' future tense

As well as using the future of bod or gwneud to form a future tense, we can use a short-form future for nearly all verbs if we wish. All we need to do is to remember what the stem is, and then we add the verb-ending for the future tense. You have met the idea of verb stems earlier in the course in the section on the short-form past tense.

Here is the full pattern using canu ('singing') as the example:

  • Cana i - I will sing
  • Cani di - you will sing
  • Caniff/Canith e/hi/y plant - he/she/the children will sing
  • Canwn ni - we will sing
  • Canwch chi - you will sing
  • Canan nhw - they will sing

Note that the -ith ending in the third person future is more often used in some of the north and mid-Wales dialects, but you will come across both in the media.

Remember that short-form verbs cause a soft mutation of their object:

  • Canwch chi gân. - You will sing a song (cân)

Here are some more examples:

  • Cyrhaedda i Aber erbyn hanner nos. - I will reach Aber by midnight.
  • Taliff e'r bil. - He will pay the bill.
  • Prynwn ni gar newydd fis nesaf. - We'll buy a new car next month.
  • Coginian nhw swper nes ymlaen. - They'll cook supper later.
  • Gorffennwch chi lanhau'ch cegin yfory. - You will finish cleaning your kitchen tomorrow.

Remember that if you use the particle mi in front of a positive verb, it causes a soft mutation:

  • Mi gyrhaedda i Aber erbyn hanner nos.
  • Mi dalith o'r bil.
  • Mi brynwn ni gar newydd.

Questions and answers

Questions take a soft mutation as usual:

  • Gyrhaedda i Aber erbyn hanner nos? - Will I reach Aber by midnight?
  • Daliff e'r bil ar amser? - Will he pay the bill on time?
  • Brynwn ni gar newydd wythnos nesa? - Will we buy a new car next week?
  • Orffennwch chi lanhau'r garej yfory? - Will you finish cleaning the garage tomorrow?

For yes/no answers we use the yes/no forms from the future of gwneud:

  • Daliff hi'r bil ar amser? Gwnaiff/Na wnaiff. - Will she pay the bill on time? Yes/No.
  • Gyrhaeddwch chi yfory? Gwna/Na wna (I) Gwnawn/Na wnawn. (we)

Negatives

Negatives take a mixed mutation as usual (p t c - aspirate; b d g m ll rh - soft):

  • Chyrhaedda i mo Aber erbyn hanner nos. - I will not get to Aber by midnight.
  • Thaliff e mo'r bil. - He will not pay the bill.
  • Phrynwn ni ddim car newydd wythnos nesa. - We won't buy a new car next week.
  • Orffennwch chi ddim glanhau'r garej yfory. - You won't finish cleaning the garage tomorrow.

Remember that we use mo in front of a definite object of negative short-form verbs, not ddim:

  • Phryna i mo'r car yfory. - I will not buy the car tomorrow.
  • Ysgrifenna i mo'r llythr tan y penwythnos. - I will not write the letter until the weekend.

Aux Future Gwneud updated 2020-02-22

Using gwneud to form a simple future


The Simple future tense

There are two common ways of forming the simple future:

  • By adding the appropriate ending to the stem of a verb, making a 'short-form' verb.
  • By using the simple future of gwneud (doing, making) as an auxiliary verb to make a 'long-form' verb.

This section of the course shows how to use the second method, using gwneud.


Using the simple future of gwneud to create a simple future of other verbs

This simple future of gwneud, which was covered a little earlier in the course, can be used to form a simple future tense of other verbs. This method is widely used all over Wales, especially in conversation.

Remember that the object of a short-form verb takes a soft mutation. In this case, the object of gwneud is the verb-noun for which we are creating the simple future tense. Using the example of canu:

  • Gwna i ganu. - I will sing.
  • Gwnei di ganu. - You will sing.
  • Gwnaiff/Gwneith e/hi/Siân/y plant ganu. - He/she/Siân/the children will sing.
  • Gwnawn ni ganu. - We will sing.
  • Gwnewch chi ganu. - You will sing.
  • Gwnân nhw ganu. - They will sing.

The initial g- is often dropped in speech and the remaining w- may only be lightly pronounced, if at all.

In parts of north and mid-Wales, the particle mi is often added at the start of the phrase. In some parts of Wales you may also hear fe being used in the same way. Mi/Fe causes a soft mutation:

  • Mi wna i ganu. - I will sing.
  • Mi wnaiff/wneith o ganu. - He will sing.
  • Mi wnaiff/wneith Siân ganu. - Siân will sing.
  • Fe wnân nhw ganu. - They will sing.

Some examples:

  • Gwna i siarad â Sian. - I will speak to Siân.
  • Mi wna i gerdded efo Siôn. - I will walk with Siôn.
  • Gwnewch chi ddarllen llyfrau yfory. - You will read some books tomorrow.
  • Gwnei di ddarllen y llyfrau yfory. - You will read the books tomorrow.

Questions and answers

As with the future of gwneud earlier in the course, just use the soft mutated form of gwna i, etc and raise the tone at the end of the question:

  • Wna i siarad â Sian? - Will I speak to Siân?
  • Wna i gerdded gyda/efo Siôn? - Will I walk with Siôn?
  • Wnaiff o weld cathod yno? - Will he see any cats there?
  • Wnewch chi ddarllen llyfrau yfory - Will you read any books tomorrow?

Remember that Fe/Mi is never used with a question.


The answers to any question in the simple future are the use that person's form of the future of gwneud

  • Wnewch chi ddarllen y nofel 'na? Gwna/Gwnawn. - Will you read that novel? Yes. (I/we).
  • *Wnân nhw nofio yn y môr yfory? Na wnân, bydd y dŵr yn rhy oer. - WIll they swim in the sea tomorrow? No, the water will be too cold.

Negatives

As with other negatives, the verb takes a mixed mutation (soft mutation in the case of gwneud) and add ddim. The ddim has a soft mutation as the start of the object of the gwneud verb, so we do not mutate the verb-noun which follows it:

  • Wna i ddim siarad â Sian - I won't speak to Siân
  • Wna i ddim cerdded gyda/efo Siôn - I will not walk with Siôn. (no mutation of cerdded)
  • Wnewch chi ddim darllen llyfrau ddoe - You will not read any books tomorrow. (no mutation of darllen)
  • Wnân nhw ddim cyrraedd y neuadd mewn pryd - They will not arrive at the hall in time.

Revision4 updated 2020-08-04


British English expressions

In British English, we 'take' or 'sit' an academic, etc, examination. The Welsh equivalent is sefyll arholiad.


Cariad

Cariad has several meanings: love (the emotion), girlfriend, boyfriend.

When it is used for 'love', it is a masculine noun.

When it is used for boyfriend or girlfriend, its grammatical gender changes to match their actual gender:

  • y cariad - the boyfriend
  • y gariad - the girlfriend (weak soft mutation of a feminine noun following the definite article)

Conditional updated 2021-04-09


The Conditional tense of bod

So far we have covered 'I am', 'I will be', 'I was', 'I have been' and so on. Another important form of the verb to cover is the 'conditional' - 'I would be'. For example:

  • Baswn i'n mynd - I would go
  • Faswn i'n mynd? - Would I go?
  • Faswn i ddim yn mynd - I would not go.

This is how the conditional tense of bod runs:

Positive Question Negative Translation
baswn i faswn i? faswn i ddim I would be..etc
baset ti faset ti? faset ti ddim You would be..etc
basai fe/fo fasai fe/fo? fasai fe/fo ddim He would be..etc
basai hi fasai hi? fasai hi ddim She would be..etc
basen ni fasen ni? fasen ni ddim We would be..etc
basech chi fasech chi? fasech chi ddim You would be..etc
basen nhw fasen nhw? fasen nhw ddim They would be..etc

Note that fe/fo is usually used rather than e/o with verbs ending with -ai

To form a 'Yes' response to a question, take the statement form and remove the pronoun.

Baswn i = I would (be) -> Baswn = Yes (I would (be))

To form a 'No', add Na to the question form and remove the pronoun.

Faswn i? = Would I (be) -> Na faswn = No (I would not (be))

Some examples:

  • Baswn i'n mynd i America, ond dw i'n casáu hedfan. - I would go to America, but I hate flying.
  • Faset ti'n mwynhau mynd i'r opera? - Would you enjoy going to the opera?
  • Na faswn, dw i ddim yn hoffi opera. - No, I don't like opera.
  • Basai Dewi'n symud i fyw yng Nghaerdydd, ond mae ei waith ym Mhorthmadog eto - Dewi would move to live in Cardiff, but his work is still in Porthmadog.
  • Fasai Eleri'n hapus yn byw yn y brifddinas? Basai, yn bendant - Would Eleri be happy living in the capital city? Yes, definitely.

I would prefer...

We can use the conditional to express a preference, too. Rather like possession, the pattern uses gyda or gan:

  • basai hi - it would be
  • basai hi'n well - it would be better
  • basai hi'n well gyda fi... - I would prefer... or I would rather...

Remember that in this sort of pattern we often drop the hi in positive statements and questions. Remember, too, that after gan/gyda xxx... there is a soft mutation. Some examples:

  • Basai hi'n well gyda Dewi fynd adre nawr - Dewi would rather go home now.
  • Basai'n well gan Eleri aros yn y parti - Eleri would prefer to stay at the party.
  • Basai'n well gynnon ni _alw Mam heno - We would prefer to call Mum this evening.
  • Fasai'n well gen ti fynd i nofio yfory neu heno? Would you rather go swimming tomorrow or this evening?
  • Basai'n well gen i beidio â nofio o gwbl! - I would rather not swim at all!
  • Fasai hi ddim yn well gyda Siân fynd i nofio. - Siân would not prefer to go swimming.

WouldDo updated 2020-11-24

Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.


Reminder - 'any', 'a', 'some'

Remember that these often have no specific equivalents in Welsh:

  • Dw i eisiau sudd - I want juice/a juice/some juice
  • Dw i ddim eisiau sudd - I do not want juice/a juice/any juice

Baswn forms - an equivalent

Another form of Bas- forms is Bydd-:

  • Baswn/Byddwn i'n ffonio - I would phone
  • Basai/Byddai hi'n ateb - She would answer, She would be answering

Shoulds and coulds

Here are the conditional verb endings with examples:

  • -wn i - I would be - Baswn i
  • -et ti - You should - Dylet ti
  • -ai e/o/hi - He/She could - Gallai e/o/hi
  • -en ni - We would be - Basen ni
  • -ech chi - You should - Dylech chi
  • -en nhw - They could - Gallen nhw

(Questions and negatives work just as they do with other tenses - there are examples below.)


Dylwn is the word used for 'I should'. It only exists in a conditional form:

  • Dylwn i - I should
  • Dylet ti - you should
  • Dylai fe/fo/hi/'r plant - he/she/the children should
  • Dylen ni - we should
  • Dylech chi - you should
  • Dylen nhw - they should

Some examples:

  • Dylen ni weithio'n galed. - We should work hard.
  • Ddylai'r plant ddim chwarae yno - The children shouldn't play there.
  • Ddylen nhw dalu'r bil 'na? - Should they pay that bill?

Gallu (being able to) (or Medru) can also be used with a conditional form, meaning 'could (be able to)' using the same endings:

  • Gallwn/Medrwn i ddarllen y nofel 'na heddiw - I could read that novel today
  • Gallet ti beintio'r gegin yfory - you could paint the kitchen tomorrow
  • Allai'r mecanic edrych ar fy nghar? - could the mechanic look at my car?
  • Allen ni ddim dod i'r cyfarfod cyn wyth o'r gloch - We couldn't come to the meeting before eight o'clock
  • Allech chi alw nes ymlaen? - could you call later?
  • Gallen/Medren nhw helpu symud y cwpwrdd trwm 'na - they could help to move that heavy cupboard

Unlikely if

If something unlikely were to happen - in English we often combine two conditionals to say what we would do if something unlikely were to happen:

  • If I were to win the lottery, I would buy a lovely house.

In Welsh, there is a special form of bod which includes the 'unlikely if'. It uses the same conditional endings shown above. Instead of the word begining with bas-/bydd-, it starts with tas-:

  • Taswn i'n ennill y loteri, baswn i'n prynu tŷ hyfryd - If I were to win the lottery, I would buy a lovely house.
  • Tasai hi'n colli ei swydd, basai hi'n drist - if she were to lose her job, she would be sad.

Here is the full conjugation:

  • taswn i - if I were to be
  • taset ti - if you were to be
  • tasai fe/fo/hi/'r plant - if he/she/the children were to be
  • tasen ni - if we were to be
  • tasech chi - if you were to be
  • tasen nhw - if they were to be

Note that tas- forms are usually matched with bas- forms rather than bydd- forms.

Note that we do not use os for 'if' in this case. We use os if the likelihood of the thing happening is neutral. We do not normally use a conditional tense with os:

  • Os bydd hi'n bwrw glaw, bydda i'n gwisgo fy nhgôt - if it rains, I'll wear my coat
  • Os ydy Dewi'n dod â Sioned ymlaen nawr, bydd Siân yn ymadael - If Dewi is bringing Sioned along now, Siân will leave

(Usually os is used with a future tense, but if we do use it with the third person present tense, as in the second example, it must be os ydy..., not * os mae..., although that is a common mistake.)


Not minding

When we are asked whether we would like to do something, we may want to answer: 'I don't mind', 'it doesn't matter' In Welsh we use expressions including the word ots:

  • Fasai'n well gyda ti sglodion neu stwnsh? Does dim ots gyda fi. - Would you prefer chips or mashed potato? I don't mind.

There are several variations in common use in the colloquial language:

  • Does dim ots gen i/gyda fi. - I don't mind.
  • 'Sdim ots 'da fe. - He doesn't mind.
  • Dim ots; Sdim ots. - No matter; It doesn't matter.

Some examples:

  • Fasai'n well gyda fe fynd nawr neu nes ymlaen? Sdim ots ganddo fe. - Would he prefer to go now or later? He doesn't mind
  • Ydy hi am weithio yn y dref neu yn y gwlad? Does dim ots ganddi hi - Does she want to work in town or in the country-side? She doesn't care.
  • Does dim cwrw ar ôl! Dim ots, mae 'na ddigon o ddŵr. - There's no beer left! No matter, there's plenty of water.

GiveAdvice updated 2020-04-30


Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.


Ought to, Should do

There is a verb Dylwn - 'ought to, should' - that we use when saying that someone 'should' or 'ought to' do something. Only the conditional tense is in use in colloquial Modern Welsh.

(Because its other forms, such as its verb-noun and its other tenses, are missing, it is called a 'defective' verb.)

It has the same conditional tense endings as baswn i ( I would be), hoffwn i' ( I would like), etc, that are introduced elsewhere in the course:

  • Dylwn i - I should, I ought to
  • Dylet ti
  • Dylai fe/fo/hi/Dewi/y plant
  • Dylen ni
  • Dylech chi
  • Dylen nhw

Note that fe/fo is usually used in preference to e/o with verbs ending in -ai.

It is followed by a soft mutation:

  • Dylwn i fynd - I should go
  • Dylen nhw goginio - They should cook
  • Ddylwn i ddim mynd - I should not go (dim has caught the mutation here, not mynd)

Ought to have, Should have

To form a past tense, we add bod wedi in front of the verb-noun, and it is bod wedi which catches the mutation:

  • Dylwn i fod wedi mynd - I should have gone

With the negative, as before, it is dim which catches the mutation:

  • Ddylen nhw ddim bod wedi mynd - They should not have gone.
  • Ddylet ti ddim bod wedi gwneud cinio heddiw - You should not have made lunch today

Idiomatic expressions

Idiomatic expressions are those which convey a meaning, but by using words or structures that do not necessarily say so directly. In English, for example:

  • 'I'm not as green as I am cabbage-looking', which is a very odd thing to say! The meaning is along the lines of 'Just because I look dull and uninteresting doesn't mean that I don't have some experience or ideas to contribute'.

In this unit we introduce a Welsh idiom that might be said when giving advice:

  • Araf deg mae dal iâr - literally 'Slow and steady catches a hen'. A similar English idiom might be 'Softly, softly catchee monkey', meaning that success in a task sometimes comes from working steadily and quietly, rather than by rushing into it headlong.

As in English, many idioms and sayings in Welsh use quite old-fashioned or very formal words and patterns, as in this piece of advice which applies well to learning Welsh:

  • Dyfal donc a dyrr y garreg - 'Steady tapping breaks the stone', or 'You will succeed if you keep at it regularly and a little at a time'.

As a reminder, there is an idiomatic way of saying that somebody wants to do something. This uses the preposition am. Remember that am causes soft mutation:

  • Mae Siôn am fynd yn gynnar - Siôn wants to go early
  • Roedd Eleri a Dewi am aros tan hanner nos - Eleri and Dei wanted to stay until midnight
  • Dw i am wella fy Nghymraeg - I want to improve my Welsh (gwella - improving, to improve)

Distance&Size updated 2021-01-19


Audio

Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.


Feminine forms of numbers

The numbers 2, 3 and 4 change to their feminine forms dwy, tair, pedair before a feminine noun. Singular feminine nouns, such as milltir (a mile), take a soft mutation after un, dwy.

Remember that pum(p), chwe(ch), can(t) lose their final letter (p, ch, t) before nouns, masculine or feminine. (Note that until Duo fix the system-wide zombie sentence bug we are unable to remove examples where this has not been done here.)

Look at the the following examples, and note the changes in form of 2, 3, 4 and the soft mutation after un, dwy:

  • Un filltir
  • Dwy filltir
  • Tair milltir
  • Pedair milltir
  • Pum milltir
  • Chwe milltir
  • Saith, Wyth, Naw milltir
  • Deng/Deg milltir (note the optional change from -g to -ng at the end of deg - this is getting less common nowadays, but it is still used by many people)

Note that un causes a weak soft mutation - no mutation of feminine nouns beginning ll-, rh-:

  • un llaw - one hand
  • un rhaglen deledu - one television programme

Note that the feminine form tair does not cause a mutation, whereas the masculine form tri causes an aspirate mutation:

  • tair cath - three cats (feminine noun cath*)
  • tri chi - three dogs (masculine noun ci)

This use of feminine number forms, the weak soft mutation after un, and the soft mutation after dwy apply to all singular feminine nouns.


Remember that masculine nouns take a soft mutation after dau, just as feminine nouns do after dwy.

  • dwy gath - two cats (feminine noun cath*)
  • dau gi - three dogs (masculine noun ci)

How far? How big?

When asking 'how far?', 'how big?', 'how wide?', 'how tasty?' and so on, we use pa mor...? Like un above, mor in this sense causes a weak soft mutation:

  • Pa mor bell ydy Bangor? - How far is Bangor?(pell)
  • Pa mor fawr ydy Bangor? - How large is Bangor? (mawr)
  • Pa mor flasus oedd y pysgod neithiwr? - How tasty was the fish last night? (blasus)
  • Pa mor drwchus yw'r rhew yno? - How thick is the ice there? (trwchus)
  • Pa mor llydan ydy'r bwrdd? - How wide is the table? (no mutation of llydan)

In answer we might say:

  • Deg milltir i ffwrdd mae Bangor - Bangor is ten miles away
  • Mae'r bwrdd 'ma tua phum troedfedd o led - This table is about five feet wide
  • Mae'r rhew 'na dros filltir o drwch - That ice is over a mile thick.

Note that troedfedd means a foot in length, not a foot with toes!


Reporting what someone said

There is a special verb to report what someone said in the past, and we introduce some forms of it here.

  • meddai fe/hi - he/she said
  • medden nhw - they said

For example:

  • Mae'n ddeg milltir i Fangor, medden nhw - It is ten miles to Bangor, they said.
  • Mae Pwllheli yn awr i ffwrdd, meddai Dewi - Pwllheli is an hour away, said Dewi.

British English usage

In British English, people's weights are expressed in kilograms, or in stones and pounds rather than in pounds alone. In Welsh, a pound weight (lb) is pwys and a stone weight (st) is stôn.

Note:- 1 stone (in weight) = 14 pounds (in weight)


Comparing1 updated 2021-09-22


The equative pattern for adjectives - 'as xxx as'

The usual pattern for saying that something is 'as xxx as' something else, the equative pattern, is by using mor:

  • mor + adjective + â = 'as.......as':

  • mor hapus â = as happy as

  • mor aml â = as often as
  • mor enwog â = as famous as

mor causes weak soft mutation (no mutation of ll- or rh-):

  • mor boblogaidd â = as popular as (p -> b)
  • mor goch â = as red as (c -> g)
  • mor llwyd â = as grey as (no mutation)
  • mor rhugl â = as fluent as (no mutation)

Remember that â, like gyda, causes an aspirate mutation:

  • mor llawen â chog - as happy as a cuckoo (cog)
  • mor falch â phaun = as proud as a peacock (paun)
  • mor dal â thŵr = as tall as a tower (tŵr)

Note that ti (you) usually resists this aspirate mutation:

  • Mae e mor dal â ti - He is as tall as you are

Note that when â precedes a vowel, it changes to ag, just as gyda changes to gydag. For example:

  • mor hapus ag Elen = as happy as Elen

A few adjectives are irregular in their equative form, and instead of using mor, the particle cyn is used with them, or embedded in them, instead. (cyn sometimes loses its -n when it is embedded.)

Here are some common ones:

  • cymaint - as large, as many (preferred to mor fawr)
  • cynifer - as many
  • cynddrwg - as bad (preferred to mor ddrwg)
  • cystal - as good (preferred to mor dda)
  • cyn lleied - as small (preferred to mor fach)

Like mor, cyn causes weak soft mutation.

(Note - this usage of cyn is completely separate to its meaning of 'before'.)


Note that this pattern is also used to say that something is 'so big', 'so red', 'so fast' etc, often with a soft mutation if it acts as an adverb:

  • Mae'r ci 'na cymaint! - That dog is so big!
  • Diolch am y blodau, rwyt ti cystal! - Thanks for the flowers, you are so good!
  • Llongyfarchiadau ar ennill, gwnest ti redeg gystal! - Congratulations on winning, you ran so well!

When used following a verb-form of bod, there is no need to put yn/'n between the verb and the adjective to link them - mor/cyn provides this link instead:

  • Dw i'n hen. - I am old.
  • Dw i mor hen â Siân. - I am as old as Siân.
  • Roedd Siôn yn ddrwg. - Siôn was naughty.
  • Roedd Eleri cynddrwg â Siôn. - Eleri was as naughty as Siôn.
  • Mae'r eliffant yn fawr. - The elephant is big.
  • Dydy'r eliffant ddim cymaint â thŷ. - The elephant is not as big as a house.

We may want to compare things to other things by saying that something is like something else. For this we can use fel:

  • Mae hi'n edrych fel angel. - She looks like an angel.
  • Mae e'n edrych fel wyneb y Lleuad. - It looks like the surface of the Moon.
  • Mae Dewi'n edrych yn union fel ei dad. - Dewi looks just like his dad.

'Together' and 'as each other'

When discussing people 'together' with one another or 'as (something) as each other' we use the word gilydd. (This is a mutated form of cilydd, as word which is now rarely seen). Gilydd is most often used in conjunction with:

  • gyda + a shortened possessive pronoun, to mean 'with each other' or with
  • â + a shortened possessive pronoun, to mean 'as each other'

For example:

  • Dyn ni'n bwyta gyda'n gilydd. - We are eating together, We are eating with each other.
  • Dych chi'n cerdded gyda'ch gilydd. - You are walking together, You are walking with each other.
  • Maen nhw'n mynd i Aber gyda'i gilydd. - They are going to Aber together.

Note the form ...'i gilydd that is used with they/nhw.

  • Dyn ni mor hen â'n gilydd. - We are as old as each other.
  • Dych chi mor gyflym â'ch gilydd - You are as fast as each other.
  • Maen nhw cynddrwg â'i gilydd! - They are as bad as each other!

Would Hoffi Gallu updated 2018-10-25

Conditional forms of Hoffi/Licio (liking) and Gallu/Medru (being able to)

In an earlier section you met the use of the conditional of bod to form expresssions such as 'I would....'

  • Baswn i'n hoffi cath - I would like a cat
  • Baset ti'n licio fynd - You would like to go
  • Basai fo'n medru rhedeg - He could run

However, as with the future and past tenses, it is possible to express the conditional using short forms of verbs. This is commonly used in colloquial Welsh with the verbs hoffi/licio (liking, to like) and gallu/medru (being able, to be able).


The verb endings in the short-form conditional are the same as those of the conditional of bod, but this time added to the stems of hoffi (hoff-), licio (lici-), gallu (gall-) and medru (medr-) respectively.

For example, here is how the conditional tense of hoffi runs. The other verbs take the same endings:

Verb with ending Translation
hoffwn i I would like
hoffet ti You would like (singular familar)
hoffai fe/fo He would like
hoffai hi She would like
hoffen ni We would like
hoffech chi You would like (polite or plural)
hoffen nhw They would like

As with other short-form verbs, the short-form condtional of these verbs is followed by a soft mutation of the object:

  • Liciwn i gath. - I would like a cat.
  • Hoffet ti fynd adre. - You would like to go home.
  • Medrai fo redeg i'r siop. - He could run to the shop.
  • Gallai hi lifio'r pren. - She would be able to saw the wood.
  • Licien ni gael cawl pannas i ginio. - We would like to have some parsnip soup for lunch.
  • Hoffech chi Borthmadog. - You would like Porthmadog.
  • Gallen nhw goginio cinio Sul. - They could cook Sunday dinner.

Questions and Answers

As with other verbs, the question forms take a soft mutation where possible:

  • Liciet ti fynd adre? - Would you like to go home?
  • Fedrai fe redeg i'r siop? - Could he run to the shop?
  • Allai hi nofio yn y môr? - Could she swim in the sea?
  • Hoffen nhw gwrdd â Sioned? - Would they like to meet Sioned?

For answers, we use a suitable conditional form of the same verb, but without the pronoun. In a negative answers, na causes a mixed mutation, although just a soft mutation is needed here, and only with gallu and medru:

  • Liciet ti fynd adre? Liciwn - Would you like to go home? Yes.
  • Liciet ti fynd adre? Na liciwn - Would you like to go home? No.
  • Fedrai fe redeg i'r siop? Medrai. - Could he run to the shop? Yes.
  • Fedrai fe redeg i'r siop? Na fedrai. - Could he run to the shop? No.
  • Allai hi nofio yn y môr? Gallai - Could she swim in the sea? Yes.
  • Allai hi nofio yn y môr? Na allai - Could she swim in the sea? No.
  • Hoffen nhw gwrdd â Sioned? Hoffen - Would they like to meet Sioned? Yes.
  • Hoffen nhw gwrdd â Sioned? Na hoffen - Would they like to meet Sioned? No.

Negatives

As with other verbs, the negative form would take a mixed mutation, but only the soft mutation is required here, and only with gallu and medru.

  • Liciwn i ddim cath. - I wouldn't like a cat.
  • Fedrai fe ddim rhedeg i'r siop i nôl bara. - He would not be able to run to the shop to fetch some bread.
  • Allen ni ddim seiclo'r pum deg milltir i Aber erbyn amser cinio. - We couldn't cycle the fifty miles to Aber by lunch time.
  • Fedren nhw ddim dysgu Cymraeg heb lawer o ymarfer. - They wouldn't be able to learn Welsh without a lot of practice.
  • Allet ti ddim ffordio prynu'r car 'na. - You couldn't afford to buy that car.

Remember, too, that mo (a contraction of the more formal ddim o) is used instead of ddim before a definite object:

  • Hoffwn i mo'r gath 'na. - I wouldn't like that cat.
  • Liciet ti mo'i hen gar brwnt. - You wouldn't like his dirty old car.
  • Hoffech chi mo Sioned â'i ffrindiau hi. - You wouldn't like Sioned and her friends.

Could have, Would have

Just as in the perfect tense 'I have gone' (Dw i wedi mynd), we can say 'I would have been able to...' and 'Dewi would have liked to...'. We do this by adding bod wedi after the subject of the verb, mutating it if it follows directly:

  • Gallai fe fod wedi gyrru. - He could have driven.
  • Hoffai Dewi fod wedi mynd i'r parti. - Dewi would have liked to have gone to the party.
  • Medrwn i fod wedi gwneud hynny i chi. - I could have done that for you.

In a negative, the ddim takes the mutation, as usual:

  • Allai fe ddim bod wedi gyrru. - He could not have driven.
  • Fedret ti ddim bod wedi bwyta cymaint â nhw! - You could not have eaten as much as them!

Comparing2 updated 2019-02-20

If you are following Cwrs Sylfaen, these lessons correspond to Uned 26.


Forming and using comparative adjectives

To compare adjectives, to say something is -er than something else, you can normally add -ach- on the end of the adjective, sometimes with some modifications. For example:

  • tal (tall) > talach (taller)
  • byr (short) > byrrach (shorter) (double -rr-)
  • twp (stupid) > twpach (more stupid)
  • cynnes (warm) > cynhesach (warmer) (note the change of the -nn- to -nh-)
  • gwlyb > gwlypach (wetter) (note the hardening of -b- to -p-)

The comparative of longer adjectives is formed in a similar way to English by using mwy (more):

  • mwy poblogaidd - more popular
  • mwy ofnadwy - more terrible

There are some common exceptions:

  • bach > llai - small > smaller/fewer/less
  • mawr > mwy - large/big > larger/bigger/more
  • da > gwell - good > better
  • drwg > gwaeth - bad > worse
  • uchel > uwch - high > higher
  • isel > is - low > lower

If we want to compare two things, we use na for 'than':

  • Mae Siân yn dalach na Siôn - Siân is taller than Siôn

na is followed, like â, a, gyda and tua, by an aspirate mutation of p-, t-, c-:

  • Mae tŷ'n dalach na char - A house is taller than a car.

Note that ti generally resists mutation:

  • Mae e'n fwy na ti - He is bigger than you are

Note that in modern English we usually say 'He is taller than her', or 'He is taller than she is', and those are the patterns used on this course.


Forming superlatives

In a similar way to forming the comparative forms of adjectives, the superlative (-est) of adjectives can be formed either by adding -a (although this is usually -af in written Welsh):

  • gwlyb (wet) > gwlypa (wettest) (note the hardening of -b- to -p-, the opposite of a soft mutation)
  • oer (cold) > oera (coldest)
  • cyfoethog (rich) > cyfoethoca (richest) (note the hardening of -g- to -c-)
  • pert (pretty) > perta (prettiest)

The superlative of longer adjectives is formed in a similar way to English by using mwya (most):

  • mwya poblogaidd - most popular
  • mwya ofnadwy - most terrible

There are some common exceptions:

  • bach > llai > lleia - small > smaller > smallest
  • mawr > mwy > mwya - large/big > larger/bigger/more > largest/biggest/most
  • da > gwell > gorau - good > better > best
  • drwg > gwaeth > gwaetha - bad > worse > worst

The notes and lessons in Comparing3 will show how to use the superlative.


Being good at doing things

To say that someone is good at something, there is a very simple pattern using da am (good at):

  • Mae Sioned yn dda am redeg - Sioned is good at running
  • Roedden nhw'n dda am chemeg yn yr ysgol - They used to be good at chemistry at school
  • Bydd Eleri'n dda am ddysgu Cymraeg i'r myfyrwyr - Eleri will be good at teaching Welsh to the students

Remember that there is a weak soft mutation after this usage of yn (no mutation of ll- or rh-).

Remember that there is a soft mutation after am.


Dates 1 updated 2021-09-22

Dates

So far, we have introduced numbers using the newer decimal system: un, dau, deg, un deg un, dau ddeg, and so on. When we are using dates in Welsh we still use the old twenty-based (vigesimal) system. This is the same for the first ten, but then the numbering system changes. Here are the twenty-based numbers 10-15:

Number Cymraeg (10) Cymraeg (20)
10 deg deg
11 un deg un un ar ddeg
12 un deg dau deuddeg
13 un deg tri tri ar ddeg
14 un deg pedwar pedwar ar ddeg
15 un deg pump pymtheg

Here are the numbers 1 to 15 as ordinals, as used with dates:

Ordinal Cymraeg
1st cyntaf
2nd ail
3rd trydydd
4th pedwerydd
5th pumed
6th chweched
7th seithfed
8th wythfed
9th nawfed
10th degfed
11th unfed ar ddeg
12th deuddegfed
13th trydydd ar ddeg
14th pedwerydd ar ddeg
15th pymthegfed

These are used to form a date as follows:

  • y + ordinal + o + name of month

Remember that the preposition o is followed by a soft mutation.

Note that the word mis is usually dropped in this pattern since from the context it is clear that the date refers to a month, not to anything else of the same or similar name. So:

  • y cyntaf o Fedi - the first of September
  • yr ail o Fai - the second of May
  • y nawfed o Fehefin - the ninth of June
  • yr unfed ar ddeg o Awst - the eleventh of August
  • y trydydd ar ddeg o Ragfyr - the thirteenth of December
  • y pymthegfed o Hydref - the fifteenth of October

Other uses of the ordinal numbers

The ordinals can also be used to describe any noun - the fifth boy, the first prize, and so on. When used like this they come before the noun, except for cyntaf, which follows it.

[cyntaf is actually a superlative form of an ordinary adjective, so it follows the rule that (nearly all) adjectives follow the noun.]


With feminine nouns following 'r/yr/y, the ordinal and the noun both take a soft mutation:

  • y ferch gyntaf - the first girl
  • yr ail ferch - the second girl
  • y bumed gath - the fifth cat

For use with feminine nouns there are feminine forms of some of the numbers and some of the ordinals, shown here in brackets:

English Cymraeg
3rd trydydd (trydedd)
4th pedwerydd (pedwaredd)
13th trydydd (trydedd) ar ddeg
14th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar ddeg
19th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar bymtheg
23rd trydydd (trydedd) ar hugain
24th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar hugain

So, for example:

  • y drydedd ferch - the third girl
  • y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg - the nineteenth century
  • yr ail ganrif ar bymtheg - the seventeenth century

Note also that ail (second) causes a soft mutation of the noun.

For the abbreviations commonly used in writing the dates (-st, -nd, -rd, -th), Welsh uses the following:

Cardinal Welsh word abbreviation
1st cyntaf 1af
2nd ail 2ail
3rd trydydd 3ydd
4th pedwerydd 4ydd
5th pymed 5ed
6th chweched 6ed
7th seithfed 7fed
8th wythfed 8fed
9th nawfed 9fed
10th degfed 10fed
11th unfed ar ddeg 11ed
12th deuddegfed 12fed
13th trydydd ar ddeg 13eg
14th pedwerydd ar ddeg 14eg
15th pumthegfed 15ed
16th unfed ar bymtheg 16eg
17th ail ar bymtheg 17eg
18th deunawfed 18fed
19th pedwerydd ar bymtheg 19eg
20th ugeinfed 20fed
21st unfed ar hugain 21ain
22nd ail ar hugain 22ain
23rd trydydd ar hugain 23ain
24th pedwerydd ar hugain 24ain
25th pumed ar hugain 25ain
26th chweched ar hugain 26ain
27th seithfed ar hugain 27ain
28th wythfed ar hugain 28ain
29th nawfed ar hugain 29ain
30th degfed ar hugain 30ain
31st unfed ar ddeg ar hugain 31ain

Numbers with days and nights/evenings

To say 'three days', 'four nights' and so on, we use the words diwrnod (masculine) (a day) and noson (feminine) (a night/evening):

  • dau ddiwrnod
  • pedair noson

Comparing3 updated 2021-03-01


The superlative - how to translate '-est'

In Welsh, when saying that something is 'the best', the quickest', the cleanest' and so on, we always use an emphatic sentence, with the thing that is the '-est' being put at the front of the sentence:

  • Gareth ydy'r gorau - Gareth is the best
  • Y plant 'na yw'r ifancaf yn y dosbarth - Those children are the youngest in the class.

Note that a third person singular verb (ydy/yw; oedd, fydd, etc) is always used with 'the -est', regardless of whether or not the '-est' thing is singular or plural, we or you, etc:

  • Y plant 'na ydy'r gorau yn yr ysgol. - Those children are the best in the school.
  • Fi oedd y cyflyma yn y tîm. - I was the fastest in the team.
  • Nhw ydy'r anifeiliaid lleiaf yn y byd. - They are the smallest animals in the world.
  • Chi fydd y rhai ola i ymadael heddiw - You will be the last ones to leave today.

When emphasising with a pronoun or proper noun and using an adjective, the superlative adjective will softly mutate for singular feminine nouns. For example:

  • Gareth yw'r gorau. - Gareth is the best. ...but
  • Siân yw'r _orau. - Siân is the best.

In the case of gorau, the g mutates away for Siân as she is feminine. Other examples include:

  • Fe yw'r tlota. - He is the poorest. ... but
  • Sioned yw'r dlota. - Sioned is the poorest.
  • Fe yw'r tala. - He is the tallest. ... but
  • Hi yw'r dala. - She is the tallest.

Similarly if mwya is used:

  • Hi ydy'r un fwya poblogaidd yn y tîm - She is the most popular one in the team. But:
  • Fe ydy'r un mwya poblogaidd yn y tîm - He is the most popular one in the team.

When asking a question about whether someone is the tallest, or whether a thing is the most expensive and so on, a question must start with the person or thing, as with any emphatic question:

  • Aled yw'r tala? Ie. - Is Aled the tallest? Yes.
  • Y BMW ydy'r car mwya drud yn y garej? - Is the BMW the most expensive car in the garage?
  • Sioned ydy'r ferch dala yn y tîm? Nage. - Is Sioned the tallest girl in the team? No.
  • Pwy yw'r person cyflyma yn y gystadleuaeth hyd yn hyn? - Who is the fastest in the competition so far?

Note that in Welsh, unlike in English, we use the superlative form (-a, -af) to say that something or someone is the taller/shorter/better/etc of two as well as the tallest/shortest/best/etc of three or more:

  • Cymru neu'r Alban, pa un ydy'r fwya? - Wales or Scotland, which is the larger? (Note that countries are feminine in gender, so mwya has been mutated to fwya here)
  • Cymru, yr Alban neu Ddenmark, pa un ydy'r fwyaf? - Wales, Scotland or Denmark, which is the largest?
  • Eleri neu Dewi, pwy ydy'r tala? - Eleri or Dewi, who is the taller?

Using an emphatic clause as the second part of a sentence - mai/taw

When using that in the middle of a two-part sentence where the second part is emphatic, the verb bod changes to the particle mai/taw. This allows us to use another, separate verb in the second part of the sentence, maintaining its emphatic structure. For example:

  • Dw i'n meddwl bod Megan yn dal - but,
  • Dw i'n meddwl mai Megan ydy'r dala.

Similarly with clauses that use sy:

  • Dw i'n meddwl mai fi sy'n araf.

  • Dw i'n gwybod fod ti'n siarad means 'I know that you're speaking' but:

  • Dw i'n gwybod mai ti sy'n siarad means 'I know that it is you who is speaking.

Note the use of sy'n after the pronoun or proper noun.

Similarly, Dw i'n gwybod taw ti sy'n siarad is also correct - taw often being used instead of mai in west and south Wales.


mai/taw can also be used with other tenses, and the translation will also change according to the tense used. For example:

  • Ro'n i'n meddwl mai ti oedd yn anghywir. - I thought that it was you who was wrong.
  • Roedd e'n credu taw Dewi fasai'n ymadael yn gynnar. - He believed that Dewi would leave early.
  • Mae Sarah yn gobeithio mai Jack fydd yn dod i'r parti. - Sarah hopes that it is Jack who will be coming to the party.

Dates 2 updated 2019-10-02

More on the older vigesimal counting system

Following on from the first section on numbers used in dates, here is a full table of the numbers 10 to 31 in the vigesimal system. You will see that the numbers from 20 to 30 are actually very regular, made up as 'nn on twenty' - nn ar hugain.

Note the h- on the front of ugain when it follows ar - this is a unique pattern in Welsh)

31 uses another pattern - 'one on ten on twenty'.

Number Cymraeg (10) Cymraeg (20)
10 deg deg
11 un deg un un ar ddeg
12 un deg dau deuddeg
13 un deg tri tri ar ddeg
14 un deg pedwar pedwar ar ddeg
15 un deg pump pymtheg
16 un deg chwech un ar bymtheg
17 un deg saith dau ar bymtheg
18 un deg wyth deunaw
19 un deg naw pedwar ar bymtheg
20 dau ddeg ugain
21 dau ddeg un un ar hugain
22 dau ddeg dau dau ar hugain
23 dau ddeg tri tri ar hugain
24 dau ddeg pedwar pedwar ar hugain
25 dau ddeg pump pump ar hugain
26 dau ddeg chwech chwech ar hugain
27 dau ddeg saith saith ar hugain
28 dau ddeg wyth wyth ar hugain
29 dau ddeg naw naw ar hugain
30 tri deg deg ar hugain
31 tri deg un un ar ddeg ar hugain

And here is a full table of the ordinal numbers used in dates. For interest, this includes the abbreviations equivalent to 1st, 2nd, and so on. You may see these on posters advertising events and so on, but we do not want you to use them on the course at this stage - it is important to practise the full forms first.

English Cymraeg Talfyriad
1st cyntaf 1af
2nd ail 2il
3rd trydydd 3ydd
4th pedwerydd 4ydd
5th pumed 5ed
6th chweched 6ed
7th seithfed 7fed
8th wythfed 8fed
9th nawfed 9fed
10th degfed 10fed
11th unfed ar ddeg 11eg
12th deuddegfed 12fed
13th trydydd ar ddeg 13eg
14th pedwerydd ar ddeg 14eg
15th pymthegfed 15fed
16th unfed ar bymtheg 16eg
17th ail ar bymtheg 17eg
18th deunawfed 18fed
19th pedwerydd ar bymtheg 19eg
20th ugeinfed 20fed
21st unfed ar hugain 21ain
22nd ail ar hugain 22ain
23rd trydydd ar hugain 23ain
24th pedwerydd ar hugain 24ain
25th pumed ar hugain 25ain
26th chweched ar hugain 26ain
27th seithfed ar hugain 27ain
28th wythfed ar hugain 28ain
29th nawfed ar hugain 29ain
30th degfed ar hugain 30ain
31st unfed ar ddeg ar hugain 31ain

For interest...

We also use these forms for saying things such as:

  • y car cyntaf - the first car
  • yr ail lyfr - the second book (note the soft mutation after ail, just as there is after dau/dwy)
  • y pumed bachgen - the fifth boy
  • y pymthegfed ci - the fifteenth dog

When it comes to the compound ordinals, the noun comes after the first element:

  • yr unfed ci ar ddeg - the eleventh dog
  • yr ail berson ar hugain - the twenty-second person

With feminine nouns following 'r/yr/y, the ordinal and the noun both take a soft mutation:

  • y ferch gyntaf - the first girl
  • yr ail ferch - the second girl
  • y bumed gath - the fifth cat

For use with feminine nouns there are feminine forms of some of the numbers and some of the ordinals, shown here in brackets:

English Cymraeg
3rd trydydd (trydedd)
4th pedwerydd (pedwaredd)
13th trydydd (trydedd) ar ddeg
14th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar ddeg
19th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar bymtheg
23rd trydydd (trydedd) ar hugain
24th pedwerydd (pedwaredd) ar hugain

So, for example:

  • y drydedd ferch - the third girl
  • y bedwaredd ganrif ar bymtheg - the nineteenth century
  • yr ail ganrif ar bymtheg - the seventeenth century

Higher numbers use a similar system:

English Cymraeg Talfyriad
100th canfed 100fed
1000th milfed 1000fed

Duration updated 2021-09-22


The 'simple past' tense of bod

When talking about actions that started and completed within specific periods of times in the past in Cymraeg, a simple past form of the verb bod (being, to be) bu- can be used instead of the imperfect tense roedd-.

The simple past of bod is conjugated as follows in the colloquial language:

  • bues i
  • buest ti
  • buodd/bu fe/hi
  • buon ni
  • buoch chi
  • buon nhw

Some examples:

  • Bues i yno am awr ddoe - I was there yesterday for an hour
  • Buodd hi yn Sbaen am wythnos y llynedd - She was in Spain for a week last year.

There is a specific expression for describing when somebody died - bu farw (or sometimes fu farw) - which you will often see on gravestones.

  • Bu farw ar 10fed o Awst 1950 - Died on the 10th of August 1950

Note that there is no yn, and that marw (to die, dying) has been mutated to farw. This construction comes from older forms of Welsh, and it has continued to be used for this particular purpose.


I have been here since...

In English we use the perfect tense to describe how long someone has been somewhere where they still are, or how long they have been doing something that they are still doing:

  • I have worked here for ten years. (Implied - and I still work here now)
  • They have lived there since 2005. (Implied - and they still do)

In Welsh we use thge word ers and the present tense of bod for this meaning, rather than the present perfect. So those same two sentences in Welsh are:

  • Dw i'n gweithio yma ers deg mlynedd.
  • Maen nhw'n byw yno ers 2005.

I was there for ... I will be there for ...

A - Use ers (since) with actions that started in the past and were or are continuing at the time of the statement.

B - Use am (for) for the duration of actions that started and finished in the past, or which are starting now or in the future.

  • A - Dw i'n gweithio yma ers 2005. - I have been working here since 2005.
  • A - Dw i'n gweithio iddyn nhw ers achau. - I have been working for them for ages.
  • B - Roedd hi'n gweithio iddyn nhw am ddwy flynedd. - She worked/had worked for them for two years.
  • B - Bydd hi yn Aber am sbel. - She will be in Aber for a while.
  • B - Bydda i'n gweithio yn yr adran 'ma am chwe mis. - I will be working in this department for six months.
  • B - Mae hi yma am wythnos. - She is here for a week.

In formal Welsh, you may see er rather than ers for actions that started at a specified time - er 2005, er mis Rhagfyr - but this is not very common in colloquial Welsh.


Dates

Here is a full table of the ordinal numbers used in dates. For interest, this includes the abbreviations equivalent to 1st, 2nd, and so on. You may see these on posters advertising events and so on, but we do not want you to use them on the course at this stage - it is important to practise the full forms first.

English Cymraeg Talfyriad
1st cyntaf 1af
2nd ail 2il
3rd trydydd 3ydd
4th pedwerydd 4ydd
5th pumed 5ed
6th chweched 6ed
7th seithfed 7fed
8th wythfed 8fed
9th nawfed 9fed
10th degfed 10fed
11th unfed ar ddeg 11eg
12th deuddegfed 12fed
13th trydydd ar ddeg 13eg
14th pedwerydd ar ddeg 14eg
15th pymthegfed 15fed
16th unfed ar bymtheg 16eg
17th ail ar bymtheg 17eg
18th deunawfed 18fed
19th pedwerydd ar bymtheg 19eg
20th ugeinfed 20fed
21st unfed ar hugain 21ain
22nd ail ar hugain 22ain
23rd trydydd ar hugain 23ain
24th pedwerydd ar hugain 24ain
25th pumed ar hugain 25ain
26th chweched ar hugain 26ain
27th seithfed ar hugain 27ain
28th wythfed ar hugain 28ain
29th nawfed ar hugain 29ain
30th degfed ar hugain 30ain
31st unfed ar ddeg ar hugain 31ain

These are used to form a date as follows:

  • y + ordinal + o + name of month

Remember that the preposition o is followed by a soft mutation.

Note that the word mis is usually dropped in this pattern since from the context it is clear that the date refers to a month, not to anything else of the same or similar name. So:

  • y cyntaf o Fedi - the first of September
  • yr ail o Fai - the second of May
  • y nawfed o Fehefin - the ninth of June
  • yr unfed ar ddeg o Awst - the eleventh of August
  • y trydydd ar ddeg o Ragfyr - the thirteenth of December
  • y pymthegfed o Hydref - the fifteenth of October
  • yr unfed ar ddeg ar hugain o Orffennaf - the thirty-first of July

Preposit. updated 2021-09-22

Prepositions

Prepositions, arddodiaid in Cymraeg, behave in a similar fashion in Cymraeg as in English; they tell where an object is in relation to another object. Several prepositions cause soft mutation of the immediately following word. Not all of them are introduced here, but the following verse may help you to remember them for the future:

  • am, ar, at
  • dros, drwy, dan (+)
  • i, o, wrth
  • heb, hyd, gan

(+) and their variants tros, trwy, tan

For example:

  • Mae Sioned yn mynd i Gaerdydd. - Sioned is going to Cardiff.
  • Maen nhw'n dod o Fangor yn wreiddiol - They come from Bangor originally.

Prepositions can be made up of more than one word. For example:

  • o flaen - in front of
  • ar ben - on top of
  • tu ôl i - behind
  • o dan - underneath
  • oddi wrth - from (as in receiving something from someone)

For example:

  • Roedd hi'n sefyll o flaen y drws. - She was standing in front of the door.
  • Ces i neges oddi wrth Sam ddoe . - I had a message from Sam yesterday.
  • Mae'r bocs ar ben y cwpwrdd. - The box is on top of the cupboard.

Rheolaeth, Rheolydd

'A remote control', such as a gadget to control a television, is rheolydd pell.

Rheolaeth bell is the process of remote control - 'controlling remotely'.


Some British English usage - 'dice'

  • 'Dice' - In British English it is common to use the word 'dice' for both the singular and the plural of the die/dice that we use in playing board games. The Welsh singular dis is used to mean a singular 'dice' in this context. The plural is disiau.

HappyAgain updated 2021-03-26

This unit looks at three different patterns.


Saying/Thinking/Believing etc that...

We often want to say something like:

  • I think that he is very good.
  • I believe that they are completely hopeless.
  • I said that he is a very good manager.
  • You used to claim that they always paid late.

In Welsh we can use use forms of bod to make that link. If the second part of the sentences is in the present or the imperfect we use these forms:

  • Dw i'n dweud fy mod i'n iawn - I am saying that I am/was right
  • Ro'n i'n dweud dy fod ti'n iawn - I used to say that you were right
  • Mi wnes i glywed ei fod e'n hwyr - I heard that he was late
  • Dw i'n credu ei bod hi'n iawn - I believe that she's fine
  • Mae Dewi wedi clywed ein bod ni'n gweithio yn Aber - Dewi has heard that we are/were working in Aber
  • Maen nhw'n meddwl eich bod chi'n alluog - they think that you are/were skilled
  • Gwnes i weld eu bod nhw'n sâl - I saw that they were ill

Note that the possessive pronoun before the bod is often dropped in colloquial Welsh, but any mutation remains:

  • Dw i'n meddwl fod ti'n gywir. - I think that you are correct.

There are other forms of bod and other verbs that can be used to make the link, too:

  • Dw i'n meddwl (y) bydd popeth yn iawn - I think that everything will be fine. (sub-clause using the future tense of bod)
  • Ro'n i'n meddwl (y) basai hi'n hapus yno. - I thought that she would be happy there. (sub-clause using the conditional tense of bod)
  • Dw i'n meddwl (y) dylet ti fynd i prynu'r bara - I think that you should go to buy the bread. (sub-clause using another verb)

**Note in written forms of Welsh 'y' indicates 'that' with those tenses. In the colloquial language, the 'y' is often omitted.


Saying that you did not do/see/hear something specific

We usually use ddim in a negative:

  • Dw i ddim yn gallu gweld cath - I cannot see a cat
  • Welais i ddim cathod yno - I saw no cats there, I did not see any cats there

But we cannot use ddim with y/yr/'r or with proper nouns, names or pronouns. Instead we have to use a pattern similar to 'nothing of' in English - ddim o, which is almost always abbreviated to mo

  • Welais i ddim ffilm - I didn't see a film, but
  • Welais i mo'r ffilm - I didn't see the film
  • Welais i mo Dewi neithiwr - I didn't see Dewi last night
  • Ddarllenais i mo'i stori hi wrthyn nhw - I didn't read her story to them (ddim + o + ei = mo'i)
  • Pheintias i mo'r lolfa ddoe - I didn't paint the lounge yesterday

Being 'really happy'

The word bodd (pleasure) is used along with wrth + possessive pronouns which mutate the b- to express the idea of being 'really happy' about something.

For example:

  • Dw i wrth fy modd yn fy swydd newydd. - I am really happy in my new job.
  • Roeddet ti wrth dy fodd yn Aber. - You were really happy in Aber.

The forms are (and note the plural form boddau which is often used with plural pronouns):

  • wrth fy modd
  • wrth dy fodd
  • wrth ei fodd
  • wrth ei bodd
  • wrth ein bodd/boddau
  • wrth eich bodd/boddau
  • wrth eu bodd/boddau

Revision5 updated 2020-12-20

The aim of this section is to revise patterns already covered, to extend their application, and to introduce additional vocabulary.


Llongyfarchiadau! Congratulations!

Having reached this far means that you've covered Cwrs Mynediad and Cwrs Sylfaen, which normally takes up to four years in a community education setting! Dal ati - Keep at it!

Mae'r uned hon yn dod â'r pum uned ddiwethaf at ei gilydd.

This unit brings the last five units together.


Conditional2 updated 2020-11-02


Some British expressions

We realise that there are many people using this course who are not familiar with some British activities , so here are some notes which may help.

A coffee morning is a morning social gathering at which coffee or tea is available. In the Welsh context it often provides an opportunity to socialise though the medium of Cymraeg, as well as for those learning the language to gain confidence in speaking Cymraeg and to talk about learning Cymraeg. Some coffee mornings are also held to raise money for good causes.

A car boot sale often takes place in a large open area where people can offer things for sale from the boot of their car. There are usually many people doing this in the same place together. Not the same as a 'garage sale'.


Adverbs1 updated 2021-09-22

An adferf (adverb) is a word or phrase that modifies a verb or adjective, often saying how something is done. In Cymraeg, they can often be created by using the pattern of yn plus an adjective (with a weak soft mutation). For example:

  • Tawel: Mae Siân yn siarad yn dawel. - Siân is speaking quietly.
  • Swnllyd: Roedd y plant yn gweithio'n swnllyd. - The children were working noisily.
  • Tyner: Mae Dafydd yn mwytho'r gath yn dyner iawn. - Dafydd is stroking the cat very gently.

Note the contraction of yn to 'n following a vowel.

Note that the intensifier iawn ('very') can also be used, as in the example above.

Note that yn causes a 'weak soft mutation' in this usage - it does not mutate words beginning with ll- or rh- :

  • Mae'r plant yn chwarae'n llon. - The children are playing happily.
  • Roedd yr olwyn yn troi'n rhydd. - The wheel was spinning freely.

Soft mutation of some words used as adverbs

Some adverbs are formed by a soft mutation of a basic word rather than by prefixing them with yn:

  • Mae e'n gwaedu lawer. - He is bleeding a lot.
  • Dw i'n hoffi mynd am dro weithiau. - I like to go for a walk sometimes.

With some of these, the basic unmutated word or phrase is not used or very uncommon in the colloquial language:

  • Es i yno ddoe. - I went there yesterday. (no doe)
  • Gwelais i Sam gynnau. - I saw Sam just now. (no cynnau, except an unrelated verb-noun)
  • Mae hi'n gweithio yn Aber dros dro. - She is working in Aber temporarily. (no tros dro*)

Extend3 updated 2018-10-25

Os dych chi'n dilyn Cwrs Canolradd, dyma Uned 5.

(These skills support unit 5 of Cwrs Canolradd)

Extend 4 updated 2018-10-25

Extend vocab and revise patterns

SentenceTags updated 2021-09-22


Sentence tags, or tag questions

Sentence tags are the fillers that give you extra "thinking time" and can make you sound more fluent.


In Lesson 1, the form on'd/oni + time phrase is used, meaning isn't it, wasn't it, won't she...?. Often, a positive answer is expected when a sentence tag such as this is used.

The form oni is used before consonants, and on'd before vowels. (You may sometimes see on'd written in full as onid in more formal Welsh.) Oni causes 'mixed mutation' - aspirate of p, t, c, and soft of b, d, g, m, ll, rh.

Some examples:

  • Mae hi'n bwrw glaw, on'd yw hi? Ydy. - It's raining, isn't it? Yes, it is.
  • Roedd hi'n heulog ddoe, on'd oedd hi? Oedd. - It was sunny yesterday, wasn't it? Yes, it was.
  • Bydd hi'n mynd yfory, oni fydd hi? Bydd. - She'll be going tomorrow, won't she? Yes.
  • Mae teigr yn yr ardd eto, on'd oes? Oes! - There's a tiger in the garden again, isn't there? Yes!

Note that an emphatic statement, typically about names, jobs and roles, uses a tag of ife? or on'd ife:

  • Dewi yw e, on'd ife? - He's Dewi, isn't he?
  • Athrawes ydy hi, on'd ife? - She's a teacher, isn't she?

It can also be used to frame a question:

  • On'd ydy Siôn yn mynd i'r siopiau? Ydy. - Isn't Siôn going to the shops? Yes, he is.
  • On'd ydy'r glaw wedi gorffen eto? Nac ydy, dim eto - Hasn't the rain stopped yet? No, not yet.

In Lesson 2, the sentence tags for you know? are taught and can be used to fill out your sentences. Two versions from the many that are used have been included:

  • t'mod? and ch'mod? both mean 'you know?' and are shortened forms of wyt ti'n gwybod? and dych chi'n gwybod?. These are generally heard more in south and west Wales than in the north.
  • 'sti? and 'chi? again mean you know? but they are generally heard more in north and mid-Wales. They are shortened forms of wyddost ti? and wyddoch chi? '(do you know?').

There are many more sentence tags that are used in Welsh, so this unit is just to give you an basic idea of how they work. If you watch or listen to the Welsh media you will come across many more.


A need - Angen

Like eisiau, angen is a noun, not a verb-noun, and it is used in the same exceptional pattern as eisiau:

  • Dw i angen morthwyl. - I need a hammer.
  • Dw i eisiau morthwyl. - I want a hammer.
  • Maen nhw angen gwyliau. - They need a holiday.
  • Maen nhw eisiau gwyliau. - They want a holiday.

Adverbs2 updated 2020-03-31

These lessons show how to describe actions with adverbs, especially about how we do things - this a a revision and extension of Adverbs1.

The last lesson also introduces the the preposition am ('about', or sometimes 'for').


Adverbs - describing how and when we do things

We often need to say how, when, where or why we do things, and we do this by using adverbs:

  • I ran quickly.
  • I held tightly onto the rope.
  • She shouted loudly.
  • They explained things clearly.

One way of doing this in Welsh is to create the adverb from an adjective by putting yn/'n between the verb and the adjective:

  • Ro'n i'n aros yn amyneddgar - I was waiting patiently (amyneddgar - patient -> yn amyneddgar - patiently)
  • Bydd hi'n bwrw glaw'n drwm - It will be raining heavily (trwm - heavy)

Remember that yn causes a weak soft mutation of a following noun or adjective (no mutation of ll-, rh-)

While the method shown above is a simple way of creating adverbs, there are other expressions which can describe how and we do things - they don't all use yn:

  • ar frys - in a hurry/rush
  • mewn penbleth - in confusion
  • o gwmpas - around
  • ddydd Llun - on Monday
  • ar ddydd Llun - on Mondays

  • Ro'n i'n rhedeg o gwmpas y dref ar frys ddydd Llun - I was running around town in a rush on Monday

Note that adverbs saying when we do things are usually mutated:

  • Es i yno ddoe - yesterday (the original doe is not seen in the modern language)
  • Gwela i ti ddydd Gwener - I'll see you on Friday
  • wastad - always (from gwastad)
  • Gwnes i fe ddwywaith - I did it twice
  • Roedden ni'n mynd yno bob wythnos - we used to go there every week
  • Aeth hi yno flwyddyn yn ôl - she went there a year ago

We may also need to say why we do things - that will be covered later in the course.


Am (about, for) - how it changes with the person to whom it refers

Am is one of several Welsh prepositions that take additional endings in front of personal pronouns:

  • Mae Siân yn aros am y bws - Siân is waiting for the bus
  • Mae hi'n aros am ei phlant - she is waiting for her children

Very straightforward. But what if she is waiting for you?

  • Mae Siân yn aros amdanat ti - Siân is waiting for you
  • Mae Sian yn aros amdanoch chi i gyd - Siân is waiting for you all.

Now she is searching for Dewi, or her gloves:

  • Mae hi'n chwilio amdano fe/fo - she is searching for him (chwilio am - to search for)
  • Mae hi'n chwilio amdanyn nhw - she is searching for them

In full, this is how am conjugates:

  • amdana i - for me
  • amdanat ti - for you (singular familiar)
  • amdano fe/fo - for him
  • amdani hi - for her
  • andanon ni - for us
  • amdanoch chi - for you (formal or plural)
  • amdanyn nhw - for them

Those are the common forms used on this course - you may come across minor variations elsewhere.


Remember that in Welsh, as in other languages, there are words which can have more than one meaning. In this unit, for example you will meet ysgol - 'a ladder', or 'a school'.


(Note - For those people who already know some Welsh, please note that this course does not cover the more formal forms of the language where the pronouns may get dropped - responses without the pronouns may not always be accepted.)


Ever or never - byth, erioed

As a reminder, byth and erioed are used to mean both 'ever' and 'never', depending on the context. In a negative sentence they can be used in place of ddim to mean 'never'. They are used with particular tenses:

  • erioed is used with completed tenses in the past - the present perfect, the simple past and the pluperfect.
  • byth is used with other tenses - the present, future, imperfect past and the conditional.

For example:

  • Dyw hi byth yn mynd yno. Dyw hi ddim yn mynd yno byth. - She never goes there.
  • Doedd hi byth yn mynd yno. Doedd hi ddim yn mynd yno byth. - She never used to go there.
  • Fydd hi byth yn mynd yno. - She will never go there.
  • Fydd hi byth mynd i Fangor? - Will she ever go to Bangor?
  • Dyw hi erioed wedi mynd yno. Dyw hi ddim wedi mynd yno erioed. - She has never been there.
  • Aeth hi yno erioed? - Did she ever go there?
  • Doedd hi erioed wedi bod yno. - She had never been there.

Education1 updated 2020-03-02

Forgotten your ruler (pren mesur) and pencil (pensil)? DETENTION! Done your Duolingo homework (gwaith cartre) - gold star!


The Education System in Wales / Y System Addysg yng Nghymru

The education system in Wales includes the Foundation Phase (y Cyfnod Sylfaen), Key Stage 1 (Cyfnod Allweddol 1), KS2, KS3, and KS4 (GCSE / TGAU).

The Foundation Phase includes children 3 - 7 years old. Children are encouraged to be creative and imaginative and learn by taking part in practical activities instead of working through exercises in textbooks. This Phase includes Nursery (yr Ysgol Feithrin) and Reception (y Dosbarth Derbyn) (see -http://www.theschoolrun.com/overview-welsh-education-system).

Key Stage 1 sees the start of compulsory education age and pupils are aged 5 - 7.

KS2 sees the second phase of compulsory education and pupils are aged 7 - 11. KS1 and KS2 (Years 1 to 6) are taught in Primary Schools (Ysgolion Cynradd).

See the notes for 'Education 2' to find out about Key Stage 3, further education and Welsh-medium education.

At the time of writing (mis Mehefin 2016), the Welsh Government, lead by Professor Graham Donaldson, is restructuring the whole curriculum from the Foundation Phase to GCSE. This new curriculum will be available for implementation from mis Medi 2018 onwards and is hoped to be fully implemented by yr haf 2021.


Medium of education

In Wales, schools at each level are often described by their 'medium of education', that is, the language through which the education is provided. Schools can be 'Welsh-medium', 'Bilingual' or 'English-medium'.

In this sense, the word for 'medium' is cyfrwng, as in addysg cyfrwng Cymraeg (Welsh-medium education). However, that is not needed in expressions such as ysgol Gymraeg (a Welsh-medium school) or ysgol Saesneg (an English-medium school), where Cymraeg or Saesneg are used as adjectives meaning Welsh/English-medium.


Education2 updated 2020-03-02

Forgotten your ruler (pren mesur) and pencil (pensil)? DETENTION! Done your Duolingo homework (gwaith cartre) - gold star!


Education System in Wales / Y System Addysg yng Nghymru

The education system in Wales includes the Foundation Phase (y Cyfnod Sylfaen), Key Stage 1 (Cyfnod Allweddol 1), KS2, KS3, and KS4 (GCSE / TGAU).

KS3 sees the first phase of compulsory secondary education (addysg uwchradd) and pupils are aged 11 - 14. This KS includes Years 7, 8, and 9.

KS4 sees the last phase of compulsory secondary education (and education in general) and pupils are aged 15 - 16. This KS includes Years 10 and 11 and is called GCSE - General Certificate of Secondary Education (TGAU - Tystysgrif Gyffredinol Addysg Uwchradd). KS3 and KS4 (Years 7 to 11) are taught in Secondary Schools.

After compulsory education, pupils who qualify can continue post-16 education (addysg ôl-16) at Six Form (y Chweched Dosbarth) or College (y Coleg) (both termed as FE - Further Education / AB - Addysg Bellach)), take Apprenticeships (Prentisiaethau), or start in the world of work, and eventually move on to University (Prifysgol) (termed as HE - Higher Education, AU - Addysg Uwch).


Welsh-medium education - Addysg cyfrwng Cymraeg

All schools in Wales teach Welsh (termed as "Welsh second language" in English-medium schools (ysgolion Saesneg) and as "Welsh first language" in Welsh-medium schools (ysgolion Cymraeg).

There are currently (2016) 65,460 pupils in primary education who receive their education through the medium of the Welsh language, which equates to 24% of the overall total. 36,485 pupils in secondary education also receive their education though the medium of Welsh, which equates to 20% of the overall total.

At the time of writing (mis Mehefin 2016), the Welsh Government, lead by Professor Graham Donaldson, is restructuring the whole curriculum from the Foundation Phase to GCSE. This new curriculum will be available for implementation from mis Medi 2018 onwards and is hoped to be fully implemented by yr haf 2021.


TheHome1 updated 2018-10-25

This section introduces some vocabulary to use about the home, and it gives an opportunity to practice some patterns and rules you have met already.

About a third of Welsh nouns are feminine, and although there are some rough guides as to how to recognise them, there are also many exceptions. The best thing is to learn the gender of nouns as you first meet them. If you make lists of the words that you learn, note those that are feminine.

It is also useful to look up and note down the plurals, too - Gweiadur Pawb and Geiriadur yr Academi are useful on-line dictionaries to help you. The Gweiadur gives both Welsh to English and English to Welsh, it often has examples of how the words are used, and it often has real voice recordings of the pronunciation of the Welsh words.


Soft mutations and feminine nouns

Firstly, the definite article y/yr/'r causes weak soft mutation of feminine nouns (that is, it does not cause mutation of words beginning with ll- or rh-).

Secondly, remember that an adjective following a feminine noun undergoes soft mutation.

Some feminine nouns used about the home include:

  • lolfa (lolfeydd) - a lounge (lounges)
  • cegin (ceginau) - a kitchen (kitchens)
  • ystafell (ystafelloedd) - a room
  • cadair (cadeiriau) - a chair
  • gardd (gerddi) - a garden

Remember that plural nouns lose their singular gender, so they do not undergo, or cause, either of the mutations mentioned above.

So:

  • y lolfa fawr - the big lounge
  • ystafell fyw - a living room
  • y gegin fawr - the large kitchen
  • yr ystafell wely fach - the small bedroom
  • yr ardd daclus fach - the small, tidy garden
  • y llen liwgar - the colourful curtain

But:

  • y lolfeydd mawr - the large lounges
  • ystafelloedd byw - living rooms
  • y ceginau mawr - the big kitchens
  • ystafelloedd gwely bach - small bedrooms
  • y gerddi taclus bach - the small, tidy gardens
  • y llenni lliwgar - the colourful curtains

Cult&Lang updated 2021-09-22

The 'something' of the 'something' pattern

The Welsh xxx y zzz translates into English as 'the xxx of the zzz'. So:

  • Cwpan y Byd - 'the Cup of the World', which we then render into normal English as 'the World Cup'.

This is a common pattern:

  • Cyngor y Sir - the County Council
  • Bwrdd y cwmni - (the board of the company), the company board
  • Eisteddfod yr Urdd - the Urdd Eisteddfod (an annual national youth eisteddfod)

  • The company managers (the managers of the company) - rheolwyr y cwmni

  • The school's results (the results of the school) - canlyniadau'r ysgol
  • The village hall (the hall of the village) - neuadd y pentref

Welsh culture

Wales has many traditions and customs, and an interesting history; all being entwined with the rich development of the Welsh language.

The National Eisteddfod (yr Eisteddfod Genedlaethol in Cymraeg) is held every summer and celebrates poetry, the arts, the sciences and contemporary Welsh culture in a week long programme. It is held in a different location each year, alternating between the main regions of Wales. For example, Cardiff in south-central Wales (2018), Anglesey, north-west Wales (2017), Abergavenny, Monmouthshire in south-east Wales (2016), Meifod, Powys in mid-Wales (2015), Denbigh, north-east Wales (2014) and the Vale of Glamorgan in south-central Wales (2013), It attracts people from all over Wales, the UK, and beyond and it is the largest cultural festival in Europe. There are some traditional events, such as the 'Chairing of the Bard', which are performed during the week-long event. There are many concerts, including live gigs and music performances held in Maes B. Learners of the language can meet up and attend events tailored for them in Maes D on the main site. You can read more about the Eisteddfod Genedlaethol here,

Eisteddfod yr Urdd is for school-age children, with competitions in many areas of interest, including dance, recital, poetry, and technology. Details of the Urdd Eisteddfod are here

There is also an international Eisteddfod (Eisteddfod Ryngwladol) held in Llangollen every year, which attracts performers from all over the world to compete. There is more information here.


Saunders Lewis is an important character in the history of Welsh language; he was a language activist who fiercely defended his rights, and the rights of others, to use Welsh. He did this by putting pressure on the Government and by founding Plaid Cymru, 'the Party of Wales'. In 1962, he gave a radio speech entitled 'Tynged yr Iaith', or 'The Fate of the Language'. With this speech, he intended to motivate the members of Plaid Cymru into more direct action in promoting the language; however, it led to the formation of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg, the Welsh Language Society, which is now well-known for its non-violent, direct protests for the rights of Welsh speakers and Welsh language services in Wales. You can read more about Saunders Lewis here (Wikipedia article) and about Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg here.


Adverbs 3 updated 2018-10-25

This section introduces some common adverbial expressions, especially of time.

Shopping updated 2018-10-25

This unit introduces some vocabulary to do with shopping


The 'bag for life'

Because of the huge amount of poorly recyclable, flimsy plastic bags being given away each day by shops and supermarkets in Britain, shops now have to charge a small amount for them. The proceeds go to charity. This has been very successful in hugely reducing the numbers of these bags being used and thrown away. Instead, people now tend to use more durable, longer-lived shopping bags, nick-named 'bags for life' - the life of the bag, anyway:

  • bag am oes - a bag for life

The 'checkout' or 'cash desk'

  • y ddesg talu - the checkout, the cash desk

desg is a feminine noun - we can tell that because it mutates after y. So why has talu not mutated - after all, it looks as though it is acting as an adjective, as in a paying desk?

Instead, talu here is acting as another noun. We know by now that desg Owen means 'Owen's desk' ('desk of Owen'). So, desg talu here means 'desk of paying' - the desk where we pay, the 'checkout'.


Tech1 updated 2018-10-25

The use of Cymraeg in technology (technoleg) has come a long way in the past decade with the roll out of broadband (band llydan) to Wales and more rural areas.

Roughly 73% of households have access to the internet (y rhyngrwyd) and roughly 76% of people currently use the internet at home, work or elsewhere (source).

The use of Cymraeg on-line (ar-lein) has boomed in the past decade as well, with the following being available partly or fully in Cymraeg:

  1. The availability of Welsh language music on YouTube or SoundCloud. Popular and contemporary bands and artists include: Yws Gwynedd, Sŵnami, Gwyneth Glyn, Elin Fflur, Sarah Louise, Team Panda, Fi a Fo, Casi Wyn, Calfari, and Fleur de Lys. Radio Cymru is also available throughout Wales and on-line.
  2. Welsh language television on S4C or on the BBC iPlayer. Popular programmes include Gwaith/Cartref (similar to Waterloo Road, but better :P) and Pobol y Cwm.
  3. On-line magazines, books, and papers such as IAW!, Lingo, Y Cymro, Ciwb (aimed primarily at Key Stage 3 schoolchildren (aged 11-13)) and Golwg360. Golwg360 is also available on-line and can be used with more advanced learners and Cymraeg speakers.
  4. Apps for games and learning. Click here to visit the Welsh Government's website that promotes apps in Cymraeg.
  5. On-line dictionaries such as Gweiadur, Geiriadur yr Academi, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, grammar and spell checking with Cysill ar-lein (for more experienced learners).
  6. The availability of Windows, Libreoffice, Microsoft Office, Firefox, and Ubuntu in Cymraeg.
  7. You can even change your Facebook into Cymraeg and watch other videos on using Cymraeg in technology here
  8. Check your e-mail in Cymraeg by changing the language settings in Gmail or Outlook or use Thunderbird.

Tech2 updated 2018-10-25

This session introduces some common vocabulary to do with logging on and logging out of a computer, sending texts, charging a phone, sending a tweet and so on.


It revises possession, which may be expressed in several similar ways:

  • Mae ffôn gyda fi - I have a phone
  • Mae gyda fi ffôn
  • Mae gen i ffôn
  • Mae ffôn gen i

Remember that you may need to mutate the word for the object owned:

  • Mae batri gen i - I have a battery
  • Mae gen i fatri - Soft mutation of batri -> fatri because gen i has been put between Mae... and ...fatri.

Remember that neu ('or') causes soft mutation of a following noun, adjective or verb-noun, but not of a verb:

  • Byr neu dal? - Short or tall? Mutation of the adjective tal -> dal
  • Car neu fws? - A car or a bus? Mutation of the noun *bws -> fws.
  • Bwyta neu gysgu? - Eating or sleeping? Mutation of the verb-noun cysgu -> gysgu

  • Cerdda i neu rheda i - I will walk or I will run. No mutation of rheda..., because it is a verb.


Having just done something

To say that we have 'just' done something we use the word newydd. This was introduced earlier in the course as an adjective meaning 'new', but it is also used in place of wedi to convey the meaning of having 'just' (done something). In this context it is followed by a soft mutation:

  • Dyn ni newydd gyrraedd. - We have just arrived. (cyrraedd)
  • Mae Sioned newydd orffen y gwaith. - Sioned has just finished the work. (gorffen)
  • Roedd hi newydd fynd - She had just gone. (mynd)
  • Roedd e newydd allgofnodi pan aeth y cyfrifiadur ar dân. - He had just logged off when the computer caught fire.

Nature updated 2018-10-25

This section introduces some basic vocabulary about seasons, the landscape, and plants and trees. It also introduces a way of saying 'here is...' when you want to show something or point something out to someone.


Audio problems

Please remember that there are occasional known glitches in the computer-generated voice - unfortunately the course team can do nothing about this, so please do not report audio faults. They have already been noted and they may be able to be fixed in the future.

(In this section y sêr is mis-pronounced)


Remember that feminine nouns take a soft mutation following the definite article y (except if they begin with ll- or rh- - this is known as a 'weak' soft mutation)

Also, adjectives following a feminine noun take soft mutation.

Examples:

  • Y goeden - The tree (coeden is feminine)
  • Coeden fach - A small tree (bach -> fach)
  • Y goeden fach - The small tree (both words must mutate)

Drawing attention to something

'This is the thing!' we say and point to it or hold it up. In Welsh there are particular words we use for this:

  • dyma (this is) and
  • dyna (that is)

Note that the endings are the same as yma/'ma (here, this) and yna/'na (there, that):

  • y car 'ma - this car
  • dyma'r car - 'this is the car' or 'here's the car'
  • y gath 'na - that cat
  • dyna'r gath - 'that's the cat', or 'there's the cat'

Note that both dyma and dyna cause a soft mutation:

  • dyma gar - here's a car
  • dyna gath - there's a cat

You will also come across these words in colloquial expressions such as :

  • Wel, dyna ni, 'te. - Well, there we are, then.
  • Dyma ddiwedd y wers... - Here's the end of the lesson...

Compound words

In common with many other languages, Welsh can make compound words from two or more other words or prefixes or suffixes. This unit introduces one example from the English - 'biodegradable':

  • diraddio - to degrade, to break down into parts

We can drop the -o and add an ending similar to '-able' in English - -adwy:

  • diraddiadwy - degradeable

A taking it a step further by adding the prefix bio-:

  • bioddiraddiadwy - biodgradeable - we have added bio- just as in the English.

Notice that the d- of the original diraddio has mutated to dd- following the prefix. This is very common in the pattern of compound words in Welsh.

So, even if a long word looks very complex, you can often break it down into its component parts to make sense of it.

(Note that in this particular word, the middle -i is often also dropped, so you will usually see the form bioddiraddadwy, but both are valid.)


Banking updated 2018-10-25

The section introduces some terms to do with banking and making payments.


Contactless payments

A rapidly spreading technology, especially in Britain, allows payments of small amounts of money, up to a few tens of pounds usually, to be made by payment card or by a smart-phone app without having to enter any details such as PIN codes. This works by just holding the card or phone very close to the payment terminal. This is termed 'contactless payment' in English, or talu'n ddigyffordd ('paying contactlessly') in Welsh.


SchoolEqu updated 2020-11-19

This section introduces some common words for classroom items.


Borrowing

For 'May/Can I borrow...' we use Ga i fenthyg...?. Remember that in this pattern, benthyg (borrowing, to borrow) is softly mutated following the Ga i....

  • Ga i fenthyg dy feic, os gweli di'n dda? - Can I borrow your bike, please?
  • Ga i fenthyg punt? - May I borrow a pound?
  • Ga i fenthyg y geiriadur 'na am funud, plîs? - Can I borrow that dictionary for a minute, please?

A 'compass' vs 'compasses'

The word for a north-seeking compass is cwmpawd. The word for compass as in (a pair of) compasses for, say, drawing a circle, is usually cwmpas, although cwmpawd can be used for that as well.


Whose thing is this or that?

To ask 'Whose xxx?' we simply use Xxx pwy?:

  • Côt pwy ydy hon? - Whose coat is this? Whose is this coat?

Note that hwn/hon, etc has to agree with the gender and number of the item (see the course notes for the earlier section 'Money')

  • Cotiau pwy ydy'r rhain? - Whose coats are these?
  • Tegan pwy yw hwn? - Whose toy is this?
  • Pensil pwy ydy hwnnw? - Whose pencil is that?
  • Bechingalw pwy ydy hwn? - Whose is this thingymajig?

Business updated 2018-10-25

This section introduces some vocabulary about businesses and companies.

It also provides a chance to revise the prepositions i, yn, mewn.

Remember also the distinction between the indefinite a (no equivalent in Welsh) and the (yr, 'r, y).


If we want to say that we work for a company, we use the preposition i. Remember that i causes a soft mutation (but not usually of names of companies):

  • Dw i'n gweithio i gwmni mawr - I work for a large company.

Be careful to distinguish for a... and for... from for the...:

  • Dyn ni'n gweithio i fusnes bach yn y pentref - We work for a small business in the village.

  • Mae Siôn yn gweithio i Tesco - Siôn works for Tesco.

  • Dw i'n gweithio i'r cwmni mwya yn y dre - I work for the largest company in the town.

If we are discussing working in an un-named or non-specific place or organisation, we use mewn instead of i:

  • Maen nhw'n gweithio mewn siop leol - They work in a local shop.

But if it is somewhere particular, we use the preposition yn, which, remember, causes a nasal mutation:

  • Dych chi'n gweithio yn y dafarn fwya yn yr ardal - You work in the largest pub in the area.

  • Mae Dewi'n gweithio yn yr archfarchnad - Dewi works in the supermarket.

  • Wyt ti'n gweithio yng Nghaerdydd?